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User's Guide

Results Graph
Version 2012

By Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

This publication and the application described in it are furnished under license
exclusively to the licensee, for internal use only, and are subject to a confidentiality
agreement. They may be used only in accordance with the terms and conditions of
that agreement.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or otherwise, including photocopying,
recording, or by any information storage/retrieval system, to any party other than the
licensee, without the written permission of Computer Modelling Group.
The information in this publication is believed to be accurate in all respects. However,
Computer Modelling Group makes no warranty as to accuracy or suitability, and does
not assume responsibility for any consequences resulting from the use thereof. The
information contained herein is subject to change without notice.

Copyright 1987-2012 Computer Modelling Group Ltd.


All rights reserved.

The license management portion of this program is based on:


Reprise License Manager (RLM)
Copyright 2006-2012, Reprise Software, Inc.
All rights reserved

Results Graph, CMG, and Computer Modelling Group are registered trademarks of
Computer Modelling Group Ltd. All other trademarks are the property of their
respective owners.
Computer Modelling Group Ltd.
Office #150, 3553 - 31 Street N.W.
Calgary, Alberta Canada T2L 2K7

Tel: (403) 531-1300

Fax: (403) 289-8502

E-mail: cmgl@cmgl.ca

Contents
Using Results Graph

Overview....................................................................................................................... 1
Whats New in Results Graph ...................................................................................... 2
Whats New in Results Graph 2012 ................................................................ 2
Whats New in Results Graph 2011 ................................................................ 3
Whats New in Results Graph 2010 ................................................................ 3
Starting Results Graph .................................................................................................. 3
Customizing Toolbars, Menus and Theme ................................................................... 5
Opening Files ................................................................................................................ 5
Opening SR2 Files ........................................................................................... 5
Opening Field History, PA Load, or CHEARS Simulation Results Files ....... 6
Opening/Saving a Workspace File .................................................................. 7
Working with Curves .................................................................................................... 9
Adding Curves ................................................................................................. 9
To add curves to an empty plot .......................................................... 9
To add curves to a plot containing existing curves ............................ 9
To add curves based on formulae ....................................................... 9
To add TimeSeries property curves .................................................. 10
To plot property versus distance....................................................... 12
To create a special history parameter ............................................... 15
To create a difference property parameter........................................ 16
To create a fluid contact depth parameter ........................................ 17
Editing Curves ............................................................................................... 20
Deleting Curves ............................................................................................. 21
Working with Plots ..................................................................................................... 21
Adding another Plot ....................................................................................... 21
Creating a Flow Property versus Depth (PLT) plot ....................................... 22
Deleting Plots ................................................................................................ 25
Customizing Plots .......................................................................................... 25
To change the page layout ................................................................ 25
To change the page text .................................................................... 26
To change the plot appearance ......................................................... 27
To change the legend appearance ..................................................... 28
To change the axis appearance ......................................................... 29
User's Guide Results Graph

Contents i

To change the curve appearance ...................................................... 31


To change units ................................................................................ 32
To change plot and plot-group tree view displaying name .............. 33
Zooming Plots ............................................................................................... 34
2-D Zooming .................................................................................... 34
1-D Zooming .................................................................................... 36
Renaming Plots and Plot Groups from the Tree View.................................. 38
Reordering Plots and Plot Groups from the Tree View ................................ 39
Setting Results Graph User Preferences ....................................................... 40
Repeating a Plot ............................................................................................ 41
Repeating Curves or Plots for New Data Files ............................................. 43
Exporting History Match Factors .................................................................. 44
Repeating Plots based on Formulae .............................................................. 44
Monitoring Simulation Runs ...................................................................................... 44
Creating TimeSeries Properties for Ad Hoc Groups.................................................. 45
To create a new ad hoc group: ...................................................................... 46
To displaying an existing ad hoc group composition.................................... 50
To copy an existing ad hoc group ................................................................. 51
Notes ............................................................................................................. 51
Printing a Plot ............................................................................................................. 51
Formula Manager ....................................................................................................... 52
Overview ....................................................................................................... 52
Formula Manager Dialog Box....................................................................... 52
Origin Selection when Creating Formulae .................................................... 55
General Rules and Guidelines ....................................................................... 56
Terms................................................................................................ 56
Operators .......................................................................................... 56
Syntax ............................................................................................... 57
IF Blocks .......................................................................................... 57
Other ................................................................................................. 57
Using Formula Manager................................................................................ 58
To create a formula .......................................................................... 58
To view a formula ............................................................................ 62
To edit a formula .............................................................................. 62
To copy a formula ............................................................................ 62
To delete a formula .......................................................................... 64
To repeat plots with curves based on formulae................................ 64
To save and restore formulae and formula-based properties ........... 67
Exporting Plot Data .................................................................................................... 67
To export to a text table ................................................................................ 67
To export to a tab-separated file ................................................................... 67
To export to Meraks PEEP .......................................................................... 68
To export tables of well summary................................................................. 68
ii Contents

User's Guide Results Graph

Comparing Files.......................................................................................................... 69
Copying a Page Image to the Clipboard ..................................................................... 71
Saving a Page as an Image File................................................................................... 71
Saving a Single Page...................................................................................... 71
Saving Multiple Pages at Once ...................................................................... 71
Saving a Session ......................................................................................................... 72
Opening a Session File ............................................................................................... 72
Exiting Results Graph ................................................................................................. 73

Appendix A: Field History File Formats

75

Overview..................................................................................................................... 75
Creating a Field History File ...................................................................................... 75
Examples..................................................................................................................... 80
Notes ........................................................................................................................... 83

Appendix B: Production Analyst Load Format

85

Overview..................................................................................................................... 85
Creating a PA Load Format File ................................................................................. 85
PA Keywords and Definitions .................................................................................... 85
Examples..................................................................................................................... 87

User's Guide Results Graph

Contents iii

Using Results Graph

Overview
Results Graph is typically used to plot curves of well properties that vary over time
(TimeSeries properties). Examples of TimeSeries properties are Cumulative- Oil, Gas and
Water; Oil-, Gas- and Water Rates; and so on. These TimeSeries properties are read from a
simulation output file. The plot can contain:

As many wells, groups, sectors, leases, or layers that vary with time as you want.

Data from several different files.

More than one parameter versus time curve.

More than one formula-based curve.

More than one parameter versus parameter curve.

Parameters from all those available in the selected simulation results files (SR2),
field history files (FHF), or PA Load Format files.

In addition, you can:

Plot spatial property (for example, oil saturation) versus distance curves. You can
specify three types of distances:
- Distance along a well trajectory.
- Distance along a well path (perforation-to-perforation, as defined in the
simulation input file).
- Distance between two blocks specified by their UBAs (Universal Block
Address, for example, 5,3,2)

Create special history parameters by reading spatial property data at the available
time records in the SR2 file. These parameters can then be used just like any other
special history parameter that is output in the SR2 file.

Create difference property parameters. A difference property is created from two


files with identical property and well names. These parameters can be used just
like any other parameters to create curves.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 1

A typical Results Graph screen is shown below:

Whats New in Results Graph


Whats New in Results Graph 2012
1. A new Formula Manager allows you to:
Create, edit and delete a formula.
View and interact with all formulas from all open files.
Copy a TimeSeries formula within or between Results Graph .ses files.
Repeat a Property versus Time plot that contains a TimeSeries formula.
Repeat a Property versus Distance plot that contains a Spatial-Property
formula created using Results 3D.
Repeat a plot or curve containing a formula (which could be a SpatialProperty formula) across files, using Add Similar Curves/Plots, as
described in Repeating Curves or Plots for New Data Files.
Refer to Formula Manager and To add curves based on formulae for more
information.

2 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

Whats New in Results Graph 2011


1. Support for selecting wells from sectors when associating wells with Ad Hoc
Groups. See Creating TimeSeries Properties for Ad Hoc Groups.
2. If the data contains a FlexWell, Results Graph will recognize whether the Flex
Well path is the annulus, a tubing string or concentric tubing. See FlexWell Path
for more information.

Whats New in Results Graph 2010


1. Multi-selection support has been added to Results Graph. You can multi-select
(using the CTRL or SHIFT key) when adding and deleting curves, deleting plots,
and opening files. Multiple files can be opened in the same session file by using
multi-selection and the following options under the File menu:
Open CMG Simulation Results
Open Field History
Open PA Load Format
Open CHEARS Simulation Results
2. The Property vs. Distance dialog box has been updated to allow you to use a
FlexWell for the data path. This feature is only available for STARS-based
simulation results.
3. If sectors exist in the results file you have opened in Results Graph, a Property vs.
Distance plot can be created which uses the values in a particular sector for the data
path. Based on grid depth, the average property value in the selected sector will be
plotted.
4. Curves which plot the fluid contact depth in a reservoir over time can be added.
Refer to To create a fluid contact depth parameter for more information.
5. In Results 3D and Results Graph, you have the option of creating a *.tsdata file when
opening simulation results (*.irf) files. The purpose of the *.tsdata file is to re-index
the *.irf file and save the information in the *.tsdata file, so that any further actions
which reference this*.irf will be quicker (for example, re-opening the file, creating
plots, and so on). Refer Setting Results Graph User Preferences for more
information.

Starting Results Graph


To start Results Graph:
Click the Results Graph icon in the CMG Technologies Launcher, or drag and drop a Results
Graph session file (*.ses) or a simulation results file (*.irf) onto the Results Graph icon:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 3

If you click the Results Graph icon, you will be prompted to Open Sessions or Simulation
Results Files. Select a single file to be opened. The Results Graph main window is
displayed.
Results Graph toolbar

Move the cursor over the top of a button to open a tool tip that explains its function.

4 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

Results Graph tree view


As you add plots and curves, you will notice that the tree view, to the left of the main plot
window, maintains a list of your repeat groups, origins, plots and plot elements. You can
click to view a particular plot or control content, or to display the selected plot:

Click on a tree item to show the selected plot in the page area.

Click in a check box to hide or show the selected plot element.

Double-click on a tree item to open a dialog box for the item properties.

Right-click on a tree item to open a specific context menu.

You can also expand and collapse the tree view by right-clicking anywhere outside the tree
items and selecting Expand tree or Collapse tree from the context menu.

Customizing Toolbars, Menus and Theme


Results Graph allows you to customize your work environment. You can drag the toolbar and
position it anywhere within your working environment. This permits you to have more screen
space when viewing your plots. Results Graph will remember the locations of the toolbar
between sessions. The next time you open Results Graph, the items will appear in their last
position when Results Graph was closed.
You can also change the theme used to color the Results Graph main window frame. Select
View | Theme in the menu bar and then select the desired theme. The selected theme is
remembered between sessions.

Opening Files
Opening SR2 Files
To open SR2 files:
1. Select File | Open CMG Simulation Results from the menu bar. The Results
Open CMG Simulation Results Files dialog box appears with the *.irf filter
enabled.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 5

2. Specify the file(s) you want to open. You can select multiple files using the CTRL and
SHIFT keys, and you can open as many files as you want within the limits of your
computers memory.
To open files you can either:
Method 1:

In File name, enter the name of the file you want to open.

or
Method 2:
1. In Look in, select the drive and directory you want to access. The files associated
with that directory appear in the file list.
2. In Files of type specify the file types you want to appear in the file list.
3. Select a file from the list by clicking on it, or select multiple files using the CTRL and
SHIFT keys.
4. Click Open to accept your selections, or click Cancel to cancel any selections.

Opening Field History, PA Load, or CHEARS Simulation Results Files


Production history can be read into Results Graph for comparison with the simulator output or
information on the Field History File format, the PA Load format (see Appendix A: Field
History File Formats and Appendix B: Production Analyst Load Format), or the CHEARS
Simulation Results format.

