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Choose the word in each group that has the underlined part pronounced differently from the rest

1. A. sword
B. sworn
C. horrific
D. tortoise
2. A. sure
B. sugar
D. censure
D. diesel
3. A. unfair
B. unless
C. unanswerable
D. unaffordable
4. A. soundless
B. frozen
C. damnable
D. finger
5. A. gasoline
B. benefit
C. competition
D. distinct
6. A. confuse
B. useful
C. cure
D. mutual
7. A. chemistry
B. stomach
C. mechanic
D. approach
8. A. postcard
B. horizon
C. ghost
D. hostess
Choose a word in each line that has different stress pattern
1. A. efficiency
B. originate
C. reflector
D. amateurish
2. A. organism
B. petroleum
C. fertilizer
D. spiritual
3. A. prevalent
B. lighthouse
C. candlepower
D. substantially
4. A. paternalistic
B. irredeemable
C. physiotherapy
D. monopolistic
5. Mariner
B. delicate
C. subculture
D. disharmony
6. A. Impurity
B. foghorn
C. automate
D. seagoing
7. A. contradict
B. incrementally
C. navigation
D. infrastructure
8. A. undercut
B. understate
C. underlay
D. undermine
Choose the best answer.
1. He told me how he had discovered _______ statue, five
hundred feet tall, buried in _______ sand of Sahara.
A. a/the/ O
B. a/O/the
C. a/the/the
D. the/the/the
2. He didnt seem to know what was happening at all; he looked completely ______
A. doubtful
B. bewildered C . undecided
D. defeated
3. All my children have grown up and _______ the nest, they have not returned to visit me for ages.
A. flown
B. thrown
C. escaped
D. eaten
4. "What is your greatest phohia?"
_______
A. Probably people who litter
B. Heights, definitely!
C. I haven't decided yet
D. Im afraid not
5. They are planning to ______ their operation in Greece and concentrate on Eastern Europe
A. wind down
B. tie down
C. roll down
D. cut down
6. The art gallery couldnt survive without a ______ from the government.
A. subsidiary
B. subsidy
C. subsidence
D. subsidization
7. As soon as Dad _______, we can leave
A. has the car starting
B. has got the car started
C. got started the car
D. was got starting the car
8. We did our best to talk him ______ taking______ this job. Its the only one hes really fit ______
A. in/on/with
B. into/up/of
C. into/up/for
D. into/on/for
9. We should believe what Jim is telling us. If there ______ no post in the morning, the postman ______ his round
later or the postal van _____ again.
A. was/could begin/could be broken
B. would be/had begun/had broken down
C. were/could have begun/could have broken down
D. would have been/will begin/will be broken down
10. "Critics found Wuthering Heights to be intense and original. But they were also troubled by what they saw as
moral ambiguity " The underlined word is opposite in meaning to
.
A. explicitness B. doubtfulness C. puzzle
D. uncertainty
11. His_______ for
tennis club costs $10 a year.
A. subscription B. fee
C. tax
D. premium
12. I'm not sure if Im doing it right, but Ill try to______ with it anyway
A. drive ahead B. bang ahead C. touch ahead D. press ahead
13. "_______ "-''OK. Where shall we go
A. Shall we go to the Jazz Festival?
B. have you done the shopping?
C. I want to go shopping.
D. Oh, reading novels and going shopping
14. Beside the Town Hall______
A. where the public library
B. the public library are
C. stood the public library
D. the public library stood
15. You have to............ to succeed in advertising,
A. have your wits about you
B. to go on your head
C. know whats what
D. Round the bend
16. Finally, I went to an auction where I bought a________ table for the kitchen

