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WoNPT.T^FUL Akts OF Tkansmutino Bafe TO PEECiors Metals

AND THE Actual Manufacture of the Puecious Gems,






witli a

mass of other matter


wnETHEB elcondite akd cescuue, oe plain and







122 Nassau Stkest,

CoiJj'rij^Ut 1876,

oy Hurst



We need

malce no apology for introducing this book to th


subjects treated of are of so deeply interesting a

nature that they have ever engaged, and ever will engage the
tention of every thinking being.

can bo buried out of sight.

We must face them






They demand our

close attention.

willingly or unwillingly.

of information to be


themes that never


of the

found in the following pages

has been dilligently and laboriously culled from the great store-


ot facts


accumulated by

and learning


men who have devoted their time,

prove, investigate,

and explain tht

various deep and mystical beliefs and practices so universally

and expressively designated the " Black


All those dark mysteries that have captivated the imaginations,

stimulated the investigations, and often baffled the keenest intellectual


of both by-gone and

are here revealed in



modern philosophers

naked truthfulness.

integuments are stripped away, and the skeleton

This book


All the following subjects are treated of fully,

candidly and exhaustively:



written in the interest of no sect or party in re-

ligion or science.


itself revealed.

Sorcery, Astrology, Mind-

Midnight Apparitions, tho Churchyard Ghost, the

Threatening Omen, the Unlucky Day, the Cattle-Charm,


Spell on the Living, the Second-Sight ot the Highland Seer, the

Clairvoyance of modern Times, the Table-Tippings.


however, are but a very few of the subjects, described and dis-


cussed in these pages,


no dodging any question how-

ever enshrined by superstition, and no attacking of any belief

simply because

the belief of

it is

some confiding



of the most awful and tsriible secietj ^re icalt with in a fearless


but honest manner.


and impartiality


faith held

forced to tear

a large

in the visits of

belief, for instance,

spirits to those still in the flesh is


treated with that

should ever be

atccrdcd to the

body of honest people.

down many a

antiquity and turned the calcium light of truth

tering rats and bats of superstition.




ricketty pile merely


have been

upheld by

upon the

tie other



hand we are

admit that some secrets are too deep and profound

be explained


by the sharpest human





must not be supposed



are fully described,


that this

book deals mainly with

practical, useful

money-making Arts

and the proper manner in which

to practice

clearly explained.

We commend



this book, in all honesty, to every fearless soul

willing to accept our guidance,

and who


investigate for himself every subject that mortal

resolved to



touches his pocket, his principles and his happiness.

The AuTBoiL




Waivino the consideration of the many controversies formerly
kept up on this subject, founded on misinterpretation of various
passages in the sacred writings, it is my purpose in the present
section to consider witchcraft only as a striking article of popular mythology; which, however, bids fair in another century to
be entirely forgotten.
"Witchcraft is defined by Reginald Scot, in his Discovery, p.
284, to be, " in estimation of the vulgar i)eople, a supernatural

work between a corporal old woman and a spiritual devil;" but,

he adds, speaking his own sentiments on tho subject, * it is, in
truth, a cozening art, wherein tho name of God is abused, i)rophaned, and blasphemed, and his power attributed to a vile
creature." Perkins defines witchcraft to be " an art serving for
the working of wonders by the assistance of the Devil, so far as
God will permit;*' and Delrio, an art in which, by the power
of the contract entered into with the Devil, some wonders are
wrought which pass the common understanding of men."
Witc'icraft, in modera estimation, is a kind of sorcery (especially in M'omea), in which it is ridiculously supposed that an
old woman, by entering into a contract with th Dovil, is ta-


abled in many instances to change the course of Nature, to raise

winds, perform actions that require more than human strength,

and to afflict those that offend her w ith the sharpest pains.
King James's reason, in his Dsenionology, why there are or
were twenty women given to witchcraft for one man, is curious.
" The reason is easy," as this sagacious monarch thinks, " for,
is frailer than man is, so is it easier, to be entranped
in these gross snares of the Divell, as was over well proved to
be true by the serpent's deceiving of Eva at the beginning,
which makes him the homelier with that sexe sensine." His

AS that sex

majesty, in this work, quaintly calls the Devil " God's ape end
Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall of the Reman E:npire, vili.
ed. 1789-90, p. 157, speaking of the laws of the Lombards, a.d.
643, tells us
The ignorance of the Lombards, in the state of
Paganism or Christianity, gave implicit credit to the malice and
mischief of witchcraft but the judges of the seventeenth century might have been instructed and confounded by the wis:


who de/ides the absurd superstition, and prowretched victims of popular or judicial cruelty." He
adds in a note "See Leges Rotharis, No. 379, p. 47. Striga is
used as the name of witch. It is of the purest classic origin
and from the words of
(Horat. Epod. v. 20 Petron. c. 134)
Petronius (quaa Striges comederunt nervos tuos?) it may be inferred that the prejudice was of Italian rather than barbaric
of Rotharis,

tects the


Gaule, in his Select Cases of Conscience, touching Witches



parish, every old

1G46, observes,


p. 4
with a wrinkled


every place and

a furred brow, a

lip, a gobber tooth, a squint eye, a squeaking voice, a

scolding tongue, having a rugged coate on her her back, a skudcap on her head, a spindle in her hand, a dog or cat by her


side, is not

only suspected but pronounced lor a witch.

Every new

dicease, notable accident, miracle of Nature, rarity

art, nay, and strange work or just judgment cf God, is by

them accounted for no other but an act or effect of witchcraft**
He says, p. 10
Some say the devill was the first witch when


he plaied the imposter with our


parents, possessing tho



cerpent (as his impe) to their delusion (Gen.

whispered that our grandame

Eve was a




it ii

guilty of such

kind of society."

Henry in his history of Great Britain, iv. 543, 4to., speaking

manners between a.d. 1399 and 1485, says " There was
not a man then in England who entertained the least doubt of
;jic reality of sorcery, necromancy, and other diabolical arts."
According to the popular belief on this subject, there are
three sorts of witches the first kind can hurt but not help, and
of our

are with singular propriety called the black witches.

The second kind, very properly

called white ones, have gifts

directly opposite to those of the fomier

they can help but not


Gauie, as cited before, says; "Accoiding to the vulgar conceit,



ucitch ;




made between

the good and the bad witch.

to call

him or her


the white

The odd

and tho
witch they

that workes malefice or mischiefe to

the good witch they count him or

her that helps to reveale, prevcnr, or remove the same."

the bodies of

or beasts

Cotla, in the Tryall of Witchcraft, p. CO, says


not obscure, at this day swarming in this kingdom, whereof

no man can be ignorant who lusteth to observe the uncon-


trouled liberty and licence of open and ordinary resort in


and wise women, so vulgarly termed for

their reputed knowledge concerning such deceased persons as
are supposed to be bewitched," The same author, in his Short
Discoverie of Unobserved Dangers, 1612, p. 71, says
mention of witchcraft doth now occasion the remembrance in
places unto wise men

whom our
custome and country doth call wise men and wise women, reputed a kind of good and honest harmless witches or wizards,
who by good words, by hallowed herbcs and salves, and other
superstitious ceremonies, promise to allay and calme divels,
the next place of a sort (company) of practitioners

practices of other witches,

and the

forces of



Perkins by Pickering, 8vo, Cambr. IGlO, p. 256, eoncludea

with observing "It were a thousand times better for the land
if ail witches, but especially the blessing witch, might suffer
Men doe commonly hate and spit at the damnifying sor:



m unworthie to


among them,

and by



-wbereag tbey

upon bim

the other in necessitie, tbey depciicl



as tbeir


meaner tbousands

are cnriied aw ay to tbeir finall

Deatb, therefore,

the just and deserved portion


f ihe good wUch."