6 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

To open field history or PA load files or CHEARS Simulation Results Files:


1. Select Open Field History or Open PA Load Format or Open CHEARS
Simulation Results from the File menu.
If you select FHF, the Open Field History Files dialog box appears with the filter
*.fhf in place.
If you select PA Load, the Open PA Load Format Files dialog box appears with
the filter *.paf in place.
If you select CHEARS, the Open CHEARS Simulation Results Files dialog box
appears with the filter *.smspec in place.
2. Specify the file(s) you want to open. You can open as many files as you want,
within the limits of your computers memory.
To open files you can either:
Method 1:

In File name, enter the name of the file you want to open.

or
Method 2:
1. In Look in, select the drive and directory you want to access. The files associated
with that directory appear in the file list.
2. In Files of type, specify the file types that you want to appear in the file list.
3. Select a file from the file list by clicking on it or select multiple files using the
CTRL and SHIFT keys.
4. Click Open to accept your selections, or click Cancel to cancel any selections.

Opening/Saving a Workspace File


A Results Graph workspace contains a record of a Results Graph session, as well as the content
and format of plots produced during the session or through an invoked Results 3D session (see
Opening Results 3D from Results Graph for further information). The use of a workspace is
particularly useful when you want to compare files; for example, a side-by-side comparison of a
graph produced by Results Graph and a 3D representation produced in Results 3D.
You can create a workspace file at any time during the Results Graph session by selecting
File | Save Workspace or File | Save Workspace As from the menu bar. The workspace
file, which has the extension .rws, will contain all the files that are open in the Results Graph
window. Saving the workspace file also saves the session file.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 7

In each instance of Results Graph, only one workspace file can be open at any one time. You
have to close the current workspace file before you can open another one.
Note: If you try to save a workspace file with multiple Results Graph session files open, a
warning will be displayed that only one of the session files will be saved.

Opening Results 3D from Results Graph


From Results Graph, you can directly open a Results 3D view of the same simulation output
file by selecting File | Open Results 3D.
To facilitate working on projects, Results will search the current directory to see if a
template file matches the name of the active session. If one exists, you will be presented with
the option of loading it. If you choose not to load it, a blank template will be created with a
default name based on the simulation results file. If no matching file is found, a blank
template with the same base name as the current session will be created.
To illustrate, if you are working in a session called MyProject.ses which is based on the
CMG Simulation Results file simulation.irf, and then select File | Open Results 3D:

If MyProject.3tp exists and you choose to load it, MyProject.3tp will load.

If MyProject.3tp exists and you choose not to load it, a blank simulation00.3tp
will be created

If MyProject.3tp does not exist, a blank MyProject.3tp will be created. If


MyProject.ses contains more than one SR2 file, the Select Simulator Results File
dialog box appears as shown below, in which case you would select the file that
you want to view in Results 3D and then click OK.

You can work independently with the Results 3D view as if you opened it directly.
By establishing this link between session and template files, you can create a SpatialProperty formula in Results 3D and plot it as a Property Versus Distance curve in Results
Graph. If you then save both the template and the session with the same base name and in the
same location, when you reload the session in Results Graph, the associated template will
automatically load so that the corresponding spatial-property formula is restored.
Alternatively, if you start in Results 3D and select File | Open Results Graph, the
associated session file can be loaded when necessary.

8 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

Working with Curves


Adding Curves
Curves can be added to an empty plot or to a plot containing one or more curves. Two dialog
boxes are used for adding curves, one for spatial property versus distance curves and the
other for the rest of the curves.

To add curves to an empty plot


To add a spatial property versus distance curve, select the plot in the tree view, and then
select Edit | Curve | Property Vs. Distance from the menu bar. The Property versus
Distance Plots dialog box is displayed. For other types of curves, select the plot in the tree
view, and then select Edit | Curve | Add from the menu bar, or click the Add Curve
button in the toolbar. The Results Graph - Add Curve dialog box is displayed. For further
information, refer to To add TimeSeries property curves and To plot property versus
distance.

To add curves to a plot containing existing curves


Results Graph will determine the type of existing curve (TimeSeries or property-versus-distance)
and will open the correct dialog box. The procedure for adding curves to an empty plot is similar
to that used for adding curves to a plot containing existing curves. One of the axes (the x-axis or
the distance axis) gets specified (and therefore fixed) when the first curve is added to a plot. On
subsequent add curve operations, therefore, that axis cannot be re-specified. If you are adding a
curve to a plot that is part of a Repeat Plot Group, you cannot change the origin for the plot.

To add curves based on formulae


Important Change: The method for accessing formulae when adding curves has changed
since they are no longer displayed by selecting Special History in the Origin type box.
Formulae are associated with the origin type used by the formulas primary variable. Refer to
Primary on page 53 for more information.
The procedure for adding curves based on formulae (refer to Formula Manager for information
about creating and using formulae) is similar to that outlined in To add curves to an empty plot.
If, in the Results Graph Add Curves dialog box, you select a formula in the Parameter list,
the dialog box will change, as shown below:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 9

You can select which origin(s) (W-1 in the above example) you want to substitute into the primary
independent variable when generating curves. Refer to Independent Variables for information
about the use of primary independent variables in formulae.
If you click

a formula summary will be displayed:

In the above example, if you had set the Formula Manager option to only substitute for the
primary variable, you could generate a curve of the Cumulative Oil SC for a particular origin
as a percentage of W-16 Cumulative Oil SC.

To add TimeSeries property curves


To add a curve(s):
1. Click the plot in the tree view, and then select Edit | Curve | Add in the menu bar,
or click on the Add Curve button. The Results Graph - Add Curves dialog
box is displayed:

10 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

2. Select a file from the File list. All the simulation results files and field history files
that you have opened should appear on the list.
3. Select an Origin Type, one of the following:

4. Specify an X-Axis or Y-Axis. For an empty plot, if you do not specify an X-axis,
the default is Time.
5. Choose one or more parameters from the Parameter list box to plot. If there are
components associated with any of the parameters you selected, they appear in the
Component box. Choose one component. If you have chosen more than one
parameter with components, this component will apply to each of those. If you
select multiple parameters, the number of axes in use will be updated.
6. Choose one or more Origins from the list of origins for which the specified
parameter is available.
7. If you choose a single parameter, select a Y-axis from the Choose Y Axis area to
force plotting of two parameters with the same unit dimensions on separate Y-axes.
8. Click OK to apply your changes, or click Cancel to cancel your changes. If you
click OK, the curves are added to the plot.
User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 11

To plot property versus distance


A property versus distance plot can also be created from Results 3D. Refer to the Results 3D
Users Guide for details.
To add a property versus distance curve to an empty plot:
1. Select Edit | Curve | Add Property Vs. Distance from the menu bar.
2. The Property versus Distance dialog box appears. The rest of the discussion is
identical to that under To add a property versus distance curve to an existing
property versus distance plot below.
To add a property versus distance curve to an existing property versus distance plot:
1. Select Edit | Curve | Add from the menu bar, or click the Add Curve

button.

The Property versus Distance Plots dialog box is displayed:

2. Select a file from the Data File list. All the simulation results files and field
history files that you have opened should appear on the list. If a trajectory file is
open, then the associated trajectory file will appear in the Trajectory box.
12 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

3. Define a data path through the grid. Several options may be available:
Trajectory: This option is available if the data and trajectory files are
open. You can select to use measured depth (MD) or true vertical depth
(TVD).
Well Path: This option is available if the data file contains well
perforations. If LAYERXYZ well data is available, a well path is defined
by joining perf block entry and exit points. Alternatively, if LAYERXYZ
is not available, a well path is defined by joining each perf from block
center to block center. Distances will be relative to depth value of the
first perf. The Distance To First Perf can be modified in this dialog box.
Linear Path: When this option is selected, a three-dimensional linear
path is defined from the center of the first block to the center of the
second block.
FlexWell Path: This option is available if the data file contains one or
more FlexWells. You will also need to have STARS version 2011 or later.
If data is available, the FlexWell Path is defined as the distance along all
of the perf segments along the wellbore path or tubing string (Stream)
inside the FlexWell. Results Graph will recognize whether the path is the
annulus, a tubing string or concentric tubing. You can specify the
distance to the first well perf so that distances in the graph are relative to
the surface.
To define a FlexWell path, first select FlexWell path in the Define Data
Path area, then select the FlexWell name and then select the Stream
(Annulus, Tubing) name. Once you select the stream name, the
identifier above the drop-down menu will change accordingly. If you
select a tubing string, the identifier will change to Stream (Regular
Tubing) name, as shown below:

If you select the annulus, the identifier will change to Stream (Annulus)
name, as shown below:

If you select concentric outer tubing:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 13

If you select concentric inner tubing:

Average sector property vs. grid depth: This option is available if


sectors exist in the simulation results file. Based on the property selected
for the curve, the property value will be averaged within the sector region
and plotted against the available grid depth values.
4. There may be three options for selecting the property for the curve.
Property (Simulator Data): The reservoir property and property time
must be selected.
Note: For spatial-property formulas, a time is available for plotting only
if the selected Well Path contains a perforation that exists on or before
the earliest time used in the formula.
Flow Property (Production Logging plots): Choose this option to plot
simulated flow property values (for example, fluid rates) from individual
perforations versus depth along the path selected in step 3 above. For a
trajectory path, a value is assigned to each depth in the trajectory file.
The assigned value may be the interpolated value between two layers.
Note: This option is enabled only if layer information is available in the
simulator output file (SR2 file).
Select the Plot fraction of well flow check box, if you want to view the
flow property as a fraction of the total well flow.
Log Data: This option is available if the associated trajectory file
contains well log data.
Note: The supported file formats for well log information are described
in the Well Log Formats section in the Importing Geological and Well
Trajectory Data chapter of the Builder Users Guide.
5. Once the path and property have been chosen, click the Add Curve
add the curve to the list of curves to be added.

button to

6. Repeat steps 1 through 5 as required to define multiple curves for the plot.
7. Select a curve, and then click the Remove Curve button to remove the curve from
the list of curves for this plot.
8. Select Distance on X to plot distance on the X axis, or select Distance on Y to
plot distance on the Y axis.
9. Select Distance Increasing to plot the distance axis increasing from the origin, or
select Distance Decreasing to plot the distance axis decreasing from the origin.

14 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

10. Select the Use Grid Block Center Distance Only check box if you want to use
only the grid block center points; otherwise, the grid center points along with the
grid enter and exit points will be used.
Click the Note button for a visual explanation, as shown in the following:

11. Click OK to add the list of specified curves to the current plot. Click Cancel to
leave the plot unchanged.

To create a special history parameter


Results Graph automatically reads special history parameters from a CMG simulation output
file. A special history parameter can also be created in Results Graph and Results 3D. To
create these parameters in Results 3D, refer to the Results 3D Users Guide for details.
To create a special history parameter:
1. Select Edit | Curve | Add from the menu bar, or click the Add Curve button.
The Add Curve dialog box appears. Click the Add Block Property Vs. Time
button.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 15

The Add Block Property versus Time dialog box appears:

2. Select the property in the top window. Enter the block address in the text box at
the bottom. The block address refers to the i, j and k indices of the grid block.
3. Click OK. You are returned to the Add Curve dialog box. The origin type
displayed has changed to Special History. The special history parameter, for
example Oil Saturation: 23,45,4, is added to the list of Special History
parameters.
You can use this parameter in the same way as other parameters to create curves.

To create a difference property parameter


You can create a property that represents the computed difference in a parameter (for
example, Cumulative Oil) in two files. The difference property is calculated for a well at
each time record that the selected property is available in the second file. The difference
property is calculated for each well with an identical name in both the files.
To create a difference property parameter:
1. Select Edit | Curve | Add from the menu bar, or click on the Add Curve
button. The Add Curve dialog box appears. Click the Add Difference Property
button. The Add Difference Property dialog box appears:

2.

The first file the one selected in the Add Curves dialog box. Select the second file from the

drop-down list box. Select the property for which the difference is to be computed.
Select the type of difference (absolute or relative). Click OK.
16 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

3. You are returned to the Add Curves dialog box. The new parameter is added to the
list of parameters, for example, Cumulative Gas-Oil Ratio: Difference with
d:\datafiles\watfld.fhf.
You can use the parameter in the same way as other parameters to create curves.