A. fabulous English oak


B. oak fabulous English
C. English fabulous oak
D. fabulous oak English
17.You really shouldn't 1et her______ like that She has to do it by herself.
A. push you
round
B. play you up C. put you up D. weigh you down
18. My neighbors have a dog that barks all night ______
A. You should talk to them.
B. that sounds great
C. I don't think I can make it there.
D. not too often
19. I am thinking of going on Million Euro Spender; I'd love to_________________ spend a million Euros in one day.
A. have to
B. able to
C. must
D. can
20. Like most writers and poets, Wilde glorified natural beauty but at the same time he is an admirer of artificial
colours. ' The underlined word is in opposite meaning to_
A.
praise B. exalt C.
immortalize
D. dishonor
21. A ___________of elephants destroyed the plants.
A. litter
B. troop
C.pack
D. herd
22. One police officer chase robber while the other went to ______
A. knuckle him down
B. lay him down
C. heard him off
D. kill him off
23. The doctor thought he had got over the worst, but his condition suddenly ______
A. deteriorated
B. demolish
C. dissolved
D. decay
24. I here was little information at the airport.____ people seemed to have time the flight was likely to leave.
A. many/any
B. A lot of/any C. Only a few / some D. Few / no
25. He spent part of_________________ afternoon telling them ______news he could not tell them by
A. the /0/0
B. the/ 0/the
C. a/ the/ 0
D. the/the/0
26. _______ find out more about the costs before we make a final decision'
A. Do I
B. Will I
C. shall I
D. Am I due to
27. its supposed to rain today _______
A. Great. Im going to the park
B. Yes, its going to be extremely hot
C. Id better take an umbrella
D. I want to watch the weather forecast today
28. If you drink too much beer, youll get a(n) ______
A. appetite
B. hangover
C. thrill D. temper
29. Jeremy may well not_______ about the
accident yet.
A. tell
B. to tell
C. have told
D. have been told
30. While Stein was able' to capitalize on artistic renditions of life and translate them into literature, other artists
benefited from her willingness to reject the accepted traditions and create her own. The underlined word is closest in
meaning to:
A. interpretation
B. outlooks
C. perspective
D. concepts
31. Eating too much is destructive_____________ health
A. for
B. toward
C. of
D. against
32. Newspapers blamed the chaos after the Hood on the of
the
local officials.
A. administrator
B. maladministration C. administer
D. admin
33.__________ more carefully, he_________ in the hospital now.
A. Had he to drive/ wouldn't have been C. if he drove/ would be
C. If he drives/ won't be
D. Had he driven/ wouldn't be
34. Let's ______of the situation before we make a final decision.
A. split hairs
B. ring a bell
C. take stock
D. put two and two together
His luck was_____ there was no doubt_____ it. He never seemed to succeed _________anything he did anymore.
off/ at / in
on/about/ in
C. at/ about/ in D. under with in
36. After many years as a doctor. He had become_______ to scenes of human distress.
A. hardened
B. experienced C. stubborn
D. expert
37. James Joyce I knew wasn't__________ novelist and wasn't _______Irish either.
A. 0/a/an
B. the/the/the
C. 0 /the/0
D. the/a/0
38. You are not allowed to ______ holiday entitlement from one year into the next.
A. carry over B. catch on
C. chance upon D. change around
39. The government must ______ strong measure against crime.
A. be seen be taking
B. see to be taking
C. see to take
D. be seen to be taking
40. Crime has always flourished in the relative anonymity of urban life, but todays ease of movement make its
control more difficult than ever, there is much evidence that its extent has a direct relationship to the size of
communities The underlined word is closest in meaning to _______