Baxter, in bis "World of Spirits, p. 184, speaks of those men

men of things stolen and lost, and that show men the

that tell

face of a thief in a glass,


who are commonly

and cause the goods

called ichUe witches.


be brought

" "When I lived,"

he says, " at Dudley, Hodges, at Sedglej-, two miles off, was

long and commonly accounted such a one, and when I lived at
Kederminster, one of my neighbors affirmed, that, having bis
yam stolen, be went tollodges (ten miles off,\ and bo told bim
that at such an hour be should have it brought home rgain and
put in at the window, and so it was and as I remember be

showed bim the person's face in a glass. Yet I do not think

that Hodges made any known contract with the devil, but



effect of art.'

third species, as a mixture of white and black, are styled

the gray witches for they can both help and hurt.
Thus the tnd and effect of witchcraft seems to be sometimes


good and sometimes the direct contrary.

In the


case the

sick are healed, thieves are bewrayed, and true men come to
In the second, men, women, children, or animals
their goods.

as also grass, trees or corn, &c., are hurt.

The Laplanders, says Schefifer, have a cord tied with knots for

the raising of the


they, as Ziegler relates





when tbey untie the first there blows

a favorable gale of wind when the second, a brisker when the
third, the sea and wind grow mighty, stormy, and tempestuous.
This, he adds, that wo have reported concerning the Laplangical knots in tbis cord

ders, does not in fact belong to them, but to the Finlanders of

Norwav, because no other writers mention it, and because the
Laplanders live in and iuland country. However, the method
" They deliver a small rope with three
of selling winds is tbis

knots upon it, with this caution, that when they loose the first
they shall have a good wind; if the second, a stronger; if the
third, such a storm will arise that they can neither see how to

soncrnr Ayp witciicbaft.

direct the sliip


ftvoid rocks, or so

James in


The same

decks, or handle the tackling."


upon lb
admitted by King

ns stand

his Dsemonology, p. 117.

The following passage is from Scot's Discovery, p. 33: '* No

one endued with common sense but w ill deny that the elements
are obedient to witches and at their commandment, or that they
send rafn, hail, tempests, thunder, lightan old doting w oman, casteth a flint
stone over her left shoulder towards the west, or hurleth a little
sea-sand up into the dement, or wetteih a brccm^piigin water


at their pleasure,



she, being but

and sprinkleth the ame in the



and, putting water therein, stirreth

or diggeth a pit in the earth,


about with her finger; or

boileth hog's bristles; or layeth sticks across


bank "wher

never a drop of water is; or bury eth sage till it be rotten: all
which things are confessed by witches, and affirmed by writers
to be the means that witches use to move extraordinary tempests



Ignorance," says
Oxf. 1CC6,


in his Advice to his Son, 8vo.

reports of witches that they are unable to hurt


they have received nn nlmes; which, though ridiculous in itselfe, yet in this sense is verified, that charity seldom goes to
the gate but it meets with ingratitude," p. 94.
Spotiswood, as cited 1 y Andrews, in Lis Continuation of
Henry's History of Great Britain, p. t.CZ, snys,
In the North
(of Britain) there were
matron-like witches and ignorant
witches." It was to one of the superior sort that Satan, being
pressed to kill James the Sixth, thus excused himself in French,
" II est homme de Dieu."
Camden, in his Ancient and Modem Manners of the Irish
says: " If a cow becomes dry, a w itch is applied to, who, inspiring her with a londness for some other calf, makes her yield
her milk."
(Gough's Camden, iii. C59.)
He tells us, ibid.
" The women who are turned off (by their husbands) have recourse to witches, who are supposed to inflict barrenness, impotence, or the most dangerous diseases, on the former husband
or his new wife."
Also, "They account every woman who
fetches fire on May-day a witch, nor will they give it to any but
sick persons,


that with

An imprecation, believing she






the butter next summer.


hares they find

On May-day

their cattle, supi-)osing


liill all

them the old wo-

men who have designs on the butter. They imagine the butter
may be recovered if they take some of the thatch hang-

60 stolen

ing over the door and burn

The mode


of becoming a witch, according to Grose,



as fol-

tempted by a
man in black to sign a contract to become his both soul and body.
On the conclusion of the agreement he gives her a piece of
money, and causes her to write her name and make her mark on
a slip of parchment with her own blood.
Sometimes, also, on
this occasion, the witch uses the ceremony of putting one hand
to the sole of her foot, and the other to the crown of her head.
On departing, he delivers to her an imp or familiar. The familiar, in the shape of a cat or a kitten, a mole, millerfly, or some
other insect or animal, at stated times of the day, BV.cks he
blood through teats on different jiarts of her body." There is a
great variety of the names of these imps or familiars.

decrepit 8uperanuated old


witch," (as I read in the curious tract entitled,


about our Coal Fire,) " according to my nurse's account, must

be a haggard old woman, living in a little rotten cottage, under
a hill, by a wood-side, and must be frequently si)inning at the
door; she must have a black cat, two or three broomsticks, an
imp or two, and two or three diabolical teats to suckle her imps.
She must be of so dry a nature, that if j'ou lling her into a river
she will not sink; so hard then is her fate, that, if she is to undergo the trial, if she does not drown, she must be burnt, as
many have been within the memory of man."
In the Relation of the Swedish Witches, at the end of GlanSadducismus Triumphatus, we are told that " the devil
gives them a beast about the bigness r.nd shape cf a yoi:ng cat
which they call a carrier. "What this carrier brings they must

receive for the





themselves so


sometimes, that they are forced to spew by the way, which

spewing is found in several gardens where colworts grow, and
not far from the houces of those witches. It is of a yellow color
like gold,





butter of witches,'"

p. 494,



this is the s<ame substance

w hicli



called in Nortlibnmberland,

fairy butter.

a Discourse of "Witcbcra(t, MS.,

communicated by Jobn

Pinkerton, Esq., written by Mr. John Bell, Minister of the

Gospel at Gladsmuir, 17C5, p. J3, on the sr.l jcct of witcbes

marks, I read as follows " This mark is sometimes like a littlo
teat, sometimes like a ble wish spot: and I myself have seen it
in the body of a confessing witch like a little powder-mark of ft

blea (blue) color,

somewhat hard, and withal

when I pricked it."

News from Scotland.

insensible, so as ik

did not bleed





a tract which will

be noticed more fully hereafter), it appears that, having tortured

in vain a suspected witch with the " ])illiwimcke3 upon her
fingers, which is a gvevious torture, and binding or v.renching
her head with a cord or rope, which is a most cruel torture also,
they, upon search, found the enemy's mark to be in herforecrag.
Of forepart of her throat, and then she confessed all." In another
the devils mark was found upon her privities.
The Sabbath of witches is a meeting to which the sisterhood,
after having been annointed with certain magical ointments, provided by their infernal leader, are supposed to be earned through
the air on brooms, conl-staves, spits, &c,
lleginald Scot, in bis Discovery ot Witchcraft, b. iii. c. i. p.. 40i
speaking of the vulgar opinion of witches flying, observes that
"the devil teacliefh them to make oinlment of the bowels and
members of children, whereby they ride in the air and accomAfter burial they steal them out of their
plish all their desires.
graves and seeth them in a cauldron, till the flesh be made potable, of which they make an ointment by which they ride in tho
Wierus exposes the folly of this opinion in his book De
Prgestigiis Doemonum, proving it to be a diabolical illusion, and
And it is exposed as such by
to be acted upon only in a dream.
Oldham (Works, Gth edit. p. 254)