To create a fluid contact depth parameter


If there is a bounding surface in a reservoir above which predominantly one kind of fluid
(that is, gas or oil) exists and below which predominantly another kind of fluid (that is, oil or
water) exists, and if there are outputs of Gas, Oil and/or Water Saturation in the CMG
simulation output file, Results Graph can create a Fluid Contact Depth property time series.
To create the Fluid Contact Depth parameter:
1. Select Edit | Curve | Add from the Edit menu, or click the Add Curve button.
The Add Curve dialog box appears. Choose origin type Well and click the Create
Fluid Contact Depth Vs. Time button. The Define Well Fluid Contact Depth
Property dialog box appears:

2. Define a path through the grid, using one of two possible options:
Well Path: This option is available if the data file contains well
perforations. If LAYERXYZ well data is available, a well path is defined
by joining perf block entry and exit points. Alternatively, if LAYERXYZ is
not available, a well path is defined by joining each perf from block center
to block center. Distances will be relative to depth value of the first perf.
Trajectory: This option is available if the data file and a trajectory file
for the well are open.
You can select true vertical depth (TVD) or measured depth (MD) for either path.
User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 17

3. Define a property name by entering text in the Property Name box or click the
button for a default name.
Default Name
4. Define the saturation type by choosing SG, SO or SW from the Saturation type
for calculation box. This saturation type will be used by the algorithm to
determine when there is a phase transition along the length of the well.
5. Define porosity type by choosing Fracture or Matrix from the Porosity type
box.
6. Define the calculation method by choosing from the Calculation method box.
Three methods may be available.
Max Derivatives over n-Point Moving Average Period: Click the
button for a visual explanation, as shown below:

18 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

Max Difference over Prev and Next n-Points Average of Saturation


button for a visual explanation, as shown below:
Data: Click the

User Predefined Threshold: Click the


explanation, as shown below:

User's Guide Results Graph

button for a visual

Using Results Graph 19

7. Define the number of smoothing points. This is available when either the Max
Derivatives over n-Point Moving Average Period or Max Difference over Prev
or Next n-Points Average of Saturation Data method is chosen. The value may
be 3 or higher.
8. Define the threshold. This is available when the method User Predefined
Threshold is used. The possible value is between 0 and 1. The first or last point
that meets the criteria can be used as contact depth.
9. Click OK. You are returned to the Add Curve dialog box. The new fluid contact
depth property is added to and highlighted in the list of Parameters.
This parameter can be used in the same way as other properties.

Editing Curves
Note: Property curves cannot be edited.
To change an existing curve on the Results Graph:
1. In the plot, click the curve you want to edit, or select it in the tree view. If you
have more than one plot displayed, first click on the plot and then click the curve.

20 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

2. Select Edit | Curve | Edit from the menu bar, or click the Edit Current Curve
button, or right-click the curve in the plot and then select Edit Curve, or rightclick the curve in the tree view and then select Edit Curve.
The Results Graph - Edit Curve dialog box (similar to the Add Curve dialog
box) is displayed.
3. Select a file from the File list.
4. Select an Origin Type, one of Field, Group, Layer, Lease, Sector, Special History,
or Well.
5. Specify an X Axis or Y Axis. If you do not specify an X axis, the default is Time.
6. Choose one of the parameters from the Parameter box to specify an axis.
If there are components associated with the parameter you selected, they will
appear in the Components list box. Choose one component.
7. Choose an Origin from the list of origins for which the specified parameter is
available. To specify another axis, repeat steps 4 and 5.
8. Click OK to apply your changes, or click Cancel to cancel any changes. If you
click OK, the edited curve replaces the one you had selected.

Deleting Curves
To delete a curve:
1. Select the curve you want to delete from the curve list, or click on the curve to be
deleted in the tree view. If multiple plots are displayed, select the plot and then
select the curve you want to delete from the curve list for that plot. You can also
select multiple curves in the tree view using the CTRL key.
2. Select Edit | Curve | Delete from the menu bar, or click the Delete Curves
button. The curve(s) you selected are deleted. If you select all of the curves in a
plot, the plot is deleted.

Working with Plots


Adding another Plot
To add another plot to the page:
1. Select Edit | Plot | Add from the menu bar, or click the Add Plot

button.

2. The existing plot(s) may be resized, and a blank area on the page will be
highlighted.
3. To add a curve to the new plot use the Add Curve button or select
Edit | Curve | Add from the menu bar.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 21

4. Alternatively, to add a property versus distance curve to the new plot, select
Edit | Curve | Add Property Vs. Distance from the menu bar.

Creating a Flow Property versus Depth (PLT) plot


Note: To use this feature, the simulator output for layers must be enabled.
With this feature, you can create the following plots:
1. A plot containing Oil Rate, Water Rate and Total Fluid Rate at reservoir
conditions (RC) versus depth.
2. A plot containing Gas Rate RC versus depth.
On each plot you can also plot Log values for comparison.
You can create plots where:
1. Fluid volumes are accumulated as you travel upwards from the deepest point in
the well path.
2. Fluid volumes are accumulated and then normalized with the total value as you
travel upwards from the deepest point in the well path.
3. Raw simulated flow rates are plotted along the depth.
Note: The log values in the log files are expected to be accumulated along the well path.
SPE5 : SPE5 COMPOSITIONAL RUN 1
PCC-SBC-112 gmgro005_CrtRelPerm.irf
15,000

Distance (ft)

15,500

16,000

16,500

17,000
0

5,000

10,000
Oil Rate RC - accumulated

15,000

20,000

Oil Rate RC 1989-01-21 (1116.00 day)


Log Data: Rates 1989-01-06 (1101.00 day)

In the above plot, volumes are accumulated along the well path.

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User's Guide Results Graph

SPE5 : SPE5 COMPOSITIONAL RUN 1


PCC-SBC-112 gmgro005_CrtRelPerm.irf
15,000

Distance (ft)

15,500

16,000

16,500

17,000
0.40
0.20
-0.00
Oil Rate RC - Fraction of Well

-0.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

Oil Rate RC 1989-01-21 (1116.00 day)


Log Data: Rates 1989-01-06 (1101.00 day)

In the above plot, the volumes are normalized with respect to the total flow.
SPE5 : SPE5 COMPOSITIONAL RUN 1
PCC-SBC-112 gmgro005_CrtRelPerm.irf
15,000

Distance (ft)

15,500

16,000

16,500

17,000
0

200

400
600
Oil Rate RC (bbl/day)

800

1,000

The above plot shows raw simulated values for Oil Rate RC.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 23

To create a PLT plot, select Edit | Plot | Add Flow Property vs. Depth Plot (PLT) from the
menu bar. This menu is also available on the context menu (right-click in the plot area). The
Select a Well dialog box is displayed:

Select a well to plot in the Select a well dialog box. You can select only one well. Click OK.
The PLT (rates) plot dialog box is displayed:

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User's Guide Results Graph

Note: If trajectory and well log files have not yet been opened in the session, you will be
prompted to enter them before the PLT (rates) plot dialog box will be displayed.
Select the property time and trajectory time. This feature will also work if you do not have
trajectory information, in which case Results Graph will use LAYERXYZ information to
create a trajectory, if available; otherwise, it will use the model perf (*PERF keyword in the
simulator dataset) information to create the trajectory.
Select one or more curves in the Simulated property column by selecting the check box. If
logs are available, the cells in the Log Property and Log time columns are replaced by
drop-down boxes listing the names and times of the Logs. Select the Log name and time if
you want to plot logs on the plot.
Select the Plot normalized flow check box for normalized volumes.
To plot raw simulator data, select the Turn off accumulation of values with depth check box.

Deleting Plots
To delete plots:
1. In the tree view, click the plot you want to delete or select multiple plots using the
CTRL key.
Note: You cannot select multiple plots within a repeat group.
2. Select Edit | Plot | Delete from the menu bar, or right-click the selected plot(s)
and then select Delete Plot(s).
The plot(s) you selected are deleted.

Customizing Plots
Once you create a plot, you can customize the page layout, plot appearance, axis appearance,
and curve appearance from the Display Settings tabbed property sheet.

To change the page layout


To change the page layout:
1. Select View | Properties from the menu bar, or click the Set/Modify Properties
button on the toolbar. Select the Page Layout tab:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 25

2. In Gutter Size, control the space between multiple plots on the same page.
3. In Plots Per Page, specify the number of rows and columns of plots that you want
displayed on each page. This will apply to the current repeat group only.
4. In Page Number specify whether you want the pages numbered, where you want
the numbers to appear, and other options. Type a text string or use the button to
enter symbolic names in the Page Number Text box.
5. Click OK to apply your changes, or click Cancel to cancel your changes.

To change the page text


You can create or edit the page title and footer with the Page Text tab.
To add or change a page title and edit a page footer:
1. Click the page that you want to change.
2. Select View | Properties from the menu bar, or click the Set/Modify Properties
button on the toolbar. Select the Page Text tab:

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User's Guide Results Graph

3. Add to or change the Title 1 or Title 2. You can change the title text, the
background color, and add a border around the title block. Use the button to
enter symbolic names in the Title boxes.
4. If you want to add a footer to your pages, select the Show Footer check box, and
enter Footer Text. You can also change the background color and border for the
footer area.
5. Check Apply to All Pages to apply these specifications to all plots.
6. Click OK or Apply to apply your changes, or Cancel.

To change the plot appearance


You can create, edit and position a plot title and control grid lines within the plot.
To add or change a plot title and control grid lines inside the plot:
1. Click on the plot you want to change.
2. Select View | Properties from the menu bar, or click the Set/Modify Properties
button on the toolbar. Select the Plot tab:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 27

3. Add to or change the Plot Title. Type a text string or use the
symbolic names in the Plot Title Text box.

button to enter

4. Click options in the Bounding Box frame to enclose the plot area in a box or in
the Axis Grid frame to display a grid over the plot area.
5. Check Apply to All Plots to apply these specifications to all plots.
6. Click OK to apply your changes, or click Cancel to cancel your changes.

To change the legend appearance


You can change the legend position, layout, font and background color.
To customize the plot legend:
1. Click on the plot you want to change.
2. Select View | Properties from the menu bar, or click the Set/Modify Properties
button on the toolbar. Select the Legend tab:

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User's Guide Results Graph

3. Turn the legend on or off by clicking the Show Legend Box check box.
4. You can control the layout of the legend by changing the number of columns of
line samples and curve names in Number of Columns.
5. You can control the background color, border and text font.
6. You can position the legend at one of a number of positions around the plot, or
inside the plots, using custom position. Alternatively, you can click in the legend
box and drag the box to the desired position this only works when the Display
Settings dialog box is not present.
7. Click OK or Apply to apply your changes, or click Cancel to cancel your
changes.

To change the axis appearance


To change the appearance of an axis:
1. Click on the plot you want to change.
2. Select View | Properties from the menu bar, or click the Set/Modify Properties
button on the toolbar. Select the Axis tab:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 29

3. Select the axis you want to change from the Axis list.
4. In Label, enter a new label or change the existing label.
In Type, select one of these options: Linear, Log, or Date.
In Scaling if you select Auto, the Maximum, Minimum and Step boxes are set
automatically for you. If you select Fixed All (min, max and tick), you can
specify Maximum, Minimum and Step. If you select Fixed min and max only,
you can specify Maximum and Minimum.
To apply the same axis Minimum and Maximum to all repeated plots, select Auto
from the Scaling pull-down list, and select Global Scaling in the Repeat Plot dialog
box.
If you select Auto from the Scaling drop-down list but do not select Global Scaling
from the Repeat Plot dialog box, each repeated plot may have a different scale
Minimum and Maximum depending on the data in the curves for the repeated plots.
5. In Step, specify the space between tick marks (if enabled).
6. Select Use Persian Date to display Persian dates along a date axis.
7. In Maximum and Minimum, specify the axis range (if enabled). With a Date type
axis a button
(next to the text box) opens a calendar to convert a desired date
into a number of days. Select Use Persian Date to display Persian dates along a
date axis.
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User's Guide Results Graph

8. Numeric Format, Decimal Places and Use 1000 Separator specify the style of
numbers shown in axis annotations. The symbol used for 1000 separator is set in
Regional Settings of your computer.
9. You can customize the font of the Axis Label and the font and orientation of the
Axis Values.
10. Selecting the Axis Color Coding check box will automatically change color of the
axis line to the color of the associated curves. This option does not apply to X-axis.
11. Click OK or Apply to accept your changes. You can then continue to change the
axis appearance for another plot. Click Cancel to cancel your changes.