A. disaster
B. vagueness
C. isolation
D. intensity
41. He was found not guilty by reason of ______ and so was sent to a mental insitituition rather than prison
A. sane
B. sanity
C. insanity
D. unsanitation
42. His report would have been more ______ the point if he hadnt gone _____ details departing ______ the subject
A. of/to/from
B. to/into/from C. of/into/with D. to/into/with
43. What if your cat suddenly ______ to you then? How would have you reacted?
A. had started talking B. is starting to talk
C. starts talking D. started talking
44. Could you lend me some money to _____ to the end of the month.
A. hand me over
B. tie me over
C. get me over
D. make me over
45. We really should have looked at the timetable when we got off the ferry. We _____ the six-thirty train, but now we
have to hang around here until twenty past eight.
A. would be catching B. could have caught C. had caught
D. might catch
46. ______ Oh, but its boring
A. Would you prefer news to films?
B. often watch the news at night
C. Dont you like the news?
D. I think you should watch the news
47. Although the patient received intensive treatment, there was no _____ improvement in her condition.
A. comprehensive
B. legible
C. discernible
D. understandable
48. Civil servant should be attendant ______ people
A. of
B. on
C. to
D. in
49. Is John a good student? ______
A. in most parts
B. for most parts
C. for the most parts
D. in most of the parts
50. The daughters Joseph LaFlesche were born into the generation of Omaha forced to abandon tribal
traditions______ on the reservation and to adapt to the white mans way.
A. they matured
B. to mature
C. maturing
D. to maturity
Choose the underlined part of the sentence that needs correction
1. first discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-halt-inch animal found in the Philippines and
that resembles hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red
tufts. In the center of its breast; and a red eye.
2. New theories propose that catastrophic impacts of asteroids and comets may have caused reversals in the Earths
magnetic field, the onset of ice ages, splitting apart continents 80 million years ago, and great volcanic eruptions.
3. In one of the most stunning reversals in the history of marketing, the Coca-Cola Company in July 1985 yielded to
thousands of irate consumers demanding that it should bring back the
original Coke formula.
4. Based on accounts of various ancient writers, scholars have painted a sketchy picture of the activities of an all cult
that, perhaps as early as the sixth century B.C., worship a goddess
known in Latin as Bona Dea, the good
goddess
5. More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can jump as
pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.
6. With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit. Jupiter's moon Europa has long been
considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of 'water thought to be frozen from top to bottom
7. The computer company has announced that it will purchase the color-printing division of a rival company for $950
million, which is part of a deal that will make it the largest manufacturer in the office color-printing market.
8. The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
9. With its abundance of noun inflections, Icelandic is one of several Germanic languages that is compact when
written but can lengthen considerably in English translation.
10. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic
activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and
variations in the electrical properties of underground rocks.
11. One legacy of Madison Avenue's recent campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and over is the realization that
as a person ages, their concerns change as well.
12.While Hans Holbein the Younger is most often identified with his English portraits, scholars have long been
recognizing him as a superb draftsman and a remarkably versatile artist who was fundamental in synthesizing the
novelties of the Italian Renaissance with the rational tradition of Northern Europe.
13. The Environmental Protection Agency's proposal to place restrictions on both diesel fuel and diesel engines has
sparked a counterattack by the oil industry, saying that the move will exacerbate the nations fuel supply problems

14. Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69
during the reign of Vespasian, though was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened Colosseum
with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games and spectacles.
15. One of the primary distinctions between our intelligence with that of other primates may lie not so much in any
specific skill as in our ability to extend knowledge gained in one context to new and different ones.
Choose the correct sentence which has the same meaning as the given in the bold
1. From the educational points of view, his childhood years had been well spent.
A. Reckon on the educational points of view, his childhood years had been well spent.
B. To some educational extents, his childhood years had been well spent
C. Nevertheless to say. his childhood years had been well spent due to educational terms m.
D. In terms of education, his childhood years had been well spent
2.When the reasons behind the decision were explained, it all became easy to understand.
A. The reasons behind the decision were not explained until all became easy to understand.
B. Only when the reasons behind the decision were explained all became easy to understand
C. When the reasons behind the decision were explained, it all fell into place.
D. To understand all easily, the reasons behind the decision must be explained.
3. Costs must be reduced to the minimum if the company wants to survive the current economic downturn.
A. Costs must be cut to the bone if the company is to survive the current economic downturn.
B. In order that the company can survive the current economic downturn, costs must be reduce down to the minimum.
C. If the company wants to survive the current economic downturn, there nothing they could do but reducing the cost
to the minimum.
D. Reducing the costs to the minimum helped the company to survive the current economic downturn.
4. Nowadays goods are often acquired but not paid for immediately.
A. Nowadays goods are often bought on credit.
B. Nowadays buying goods does not mean paying immediately.
C. Nowadays if you are about to buy goods, you need an immediate pay.
D. Nowadays goods are acquired often but not immediately paid,
5. Five boys on a motorbike at the speed of 60 mph are very likely to end up in hospital.
A. Five boys on a motorbike is very likely to end up in hospital unless they are on a motorbike at the speed of60 mph
B. Five boys on a motorbike at the speed of 60 mph is a recipe for disaster.
C. Such an ending in hospital could possibly happen if five boys are on a motorbike at the speed of 6 mph.
D. Nowadays goods are acquired often but not immediately paid.
Choose the best way of making up the sentence from the words and phrases given
6. result/investigation/publish/newspaper/possible
A. The result of the investigation will publish in newspapers as soon as possible
B. The result from investigation will be published in newspaper as soon as possible
C. The result of the investigation will be published in newspaper as soon as possible
D. The result of the investigation will have been published in newspaper as soon as possible
7.New machinery/ put in/ this year/ with a view/ increase output.
A. New machinery has been put in this year with a
view of increase output,
B. New machinery has been put in this year with a
view to increasing output.
C. New machinery has been put in this year with a view to increase output.
D. New machinery has been put in this year with a
view of increasing output,
8. Gone/ days/ when/ you/ buy/ three-course meal/ under S1.00.
A. Gone are the days when you buy a three-course meal for under $1.00.
B. Gone to the days when you could buy a three-course meal for under $1.00.
C. Gone are the days when you could buy a three-course meal for under $1.00.
D. Gone are the days that you could buy a three-course meal for under $1.00.
9. purification/ boiling/ filtering/ bleaching/ oils/ impart/ varied hues/ powered pigments/ while/ drying time/ reduce/
by/ add/ metallic oxides.
A. The purification of boiling and filtering and bleaching of oils can be imparted from varied hues to powered
pigments while drying lime can reduce by adding metallic oxides.
B. The purification of boiling and filtering and bleaching of oils can impart varied hues to powered pigments, while
drying time can be reduce by adding metallic oxides.