"Am men in sleep, though motionless they lie,

by a dream, believe they mount and flye;
So ^iiches some enchanted wand bestride.
And tl:;uk they through the airy regions ride."
Lord VervL'am tells us that " the ointment that witches uses



reported to be


of the

of the fat of cbiklrcn

of smalkge,

j .ices

mingled with the merJ of


digged ont of their,




suppose the soporiferous medicines .ire likest to do it, \vhich, nre henbane, hemlock, mandrake, moonshadc or rather nightshade, tobacco, opium,
saffron, poplar-leaves,

line -wheat;


There had been abunt the time of Lord Verulam no small stir
concerning v.-;t jhcraft. "Ten Jensen, " says Dr. Percy, "has
left us a uitch song \vLich ccntnins nn rxtract from the various
incantations of cls.ssicantiqui:3\ Some learned wise-ncreshad just
before busied Cueinselvesoii thi.^ sabjoct, with oar British SjIo-

mon, James the

all writers,

First at their head.


these had so ransacked

ancient and modern, .and so blended and kneaded

together the sever;il superstitions of difTerent times and nations,

that those of genuine English growth could

no longer be traced

out and distinguished."

The Witch Song in Macbeth is superior to this of Ben Jonson.

The metrical incant.ations in Middleton's Y/itch are also very curious.
As the play is not much known, the following is given
as a specimen of his incantations;


Here's the blood of a bat.



2 Witch.

Here's libbard s bane.

in that,



Put iu ngaino.

1 Wilch.
2 Witch.





in that.

juice of to.ade, the oil of .adder.

Those will make the yonker madder.

Put in; titer's all, and rid tlie stencdi;
Nay, here's three ounces of the red-hair'd wench.
Bound, around, around," &c.

At these meetings they have feastings, music, and dancing,

the devil Liinself condescending to jilay at them on th^ pipes or

They afterwards


impurities and immoralities, and

in-oceed at these assemblies to the


may bo added

blasphemies, as the devil sometimes preaches to t^iem a

The Sabbath of the witches

is supposed to be held on a S.aturby some said to appear in the shape of a

goat, about whom severrd dr.ncrs and mr.gic ceremonies are performed. Before the assembly breaks up, the witches are all said



the devil


soncEnr ASD mrciicnAFZ




honor of

R.iluting Satan's




James's remarks on this subject iu his D^Bmonolog3^) Satan is

reported to have been so ninch out of humor at some of these
meetings, that, for his diversion, he woukl beat the witches black

and bine with the spits and brooms, the vehiclss of their transThere is
portation, and play them divers other unlucky tricks.
a Scottish proverb, "Ye breed of the witches, ye can do nao
good to yoursel."

They afterwards open graves for the purpose of taking out

and toes of dead bodies, with some of the
winding-sheet, in order to prepare a powder for their magical

joints of the lingers

purposes. Here also the devil distributes apples, dishes, spoons


any par.
Here also,
for similar purposes, the devil baptises waxen images.
James, in his Dcemonology, book ii. chap. 5, tells us that " the
devil teaeheth how to make pictures of wax or clay, that by
roasting thereof, the persons t'aat they bear the name ol may bo
continually melted or dried away by continual sickness."

or other triHes, to those witches

ticular person, to


desire to torment

they must present them.

It appears from Strype's Annnls of the lleformation, i. 8, under anno 1558, that Bishop Jewel, preaching before the queen,
said; *' It may i)lease your grace to understand th:.t witches and
sorcerers within these lew last year>4 arc marvellously increjised

Your Grace's subjects pine away,

even unto the death, their color fadeth, their ilesh rolteth, their
speech is benumbed, their senses are berett. I pray God they
never practice further than upon the subject
This," Strypo
I make no doubt was the occasion of bringing in a bill,
the next parliament, for making enchantments and witchcraft

within your Grace's realm.



of the bishop's strong expressions


"These eyes

bave seen most evident and manifesl marks of their wickedness."

Andrews, in his Continuation of Henry's History of Great

tells us. speaking of Ferdinand Earl of
Derby, who in the reign of Queen Elizabeth died by poison ;

Britain, 4to, p. 93,

"The credulity of the ago attributed bis death to witchcraft.

The disease was odd, and operated as a perpetual emetic and



a waxen image wUh hair like ihat of the imfortunate earl, found in
his chamber, reduced every suspicion of certainty."

in his Astrological Practice of




observes that "the -way which the witches usually take for to

man or beast in this kind is, as I conceive, done by

image or model, made in the likeness of that man or beast
th3y intend to work mischief upon, and by the subtilty of the
devil made .\t such hours and times when it shall work most
powerfully upon them by thorn, pin, or needle, pricked into
that limb or member of the body afflicted."

Coles, in his Art of Simpling, p. C6, says that witches



mandrake, according to some, or as I

rather suppose the roots of hriony, which simple folks take
for the trxi9> mandrake, and make thereof an ugly image, by
which they represent the person on whom they intend to

likewise the roots of

exercise their witchcraft."

plants have roots with a

H3 tells us, ibi.l,

number of threads,




like beards, as

mandrakes, whereof witches and impostors make an ugly

image, giving it the form of the face at the the top of the root,
and leave those strings to make a broad beard down to the

Sometimes witches content themselves with a revenge



causing the objects of their hatred to swallow pins,

crooked nails, dirt, cinders, and trash of all sorts or by drying up their cows and killing their oxen or by preventing
butter from coming in the churn, or beer from working.
Sometimes, to vex squires, justices, and country parsons, fond
of hunting, they change themselves into hares, and elude the
speed of the fleetest dogs.

It was a supposed remedy against witchcraft to put some of

the bewitched person's water, with a quantity of pins, needels,
and nails, into a bottle, cork them up, and set them before


fire, in order to confine the spirit

but this sometimes did
not prove sufficient, as it would often force the cork out with a
loud noise, like that of a pistol, and cast the contents of the
bottle to a considerable height.
Bewitched i^ersons were said


to fall frequently into violent
Btones, nails, stiibbs, wool,






vomit needles, pins,


[Witchcraft. Our Wick contemporary gives tbo following

'-Not far
recpnt instance of gross ignorance and credulii^y
from Louisbnrgli there lives a girl who, until a few days ago,
was suspected of being a witcb. In order to cure ber of tbe

neighbor actually put bar into a creed balf-fiUed

with wood and shavings, and bung ber above a fire setting tbo
sbavings in a blaze. Fortunately for tbe child and himself
she was not injured, and it is said that tbe gift of sorcery has

Avitcbcraft, a

At all events, tbe intelligent

been taken away from ber.
neighbors aver that she is not half so wiich-like in ber appearance since she was singed." luterness Courier, Times, Dec.



In ancient times even tbe pleasures of tbe chase were

checked by the superstitions concerning witchcraft.
in Scott's Discovery, p. 152: "That naver hunters nor their
dogs may be bewircbed, they cleave an oaken branch, and
both they and t :eir dogs pass over it,"
Warner, in bis Topographical Remarks relating to tbe Southwestern Paris of Hampshire, 1793, i. 241, mtntioning Mary
Dore, the "parochial witch of Beaulieu," who died about half
Her spells were chiefly used for
a century since, saj's
purposes of self-extrication in situations of danger; and I bavo
conversed with a rustic whose father had seen tlie old bidy convert herself more than once into the form of a bare, or cat,
when likely to be appreliended in wood-stealing, to wliiob sho
was somewhat adv.icted." Butler, in Lis Hudibras, II. iii. 149,
Ba>s,speaking of tbe witch-finder, that of witches some be banged

"for putHng knavish tricks


green geese and turkey-chicks,

pigs that suddenly diseas'd
Of griefs unnat'ral, as be guess'd."


