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INTRODUCTION

The care provided by nurses must be based on up-to-date knowledge and research
that supports the delivery of the highest standards of care possible. Nurses are developing
their own professional knowledge base with strong foundations built onresearch. Nurses
have a responsibility in some way to contribute to the development of the professions
knowledge through research. Florence Nightingale is often seen as the very first nurse
researcher. Her research inthe 1850s focussed on soldiers morbidity and mortality during
the Crimean War. Nightingale identified research questions in practice and undertook a
systematiccollection of data to try to find answers to the problems.Herresearch eventually
ledto changes in the environment for sick people including cleanliness, ventilation, clean
water and adequate diet.
However, Nightingales contribution is seen as atypical withKirby (2004)
pointing out that the development of nursing research in the UnitedKingdom really only
started with the inception of the National Health Service(NHS) now the worlds largest
publicly funded health service in the late 1940s.Prior to this, the development of nursing
research had relied on a few highly determine dindividuals and was bound up with the
professionalisation of nursing, the demands for suitable nurses, and the raising of
educational standards for nurses.

SCOPE OF NURSING RESEARCH

Nursing research encompasses a wide scope of scientific inquiry including clinical


research, health systems and outcomes research, and nursing education research. Clinical
research, based on biological, behavioral, and other types of investigations, provides the
scientific basis for the care of individuals across the life span and occurs in any setting
where nursing care is provided. Health systems and outcomes research examine the
availability, quality, and costs of health care services as well as ways to improve the
effectiveness and appropriateness of clinical practice. Finally, nursing education research
focuses on how students learn the professional practice and discipline of nursing as well as
how to improve educational strategies to prepare clinicians and scientists
The scope of nursing research is to strengthen the body of knowledge in nursing
practice ,education and administration. Therefore the area or scope of nursing research may
be classified in the following categories

Research in nursing practice/ clinical research


Research in nursing education
Research in nursing administration

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RESEARCH IN NURSING PRACTICE/ CLINICAL RESEARCH


The scope of clinical research ranges from acute to chronic care experiences across the
entire life span; health promotion and preventive care to end-of-life care; and care for
individuals, families, and communities in diverse settings. It is imperative for nursing
research to take a farsighted approach in order to have greater impact in the future. For
example, recent discoveries in the genetic basis of disease and behavior may help nurse
scientists to develop more effective strategies to manage symptoms and tailor interventions.
Nursing's expanded view of health emphasizes health promotion, restoration, and
rehabilitation, as well as a commitment to caring and comfort. In this way, nursing research
differs from biomedical research. The focus of biomedical science on the discovery of
disease causation and cure is essential but not solely sufficient to improve health. Despite
the dramatic successes of improved diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, improvements in
overall health of the public require a broader approach. Some diseases are better prevented
than treated, others simply cannot be cured, and suffering and irreversible changes such as

aging are part of the human experience. Indeed, health can be far better maintained when it
is viewed in the broader context of lifestyle, culture, and socioeconomics.
Nurse researchers study how to assist individuals and groups as they respond to health and
illness experiences (e.g., reducing side effects of illness and treatment) and address social
and behavioral aspects of illness and quality of life. Much nursing research is biobehavioral
in nature, seeking to understand the relationships among biological, behavioral,
psychological, and sociological factors. These factors are integrated in all beings. For
example, recent discoveries demonstrate that biological factors (e.g., genetic background,
neuronal connections, and brain plasticity) affect behavioral factors and that behavioral
interventions (e.g., diet and exercise) affect biological factors (e.g., cell functions).
Complex problems in human health require interprofessional approaches. Nurses are
uniquely qualified to lead and participate in interdisciplinary research teams because their
education includes courses from all health-related disciplines (e.g., physiology,
pharmacology, psychology, and sociology) and they focus on the integration of these
disciplines in providing comprehensive care.

Some of the researchable area in nursing practice include the following

Health promotion ,maintanence ,and disease prevention


Smoking cessation for the secondary prevention of
coronary heart disease.

Patient safety and quality of health care

51.

Frequency of medication errors in an emergency department of a


large teaching hospital in southern Iran.


51.

Frequency of medication errors in an emergency department of a


large teaching hospital in southern Iran.

Promotion and risk reduction interventions of health of vulnerable ,minority groups and
marginalized community

Effectiveness of foot and ankle exercise programs on reducing


the risk of falling in older adults: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials

Patient centred care and care coordination


Toward patient-centered care: a systematic review of how to ask
questions that matter to patient

Promotion of health and well being of older people


The effects of health education on knowledge about Alzheimer's
disease and health-promoting behaviours of older Chinese adults in
a nursing home: A pilot study.

Palliative and end of life care


Palliative care and quality of life for people with dementia: medical
and psychosocial interventions.

Development of evidence based practices and translational research


Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Evidence-Based Practice
among nurses active on the Internet.

Evidence-based assessment of acute pain in older adults:


current nursing practices and perceived barriers.

Development of genetic testing and therapeutics

The evidence base regarding the experiences of and


attitudes to preimplantation genetic diagnosis in
prospective parents.

Nurses working environment


Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health
of nurses.
[Perception of nurses on the use of computer at the work].
What are the factors of organisational culture in health care settings
that act as barriers to the implementation of evidence-based
practice? A scoping review

Home care and community health nursing care practices


Quality of life in people with cognitive impairment: nursing homes
versus home care.

Treatment compliance and adherence to treatment


The assessment of adherence of hypertensive individuals
to treatment and lifestyle change recommendations.

Description of holistic nursing situations ; social ,cultural ,religious ,traditional and


family practices ,which have health implications and fall under the nursing care
. Ethical challenges when intensive care unit patients

refuse nursing care: A narrative approach.