C. The purification from boiling and filtering and bleaching of oils can impart from varied hues to powered pigments,
while drying time can be reduced by adding metallic oxides.
D. The purification by boiling and filtering any bleaching of oils can impact varied hues to powered pigments, while
drying time can be reduced by adding metallic oxides.
10. Hardly/I/water/garden/begin/rain
A. Hardly did I water the garden when it began to rain
B. Hardly had I watered the garden when it began to rain
C. Hardly I watered the garden than it began to rain.
D. Hardly did I water the garden than it had begun to rain.
Read the text and decide which answer best fits each space
Why some children (1)______ much with reading used to be a mystery. Now researchers know whats wrong and
what to do about it When some children look at a paper of text, they can see letter's names. They can even tell you
what sounds those letters name. Nevertheless, even our (2)______ high school students, to tell what words those
letters form is baffling, to say (3)______ They see a wall, a hurdle to get over, and often (4)_____ that some letters are
easier to (5)_____
out than others.
The condition is called dyslexia, a reading (6)_____that persists (7______ good schooling and normal or even aboveaverage intelligence It's, a handicap that (8)____________ 10% of the population, according to experts, though ;some
put the figure higher - up to 20%. The exact (9)_______of the problem has eluded doctors, teachers, parents and
dyslexics themselves since it was first described more than a century ago. (10)__________is so hard for skilled
readers to imagine what its like not to be able to effortlessly absorb the printed word that they often (11)____ the real
problem is laziness or obstinacy or a proud parent's inability to (12)_ _ ____that his or her child isnt that smart
(13)____all.
The mystery may finally be starting to lift. The more researchers learn about dyslexia, the more they realize it's a flaw
not of character but biology, specifically, the biology of the brain. A growing (14) ______ of scientific evidence
suggests there is a glitch m the neurological wiring of dyslexics that makes reading extremely difficult for them.
Fortunately, the science also (15)________to new strategies for overcoming the glitch. I he most successful programs
focus on strengthening the brains aptitude for linking letters to the sounds they represent. Some studies suggest that
the right kinds of instruction provided early enough may rewire the brain so thoroughly that the neurological glitch
disappears entirely.
1
A. fight
B. strive
C. cope
D. struggle
2
A. least
B. mindful
C. articulate
D. well-educated
3
A. least
B. most
C. truth
D. fact
4
A. assume
B. admit
C. predict
D. accept
5
A. figure
B. point
C. find
D. make
6
A. malfunction
B. disorder
C. disease
D. fault
7
A. without
B. although
C. besides
D. despite
8
A. influences
B. effects
C. affects
D. attacks
9
A. nature
B. characteristics
C. quality
D. type
10
A. However
B. Indeed
C. Really
D. Nevertheless
11
A. doubt
B. reject
C. suspect
D. wonder
12
A. decipher
B. decide
C. disagree
D. recognize
13
A. in
B. for
C. after
D. to
14
A. area
B. spread
C. aspect
D. body
15
A. shows
B. points
C. aims
D. hints
The Paralympics is the largest sporting event for disabled athletes in the world. Athletes from six disability groups
take (1)_______ during the eleven days of competition. However, both the (2)_______ and the athletes stress that the
sporting performance is what's important, (3)_______ than the participant's disabilities. The Paralympics have
(4)_______ a long way since 1948, when a sports competition was first (5)________ in England for World War II
veterans with spinal (6)________. Competitors from Holland joined a few years (7)________, and in Rome in 1960
the (8)________ official, Olympic-style Paralympics was first organised. The Paralympics include (9)
________Summer and Winter Games and now take place (10)________ the Olympics at the same venue in the same
year. Events such as wheelchair rugby are very (11)_______ with spectators and require great skill. Another favourite
is three-track skiing. Here disabled competitors ski on one leg while (12)________ themselves on two crutches which
also have small skis attached to them. In (13)__________ years the Paralympics have grown dramatically, both in
popularity and in the (14)_______ of athletes taking part. This growth will (15)___________ in the future as more and
more countries send representatives to the Games.
1. A. part
B. place
C. action
D. play