Henry, in bis History of Great Britian,




Pomponius Mela as describing a Druidical nunerj--, which, ha

says "was situated in an island in the British sea, and contained nine of these



who pretended





they could raise s'orms and tempests by their incantations,

could cure the most incurable diseases, could transform themselves into all kinds of animals, and foresee future events."
For another superstitious notion relating to the enchantment of witchraft, see Lupton's First Book of Notable
Thing, 1C60, p. 20, No. 82.
See also Guil. Varignana, and
Arnold us de Villa Nova.
In vexing the parties troubled, witches are visible to them
only sometimes such parties act on the defensive against them,

striking at

them with a

knife, &c.

Preventives, according to the popular belief, are scratching

taking the wall of her in a town or street,

and the right hand of her in a lane or field while passing her,
by clinching both hauils, doubling the thumbs beneath the
fingers and also by saluting her Avith civil words before she
but no presents of apples, egg??, or other things must
be received from her on any account.
It was a part of the system of witchcraft that drawing blood
from a witch rendered her enchantments ineffectual, as appears
from the following authorities In Glanvill's Account of the
Daemon of Tedworth, speaking of a boy that was bewitched, he
" The boy drew towards Jane Brooks, the woman who
had bewitched him, who was behind her two sisters, and put
his hand upon her, which his father perceiving, immediately
scratched her face and drew blood from her.
The youth then cried
out that he was well." Blow at Modern Sadducism, 12mo. 1668,

or pricking a witch

p. 148,

This curious doctri:.e is very fully investigated in Hathaway's

published in the State Trials. The following passage is in
Arise Evan's Echo to the Voice from Heaven, 1632, p. 34
had heard some say that, when a witch l^ad power over one to
afflict him, if he could but draw one drop of the wiich's blood, the
witch would never after do him Luit."
Scot, in his Discovery, p. 157, says
"Men are preserved from
witchcraft by sprinkling of holy water, receiving consecrated
salt, by candles hallowed on Candlemas-day, and by ^reen


leavei consecrated

on Palm Sunday."


in his Art of



p. C7, tells iis


that "Mattliiolus sailli tbatberba paris

awny evil done hy witchcraft, niul af&ims that be knew it

be true by experience." Heath, iu bis History of the Sicilly


1^0, tells us that "bome few of the inhabitants

imagine (but mostly old women) that women with child, and the
first-born, are exempted from the power of witchcraft."

Islands, p.

find the subsequent in Scot's Discovery of "Witchcraft, p.

"To be delivered from witches, they hang in their entries

an herb called pentaphyllon, cinquefoil, also an olive branch
also frankincense, myrrh, valerian, verven, palm, antirchmon,
also hay-thorn, otherwise whitethorn, gathered on May152



tells us,

p. 151

"Against witches, in some coun-

they nail a wolfs head on the door. Otherwise they hang

sciUa (which is either a root, or rather in this place garlick) in the
roof of the house, to keep away witches and spirits and so they


do alicium also. Item. Perfume made of the gall of a black dog,

and his blood besmeared on the posts and walls of the housf,
driveth out of the doors both devils and witches. Otherwise
the house where herba betonica is sown is free from all mis:



Various were the modes of trying witches. This was sometimes done by finding private marks on their bodies at others
by weighing the suspected wretch against the church Bible*

by another method sho was made to say the Lord's Prayer.

She was sometimes forced to weep, and so detected, as a witch
can shed no more than three tear^, and those only from her left
eye.J Swimming a witch was another kind of popular ordeab
By this method sho was handled not less indecently than
for she was stripped naked and cross bound, the right
thumb to the left toe, and the left thumb to the right toe. In

Hudibras, part

t Butler, in his



that gets her

The back way,



I. c. iii. 1.

343, alludes to this

by heart must say her

like a witch's prayer."

King James, in the work already quoted, adding his remark,

mode of trying witches, says " They cannot even shed



though wonipn in general are

weep upon every

light occasion."

like the crocodile,

ready to



was cast into a pond or ri\'er, in

was Ibouglit imi^ossible for Lierto sink.

this stale she



wliicli, if guilty,

the presumptions whereby witches were condemned,

what horror

Avill not be excited at reading even a part of the fol" If she have any privy
lowing item in Scot's Discovery, p. 15
mark under her armpit, under her hair,under her lip, or *****,
iL is presumpUon siif/lcient jor 'he judge to proceed and give sentence rf
Death xtpon her
Ey the following caution, p. IG, it is ordered
that the witch " must come to her arreignment backward, to wit,
with her tail to the judge's face, who must make many crosses
at tho time of her approaching to the bar."
King James himself, in his Dasmonology, speaking of tho helps that may beuse.l in tho trial of witches, says, "the one is, tho llnding of


markc and trying

ihe insensihleness


under the Saxons,

us that " the r,econd kind of ordeal, by water, was to thrust
the accused into a deep water, where, if ho struggled in the least
but if
to keep himself on the surface, he was accounted guilty
G'rutt, in his Description of the Ordeals



on top of the


acquitted with honor.

without motion he was


Hence, he observes, Avithout doubt,

camo the long continued custom of swimming people suspected

There are also, he further observes, the faint
of v.'itchcraft.
trac23 of these ancient customs in another superstitious method
of proving a witch. It was done by weighing the suspected
party against tho church Bible, which if they outweighed, they
were innocent but, on the contrary', if the Bible proved tho
heaviest, they were instantly condemned."

93, we read
woman, of Wingrove, near
Aylesbury, Bucks, was accused by a neighbor for bewitching
her s^nnning-wheel, so that she could not make it go round and
offered to make oath of it before a magistrate
on which the
husband, in order to j astify his wife, insisted upon her being
tried by the church Bible, and that the accuser should be
In the Gent. Mag. for Feb. 1759, xxix.


Ilaynokes, an elderly

Accordingly she was conducted to the parish church

where she was stripped of all her clothes, to her shift and under
when, to tho no small
cOat, and weighed against the Bible


soncEnr axd wrrciicnAFT.

mortification of


accuser, sbo outweigbecl



and was


ably acquitted of the cbargo."

In the ^.IS. Discoxirso of "Witchcraft, communicated by JoliD

Pinkerton Esq., written l;y Mr John Bell, minister of (he gospel
at Gladsrauir, 1705, p.

I real

ticularly the witches' marhs,


"Gyiuptoms of a witch, par-

fa:ni, inah'd'dj to shed ieurr, Izc,

of them discoveries of ko ("lark a crime, and

which like avenues lead us to the secret of i'."
King James, in his Daimonolojy, speaking of this mode of
trying a witch, i. c, flaeting on the v. ater," observes that "it

appears that

God hath appointed

for a

supernatr.r.d signo of

the monstrous impielio of witches, that the water shall refuse to

them in her boscm that Lave shaken off them the sacred
water of baptism, and wilfully refused the benefit thereof."

Other methods of detecting a wilch were

by burning the

thatch of her house, or by burning any aniinrd supposed to bo

bewitched by her as a hog or ox these, it was held, would

force a witch to confess.
There vrero other modes of trial,
by the stool, and by shaving off every hair of the witch's body.
They were also detected by putting hair, parings of the nails,
and urino of any jicrson bewitched into a btono bottle, and
hanging it up in the chimney.
Cotta, in his Short Discoverie of the Unobserved Dangers, p.
54, tells us "Neither can I beleevc (Ispeako it with reverenco
unto graver judgements) that the forced coming of men or Komen lo
the burning of hewUched caitdl, or to the burning of the dung or vr '.ne
cf such as are beicitched, or floating of botlies above the water, or

lii:e, are any trial of a witch."