To change the curve appearance


To change the appearance of a curve:
1. Click on the curve you want to change in the Curve list selection box. If you have
several plots on one page, you will first have to select the correct plot. You can
also select the curve by clicking on it in the tree view.
2. Select View | Properties from the menu bar, or click the Set/Modify Properties
button on the toolbar. Select the Curve tab:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 31

3. Change the line color and line style. The marker type, size, color, and frequency
are controlled in the Markers area.
Note: If you have Axis Color Coding option enabled for an axis, all curves
associated with this axis will have the same color as the first curve. Thus, in case
of multiple curves associated with one axis and Axis Color Coding option turned
on your control of line color and style may be limited.
4. In Legend Text, edit the legend label. Type a text string or use the
enter symbolic names into the Legend Text box.

button to

5. Check the option Show As a Step Line or Moving Average. Both are optional. If
Show As a Step Line is checked, the data points in the curve are joined using a
step line instead of a straight line. If Moving Average is checked, the number of
points to be used for the averaging can be entered. The purpose of the Moving
Average feature is to ensure that the curve has a greater basis on historical data,
and it can be used for working with history match plots. For example, if a value of
3 is entered for the number of points, then the average will be based on the
previous 2 points plus the current point.
6. Click OK or Apply to apply your changes. You can also click Cancel to close the
dialog box without applying changes, if you have not already clicked the Apply
button.

To change units
By default, Results Graph uses the output unit system specified in the SR2 files.
To change the unit system or any of the individual properties:
1. Select View | Properties from the menu bar, or click the Set/Modify Properties
button on the toolbar. Select the Units tab:

32 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

2. In the Predefined Unit Systems drop-down list, select the unit system you want.
This automatically displays the default units for that system.
3. If you want to change an individual unit item, click in the User Defined Unit
System check box. You can then make selections for individual unit items.
Note: Starting with the 2005 release, the Molar Mass units can be converted to
equivalent volumes at standard conditions. This is to accommodate the need
for special units being used for Coal Bed Methane fields. Essentially, the chemical
component is assumed to be in an ideal gas state at 1 atm and 15.555 C/60 F so
that the compressibility factor can be assumed to be unity (z=1).
4. Click OK to accept your selections or Cancel to cancel any selections.

To change plot and plot-group tree view displaying name


By default, plots are displayed on the tree view as Plot 1, Plot 2, etc. and plot groups as
RepeatGroup 1, RepeatGroup 2, etc.
To change plot and plot group displaying name prefixes:
1. Select View | Properties from the menu bar, or click the Set/Modify Properties
button on the toolbar. Select the Tree View tab:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 33

2. In the Tree View tab, select Use custom label prefix and/or Use custom label
prefix, and type the desired name prefixes in the corresponding edit boxes.
3. By default, the custom prefix is applied only on the plots and/or plot groups that
are created after the prefix was entered. You can apply the custom name prefixes
to the existing plots and/or plot groups by selecting Apply to all plots and/or
Apply to all repeat groups.
4. Click OK to accept your selections or Cancel to cancel any selection.

Zooming Plots
2-D Zooming
Once you create a plot, you can zoom in the plot to see the fine details. To do so you just use
the mouse select a portion of the plot. For example, after selecting the center portion of the
following plot,

34 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

you will have the following:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 35

This operation can be repeated to further magnify the plot. Right-click the plot area using the
mouse button you will have the context menu popped out. There are 2 useful commands for
zooming operations. They are Unzoom and Full View. Unzoom will undo the zooming
operation just performed. Full View will undo all the previous zooming operations.

1-D Zooming
This feature is supported for linear axis only. To zoom in the horizontal and vertical axes:

Click the linear scale axis, until the


cursor appears for the Y-axis.

Drag the mouse along the axis to expand or to shrink it.

cursor appears for the X-axis or the

The axis point you click is the anchor point. The zooming (or expanding) operation
maintains the location of this point.

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User's Guide Results Graph

To illustrate, consider the following example, which shows a plot before 1-D zooming:

After X-axis 1-D zooming at the anchor point of around x = 1915. The cursor is moved in the
positive x direction to magnify this plot:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 37

Renaming Plots and Plot Groups from the Tree View


From the tree view you can change the name of standalone plots and repeat plot groups;
however, you cannot change the name of a plot that belongs to a repeat plot group. The
customized names for standalone plots and repeat plot groups are preserved when the session
file is saved. The steps for renaming plots and plot groups are as follows:
1. Select then click the standalone plot or repeat plot group in the tree view to enter
the label editing mode.
2. Type the desired name.
3. Press ESC or click outside the label to end the editing.
For example, select and then click Plot 1:

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User's Guide Results Graph

Type in the name (My Own Plot No.1 in the example) and then click outside the label. The
plot name is updated:

Reordering Plots and Plot Groups from the Tree View


Generally, the plots and/or repeat plot groups are displayed in the tree view according to the
order of their creation. You can reorder them using a drag-and-drop operation; however, you
cannot do this on plots within the same repeat plot group or move a plot from one repeat plot
group to another. The new displaying order will be preserved when the session file is saved.
To reorder plots and plot groups, click and hold the standalone or repeat plot group you
wanted to move, then drag it to the new location, and then release the mouse button. The
dragged item will be placed immediately before the item at the place where the mouse button
was released.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 39

To illustrate, the following example shows a display before the drag-and-drop operation:

After moving My Plot 15 to be after My Plot_3:

Note: To move an item to the end of the tree view list, move it to before the last item, then
move the last item ahead of it.

Setting Results Graph User Preferences


Results Graph user preferences can be saved as default values in Windows registry under the
current user name. Click File | Graph Preferences in the menu bar to open the Graph
Preferences dialog box:

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User's Guide Results Graph

Select the desired plot layout, fonts, lines, colors, and so on, and then click OK to save the
preferences to the registry. Click Reset Page to return factory defaults on the current preference
page. User preferences apply to newly created plots and do not change the existing ones.
In the Time Series Index (tsdata) File area of the General page, you can manage how large
files are to be handled when they are opened in Results Graph. When the SR2 file is opened, a
file with the same base file name and the extension of tsdata will be created automatically if the
file loading time is longer than the default of 10 seconds and Create this file when SR2 file
opening takes more than is selected. This file can significantly reduce subsequent loading
times of the same SR2 file; however, this will slightly increase the loading time the first time
you open the file and it will require additional disk space. If you never have to open the same
SR2 twice, then this option is not beneficial and can be disabled through File | Graph
Preferences. You can also change the minimum loading time required to trigger the creation of
the tsdata file in the same Graph Preferences dialog box.

Repeating a Plot
If you create a single column or page of plots with all the data from a single origin (that is, a
single well or single group) you can repeat the column or page of plots for a set of origins.
To repeat a plot:
1. Select Edit | Plot | Repeat from the menu bar.

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Using Results Graph 41

The Repeat Plots dialog box appears:

2. In the left pane, select the plot that you want to repeat.
3. By default, Selected Wells is selected. All Injectors will be enabled if the file(s)
contains injectors.
3. To repeat the plot for all producers in the file(s), select All Producers. All the
producers will be selected from the list of origins.
4. To repeat the plot for all injectors in the file(s), select All Injectors.
5. To repeat the plot for selected wells only, select Selected Wells. Select one or more
origins. Use the CTRL and SHIFT keys to select multiple wells or a range of wells.
6. If you want all the plots to have the same axis maximums and minimums (so you
can more easily compare values for different wells), select Use Global Axis
Scaling for the new Repeat Origin Group.
7. Click OK to accept your selections or Cancel to cancel your selections.
Note: You can save and restore the plots created in a session file. Refer to Saving a Session
and Opening a Session File. When you restore a session file, you will have the option of
specifying a file that is different from the one used originally to create the plot. When restoring
a repeated plot group, the behavior of Results Graph depends on the option you selected:

If you selected the Selected Wells option, a plot is restored only if the file
contains an origin with an identical name.

If you selected the All Producers option, plots for all the producers in a file are
restored, even if the origin names do not match.

If you selected the All Injectors option, plots for all the injectors in a file are
restored, even if the origin names do not match.

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User's Guide Results Graph

Repeating Curves or Plots for New Data Files


Once you have opened an existing session file or created plots with curves based on opened
simulation data files, use this feature to add similar curves and/or plots for newly opened
simulation data files. Select Edit | Add Similar Curves/Plots from the menu bar. The Add
Similar Curves/Plots dialog box is displayed:

The New Data File list may be empty when the dialog box is first opened. Click Add More
Files to concurrently open multiple simulation data files.
Through the Add Similar Curves/Plots dialog box, you can:

Add new curves to existing plots: Create new curves for the existing plots based
on the curves that are plotted using the selected existing data files.

Add new plots: Create new plots based on the existing plots if they have curves
that are plotted using the selected existing data files.

The model plots on which the similar curves or plots are created can be:

Selected Existing Plots via Treeview: The plots that were selected from the tree
view just before the dialog box was opened.

All Existing Plots: All available plots on the dialog box are opened.

The operation can be repeated as many times as necessary.


User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 43

Note: The repeating operation is best-effort and it is possible that it may not create new
curves or plots.

Exporting History Match Factors


History match factors are defined as the average log value divided by the average model
value for each well block. The output can be used as input to the simulator data file using the
*MOD keyword. If you have created a Flow Property versus Depth (PLT) plot, you can
export the history match factors to a text file, as follows:
1. Click Tools | Export History Match Factors in the menu bar. The Export
History Match Factors dialog box will be displayed:

2. Click Select Wells to open the Advanced Well Selection dialog box, select the
desired wells, and then click OK.
3. In the Export History Match Factors dialog box, enter the desired options.
4. Click
to define the destination for the HistoryMartchFactors.txt file, and then
click OK.

Repeating Plots based on Formulae


For information about repeating plots with curves that are based on formulae, refer to To
repeat plots with curves based on formulae.

Monitoring Simulation Runs


Results Graph allows you to monitor the progress of a simulation run. To do this, start the
simulation run, and allow the simulation to progress past a point where it has output two or
three sets of periodic well data. (By default, well data is output each time step, but you can
change this in the simulation data file through the use of the WSRF keyword.) Once there are
at least two times with well data, open Results Graph on the simulation results file. You can
either use a template file, or open the simulation results file, and build the set of plots that
you want to monitor while the simulation is running.
After you have set up the plots that you want, select File | Periodically Re-read Simulator
Output from the menu bar. A dialog box will be displayed, prompting you to set an interval
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User's Guide Results Graph

time (in minutes) for the re-read. Enter a value, or accept the default. Click OK to start the
periodic reading, or Cancel.
Note: Periodic update is not available when a session (.ses) and template (.3tp) file are open
at the same time.