2. A. organisers B. presenters
C. directors
D. coordinators
3. A. more
B. other
C. rather
D. instead
4. A. been
B. gone
C. done
D. come
5. A. done
B. fixed
C. arranged
D. agreed
6. A. illnesses
B. injuries
C. problems
D. wounds
7. A. after
B. later
C. then
D. previously
8. A. most
B. many
C. more
D. much
9. A. both
B. all
C. either
D. neither
10. A. nearby
B. between
C. together
D. alongside
11. A. precious
B. popular
C. worth
D. famous
12. A. putting
B. leaning
C. holding
D. supporting
13. A. last
B. recent
C. late
D. modern
14.A. addition
B. group
C. number
D. amount
15. A. continue
B. keep
C. stay
D. expand
Read the passage and choose the best answer
The Origins of the Solar System The Solar System, as we know it, contains over 178 objects which revolve around
our central star, or the Sun. Some of these objects can be seen from Earth with the unaided eye or an earth-based
telescope, but the majority have only been detected through the development of instruments such as the Hubble Space
Telescope, or unmanned probes like Voyager. These instruments operate outside Earth's atmosphere collecting
information on composition and behavior of objects in the Solar System, which has enabled researchers to
hypothesize their origins.
It is generally thought that a cloud of interstellar gas and dust known as a nebula, was disturbed by some major
event in space, possibly a supernova, about five billion years ago and began to collapse under its own gravity, forming
a cloud. The center of the cloud became so hot that it eventually exploded into a star with the cooler gases flowing
around it. In time, the gases condensed into dust, metals, and various kinds of ice in the cold outer reaches of space.
These solid particles collided with each other to form larger objects, or asteroids, as they continued to spin around our
central star.
As these asteroids increased in size, their gravity began to pull in all the material in their immediate surroundings, and
the largest of these went on to become planets. The very different composition of the inner planets (Mercury,
Venus, Earth and Mars) and the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus') has led astronomers to
hypothesize that their distances from the Sun caused them to develop at different rates and in different ways.
According to the most widely-held opinions, the planets closest to the Sun, where all the ice particles were vaporized
due to the incredible heat, were formed mostly of rock, silicates, and metals with high melting points. These particles
collided and were pulled together by gravity. These inner planets have thin atmospheres or none at all, and few, if any,
satellites which would indicate that most of the available material was either pulled into their own gravity or burned
away in the heat of the Sun
The inner and outer planets are separated by an asteroid belt, consisting of material that was not able to form into
planets due to Jupiter's immense gravity. Beyond this area, as more dust and ice particles escaped destruction by the
Sun. four larger planets formed over a longer period of time in a far colder environment as material was throw n out
from the center by the spinning stars centrifugal force. About a million years after the cooling of the original nebula,
the Sun began to emit a stream of charged protons and electrons known as solar wind which blew the remaining gases
outwards, to be sucked in by the outer planets which became gas giants. These planets attracted many objects in their
vast gravity fields, some of which are big enough to be termed satellites, and countless smaller fragments which
formed rings around the planets.
The discovery of more objects in the Solar System in recent times has led to the need for further classification. Far
beyond the outer planets lies Pluto, which was originally considered to be the ninth planet, but which has since been
found to be a binary system of two dwarf planets, the other being Charon. Plutos origins may be in the recently
discovered Kuiper Belt, the source of many of the comets which travel through the Solar System. This theory is based
on Plutos rock ice composition which is similar to that of a comet. At one time, also thought to be a moon of Neptune.
Pluto Charon was reclassified in 2006 as one of three dwarf planets discovered so far, the others being Kris and Ceres.
Scientific knowledge is only as good as the ability of scientists to collect evidence, so as new advances are made in
astronomy, the present theories may be disproved, as in the case of Pluto. The above account represents the consensus
of current opinions on the matter.
1. In paragraph 1, what does the author say about the role of the Hubble Space Telescope?
A. It is too defective for our scientists to come up with definite answers to the origin of the universe.
B. Scientists discovered billions of new planets by combining measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope with
Voyager measurements.