Gaule, in his Select Cases of
Conscience touching Witches and "Witchcraft, also (p. 75) mentions " some marks or tokens of t.yall altogether unwarrantable,
Such are
as proceeding from ignorance, humor, superstition.
2. The tra1. The old paganish sign, the witch's long ryes.
dition of the witches not weeping. 3. The witches making illfavored faces and mumbling.
d. To burn the thing bewitched.
<S:c. (I am loth to speak out, lest I might teach these in reproving


5. The burning of the thatch of the witch's house, ^:.c.

The heating of the horseshoe, <tc. 7. The scalding wat?r, (L'CThe sticking of knives acrosse, <!cc. 9. The putting of such






sucli things tinder the threshold,



nnd in the bed-straw, &&

and the shears, &c. 11. The casting the witch
into the water with thumbs and toes tied across, &c.
12. The

tying of knots, &c.

In A Pleasant Grove of



by H.


B., 8vo.

we have

1657, p. 76,

".4 charm io bring in ihe witch.

the hag you luust do this.
Commix with meal a little *****
Of him bewitch'd then forthwith makt
A little wafer, or a cake
And this rarely bak'd will bring
The old hag in no surer thing."

To house


occurs also


the following experimental rules whereby

to return back upon them,

given by Blay grave in his Astrological Practice of Physic, 1G89:
" 1. One way is by watching the suspected party when they go

to afflict witches, causing the evil

into their house

and then presently

some of her thatch

to take

from over tho door, or a tile, if the house be tyled if it bo

thatch, you must wet and sprinkle it over with the x^atient's water,
and likewise with white salt then let it burn cr smoke through a
trivet or tho framo of a skillet
you must bury the ashes that
way which the susi^ected witch liveth. 'Tis best done either at

the change,


or quarters of the

the witch's bigniUcator





or otherwise,

in square or opposition to the

the witch's house be tiled, then take a



from over the

him red hot, put salt into the patient's water, and
upon the red-hot tile, until it be consumed, and let it

door, heat



smoak through a trivet or frame of a skillet as aforesaid. 2.

Another way is to get two new horseshoes, heat one of them red
hot and quench him in the patient's urine then immediately
nail him on the inside of the threshold of the door with three

being upv.-ards; then, having the patients urino, set

and set a trivet over it put into it three horseThen heat the other horseshoe red
nails and a little white salt.
hot, and quench hioi several times in the urine, and so let it
do this three times, and
boil and waste until all bo consumed

nails, the heel


over the




ba near the change,


or quarters of th


or lot


ASD wrrcncnAFT.


moon be

in square or opposition unto the witch's significzvAnother way is to stop the urine of the r>atient close up
in a bottle, and put iuto it three nails, pine, or needles, with a
If you let it
iittle white salt, keeping' the urine always warm.
remain long in the bottle, it will endanger the witch's life for
I have found by experience that they will be grievously tormented, making their water with great difficulty, if any at all,
and the moor if the moon be in Scorpio, in square or opposition
4. Another way is either at
to his significator, when its done.
the new, full, or quarters of the moon, but more especially when
the moon is in square or opposition to the planet which doth




personate the witch, to let the patient blood, and while the
is warm put a little white salt into it, then let it burn and
smoak through a trivet. I conceive this way doth more afflict
the witch than any of the other three before mentioned." He


adds, that sometimes the witches will rather endure the misery
of the above torments than appear, " by reason country people
ofttimes will fall

upon them, and


and abuse them

I fmd the following in Articles to be enquired of within the
Archdeaconry of Yorke, by the Church Wardens and sworno
Men, A. D. 1G3 (any year till 1610), 4to. Lond. 6. I "Whether
there bo any man or woman in your parish that useth icitchcrafl,

sorcery, charms, or xinlawfxd prayer, or invocations in Latine or


upon any christian body or beast, or any that

resorteth to the same for counsell or helpo?"
Some persons were supposed by the popular belief to have


or otherwise,

the faculty of distinguishing witches.

These were called witch-



old, the ignorant,

and the indigent (says Granger), such

own cause nor hire an advocate,

were the miserable victims of this wretch's credulitj', spleen,
and avarice. He pretended to be a great critic in special marks,
which were only moles, scorbutic spots, or warts, which frequently grow large and pendulous in old age, but wero absurdly supposed to be teats to suckle imps.
His ultimata method
of proof was by tying together the thumbs and toes of the sua-

as could neither plead their


pectecl person,


about wliQse waist was fastened a cord, tlie enda

tlio banks of a river, by two men, in

of -wliicU were held on

wlioso power



to strain or slacken


swiminirg was aMengtli tried upon Hopkins himself, in his own way, and he was, upon the event, condemned, and, as it seems, executed, as a wizard. Hopkins had
hanged, in one year, no less than sixty reputed witches in his
own county of Essex.
In Gardiner's England's Grievance in Relation to tho Coal
Trade, p. 107, we have an account that, in 1C40 and 1050, tho
magistrates of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, sent into Scotland to agreo
with a Scotchman, who pretended knowledge to nd out witches
by pricking them with pins. They agreed to give him twenty
shillings a-pisce for all he could condemn, and bear his traveling expen -os. On Lis arrival the bellman was sent through
the town to :nvite .all persons that would bring in an}' complaint
against any vroman for a M itch, that she might be sent for and
tried by tho persons appointed.
Thirty women wei'c, on this,
brought into the town-hall and stripped, and then openly had
pin? thrust into their bodies, about twenty-seven of whom ho
found guilty. His modn was, in the sight cf all the people, to
lay the body of the per on suspected naked to tho waist, and
then he r.;n a i in into her thigh, and then suddenly let her
coats fall, demanding whether she had nothing cf Lis in her
body bat did not bleed the woman, through fright and shame,
being auiazad, replied little then he put his hand up her coats
and pulled out the pin, settling her aside as a guilty person and
a child of the devil. By this sort of evidence, one wizard and
fourteen witches wero tried and convicted at the assizes, and
afterwards executed. Their names are recorded in tho parish
Tlie experiment of

register of St. Andrew's.

See Brand's history of Newcastle-up-

Nash, in his History of Worcestershire, iL 38, tells us that,
" 14th May, 1G60, four persons accused of witchcraft were
brought from Kidderminster to Worcester Gaol, one "Widow
Ilobinson, and her two daughters, and a man. The eldest
daughter was accused of saving that, if they had not been



l;ing bIiouIJ. never have come 'to England
he now doth come, yet he shall not live long, hwi shall
die as ill a death as they and that they Avould have made corn
like pepper.
Many great charges against them, and little
proved, they were put to the ducking in the river they would
not sink, but swam aloft. The man had live teats, the woman
three, and the eldest daughter one.
"When they went to search
the women none wore visible one advised to lay them on their
backs and keep open their mouths, and then they would appear and so they presently appeared in sight.
It appears from a Eehition printed by Matthews, in Long
Acre, London, that, in the year 171G, Mrs. Hicks, and her
daughter, aged nine years, were hanged in Huntingdon for
witchcraft, for selling their souls to the devil, tormenting and
destroying their neighbors, by making them vomit pins, raising
a storui, so that a ship was almost lost, by pulling off her stock-






and making a

lather of soap.

the severe laws once in force against witches, to the dis-

numbers of innocent persons, disand age, were brought to violent and

untimely ends. By the 33 Henry VIIL c. viii. the law adjudged
all Yv'itchcraft and Sorcery to be felony without benefit of
By statue 1 Jac. L c. xii. it was (>rdered that all persons
invoking any evil spirit, or consulting, covenanting with, entertaining, employing, feeding, or rewarding any evil spirit or
taking up dead bodies from their graves to be used in any

grace of humanity,


tressed with poverty

witchcraft, sorcery, charm, or enchantment, or killing or other-

wise hurling any person by such infernal

of felony without benefit of clerg}',


any person should attempt by sorcery

ure, or to restore stolen goods, or to

hurt any


and death

On March

should be gniHy

to discover



provoke unlawful



love, or

same were not affected, ho

imprisonment and pillory for the first

or beast, though the

or she should suffer



sulTer death.

for the second.