Creating TimeSeries Properties for Ad Hoc Groups


You can create ad hoc groups, which are groups available on-the-fly from simulation results
and field history files. You can group:

Full well (all perforations) output and/or

Layer output

For example, you can create an ad hoc group from the outputs of wells W-1, W-2 and layer
outputs W-3{14,4,5} and W-3{14,4,6}. In this example, the well layer information must have
been output by the simulator.
Note: Layer output is not available for Field History files.
Graph will sum all the available cumulative TimeSeries properties (Cumulative Oil SC,
Cumulative Gas SC, and so on) for all the wells and layers in an ad hoc group to create new
TimeSeries properties. It will also calculate rates and ratios from these newly created
properties. These calculated properties will be available to you just like any other property
created from raw data in the files. They will show up in all the dialog boxes under origin type
Group, for example, in the Add Curve dialog box:
1,200

1234-PRO test33_NUM_For_3D_Graph_Tests.irf
asdf-PRO test33_NUM_For_3D_Graph_Tests.irf
second_file-PRO test33_NUM_For_3D_Graph_Tests_Modified_Perm.irf

1,000

Oil Rate SC (bbl/day)

800

600

400

200

0
1992

User's Guide Results Graph

1993

1994

1995

1996
1997
Time (Date)

1998

1999

2000

2001

Using Results Graph 45

In the above plot, 1234-PRO, asdf-PRO and second_file-PRO are ad hoc groups created from
two irf files. They will also show up in the Well Summary dialog box when you select the
Groups to be exported:

To create a new ad hoc group:


1. Select Tools | Create Ad Hoc Groups from the menu bar. You will be prompted
to select a data file if more than one is open:

2. Click OK. The Input Name dialog box is displayed:

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User's Guide Results Graph

3. Enter a name for the new group in the Input Name dialog box and then click OK.
The Create an Ad Hoc Group from Well Outputs dialog box is displayed:

4. In the Create an Ad Hoc Group from Well Outputs dialog box:


a) Specify the type of output in the Output from panel. For layer output,
you can either specify consecutive layers by selecting Through K-layers
from then entering the range of layers (for example, 4 to 6) or discrete
numbers by selecting Through specified K-layers then entering the
layer numbers (for example, 1 3 8). You will be limited to
All Perforations for Field History files.
b) Select the well or layer origins in the Well Selection panel. You can
either manually select the origins (check the boxes in front of the
well/layer name) or you can select All, Producers, Injectors or
Highlighted with the Add to selection and Remove from selection
buttons. You can apply the filters to the names by selecting Match
name/wildcard and entering the match name, with wild card as
necessary, in the text box. Producers and Injectors will not be available
for Field History files.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 47

c) You can also click the Add from sectors button to open the Select
sectors for well selection dialog, through which you can add wells from
specific sectors:

Select the desired sector(s) and then click OK to return to the Create an
Ad Hoc Group from Well Outputs dialog box. The wells and layers in
the sector(s) you selected are now checked in the Well Selection pane.
d) Change the global multiplier to be applied to all the selected origins in
the Multiply each output by box.

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User's Guide Results Graph

e) Add your selection to the List of outputs to be added to Ad Hoc Group


button, as shown in the following example:
list by clicking the Add

f) If required:
Modify one or more of the values in the Multiplier column.
Click the Normalize button to normalize the multipliers in the List of
outputs to be added to the Ad Hoc Group table.
Remove all the origins from the output list by clicking Delete all.
Click the Set time period button to open the Set start and end times
dialog. Click the Calendar
button then enter the Start and End
times NS then click OK. This option is not available for Field History
files.

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Using Results Graph 49

Select one or more rows (highlight) in the List of outputs table then click
the Delete selected button to remove selected origins from the list.
5. Repeat steps a) through f) to add more wells/layers.
6. Click OK in the Create an Ad Hoc Group from Well Outputs dialog box to
save the group details or Cancel to cancel your entries.

To displaying an existing ad hoc group composition


Select Tools | Display Ad Hoc Groups from the menu bar. The Create an Ad Hoc Group
from Well Outputs dialog box opens in read-only mode:

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User's Guide Results Graph

The Ad Hoc Group name drop-down box contains all of the existing ad hoc groups. Change
the selection in the drop-down box to display the desired group.

To copy an existing ad hoc group


Open the Create an Ad Hoc Group from Well Outputs dialog box in read-only mode as
button
described under Displaying an existing ad hoc group composition. Click the
next to the Ad Hoc Group name box and then click the Copy Group button.

You will be prompted to enter a unique name for the new group. From this point on, the steps
are the same as those for creating a new group.

Notes
1. Results Graph will attempt to create two groups from the name you entered:
group_name-PRO and group_name-INJ for Producers and Injectors. Layers will
be included in the group_name-PRO group.
2. The group name, member well names and the multipliers are saved to the session
(.ses) file.
3. When you read in the session file, the TimeSeries properties, if any, are
automatically calculated and added to their plots.
4. If you replace the data files on opening the session file, Results Graph will attempt
to create these properties.
5. If you open a new file after creating the groups, Results Graph will attempt to
create properties from the new file.

Printing a Plot
To print a plot:
1. Select Print from the File menu, or click on the Print
box appears.

button. The Print dialog

2. In Print range, select All or Selection to specify the pages to be printed.


3. In Copies, specify how many copies you want printed and if you want the copies
collated (if your printer supports collation).
4. Click OK to accept your selections and print. Click Cancel to cancel your selections.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 51

Formula Manager
Important Change: Formulae are associated with the origin type used by the formulas
primary variable. Refer to Primary on page 53 for more information. The method for
accessing formulae when adding curves has changed since they are no longer displayed by
selecting Special History in the Origin type box. Refer to To add curves based on formulae
on page 9 for further information.

Overview
Using Formula Manager, you can calculate and display property values derived from other
properties within the same session, from different simulation runs and Results Graph sessions,
or at different times. The following simulation output formats are supported: CMG Simulation
(*.irf), Field History (*.fhf), PA Load Format (*.paf) and CHEARS Simulation Results
(*.smspec).
Results Graph provides a dialog box (refer to Formula Manager Dialog Box) through which
you can input formulae that describe functional relationships. Refer to To create a formula and
To edit a formula.
If you delete a formula, then all references to the formula will be deleted, including curves
based on the formula. Refer to To delete a formula.
You can copy formulae from one session to another. In these cases, the formulae are maintained
independently. Refer to To copy a formula for more information.
You can repeat a plot across multiple origins based on a formula, as outlined in To repeat plots
with curves based on formulae.

Formula Manager Dialog Box


Open the Formula Manager dialog box through Tools | Formula Manager in the menu bar:

52 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

Formula Tree View: Shows the sessions that are currently open and, for each session, the
formulae that have been created. A check mark indicates that a formula is ready for use,
indicates that it is not.
and a
Formula Name: The default name is SchemeN (Scheme1, for example), where N is
chronologically assigned. The formula name has to be unique within a session, but does not
need to be unique across sessions. You can change the formula name to one that is suitable
for your analysis.
Independent Variables: This table shows a list of the independent variables selected for use
in the formula. You can add, edit and delete independent variables from the list. For each
independent variable, the table includes the following:

Primary: Indicates the primary independent variable. When copying formulae


from one session to another, or repeating a plot, substitution of independent
variables depends on whether the variable is primary or not. Replacement rule
options are discussed in To copy a formula and in To repeat plots with curves
based on formulae.

Name: This name is assigned from the source file containing the independent
variable.

Component: If the source file contains components for the independent variable,
these will be displayed in the column.

Origin: The entity (well, for example) that defines the data source for the
independent variable. For further illustration, refer to Origin Selection when
Creating Formulae.

File: This is the folder and name of the file containing the independent variable
data used in the formula.

Note: In the above example, the TimeSeries data used for X0, referred to as Oil Cut SC in
the source file, is taken from well OIL1 in the defined file.
Formula: The formula is entered by typing the formula directly or by using the buttons
below the Formula area.
Operators: Operators that can be used to define the formula. For further details, refer to
General Rules and Guidelines.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 53

The Options tab displays several Formula Manager option settings:

The following options are available:

Default Substitution Behavior: When repeating a plot (refer to To repeat plots


with curves based on formulae), the default substitution behavior for TimeSeries
formulae is to substitute for all variables that share the same origin as the Primary.
The alternative is to only substitute for the Primary variable. To illustrate,
consider the following example:

Time Synchronization Tolerance: Enter the tolerance required for time


synchronization of source properties. A new property will be calculated only if all
the source properties can be found at a given time. The default value is 1 day. In
this case, if a derived property D is a function of independent variables A, B and C,
then D will be calculated at time t = t n if and only if there are values for A, B and
C within 1 day of t n .

Substituted Error Value: Set the value that will be assigned to calculations that
generate mathematical errors, such as division by zero or logarithm arguments less
than or equal to zero. The default is 0.

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User's Guide Results Graph

Data Range: This option allows you to enter a range of data values. Click Change
time spec to open the Time options for source properties dialog box through
which you can set the range.

Is matrix property: This check box is available if you are working on a


DUALPOR or DUALPERM model, and it determines whether a MATRIX or
FRACTURE property is calculated.

Origin Selection when Creating Formulae


When creating formulae, it is important to remember that when plotting the resultant curve
via the Add Curves dialog box, the origin selected will, by default, be substituted into not
only the Primary Independent Variable but also any independent variable that shares the
same origin as the Primary.
Note: The default substitution behavior can be turned off in the Options tab of a selected
formula. For more information, refer to Default Substitution Behavior.
In this way, only one formula needs to be created to provide an accurate calculation for any
particular well.
For example, assume you have the following formula:
F1: X0 + X1
where:
X0 = Cumulative Oil Mass (C2-C4) SC for Well 1(Primary)
X1 = Cumulative Oil Mass (CO2) SC for Well 1
As the following graph demonstrates, if you plot this formula for Well 5, the formula would
accurately demonstrate (X0 @ Well 5 + X1 @ Well 5). However, if you had set up the
formula with X1 for Well 2, then a plot of this formula for Well 5 would be calculated as
follows: (X0 @ Well 5 + X1 @ Well 2). While this may be desirable under some
circumstances, the effect is essentially meaningless in most cases.

X0 @ Well 5 + X1 @ Well 5
(meaningful representation of Well 5)

X0 @ Well 5 + X1 @ Well 2
(less useful representation of Wells 5 and 2)

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 55

Unless you have a specific reason for picking an origin other than Well 1 for X1, it is highly
recommended to keep the origin selected consistent across all independent variables in a
formula. If you are using a formula inside another formula, keep the origin selection the same
as the parent formula. This facilitates not only an accurate representation of the wells
properties, but enables Repeat Plot functionality to quickly provide formula-based curves for
any well.

General Rules and Guidelines


Terms
Formula: The functional relationship expressed using symbols representing arithmetic,
logical and logarithmic operators and other special quantities, and independent variables.
Source property: An existing property in the current or other simulation output file. It can
be a property previously defined and calculated using Formula Manager.
Independent variable: Representation of the source property in the formula, denoted by
Xn, n = 0 99
Dependent variable: A calculation which results in the creation of a temporary property with
the name you input for the formula.

Operators
Arithmetic operators:
+, -, / (divide), * (multiply), ** (power), SQRT (square root)
Logarithmic operators:
LOG, LN, EXP10 (10**x), EXP (e**x)
Logical operators:
IF, THEN (as a delimiter), ELSE, ENDIF (as a delimiter), AND, OR, <, <=, >, >=,
==
Other:
( and ) as delimiters for function arguments
INT (rounding of floats to ints; values up to and including i.5 will be rounded to i,
those greater than i.5 to [i+1])
MAX, MIN, ABS (absolute value)
Xn (n = 0 99) for independent variable

56 Using Results Graph

User's Guide Results Graph

Syntax
Only enter the right side of an equation as the formula. For example, if the formula is:
PERMK = PERMI * 0.01
enter it as:
X0 * 0.01
where X0 is the independent variable Permeability I.
Precedence and order of evaluation
Calculations are always carried out from left to right.
Precedence is defined as follows: * and / have equal precedence but are higher than + and which have equal precedence. An expression within parentheses is evaluated completely and
the result is treated as the single value in a binary operation.
The following have equal precedence
<, <=, >, >=, = =

IF Blocks
A formula can have only one IF block. An IF block completely defines a formula; that is, a
formula containing an IF block can only have the IF THEN (ELSEIF THEN)
ELSE ( ENDIF) statements.
An IF block must have an ELSE statement. An IF statement must be terminated by THEN.
An ELSE statement may be terminated by ENDIF. An ELSE, ELSEIF, AND and OR
statements cannot be present without an IF statement.

Other

The following operators must be followed by an expression enclosed in


parentheses: LOG, LN, EXP10, EXP, SQRT, INT, ABS, IF, ELSE, ELSEIF, AND,
and OR.

MAX and MIN operators are followed by two expressions in parentheses,


separated by a comma, for example, MAX (A, B).

Spaces can be inserted between operators, functions and parentheses to make the
formula easier to read and understand.