C. It solved the age of the universe and measured the age of what may be the youngest galaxy ever seen in the
universe.
D. It has helped unveil many mysteries or queries about our universe.
2. The word composition in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. make-up
C. evolution
B. musical
D. revolution
3. The word disturbed in the passage is closest in meaning to
A broken
C. bothered B. attracted
D. imported
4, Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage. In
correct answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Planets formed from gases and dust particles after comets collided with the Sun.
B.
According to scientists, the manner in which planets developed was wholly dependent on the distance from
Jupiters rings.
C. the dissimilar make-up of the planets closest to the Sun and those farthest from the Sun suggest that their distance
from the Sun affected their formation.
D. Scientists believe the Sun evolved from the composition of several older planets in the solar system
5. The word their in the passage refers to
A. materials
B. surroundings C. planets
D. asteroids
6. The word vaporized in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. turned into liquid
B. turned into a solid
C. turned into gas
D. remained the same
7. According to the paragraph 4, the inner and outer planets are separated by what?
A. an asteroid belt
B. a star
C. comets
D. a moon
8. According to the passage, all of the following are true about our solar system EXCEPT
A. Planets nearest the Sun were formed mostly of rock
B. There continue to be new discoveries as technology improves
C. Colliding asteroids eventually formed planets.
D. Most of the comets in the solar system can be seen with the naked eye during an annular solar eclipse.
9. Why does the author mention Pluto in paragraph 5?
A. To discuss Pluto's rocky ice composition
B. To introduce the concept of planet formation
C. To show that new discoveries are always occurring;
D. To introduce the distinction between planets and dwarf planets
10. It can be inferred from the passage that planets
A. broke off from the rapidly spinning Moon
B. collided more frequently, to spur the formation and growth of protoplanets
C. were initially asteroids
D. were formed by the collision of massive object circling a black hole in eccentric orbits
Views of nature and landscape play a significant role in American art was in the 1820s that landscape
paintings started to dominate American art. Artists began to liken the countrys unspoiled wilderness to the new
seemingly limitless potential. Prior to this, there was a large amount of paintings consisting mainly of historical senses
of war and architectural studies. A fine example is The Death of general Wolfe, which tackled the death of British
commander while defeating the French army at the Battle of Quebec. More notably, it strongly reflected the
influence of Europe, especially England, which where most of artists were from.
A young artist by the name of Thomas Cole was particularly interested in the expressive nature of landscape
paintings. He is regarded as the founder of Hudson River School, which was a group of American artists with
enthusiastically painted landscapes between 1825-1885.
The Hudson River School was in essence, a reaction against the widespread neo-classicist attitude, which
persisted in looking to the ancient world for subject matter. It promoted patriotic values as it recognized the myth of
the American wilderness. Painters from this school held a profound love of nature and landscapes. According to them,
the American landscape surpassed all others in its ability to arouse the artist.
Previously, 18th century art was lacking in emotion and sentiment. The growth of America produced a spirit of
optimism and enthusiasm in its citizens, which was transferred to a new movement in art. This movement started in
the West with first generation artists, Asher B. Durand and Thomas Cole. They believed that studying the landscape
ultimately led to enlightenment and a connection with God. These artists painted scenes not only of the Hudson River
Valley, but also of the American wilderness in the West. They explored nature and its relationships between human
God.