Religious perspectives on organ donation.
These are only few of subareas in nursing practice recommended by organization like INC ,
however research could be conducted on any of the topics which fall in the nursing domain.

RESEARCH IN NURSING EDUCATION

Nursing education is another important area of nursing research where nurse researchers try
to generate or refine the knowledge ,which is useful to improve the teaching learning
methods and environment in nursing discipline.
Nursing education research centers on developing and testing more efficient educational
processes, identifying new ways to incorporate technology in order to enhance learning, and
discovering more effective approaches to promoting lifelong learning and commitment to
leadership. To achieve these goals, the use of rigorous research strategies in the assessment
of the teaching-learning process and outcomes at all levels of nursing education is essential
from baccalaureate and graduate education through.
The continuous supply of well-educated nurses is critical to maintain and enhance our
nation's health, especially in light of the changes in the demographics of the population. To
this end, new strategies for recruiting and retaining bright young men and women from
diverse educational and cultural backgrounds into nursing must be developed and tested. In
addition, new models of nursing education are needed to prepare nurses for faculty and
research positions earlier in their careers. These efforts must assume top priority if nursing
research is to continue to evolve. The lack of recognition and funding for this type of
research has greatly impaired progress in this area.
There are several issues and subareas on which nursing research focus some of the priority
areas are
Testing the effectivity and efficiency of the old teaching methods /techniques ,and
generating newer effective teaching tools and techniques.

Effectiveness of patient simulation in nursing education: Metaanalysis.

[The efficiency of self-regulated learning in the teaching of


scientific concepts to health sciences students
Blended learning on medication administration for new nurses:

integration

of

the classroom

e-learning

and

face-to-face

instruction

in

Curriculum taught and learning experiences of nursing students at undergraduate and


pOutcomes-based curriculum development and student evaluation

in nursingeducation.ostgraduate level.

Developing a global curriculum in a school of nursing.


Enhancing the psychometric domain of learning among nursing students in clinical
practices.
Determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor

skills ofnursing students.


Knowledge
use
in nursing practice:

the

importance

of practical understanding and personal involvement.


Extent of strict discipline required for the nursing students to improve their learning
and education.
Promoting clinical and classroom learning among nursing students.
Bridging
the
gap:
strategies
to
integrate

classroom

and clinical learning.


Refining and generating evaluation methods to judge the efficiency of teaching
learning process.
Performance evaluation of nursing

students following

competency-based education.

Identifying and managing problems of absenteeism and lack of motivation among


nursing students.
Five reasons for the lack of nursing students' motivation to learn

public health.
Resolving any issue or phenomenon related to the teaching learning process of
nursing students.
Challenges to student learning in the clinical setting: a qualitative

descriptive study.

RESEARCH IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION


Administration is one of the most difficult ,disciplines to manage. Similarly, nursing
administration also encounters several problems which be solved. Therefore ,there are
several main subareas of nursing administration which require investigation such as
Assessing existing organizational structure ,span of control ,communication
,staffing patterns, wages ,benefits ,performance evaluation practices ,etc.and their
effectiveness. In addition, developing new knowledge or refining

the old

knowledge regarding nursing administration phenomena.


Developing and testing different administrative model to enhance swift
administration employees, and customer satisfaction.
Retention and effective use of nursing personnel in providing the quality of
nursing care.
Eg;Why older nurses leave the workforce and the implications of them staying.
Employee satisfaction.
Eg; Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health
of nurses.
Measures to reduce the workload of the staff nurses

eg; Projects for increasing job satisfaction and creating a healthy work

environment.
Health problems of nursing personnel.
Eg; Health problems reported by nursing workers in a public hospital of
Bahia].
Measure to prevent frequent turnover of the staff.
Eg; Effects of role stress on nurses' turnover intentions: The mediating
effects of organizational commitment and burnout.

Analysis of the roles and responsibilities of the nurse practioner in various


specialty
Eg; Professional responsibilities for treatment of patients with Ebola: can a
healthcare provider refuse to treat a patient with ebola?

Research Areas recommended by INC


Topics may be selected from the following PHD research areas.
Clinical intervention studies which will generate evidence based nursing practice.
Practice standards in various nursing specialties.
Nursing education measurement, evaluation of competencies, innovation in india.
Teaching strategies. Manpower planning.
Cost benefit analysis.
Quality assurance in education and practice.
Development of tools Testing of nursing theories and models and theory development.
Impact studies, which are having policy implication for nursing education and service.
Independent nursing practice

CONCLUSION
The research has a vital role in improving the standards of nursing practice,nursing education
and administration , it will help discover newer techniques in respective areas or finds the
alternatives for existing problems. Nursing research worldwide is committed to rigorous
scientific inquiry that provides a significant body of knowledge to advance nursing practice,
shape health policy, and impact the health of people in all countries. The vision for nursing
research is driven by the profession's mandate to society to optimize the health and wellbeing of populations . Nurse researchers bring a holistic perspective to studying individuals,
families, and communities involving a biobehavioral, interdisciplinary, and translational
approach to science. The priorities for nursing research reflect nursing's commitment to the

promotion of health and healthy lifestyles, the advancement of quality and excellence in
health care, and the critical importance of basing professional nursing practice on research.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Nursing research building evidence for practice, DR.R.Bincy ,viva publications ,
2012 Page no 16-18.
2. Nursing research and statistics ,suresh sharma ,Elsevier publication ,2011
page no 19-22.
3. Nursing research ,B.T Basavanthappa ,second edition ,jaypee publication
Page no 12-14.
4. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/nursing-research.
5. http://www.ninr.nih.gov/ninr/news-info/Rudyshow.
6. http://www.indiannursingcouncil.org/phd-nursing.asp?show=phd-rsch