A formula can span more than one line.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 57

Using Formula Manager


To create a formula
1. Select Tools | Formula Manager from the menu bar. The Formula Manager
dialog box is displayed for the active session:

2. Click New in the lower left. The controls in the Formula Manager dialog box are
activated and a default Formula Name entered (Scheme1 in the following
example):

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User's Guide Results Graph

3. As desired, change the name of the formula in the Formula Name box.
4. Click Add Independent Variables. The Create Independent Variables dialog
box is displayed. Through this dialog box, you add the independent variables that
you want to use in the formula:

Specify the independent variable as follows:


Source Files: Select the source file containing the property that you
want to assign to the independent variable. Use the
button to browse
to and select an additional file, if desired.
Origin Type: Select the origin type, one of Well, Group, Layer
(Completion), Special History, Lease (Migration), Sector (Region) or
Field. The properties displayed in the Select Property area are based on
the origin type.
Select Property: Select the property that you want to use as an independent
variable. In a single Create Independent Variables session, you can specify
multiple independent variables from one source file or from multiple source
files.
Select Component: If components are defined for the property in the
source file, these will be displayed in the Select Component area. In this
case, select the desired component.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 59

Select Origin: The selected property name may appear in multiple wells
or groups, depending on the origin type. Select the particular origin, OIL1
in the above example. You can select multiple origins, in which case
independent variables will be created for the properties associated with
each origin.
5. Once you have selected an independent variable, click Add to add it to the New
Independent Variables list at the bottom of the dialog box. Repeat the above
steps for all independent variables that you will use in the formula.

To remove an independent variable from the list, select it in the New Independent
Variables area and then click Delete.
6. After you have specified the required independent variables, click OK. Each
independent variable will be assigned a symbol (X0, X1, Xn) and will be
displayed in the Independent Variables table of the Formula Manager dialog
box as shown in the following example:

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User's Guide Results Graph

7. Select one of the independent variables as Primary. Refer to Primary for an


explanation of the Primary variable.
8. Enter the formula, as shown in the following example:

You can add source properties to the formula any number of times by either typing
its variable symbol (X0, X1, and so on) or by selecting the property in the list and
clicking Insert Selected into Formula. You cannot delete a source property from
the list unless you remove all references to it in the formula. You can edit the
source property (change from one property to another) without removing
references to it in the formula.
Examples of formulae:
Example 1:
Example 2:

Example 3:

1.23 * ( X0 ** 0.2 )
IF ( ( X0 < 0.1 ) AND ( X1 < 623 ) ) THEN ( INT ( X1 / 10) )
ELSEIF ( ( X0 < 0.1 ) AND ( X1 < 1200 ) ) THEN ( INT ( X1/100 ) )
ELSE ( INT ( X0 * X1 ) )
MAX ( ( LOG (X0 * X1 *X2 ) ) , ABS ( X0 ( X1 / X2 ) ) )

9. Click OK or Apply to apply the formula to the session. You will be prompted if
you do not use all of the independent variables in the formula. If you proceed, the
unused independent variables will be deleted from the table. You will be prompted
with additional messages if criteria for creating the formula are not met.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 61

To view a formula
To view a formula select Tools | Formula Manager from the menu bar. The Formula
Manager dialog box will be displayed. In the tree view, click the formula name.

To edit a formula
To edit a formula select Tools | Formula Manager from the menu bar. The Formula
Manager dialog box will be displayed. In the tree view, click the formula name. Make the
necessary changes and then click OK or Apply. All variables and graphs in open sessions
that use the formula will be updated immediately.

To copy a formula
To copy a formula from one session to another, you must have both sessions open in Results
Graph. In the following example, sessions watfld00_feb13.ses and watfld00_feb14.ses are
open:

Note: During the copy procedure, Formula Manager will attempt to match properties and
origins when possible but, if the origin does not exist in the file to which the formula is being
copied, the first origin will be used.
1. In the tree view, select the formula that you want to copy, Scheme1 in the above
example.
2. Click Copy at the bottom of the tree view. If you are copying between sessions or
template files, the Copy TimeSeries Formula dialog box will be displayed:

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User's Guide Results Graph

Configure the dialog box as required:


Destination: Select the open session to which you want to copy the
formula.
Select the behavior for copying TimeSeries formulas. If you do not select
Only substitute for the file of the Primary Independent Variable
(default), any file used as a data source will be replaced wherever it
matches the file used for the Primary Independent Variable. If you select
Only substitute for the file of the Primary Independent Variable, the
file used for the Primary Independent Variable will be replaced and the
files used for all non-Primary Independent Variables will remain the
same. This is illustrated below:

3. Click OK. The formula is copied into the target session. If the formula name is not
used in the target session, the name will remain the same as it is in the source
session. If the formula name is already used in the target session, the name will be
appended with - Copy, as shown in the following example:

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 63

The formula in the target session can be modified (its name can be changed, for
example) without changing the formula in the source session and vice versa.

To delete a formula
1. In the Formula Manager tree view, select the formula you want to delete.
2. Click Delete at the bottom of the tree view. You will be asked to confirm the
deletion.
3. If you click Yes, the formula will be deleted and removed from the tree view.
Orphaned formulas (formulas that use properties calculated from deleted
formulas) will be indicated with a in the tree view, and curves based on the
formula will be removed from all plots.
If you do not resolve the problem, a message will be displayed when you save the
session, reminding you that there are outstanding orphaned formulas. If you click
Yes in this message, the session will be saved with outstanding orphaned
formulas. When you re-open the session, a message will inform you that an
independent variable used in a formula could not be restored. When you open
Formula Manager, the orphaned formula will be denoted with a in the tree
view. Resolve the problem and save.

To repeat plots with curves based on formulae


You can repeat a plot with a curve (or curves) based on a formula, over a group of origins.
For example, you can create a plot showing a curve based on a formula for gas production
for a particular well and then repeat this over selected wells in the field. If you change the
formula, the change will be applied over all of the plots in the repeat group.
Note: Independent variable substitution rules for repeat plots are discussed in Primary and
Default Substitution Behavior.
1. Create the plot based on one of the origins in the group. In the following example,
we have created a plot showing a formula-based curve for well W-1:

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User's Guide Results Graph

2. To repeat this plot over multiple origins, select Edit | Plot | Repeat in the menu
bar (or right-click the plot in the tree view then click Repeat Plot, or click the
Repeat Plot icon in the tool bar). The Repeat Plots dialog box is displayed:

3. Select All Producers or Selected Wells (if there are injector wells, the All
Injectors selection will be enabled), as appropriate and then use the CTRL and
SHIFT keys to select the plots in the group. If you want to include the repeated
plot (W-1 Plot 1 in this example), it also needs to be selected.
If you do not select Use Global Axis Scaling for the new Repeat Origin Group,
the vertical axes will be scaled to fit the data for each plot. If you select Use
Global Axis Scaling for the new Repeat Origin Group, the scale of the vertical
axes will be maintained the same as the plot being repeated.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 65

4. Click OK. The repeat group will be created and displayed in the tree view, as
shown in the following example:

If you change the formula defining the repeated plot, all plots in the repeat group will be
modified. To delete a repeat group, delete any one of the repeated plots in the group (by
right-clicking the plot and then selecting Delete Plot).
To add a second repeat group, click the Add Plot icon in the tool bar. You will be
prompted if you want to add the new plot to the repeat group:

Click No to add the plot outside the existing repeat group and then follow the above
procedure for creating the new repeat group.

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User's Guide Results Graph

To save and restore formulae and formula-based properties

Each formula corresponds to a new property in Results Graph. These formulae are
saved in the session file (file with *.ses extension), but not in the simulation
output file. When you export Results Graph property data (through Tools | Export
to ASCII Text File), the values of formula-based properties will be included in
the text file, as shown in the following example:

When you open a session file, Results Graph re-creates the formula.

Exporting Plot Data


You can export the data contained in a plot in several formats. The data can be exported as a
columnar ASCII table, as a tab-separated table, or in a format similar to that read by Merak
Projects PEEP program.

To export to a text table


To export a file to ASCII:

Select Tools | Export To ASCII Text File from the menu bar.

The file browser appears, requesting the name of the file to which you want to write.

To export to a tab-separated file


To export a file to tab separated:

Select Tools | Export To Tab Separated File from the menu bar.

The file browser appears requesting the name of the file to which you want to write.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 67

To export to Meraks PEEP


To export a file to Meraks PEEP:

Select Tools | Export as Merak PEEP from the menu bar.

The file browser appears requesting the name of the file to which you want to write.

To export tables of well summary


Using this feature, you can export preset or custom data from all or selected wells in the file.
This contrasts with the Export To ASCII Text File and Export To Tab Separated File
options, where only the data from the curves are exported. The preset properties include
cumulative volumes, rates, gas-oil ratio, and water cut. The feature also offers flexibility in
formatting the tabular output.

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User's Guide Results Graph

The formatting options are:

Report Times: Monthly, Quarterly, Yearly or every record from the file

Export Table Style has two major options. Single table style creates a continuous
table with properties in columns, and name and time values in rows similar to the
database output. With Multiple tables style, you can choose from six options. Each
option fixes the independent variable and the content of each row and column. For
example, if you selected Table:Time,Row:Well,Column:Property for Groups and
Wells, at each reporting period, the data for all the Groups and wells will be printed
out with one well in each row and one property in each column.

Text format. You can choose from three options:


- Fixed column width, output to a text file.
- Tab separated columns, output to a text file.
- Send to MS Excel immediately, saved to a text file and launched in
Excel. This option lets you do your own formatting (width, decimal
places, and so on) of the data in Excel.

Report data provides for the selection for data origins: Wells, Groups, Sectors,
and so on. In the Default mode all data names are exported. You can select
Custom to change the selection of data names and override the preset list of
exported properties.

To export well summary tables:


1. Select Tools | Export Well Summary from the menu bar.
2. The Well Summary dialog box is displayed.
3. Select the options, and then click OK.

Comparing Files
Select Tools | Compare Files in the menu bar to open the History Match dialog box, shown
below. You can use this dialog box to compare TimeSeries properties in a reference file with
the same property in one or more comparison files. It is especially useful for history matching.
Files can be in one of the following formats: Field History (*.fhf) or Simulation Results (*.irf).
The files are added to the list in the File Comparison dialog box. You can select one of the
files as the reference file against which the others are compared.
Note: You can only load one field history file and if you do, it will automatically be set as the
reference file.

User's Guide Results Graph

Using Results Graph 69

An example of the File Comparison dialog box is shown blow. The dialog box shows an
example where a field history file is selected as the reference and a simulation results file is
added to the list for comparison.

The dynamic properties available in the reference file are listed in the Select Properties list.
You can select properties from this list for comparison. The selected properties are added to the
Selected Properties list. The next step is to select a comparison method, of which four are
available:

% Area Between: Computed as the ratio of area between the two time series over
the area under the time series of the selected property in the reference file.

% of Normalized Area Between: Similar to % Area Between but the ratio is


over the average area for the time series of the selected property in the reference
file. The average is computed over all origins (for example, all wells).

Cumulative Differences: Computed as the cumulative differences, over time,


between the two time series.

Cumulative Relative Differences: Similar to Cumulative Differences but the


differences are divided by the value of the reference time series.

A time derivative or a time integral transform can be applied to the selected dynamic properties
before doing the comparison.

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User's Guide Results Graph

Comparison results can be ranked from worst to best or vice versa. The ranking will be based
on the first selected property. The comparison results can also be sorted by their origins
(Groups, Layers, and Wells). You can output to a single file or to multiple files in the case of
multiple comparison files. Select Open with Excel to launch the output file with Microsoft
Excel.

Copying a Page Image to the Clipboard


Use CTRL+C or select Tools | Copy Metafile to Clipboard from the menu bar. These
commands place the enhanced metafile image of the current page on the Windows clipboard. This
image can be pasted into other programs, such as Microsoft Word or PowerPoint, using CTRL+V.

Saving a Page as an Image File


Saving a Single Page
To save the image of a page of plots:
1. Select the page to be saved as an image file.
2. Select Tools | Save Image from the menu bar. The Export Screen Images dialog
box is displayed.
3. Choose the file type to be saved. You have a choice of several different image file
formats.
4. Enter a file name or browse for the full file path by clicking the

button.

5. Change the image size in pixels (the screen width/height ratio is maintained). The
default is the screen image size. The JPEG quality slider is only available if you
select JPEG.
6. Click OK to save, or Cancel.