Their paintings were extreme from snow covered mountains to clear streams of water, Thomas Cole produced
paintings which captured the dangers and threats surrounding America, thus embodying the apprehension over
economic and social change.
It was in New York where the Hudson River artists found their supporters and keen collectors. The opening of
the Erie Canal in 1825 made the Hudson River the main water route between the East and the West.
In New York, the artists found a favorable environment to work and numerous buyers to provide
encouragement. Possibly, the most remarkable change the Hudson River artists brought to the art world was the
custom of sketching outside and spending hours just walking and immersing themselves in nature. Painters roamed
many areas, and, although they were extensively well traveled, they were still inclined to paint reality instead of the
ideal. The late 18'* and early 19th centuries witnessed the appearance of a distinctive American style of painting,
where the natural scenery provided a regular source of patriotic inspiration for the viewer.
Another late 18th century painter who used art as a patriotic tool was Charles Wilson Pearle. He painted a number of
scenes in which Washington was the hero. Many other artists painted Washington as well, including Gilbert Stuart,
whose incomplete head of Washington achieved an iconic status.
As industrial growth pushed westwards, landscape artists were painting the wilderness just as it was
disappearing. For example, an artist named George Inness painted The Lackawanna Valley, which featured the
railroad and can be read as an admiration of development. Artists brought images from the West, such as the Rocky
Mountains or the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, to people in the East. Thomas Morans paintings of the
American West were influential in establishing Yellow Stone as the first national park. Gradually, landscapes were
given a more intimate view, and they represented the artists personal emotional response. American rural life was
captured, and the new perspective was characterized by subtlety and an interest in conveying the mood.
1. Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer
choices change the meaning in an important ways or leave out essential information
A. Being from England motivated the social artists to take initiatives
B. Many European artists decided to emigrate to the United States for many different reasons.
C. the artists took great inspiration and motivation from their roots such as England, France, Spain or Italy.
D. European influence In America remained strong, but subject matter in painting broadened.
2. The word profound in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. intense
B. durable
C. forbidding D.
unchanging
3. According to paragraph 4, the new art form was different because it
A, strove to represent the essence of the American people
B. attempted to connect with God through the examination of nature
C. tried to demonstrate a conscious design response to natural settings created by God
D. resulted from the loss of spiritual and religious connections to wilderness
4.All of the following are mentioned in the passage as characteristics of the Hudson River painters EXCEPT
A. They were a reaction to art that looked to the past.
B. They associated the pursuit of art with the pursuit and understanding of
C. They held regular meetings and discussions on style and technique.
D. They found great popularity for their work in New York.
5. The word keen in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. agitated
B. former
C. jealous
D. affluent
6. The roamed in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. wandered B. settled
C. discussed
D. attacked
7. According to paragraph 7, what was gleaned by the public from the new artwork?
A. a strong sense of patriotism
B. a desire to travel west and explore
C. a hatred of their old European countries
D. a feeling of community and common law
8. The word it in the passage refer to
A. the wilderness V
C. the Hudson river
B. industrial growth
D. Washington
9. The author identifies the Rocky Mountains or re Sierra Nevada Mountain Range as two examples of
A. the inspiration that pulled people to travel west
B. fantastic subjects for the new artists to paint
C. beautiful landscapes that gave rise to a new artistic movement /
D. the beauty of the country' being brought East /
10. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the evolution of art in America?