Margaret and Philip Flower, daughters of

Joane Flower, were executed at Lincoln for the supposed crimo
of bewitching Henry Lord Kosse, eldest son of Francis Manners,
11, 1G13,


Earl of Kutland, and causing his death

also, for most barbarously torturing by a strange sickness Francis, second son of the
said Earl, and Lady Katherine, Lis daughter
and also, for

preventing by their diabolical arts, the said earl and his countess
from having any more children. They were tried at the Lent As-

Henry Hobart, Lord Chief Justice of the Common

Edward Bromley, one of the Barons of the
Exchequer, and cast by the evidence of their own confessions.
To effect the death of Lord Henry "there was a glove of the
said Lord Henry buried in the ground, and as that glove did
rot and waste, so did the liver of the said lord rot and waste."
The spirit employed on the occasion, called Butterkin, appears
not to have had the same power over the lives of Lord Francis and
Margaret Flower confessed that she had
Lady Katherine.

sizes before Sir




two familiar



sucking on her, the one white, the other

The white sucked under her

"When she

left breast,


them, she
promised them her soul, and they covenanted to do all things
which she commanded them.
In the Diary of Bobert Birrell, preserved in Fragments of
Scottish History, 4to. Edinb., 1708, are inserted some curious
memorials of persons suffering death for witchcraft in S'jotland.
" 1591, 25 of Junii, Enphane M'Kalzen ves brunt for vitchcrafte.
1529. The last of Februarii, Bichard Grahamo wes brunt at ye
Crosse of Edinburghe, tor vitchcrafte and sorcery. 1593. The
19 of May, Katherine Muirhead brunt for vitchcrafte, quha con1G03. The 21 of Julii, James Beid
fest Bundrie poynts therof.
brunt for consulting and useing with Sathan and witches, and
quha wes notably knawin to be ane counsellor with witches.
1605. July 24th day, Henrie Lowrie brunt on the Castel Hill,
for witchcrafte done and committed be him in Kyle, in the parochin." The following is from the Gent. Mag. for 1775, xlv.
"Nov. 15. Nine old women were burnt at Kalisk, in
Poland, charged with having bewitched and rendered unfruitful
black-spotted," &c.



the lands belonging to a gentleman in that palatinate."

By statute 9 Geo. H. c. v. it was enacted that no prosecution

ghould in future be carried on against any person lor conjura-

soncERT AID wrrcncRA^T.

tion, witchcraft, sorcery, or



However, the mis-

demeanor of persons pretending to use witchcraft, tell fortunes,

or discover stolen goods by skill in the occult sciences, is still
deservedly punished with a year' s imprisonment, and till
recently by standing four times in the pillory. Thus the Witch
Act, a disgrace to the code of English laws, was not repealed
till 173t!.

In the

Account of Scotland, v. 240, parish of Old

Dumbarton, we read '* The history of the Bar-


Kilpatrick, co.

garran witches, in the neighboring parish of Erskine, is well

known to the curioup. That this parish in the dark ages par-

took of the same frenzy, and that innocent persons were sacrificed at the shrino of cruelty, bigotry, and suj^erstition, cannot
be concealed. As late as the end of tha last century a woman was
burnt for witchcraft at Sandyfonl, near the village, and the
bones of the unfortanato victim were lately found at the place.
Ibid. p. 454, parish of Spott, co. East Lothian, Parochial
" 1698 The Session, after a long examination of witHecords.
nesses, refer the case of Marion Lillie, for imprecations and
supposed witchcraft, to the Presbyter}', who refer her for trial to
the ci\ il magistr.ito. Said Mariou generally called the Eigwoody
Oct. 1703
Many witches burnt on the top of Spott
loan." Ibid. vii. 280, parish of East Monklaml, co. Lanark:
Upon a rising ground there is still to be seen an upright granite stone, where, it is said, in former times they burnt those
imaginary criminals called witches." Ibid. viii. 177, parish of
Newburgh, co. Fife: "Tradition continues to preserve the
memory of the spot in the lands belonging to the town of New.
burgh, on wliich more than one unfortunate victim fell a sacrifice to the superstition of former times, intent on i uaishing the
crime of witchcraft. The humane provisions of the legislature,
*oined to the superior knowledge which has, of late years, pervaded all ranks of men in societj', bid tair to prevent the return
of a frenzy which actuated our forefathers universall}', and
with fatal violence."
The following is extracted from the
Parish Eecords
"Newburgh, Sept. 18, 1653. The minister
gave in against Eath'rine Key severall poynts that had come tQ



Lis hearing, uLicL ho desyred might be pnt to tryelh

how gave nothing hut

"being refused miih, the



red blood


how, she chipped (stroked) the kow,

and said the kow will be weill, and thereafter the kow becam
weilh 2. (-V similar charge.) 3. That the minister and his wife,
having ane purpose to take ane child of theirs from the said
Kathrine, which she had in nursing, the child would suck none
woman's breast being only one quarter old but, being brought
again to the said K;ithrino, presently sucked her breast. 4. That,
thereafter the chyld was spayned (weaned), she came to sie
the chi.d and wold have the bairne (child) in her arms, and
being sent for

to sie the

murned and gratt (vs-eeped sore) in the

and almost the day tyme also, that nothing could stay
her until she died. Nevertheless, before her coming to see her
and her embracing of her, took as weill with the spaining and
That she is of ane
rested as weill as any bairne could doe.
evill bruttc and fame, and so was her mother before her."

thereafter the bairne




not recorded.


ference to Arnot's Collection

ix. 74,

parish of Erskine,


a re-

Criminrd Trials for an account

Eargarran AYitches. ILid. xii..l97, parish of Kirriemuir,

"A circular pond, commonly called the WUch-pool,
was lately converted into a reservoir for the mills on the Gairie ;
a much better use than, if we may judge from the name, the
superstition of our ancestors led them to apply it,"






372, parish of


Calder, county of


Witches formerly burnt there. The method taken by persons

employed to keep those who were suspected of witchcraft
awake, when guarded, was, "to pierce their flesh with pins,

To rescue
needles, awls, or other sharp-pointed instruments.
them from that opression which sleep imposed on their almost
exhausted nature, they sometimes used irons heated to a state
of redness."


reference for this


also to Arnot's Trials.

Ibid, xviii. C7, parish of Kirkaldy, county of Fife, it is said:

" A man and his wife was burnt here in 1G30, for the supposed

crime of witchcraft.



At that time the belief

f witchcraft pre-

and executions on account of it were frequent,

the kingdoms of Europe. It was in 1G34 that the famous


Urban Grandier was,

at the instigation of

Cardinal Eichelieu,


whom he




and condemned to the stake, for

some nuns of Loudun, ^vho were
supposed to bo possessed. And it was much about the samo
time that the wifo of the Mureclial d'Ancre (see p. 9) was burnt
ha'l satirized, tried,

exercising Ibo black art on

for a witch, at the Place de Greve, at Paris."

