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like the n=3 2 transition of hydrogen split into multiple closely

spaced lines. First observed by Pieter Zeeman, this splitting is

attributed to the interaction between the magnetic field and the

magnetic dipole moment associated with the orbital angular

momentum. In the absence of the magnetic field, the hydrogen

energies depend only upon the principal quantum number n, and

the emissions occur at a single wavelength.

Index

Schroding

er

equation

concepts

Hydrogen

concepts

Atomic

Structure

Concepts

Note that the transitions shown follow the selection rule which

does not allow a change of more than one unit in the quantum

number ml.

Why aren't there Zeeman

5 lines?

interaction

Anomalous

Zeeman effect

Numerical

example

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e

Zeeman Interaction

Index

Schroding

and the magnetic potential energy which results is

er

equation

concepts

The magnetic dipole moment associated with the orbital angular

momentum is given by

equally spaced energy levels displaced from the zero field level by

multiplet splitting of the spectral lines which is called the Zeeman

effect.

The magnetic field also interacts with the electron spin magnetic

moment, so it contributes to the Zeeman effect in many cases.

The electron spin had not been discovered at the time of

Zeeman's original experiments, so the cases where it contributed

were considered to be anomalous. The term "anomalous Zeeman

effect" has persisted for the cases where spin contributes. In

general, both orbital and spin moments are involved, and the

Zeeman interaction takes the form

comes from the fact that it is twice as effective in producing

magnetic moment. This factor is called the spin g-factor or

gyromagnetic ratio. The evaluation of the scalar product between

the angular momenta and the magnetic field here is complicated

by the fact that the S and L vectors are both precessing around

the magnetic field and are not in general in the same direction.

The persistent early spectroscopists worked out a way to calculate

the effect of the directions. The resulting geometric factor g L in the

final expression above is called the Lande g factor. It allowed them

to express the resultant splittings of the spectral lines in terms of

the z-component of the total angular momentum, mj.

The above treatment of the Zeeman effect describes the

phenomenon when the magnetic fields are small enough that the

orbital and spin angular momenta can be considered to be

coupled. For extremely strong magnetic fields this coupling is

broken and another approach must be taken. The strong field

effect is called the Paschen-Back effect.

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The Zeeman effect for the hydrogen atom offered experimental

support for the quantization of angular momentum which arose

from the solution of the Schrodinger equation.

Index

Schroding

er

equation

concepts

Go Back

R

Nave

While the Zeeman effect in some atoms (e.g., hydrogen) showed

the expected equally-spaced triplet, in other atoms the magnetic

field split the lines into four, six, or even more lines and some

triplets showed wider spacings than expected. These deviations

were labeled the "anomalous Zeeman effect" and were very

puzzling to early researchers. The explanation of these different

patterns of splitting gave additional insight into the effects of

electron spin. With the inclusion of electron spin in the total angular

momentum, the other types of multiplets formed part of a

consistent picture. So what has been historically called the

Index

"anomalous" Zeeman effect is really the normal Zeeman effect

when electron spin is included.

Atomic

Structur

"Anomalous" Zeeman effect

"Normal" Zeeman effect

e

Concept

When electron spin is included, there is a s

This type of splitting is greater variety of splitting patterns.

observed with hydrogen

Referenc

and the zinc singlet.

e

Richtmy

er, et al.

Ch. 18

observed for spin 0

states since the spin

does not contribute to

the angular momentum.

Zeeman interaction

Go Back

R

Nave

When the Zeeman effect was observed for hydrogen, the

observed splitting was consistent with an electron orbit magnetic

moment given by

momentum and the selection rules explained why you got a triplet

of closely-spaced lines for the 3 -> 2 transition of hydrogen. But

when the effects of electron spin were discovered by Goudsmit

Index

and Uhlenbeck, they found that the observed spectral features

were matched by assigning to the electron spin a magnetic

Schroding

moment

er

equation

concepts

where g is approximately 2.

More precise experiments showed that the value was slightly

greater than 2, and this fact took on added importance when that

departure from 2 was predicted by quantum electrodynamics. In

the experimental measurement of the Lamb shift, the value of g

has been determined to be

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