A. American artists were hostile to European art forms.


B. was motivated by a desire to represent the natural beauty of America.
C. the origins of American art are based on portraits of famous generals.
D. There was little to no interest in depicting the landscapes of America
Algae are a varied group of plants, which can range from single-ceiled life forms to the more complex
varieties of seaweeds. Most algae are capable of holding green chlorophyll and producing foods from
the
sun.
This is highly important for animals such as shrimp and whales which feed on them. Algae capture light energy
through photosynthesis which they use to make triose phosphates, a chemical compound. This can then be used to
form glucose and starch.
So, in short, photosynthesis takes place the same way as it does in plants. Due to the pigments that are in some
algae, they can come in a variety of colors. Some algae are unable to create food through photosynthesis, in which
case they absorb nutrients through the cell membrane.
Algae are unicellular or multicellular meaning that they consist of a few cells accumulated together, therefore
functioning on a larger scale. The confusion is whether they are plants or Protista. Although they may appear to be
plants, most are classified in the Protista kingdom, a separate kingdom from plants. Some scientists believe that they
are independent cells. However, algae do not have leaves, roots, flowers, or seeds, structures which characterize plants
in general.
Algae are full of life; some are extremely small and can swim or make parts of their body move in a crawling
motion, and others join together to form groups. The popular forms of algae are seaweeds, which can grow in different
shapes and sizes. These kinds of algae have a thick construction, which are called, holdfasts. Algae inhabit fresh
water and seawater, but are also found growing on rocks trees, damp pieces of land, and even on animals in
which case they feed off the animal.
They are able to withstand a range of temperatures and can be found growing within ice caps or in hot
springs. Because of this adaptability, they are widely spread throughout the Earth. Currently, algae are used in
shampoos, ice cream and drugs. Also, food sources such as seaweed are consumed in many Asian countries, due to
their high multinational value.
Historically, there were two kingdoms, animals and plants, In 1969, Robert Whittaker suggested additional
kingdoms. Currently, there are five, but this number could change depending on our future understanding of
organisms. The five kingdoms are Animal, Plants, Fungi., Protista and Monera. Within each of these kingdoms, there
are divisions 25 which contain smaller groups. For instance, the animal kingdom contains vertebrates, annelids, and
arthropods, to name but a few. The plant kingdom contains liverworts and hornworts. However, the former contains
significantly more divisions, also known as Phyla.
These divisions contain smaller groupings known as Families, Orders and Classes. The largest of these is
families, which are further divided into 'genera, symbolizing organisms that have a similar structure and
evolutionary history.
Well-known examples are roses and chrysanthemum, Which are both popular flowers; in parts of Asia,
chrysanthemums are used to make a sweet tea. Also, in Korea and some parts of Europe, the white chrysanthemum are
symbolic of death and are used on graves.
You may find that many authors have their own versions of plant organization. However this is understandable
when considering the large number of organism on this planet. It is difficult to classify organisms considering that we
are still learning more about them each day. Different views mean that there still is not an acceptable universal
classification hence more confusion.
In general terms, groups that are within algae are classified according to the nature of chlorophyll and
pigments present in the photosynthesis membranes and also the structure and chemistry of all the walls. These
properties aim to put algae into categories. However, because of how they are related to one another, the five kingdom
system does not adequately represent algae.
^ With the proposal of an eight kingdom system, algae are placed into completely different kingdoms.
Advancements suggest that algae should be either described in distinct terms or be given a higher status to enable
better understanding. Support of this concept is gradually growing and, according to some scientists, it is leading to
more accurate descriptions of algae.
1. In paragraph 1, the author mentions triose phosphates in order to
A. support the idea that most algae release their energy through photosynthesis, using light and carbon dioxide
B. present evidence that photosynthesis takes place in algae in the same way in plants
C. Provide an example of photosynthesis by the algae that can cause desirable chemical reactions within the aquarium
environment

D. show how algal photosynthesis is regulated by abiotic and biotic factors


2. The word compound in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. separation B. reaction
C. mix
D. area
3. Which of the sentences below best express the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Some algae live by gaining sustenance from an animal that is aware of its presence and also benefits.
B. The areas where algae live are unique, and they are often difficult to find unless one is searching very hard.
C. The versatility of this species means tl^ they are able to exist in a multitude of environments spanning animals,
vegetables, and even minerals.
D. The presence of water will encourage the growth of algae to extreme proportions which are far more suitable than
the living conditions in any other location.

4. The word withstand in the passage is closest in meaning to


A. expose
B. expand
C. endure
D. submit
5. In paragraph 5, what does the author say about the previous classification system
A. The previous system was too difficult to understand.
B. The discovery of algae had made things too complicated.
C. The few existing groups were not specific enough to accommodate the variety of life forms.
D. was believed that more life forms would be discovered in the future.
6. The word symbolic in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. detracted
C. opposed
B. representative

D. pictured

7.'According to paragraph 7, why has there not been agreement on animal classification?
A. Many scientists do not agree with adding more groups.
B. Different species are classified based on different properties of their make-up.
C. Many scientists consider classification to be a personal belief
D. As new taxonomic information is being discovered, their classifications continue to chaise rapidly.
8. According to paragraph 8, the five kingdom system does not adequately represent algae because
A. there are too many types of algae
B. algae cannot be classified in any way
C. how they relate to each other
D. each kind of algae is like a completely new species
9. All of the following are mentioned in the passage a classification of animal life EXCEPT
A. annelids
B. vertebrates C. arthropods D. hornworts
10. The word they in the passage refers to
A. algae
B. walls
C. properties D. membranes