Saving Multiple Pages at Once


To save the image for several or all pages of plots:
1. Select Tools | Export Many Page Images from the menu bar. The Export Screen
Images dialog box will be displayed, with page selection enabled.
2. Select For all pages to export all of the plots, or select a starting page number and
an ending page number if you only want some of the pages to be exported.
3. Choose the Image File Format.
4. Enter a Base File Name or browse for the full file path by clicking the
button. For each exported page, a separate image file will be created, with a name
formed by appending the page number to the base file name, then adding the
image file format extension.
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Using Results Graph 71

5. Change the image size in pixels (the screen width/height ratio is maintained). The
default is the screen image size. The JPEG quality slider is only available if you
select JPEG.
6. Click OK to save, or Cancel.
The saved images can be imported into Microsoft Word or PowerPoint programs.

Saving a Session
Once you create a plot, you can use it again as a session by saving it.
To save a session for the first time or save an existing session with a different name:
1. Select File | Save Session As from the menu bar. The Save As dialog box appears.
2. Enter the name of the session with the extension *.ses, and specify the drive and
directory in which you want the session saved.
3. Click Save to save the session, or click Cancel to cancel your selections.
To save a session with the same name:

Select Save Session from the File menu.

Opening a Session File


You can recreate a plot that you have saved as a session file. You can also change the
simulator results files and field history files that were used in a session file updating the
plot to use data from a new simulation run or with additional field data.
To open a session file and change the simulation results files:
1. In the CMG Technologies Launcher, drag and drop a session file (*.ses) onto the
Results Graph icon.
2. The Results - Replace Data Files dialog box appears.

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User's Guide Results Graph

3. To change one or more of the data files, click the


file you want to replace.

button beside the name of the

4. A file browser appears. Select the new SR2 or field history file you want to use.
Click OK or Cancel.
5. In the Results - Replace Data Files dialog box, click OK. The plots are redrawn
with data from the new files. To cancel your selections, click Cancel.

Exiting Results Graph


To exit Results Graph:

Select File | Exit from the menu bar.

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Using Results Graph 73

Appendix A: Field History File


Formats

Overview
Field history information is data, such as well production data that is obtained from field data
rather than from a simulator output. Field history is used as simulator input (for example, oil
rates) to compare simulation results with the actual occurrences in the field being simulated.
In the XY PLOT module, you can produce plots that compare field history to simulation
results.
Field history can be stored in an ASCII file in one of three formats that can be ready by
Results Graph and Results Report:

FHF Format 1: Compatible with CMGs Graphics and Control System.

FHF Format 2: Supported in the 93.20 and later versions of Results.

Production Analyst Load Format (PA Load)

The first two FHF formats are discussed in this appendix. PA Load format is discussed in the
Appendix B.
A sample of each FHF format appears at the end of this appendix.

Creating a Field History File


To create a field history file:
1. Download data from a database into an ASCII file.
2. Edit the file into the correct format. To ensure backward compatibility with the
Graphics and Control System, start all input in the first column and enter data on a
separate line. You can enter comments in the file, unless otherwise indicated, but
they must be preceded by an asterisk (*) in the first column and a space in the
second column.
The following describes the entries and edits you should make to the field history file.

User's Guide Results Graph

Appendix A: Field History File Formats 75

1. Enter todays date or the date on which the field history file was created. This date
is not actually used by Results, but it is required for backward compatibility with
old field history files. Use one of the following formats:
Format
1

Date Format
'YYYY-MM-DD'

YYYY MM DD

YYYY/MM/DD

ISO 8601Date
Format

Description
A string enclosed in single quotation
marks. YYYY is the year, MM is the
month, DD is the day.
A three-integer format with no
quotation marks. YYYY is the year,
MM is the Month, DD is the Day.
A three-integer format with slashes
between the elements. YYYY is the
year, MM is the Month, DD is the Day.
Date and time are separated by the letter
T. Date portion contains 4 digit year, a
-, 2 digit month, a - and 2 digit day.
Time portion contains 2 digit hour, :, 2
digit minute, : and 2 digit second with
decimals for fraction of a second. Time
portion is optional. If it is missing, it is
interpreted to be 00:00:00.

Example
1994-01-18 is January
18, 1994
1994 01 18 is January
18, 1994
1994/01/18 is January
18, 1994
2006-01-30T23:12:02.2

2. Enter the project title and enclose it in single quotation marks. Enter up to 40
characters (mixed case). Use one of the following formats:
Format
1&2

Sample String
'POOL A WATERFLOOD'

Description
A string in single quotation marks.

3. Enter the reference date for the start of the data (time zero date). Although the first
release of Results used a floating point number to record the start date, this feature
led to some confusion and is no longer recommended; instead, use one of the date
formats described below:
Format
1

Date Format
YYYY-MM-DD

YYYY MM DD

Description
A string enclosed in single
quotation marks. YYYY is the
year, MM is the month, DD is the
day.
A three-integer format with no
quotation marks. YYYY is the
year, MM is the Month, DD is the
Day.

76 Appendix A: Field History File Formats

Example
1994-01-18 is
January 18, 1994

1994 01 18 is January
18, 1994

User's Guide Results Graph

Format
3

Date Format
YYYY/MM/DD

ISO 8601 Date


Format

Description
A three-integer format with
slashes between the elements.
YYYY is the year, MM is the
Month, DD is the Day.
Valid ISO date string as described
above.

Example
1994/01/18 is January
18, 1994

2006-01-30T23:12:00

4. Enter the time units as a string in single quotation marks. To enable the unit
conversion capabilities of Results, the string should be one of days, day, years,
yr, hr, or min. These strings are case sensitive. Although other strings are
allowed, if they are used, time unit conversion is not possible. Use the following
formats:
Format
1&2

Sample Entry
days

Description
A string in single quotation marks.

If you want to input a date in the first column of your well data tables (instead of a
time since the simulation start date), enter a date format string instead of a time
unit string. The allowed date format strings are:
Date Format
YYYY/MM/DD
YYYY MM
ISO_DATE_FORMAT

Description
Subsequent dates are entered in
the format YYYY/MM/DD.
Subsequent dates are entered in
the format YYYY MM.
Subsequent dates are entered in
the ISO 8601 date format.

Example
1995/09/27 for September 27,
1995.
1995 09 for the last day of
September 1995.
2006-01-31T18:01:30

The ISO_DATE_FORMAT specifies an exact date/time, while the other formats


specify a date only. Since the time information is missing, the FHF reader assumes
it is at the end of the day.
5. Enter the number of desired data items for each well. The number must be greater
than 0. There is no restriction on the number of data items for Results. The
number of data items is the same for each well. Therefore, when you enter the data
for a particular well, you must enter a zero for a data item that is not applicable to
a particular well but is needed for another well. Alternatively, you can create two
or more field history files for a field (for example, one with oil rates for
production wells and another with water rates for injection wells):
Format
1&2

Sample Entry
4

User's Guide Results Graph

Description
An integer number.

Appendix A: Field History File Formats 77

6. Enter the names of the data items. They must be entered on the same line or on
consecutive lines. The maximum character length is thirty (30) for the Graphics
and Control System. No restriction exists in Results except that the strings are case
sensitive.
An exhaustive list for each simulator for the Well, Field, Group, Sector and Lease
Origin types are included in the following files in the br\version_number\doc\
Results 3D & Results Graph folder under CMG_HOME.
IMEXTimeSeriesNames.txt
GEMTimeSeriesNames.txt
STARSTimeSeriesNames.txt
The following is a sample list of the strings you can enter.
Enter this property name
Cumulative Water SC
Water Rate SC
Cumulative Oil SC
Oil Rate SC
Oil Cut SC
Cumulative Gas SC
'Gas Rate SC
Cumulative Solvent SC
Solvent Rate SC
Cumulative Polymer SC
Cumulative Polymer Mass
Polymer Mass Rate
Gas Oil Ratio SC
Water Oil Ratio SC
Solvent Oil Ratio SC
Gas+Solvent Oil Ratio SC
Water Cut SC
Well Head Pressure
Well Pressure
Well Block Pressure
Period Oil Production SC
Period Water Production SC
Period Gas Production SC

For
Water phase volume accumulation - surface conditions.
Water phase volume rate - surface conditions.
Oil phase volume accumulation - surface conditions.
Oil phase volume rate - surface conditions.
Oil cut - surface conditions.
Gas phase volume accumulation - surface conditions.
Gas phase volume rate - surface conditions.
Solvent phase volume accumulation - surface conditions.
Solvent phase volume rate - surface conditions.
Polymer volume accumulation - surface conditions.
Polymer mass accumulation - surface conditions.
Polymer mass rate.
Gas oil ratio - surface conditions.
Water oil ratio - surface conditions.
Solvent oil ratio - surface conditions.
Gas plus solvent oil ratio - surface conditions.
Water cut - surface conditions.
Well head pressure.
Pressure in wellbore.
Pressure in well block.
Total oil produced during preceding period.
Total water produced during preceding period.
Total gas produced during preceding period.

7. Enter the names of the data item units. You can enter the names on the same line or on
consecutive lines. The unit strings must be in the same order as the data item names.
There is no maximum string length in Results. To allow the full capabilities of Results,
use the unit strings given in the following table (these strings are case sensitive):
78 Appendix A: Field History File Formats

User's Guide Results Graph

For this unit type


Pressure
Mass
Well liquid volume
Well gas volume
Well rate time

Enter one of
kPa psi atm
kg lb g
m3 ft3 cm3
m3 ft3 cm3
day hr min

bar kg/cm2
bbl
Mcf
yr

Construct rates by combining a well liquid volume or well gas volume and a well
rate time. For example:
m3/day

ft3/hr

cm3/min

bbl/day

These entries are case sensitive. Do not enter spaces before or after the backslash (/).
8. Enter the number of wells as an integer. Use the following formats:
Format
1&2

Sample Entry
2

Description
An integer number.

9. Enter the name of the first well, enclosed in single quotation marks. There is no
restriction on the well name length in Results; however, you should use the same
character string (including upper and lower case) in both the simulation input data
file and the field history file when referring to the same well. If the data will be for
a group instead of a well, then append the word GROUP after the name (for
example, Pattern4 GROUP). You can also bring in data for LAYER, FIELD,
SECTOR, LEASE and special variables (SPECIAL).
Format
1&2

Example
'Producer1'

10. Enter the input data for the first well. In the first column, enter "time" in the units
you indicated earlier. Enter data in the same sequence as the data item names on
line 6. If you have different types of wells (for example, injectors and producers)
that use different data items, assign zeros to data item columns that do not apply to
a particular well. For example, if the first data item is 'Cumulative Oil', an injector
well must have a zero as a placeholder in this column. For both Format 1 and
Format 2, the data could look like this:
0.0
30.0
60.0
90.0
120.0
150.0

210.0
205.0
206.0
202.4
195.0
193.0

User's Guide Results Graph

1.2e3
1.5e3
104e3
1.7e3
2.3e3
3.2e3

10.4
11.0
10.5
13.0
14.0
16.0

2034
2020
2015
1984
1990
1905

Appendix A: Field History File Formats 79

If you are using the 'YYYY/MM/DD' date format and a simulation start date of
1994/01/01, then the data would look like this:
1994/01/01
1994/01/30
1994/03/01

210.0
205.0
206.0

1.2e3
1.5e3
104e3

10.4
11.0
10.5

2034
2020
2015

If you are using the 'YYYY MM' date format, then you can only input data for
month-ends. If you had data for December 31 and January 31, it would look like
this:
1993 12
1994 01

210.0
205.0

1.2e3
1.5e3

10.4
11.0

2034
2020

11. Enter the name of the second well and the corresponding data, followed by the
name and data for each of the remaining wells. For example:
'Producer 2'
0.0
210.0
30.0
205.0
60.0
206.0
90.0
202.4
120.0
195.0
150.0
193.0

1.2e3
1.5e3
104e3
1.7e3
2.3e3
3.2e3

10.4
11.0
10.5
13.0
14.0
16.0

2034
2020
2015
1984
1990
1905

Examples
Format 1: Graphics and Control Format
* This data was entered by John Doe, Reservoir Engineering Dept.
* and was obtained from Sue Smith, Production Dept.
* The data were entered on
'1987-02-15'
'POOLA WATER FLOOD PROJECT'
* Data start from May 6, 1979
'1979-05-06'
* The simulations will be done with time in DAYS, so the field
* data were converted to time in DAYS.
'days'
* There are four data items per well (plus time). The four items
* and their units are:
4
'Oil Volume Rate SC' 'Gas Volume Rate SC' 'Water Volume Rate SC'
'Well Pres'
'bbl/day'
'ft3/day'
'bbl/day'
'psi'
* Data are available for two wells. The first column is the time
* in DAYS. The next columns contain the data items in the order
* given above. All the data for the first well are given, then
* the well name and the data for the second well. Note that data
* for all the wells must be given at the same times.
2