Dr. Zoucli, in a note of his edition to "Walton's Lives, 179G,


opinion concerning tbe reality of witchat the end of the seventeenth

century. The prejudices of popular credulity are not easily
Men of learning, either from conviction or some
other equally powerful motive, adopted the system of Dsemonp. 482,



was not exploded even

ology advanced






was only

that the legislature repealed the Act


at a recent period

in the


year of

the reign of that monarch, entitled an Act against Conjuration,

and Wicked Spirits."

on witches, in the tenth century
Natural History, form a fine contrast to the narrow

Witchcraft, and dealing with Evil

Lord Verulam's
of his


and bigoted ideas of the royal author of the Daemonology.

"Men may

not too rashly believe the confession of witches,

nor yet the evidence against them

for the witches themselves

and believe oftentimes they do that in which

they do not
and people are credulous in that point, and
ready to impute accidents and natural operations to witchcraft.
It is worthy the observing that, both in ancient and
late times (as in the Thessalian witches, and the meetings of
witches that have been recorded by so many late confessions),
the great wonders which they tell, of carrying in the air,

are imaginative,

transforming themselves into other bodies, &c. are still reported

to bo wrought, not by incantations or ceremonies, but by

ointments and anointing themselves all over. This may justly

move a va?.n to think that these fables are the effects of imr.ginatiou
for it is certain that ointments do all (if they be laid
on anything thick), by stopping of the pores, shut in the
vapors, and send them to the head extremely.
And for the
particular ingredients of those magical ointments, it is like
they are opiate and soporiferous: for anointing of the forehead,
neck, feet, backbone, we know is ised lor procuring deaa




And if nny man say that this effect wonld be better

done by inward i)otions, answer may be made that the medicines which go to the ointments are so strong, that if they were
used inwards they would kill those that use them, and therefore they work potently though outwards."

Mr. "Warner in his Topographical Pwemarks relating to the

South-western parts of Hampshire already quoted, says: "It
would be a curious speculation to trace the origin and progress
of that mode of thinking among the northern nations which
gave the faculty of divination to females in ancient ages, and
the gift of witchcraft to them in more modern times.
learned reader will receive great satisfaction in the i^erusal of
a dissertation of Kcysler, entitled De Mulieribus fatidicis, ad




the same subject

Antiquities, vol.






deserves particular




the sine qua.


If I mis.
a connexion which has cost our domestic
that persecution with which it is, by idle boyc at least,

take not, this

animal all

information on


In an account of witchcraft, the

non a


be had in M. Mallet's Northern

and in the Notes of the Edda, vol. ii."



In ancient times the case was very

These animals were anciently revered as emblems of
the moon, and among the Egyptians were on that account so
highly honored to receive sacrifices and devotions, and had
It is said that in whatstately temples erected to their honor.
ever house a cat died, all the family shaved their eyebrows. No
favorite lap-dog among the moderns had received such posthumous honors. Diodorus Siculus relates that a Eoman happening accidentally to kill a cat, the mob immediately gathered
about the house where he was, and neither the entreaties of

'sncessantly pursued.

some principle men sent by the king, not the fear of the
Romans, with whom the Egyptians were then negotiating
peace, could save the man's


In the remarkable account of witches in Scotland (before

James the First's coming to the crown of England), abo'.it
the damnable Life and
15S1, entitled news from Scotland




copy in th
ThompFcn confessed that, at the time whtn his Majesty was
in Denmark, she Leing accompanied with the parties beforo
specialy named, look a cat and christened H, and afterwards
hound to each part of the cat the chiefest parts of a dead
man, rnd several joints cf his hody and that in the night
following the said cat was conveyed into the midst of the sea
by all these witches sailing iu their riddles or cieves, as is
aforesaid, and o left the said cat hcforo the town of Leith,
in Scotland
tLis done, their did arise cuch a tempest in the
which tempest was the
sea as a greater Lath not been seen
conso cf the perishing of a boat or vessel coming over trom
the town of Eriiiit Island to the town of Leith, wherein wero
sundry jewels and rich gifts, which should have been presented to tho now Queen cf Scotland, at her Mr.jestys coming
Again it is confessed that the raid christened cat
to Leilh.
was the cause that the Iling's IM: jcsty's ship, at Lis coming
forth of Denmr.rh, had a contrary v, :nd to tho rest of his ships
then being in Lis comprny
v. hich thing
was most etrango

Death of Dr.

Gent. Mag.










the following:



true, as tho Hing's llr.jesty


plainl}" sees in



publication tho foundation-stones

of the royal treatise on Dromonology;



sent for one GeiKis Duncane,

tho witches,


it is

said 'these con-

tho Ling in a wonderful admiration," and ho

"who upon


played a reel or dance beforo

a ^niall trump, called a Jew's trump,

did play tho same dance before tho King's Majesty, who,


respect cf the strangeness of these matters, took great delight


bo present at


their examinations."



there so

incurious that would not wish to Lavo seen tho monarch cf

Great Britain entertaining himself with a supposed witch's

performance on the Jew's-harp ?

* This Docter Fian was register of the devil, and sundry times
preached at North Baricke Kirke lo a number of notorious
witches the very persons who in this work are said to have protended to bewitch and drown his Mcjesty in tho sea commg
from Denmark.



few wonders borrowed from a celebrated

"The admirable secrets of AlEEKTrs ilAGKCs," that is of Albert the Great.
This illustrioiis scholar, one of the most remarkable men of
the ^liddle Ages, was born in 1193, at Savignen, a town in
Swabia, on the banks of the Danube.
"Wiiliam of Holland, who had been crowned King of tho
r.omr.ns. that is to sny, deputy to the Emperor of Germany,
re -produce


collection Laving for its title


a visit to the celebrated professor.

Albertus himself received

him with extraordinary magnifi-



at the

time in the depth of winter.

Albertus gave his

reception in a garden, blooming with the flowers of sj^ring, in

which tho t:mper.atare was as mild as that of the month of May,

a thing which would appear very extraordinary, even, for our
own times and which must have appeared surprisingly marvellous in a most unenlightened age.


no little in spreading
rumors as to the magical

r.nalogous facis contributed

broad, r.mong tho ignorant classes,

powers of the professor.

lie was without contradiction one of the most extraordinary
men of his century and even one of the genuises of past ages.
Hence he was regarded for a long lime as a sorcerer.
In consequence of this popi;lar error, a great many books
have been piiblished over his name, of \\hich that most diffused
The Admirable Secrets ( f Albertus Magnus."
is the
TLis work, composed mainly of natural magic, embraces a
'Troalise on the Generation of Man," lled with errors, with
which we have no business, an "Dssny upon Physiognomy,*'

and a "Collection of Secrets" upon the virtues of herbs, stones

and animals.



read revelations such as the following

To render

possess the stone called ophilialme.

only necessary to
Ccnstantine held one in Lis

one's self invisible



hand and in this wise became invisible.

To cure the phthisis you must hang around tho nedc of
a sick person the stone called lerlfeiidanus.




To avoid nil dangers, it is necessary to wear upon your

person a black agate with wbite veins.
A dress, rubbed with Ilhmas, will never burn.
.^** To drive away moles from a locality, it is necessary to
and put

catch one


in the place with native sulphur


and there


A dog who has swallowed the heart of a weazel will

never afterwards bark.
To make a person talk a good deal, give him the tongu
and heart of a magpie.
j^l* The head of a goat, suspended

to the

neck of a person,

with leprosy will cure him perfectly.


right foot of a tortoise,


fast to the right foot of

a gouty man will give him ease.