80 Appendix A: Field History File Formats

User's Guide Results Graph

'PRODUCER1'
0.0
30.0
60.0
90.0
120.0
150.0
'PRODUCER2'
0.0
30.0
60.0
90.0
120.0
150.0

210.0
205.0
206.0
202.4
195.0
193.0

1.2e3
1.5e3
1.4e3
1.7e3
2.3e3
3.2e3

10.4
11.0
10.5
13.0
14.0
16.0

2034
2020
2015
1984
1990
1905

153.0
145.0
120.0
50.0
0.0
152.0

2.3e3
2.6e3
1.2e4
5.6e3
0.0
1.1e3

12.0
14.0
12.0
13.0
0.0
15.0

2100
2034
1845
1503
0
2050

Format 2: Results Format


* This data was entered by John Doe, Reservoir Engineering Dept.
* and was obtained from Sue Smith, Production Dept.
* The data were entered on
1987 02 15
'POOLA WATER FLOOD PROJECT'
* Data start from May 6, 1979
1979 05 06
* The simulations will be done with time in DAYS, so the field
* data were converted to time in DAYS.
'days'
* There are four data items per well (plus time). The four items
* and their units are:
4
'Oil Rate SC' 'Gas Rate SC' 'Water Rate SC' 'Well Pressure'
'bbl/day'
'ft3/day'
'bbl/day'
'psi'
* Data are available for two wells. The first column is the time
* in DAYS. The next columns contain the data items in the order
* given above. All the data for the first well are given, then
* the well name and the data for the second well. Note that data
* for all the wells must be given at the same times.
2
'PRODUCER1'
0.0
210.0
1.2e3
10.4
2034
30.0
205.0
1.5e3
11.0
2020
60.0
206.0
1.4e3
10.5
2015
90.0
202.4
1.7e3
13.0
1984
120.0
195.0
2.3e3
14.0
1990
150.0
193.0
3.2e3
16.0
1905
'PRODUCER2'
0.0
153.0
2.3e3
12.0
2100
30.0
145.0
2.6e3
14.0
2034
60.0
120.0
1.2e4
12.0
1845
90.0
50.0
5.6e3
13.0
1503
120.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0
150.0
152.0
1.1e3
15.0
2050

User's Guide Results Graph

Appendix A: Field History File Formats 81

Format 3: Period Production Totals and the 'YYYY/MM/DD' Date Format


*This example show how to use the 'YYYY/MM/DD' date format for the
*first column of the data tables, and also gives an example of how
*to enter the total monthly production. The single producer maintains
*a constant production rate of 100 bbl/D.
1995/10/18
'test'
1993/01/01
'YYYY/MM/DD'
2
'Period Oil Production SC' 'Period Water Production SC'
'bbl'
'bbl'
1
'PROD 1'
1992/12/31
0.0
0.0
1992/01/31
3100.0
0.0
1993/02/28
2800.0
0.0
1993/03/31
3100.0
0.0

Format 4: Period Production Totals and the 'YYYY MM' Date Format
*This is the same as the example above, but using the 'YYYY MM'
*date format
1995/10/18
'test'
1993/01/01
'YYYY MM'
2
'Period Oil Production SC' 'Period Water Production SC'
'bbl' 'bbl'
1
'PROD 1'
1992
12
0.0
0.0
1993
01
3100.0
0.0
1993
02
2800.0
0.0
1993
03
3100.0
0.0

Format 5: Rate Production and the 'ISO_DATE_FORMAT Date Format


*'ISO_DATE_FORMAT'
1995-10-18
'test'
1993-01-01
'ISO_DATE_FORMAT'
2
'Oil Rate SC' 'Water Rate SC'
'bbl/day' 'bbl/day'
1
'PROD 1'
1993-01-01T11:12
0.0
0.0
1993-01-01T13:15
100.0
0.0
1993-01-01T15:00
800.0
0.0
1993-01-01T17:00
100.0
0.0

82 Appendix A: Field History File Formats

User's Guide Results Graph

Notes
1. Starting from version 2005.14, a special number (-99999) can be used to represent
missing data in any column except the time column. Results Graph program will
simply ignore any point that contains this value.
2. When the FHF file is used with Production Data Wizard in the Builder program, the
meaning of date/time is different for different properties. For all production
properties such as oil, water and gas rates, the date/time means the end of a period
and the associated value is applied to the period from the previous to this date/time.
Therefore, a valid production history data should start with a data/time with a
property value of zero to establish the first period. For non-production properties
such as pressure and temperature, the value corresponding to the date/time is
considered to be an instantaneous value at this point in time.
3. Starting from version 2600.00, all FHF files generated by Builder use the ISO date
format.

User's Guide Results Graph

Appendix A: Field History File Formats 83

Appendix B: Production Analyst


Load Format

Overview
The Production Analyst (PA) load format is the ASCII file format used to load data into PA.
The Production Analyst software is created by OCGI Software Inc. Several oil and gas
software applications generate PA load format files.

Creating a PA Load Format File


To create a PA load format file:
1. Ensure your application supports the PA load format.
2. Follow your software applications instructions on how to create a PA load format.
3. Check the new PA load format file for unsupported PA keywords.
4. Delete any unsupported PA keywords with a text editor.

PA Keywords and Definitions


This keyword

Identifies this

*WELL

The column that contains unique well identifiers. This is required unless *NAME
keyword is used.
The label to the right of the keyword as the unique name of a well. This is
required unless *WELL keyword is used.
The column that contains the monthly date (YYMM) for the production record.
The column that contains the month digits for the production record. This
keyword must be used in conjunction with the *YEAR keyword. Production data
for *MONTH values of 00 are disregarded.
The column that contains the year digits (YYYY) for a production record. This
keyword must be used in conjunction with the *MONTH keyword.
That the software is to ignore the column. You can use *SKIP to ignore
meaningless or superfluous information in a file.
The volumes, provided in metric units.

*NAME
*DATE
*MONTH

*YEAR
*SKIP
*METRIC

User's Guide Results Graph

Appendix B: Production Analyst Load Format 85

This keyword

Identifies this

*OIL
*GAS
*WATER
*PRESS

The column that contains oil production volume.


The column that contains gas production volume.
The column that contains water production volume.
The column that contain well head pressure.

Not all of the PA keywords have been implemented. The following are the implemented
keywords and their corresponding CMG keywords:
PA Keyword

CMG Keyword

Metric Units

English Units

METRIC
YEAR
MONTH
NAME
DATE
SKIP
WELL
OIL
GAS
WATER
PRESS

NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
Period Oil Production SC
Period Gas Production SC
Period Water Production SC
Well Head Pressure

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
m3
m3
m3
kPa

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
bbl
Mcf
bbl
psi

The following PA keywords are not implemented, and the data associated with them will be
ignored:
GINJ
SINJ

GIPR
GIDAY

WINJ
WIDAY

WIPR
CIDAY

86 Appendix B: Production Analyst Load Format

CINJ
NIDAY

CIPR
SIDAY

NINJ

NIPR

User's Guide Results Graph

Examples
Example 1
The following is a PA load file using the keywords *YEAR, *MONTH, *NAME, *OIL,
*GAS, *WATER, and *SKIP:
/*
/* Test data for Production Analyst data source
/*
/* Tests combination of YEAR and MONTH keywords with
/* the NAME keyword
/*
*METRIC
*YEAR *MONTH *OIL *GAS *WATER *SKIP
*NAME 00/16-01-048-08W5/0
1962 00 11803.5 1951.7 3.3 0.0
*NAME 00/08-12-048-08W5/0
1962 00 12365.3 1908.2 3.5 0.0
*NAME 00/08-01-048-08W5/0
1962 00 5243.2 685.1 1.1 0.0
*NAME 00/10-01-048-08W5/0
1962 00 28568.2 3904.7 3.2 0.0
1962 01 332.0 32.8 0.0 0.0
1962 02 302.1 26.9 0.0 0.0
1962 03 324.3 25.6 0.0 0.0
1962 04 259.8 20.8 0.0 0.0
1962 05 305.4 30.2 0.0 0.0
1962 06 235.8 17.2 0.0 0.0
1962 07 322.1 21.6 0.0 0.0
1962 08 363.9 28.5 0.0 0.0
1962 09 368.4 32.0 0.0 0.0
1962 10 337.4 32.1 0.0 0.0
1962 11 330.5 27.7 0.0 0.0
1962 12 383.0 35.2 0.0 0.0
1963 01 401.2 35.3 0.0 0.0
1963 02 413.0 40.8 0.0 0.0

User's Guide Results Graph

Appendix B: Production Analyst Load Format 87

Example 2
The following is a PA load file using the keywords *DATE, *NAME, *OIL, *GAS,
*WATER, and *SKIP:
/* Test data for Production Analyst data source
/*
/* Tests combination of DATE keyword with
/* the NAME keyword
/*
*METRIC
*DATE *OIL *GAS *WATER *SKIP
*NAME 00/16-01-048-08W5/0
6200 11803.5 1951.7 3.3 0.0
*NAME 00/08-12-048-08W5/0
6200 12365.3 1908.2 3.5 0.0
*NAME 00/08-01-048-08W5/0
6200 5243.2 685.1 1.1 0.0
*NAME 00/10-01-048-08W5/0
6200 28568.2 3904.7 3.2 0.0
6201 332.0 32.8 0.0 0.0
6202 302.1 26.9 0.0 0.0
6203 324.3 25.6 0.0 0.0
6204 259.8 20.8 0.0 0.0
6205 305.4 30.2 0.0 0.0
6206 235.8 17.2 0.0 0.0

Example 3
The following is a PA load file using the keywords *WELL, *DATE, *OIL, *GAS,
*WATER, and *SKIP:
/* Test data for Production Analyst data source
/*
/* Tests combination of DATE keyword with
/* the WELL keyword
/*
*METRIC
*WELL *DATE *OIL *GAS *WATER *SKIP
00/16-01-048-08W5/0 6200 11803.5 1951.7 3.3 0.0
00/08-12-048-08W5/0 6200 12365.3 1908.2 3.5 0.0
00/08-01-048-08W5/0 6200 5243.2 685.1 1.1 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6200 28568.2 3904.7 3.2 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6201 332.0 32.8 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6202 302.1 26.9 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6203 324.3 25.6 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6204 259.8 20.8 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6205 305.4 30.2 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6206 235.8 17.2 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6207 322.1 21.6 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6208 363.9 28.5 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6209 368.4 32.0 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6210 337.4 32.1 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6211 330.5 27.7 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 6212 383.0 35.2 0.0 0.0

88 Appendix B: Production Analyst Load Format

User's Guide Results Graph

Example 4
The following is a PA load file using the keywords *WELL, *YEAR, *MONTH, *OIL,
*GAS, *WATER, and *SKIP:
/* Test data for Production Analyst data source
/*
/* Tests combination of YEAR and MONTH keywords with
/* the WELL keyword
/*
*METRIC
*WELL *YEAR *MONTH *OIL *GAS *WATER *SKIP
00/16-01-048-08W5/0 1962 00 11803.5 1951.7 3.3 0.0
00/08-12-048-08W5/0 1962 00 12365.3 1908.2 3.5 0.0
00/08-01-048-08W5/0 1962 00 5243.2 685.1 1.1 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 00 28568.2 3904.7 3.2 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 01 332.0 32.8 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 02 302.1 26.9 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 03 324.3 25.6 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 04 259.8 20.8 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 05 305.4 30.2 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 06 235.8 17.2 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 07 322.1 21.6 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 08 363.9 28.5 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 09 368.4 32.0 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 10 337.4 32.1 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 11 330.5 27.7 0.0 0.0
00/10-01-048-08W5/0 1962 12 383.0 35.2 0.0 0.0

User's Guide Results Graph

Appendix B: Production Analyst Load Format 89