Everything, however, is not of this same stamp throughout
the marvellous secrets of Albertus Magnus. In the midst of
absurdities, invented at will, there are

soma useful



Take lead,


pulverized very



with this






in a pot, well covered, with olive

thus for nine days then rub the iron,

will never attack it.

steel, &c.,

and rust

To SOFTEN Glass. Take equal parts of burned lead and

crystal, break them upon a stone, put them in a crucible and
melt them together
you can do whatever you like by this




THINGS, EVEN COLD IRON. Take an ounco^ of

ammoniac, an ounce of common salt, as much calcined tartar and three ounces of antimonj'.
After having pulvarized the
whole together, pass through a sieve.: put it into a linen, cov-




over the outside with well prepared potter's clay to the

thickness of a finger

pots over a slow

let it

become dry after that place it upon

which augments until the whole

becomes of a red heat and melts together. After allowing it

get cold again, reduce it to powder and, when anything ia



be soldered, join the two pieces as closely as possible upon'a
piece of paper, placed upon a table and introduce between tne
two pieces to be joined the aforesaid powder. Now boil borax
in wine until it is dissolved and rub with the end of a pen the
powder with this liquid and the powder will boil likewise.
When it has ceased to boil the solidification and soldering has
been accomplished,



two parts of



steep the whole in vinegar until

when you wish

which you

to engrave,





becomes a

trace the design



a part of

paste, and

upon the metal

Then you place over it the above

you can make it and, when all becomes
and wash the engraving well and everything

suffer to dry.

composition as



you remove it
be as you desire it.
Such are the grand secrets of Albertus JIagnus,


have no doiibt but that this expression originated in the
superstition concerning an evil, that is an enchanting
heiDitcldng eye.
In confirmation of this I must cite the follow" Many writers
ing passage from Scot's Discovery, p. 291
agree with Yirgil and Theocritus in the effect of bewitching


eyes, affirming that in Scythia there are

having two

balls, or rather hlacks, in the

These (forsooth) with



called Bithise,

apples of their eyes.

angry looks do bewitch and hurt,

not only young lambs, but young children." He says, p. 35

"The Irishmen affirm that not only their children, but their
cattle, are (as they call it) eye-hiiien, when they fall suddenly


In Vox Dei, or the great Duty of Self-Eeflection upon a Man's

N. Wanley, M. A. and minister of the Gospel at
Beeby, in Leicestershire, 1G58, p. 85, the author, speaking of
St. Paul's having said that he was, touching the righteousnesse

own Wayes, by



which is in the law, blameless, observes upon it, "No man

could say (as the proverb hath it) black was his eye."
"As those
Browne's Map of the Microcosme, 164*^, we read
eyes are accounted bewitching, que geminam habent pupillam,

which have double-sighted eyes so," &c.

[The following very curious particulars are taken from a
Turrdngihe Coal ; a Counirecent number of the Athenaeum
ercharm io the Evil Eye. It is necessary that persons with the
power of an evil eye go through certain forms before they can
effect their object
and it is supposed that during these forms
the evil they wish is seen by them, by some means, before it
sicut Illyrici,

takes efiect




their victim.


looking steadfastly in the

of the simplest of these


so that a person seen

upon the fire is looked upon

with great suspicion. But if he smokes, and in lighting the
pipe puts the head into the fire, and takes a draw while it is
there, it is an undeniable sign that there is evil brewing.
if any pe;-son observe this, and it being a common custom in
the country to have a large piece of coal on the fire, the tongs
be taken privately, and this coal be turned right over, with the
exorcism utterd, either privately or aloud, "Lord be wi' us," it

musing with

his eyes fixed

throws the imagination of the evil-disposed person into confusion, dispels the vision, and thwarts for the time all evil intentions.
Or if an individual who is suspected of having wished
evil, or cast an ''ill e'e," upon anything, enter the house upon

which the


and the


coal he turned

that person feels as if the coal

upon him, as

it is

was placed upon his




has often been seen to put his hand to his breast, exclaiming,

"Oh !"

Nay, more

down with




unable to move so long as the coal

the tongs, and has

no more power over




In Heron's Journey through Part of Scotland, ii. 228, we

"Cattle are subject to be injured by what is called an
evil eye, for some persons are supposed to have naturally a blasting power in their eyes, with which they injure whatever offends
or is hopelessly desired by them. Witches and warlocks are
also much disposed to wreak their malignity on cattle."
"Charms," the writer adds, " are the cheif remedies applied for



I have been, mj-self, acqiTainted with an antitheir diseases.

bnrgher clergyman in these parts, who actually procured from
A person who pretended skill in these charms, two small pieces
of wood, curiously wrought, to be kept in his lather's cow-

house, as a security for the health of his cows.

bind into a cow's


as a

charm against

ed of witchcraft




It is


a small piece of mountain-ash wood,






now suspect-

tales are told of the conventions of

witches in the kirks in former times.

["Your interesting papers," says a correspondent of the

Athenaeum, "upon 'Folk Lore,' have brought to my recollection a number of practices common in the west of Scotland.
The lirst is a test for, as a charm to prevent, an 'ill e'e.' Anyindividual ailing not sufficiently for the case to be consideped
serious, but lingering, is deemed to be the object of an ill e'o,'
of some one 'that's no canny.' The follov\-ing operation is (hen
performed ; An old sixpence is borrowed from some neighbor,
without telling the ol>ject to which it is to be applied as
much salt as can be lifted upon the sixpence is put into a tablespoonful of water, and melted
the sixpence is then put into
the solution, and the soles of the feet and the palms of the
hands of the patient are moistened three times with the salt
it is then tasted three times, and the patient afterwards
'scored aboon the breath,' that is, by the operator dipping tho
forefinger into the salt water, and drawing it along the brow.
When this is done the contents of the spoon are thrown behind,
and right over the fire, the thrower saying at the same time,
If recovery follow this, thero
Lord preserve us frae a' scathe
is no doubt of the individual having been under the influence




evil eye."]



in his travels in

ignorant mothers of

whose hollow

of the





modern Egyptians,

and meagre exhad not long to live, be-

eyes, pale faces, swollen bellies,

make them seem

lieve this to


Egypt and


be the

as if they

effect of

has bewitched them

general in Turkey."
" Nothing," says Mr.



evil eye

of some envious person,

this ancient



Dallaway, in his Account of



391, "

stantinople, 1797, p.


can exceed the superstition of the

Turks respecting ike evil eye of an enemy or infidel. Passages from

the Koran are painted on the outside of the houses, globes of
glass are suspended from the ceilings, and a sort of the superdesigned to attract attention
That this superstition was
" Nescio
known to the Eomans we have the authority of Virgil
quis tenoros oculus mihi fascinat agnos." Eel. iii.
The following passage from one of Lord Bacon's works is
cited in Minor Morals, i. 24; "It seems some have been so
fluous capariso'i of their horses



divert a minister influence."

when the stroke of percussion

does most hurt are particularly when the
party envied is beheld in glory and triumph."
Lupton, in his fourth Book of Notable Things, No. 81 (edit
curious as to note that the times

of an envious


"The eyes be not only instruments of

1660, p. 103), says
enchantment, but also the voyce and evil tongues of certain
for their are found in Africk, as Gellius saith, fami
lies of men, that, if they cliance exceedingly to praise fair trees,
pure seeds, goodly children, excellent horses, fair and wellliking cattle, soon after they will wither and pin away, and so
dye no cause or hurt known of their withering or death.
Thereuj^on the costume came, that when any do praise anything,
that we should say, God, blesse it or keep it.
Arist. in Prob.
by the report of Mizaldus."

To the toad-stone Shakespeare alludes
tiful similo

in the following ban-


are the uses of adversitj',

like the toad, ugly and venomous,
Wears yet a precious jewel in his head."


Stevens, in his note upon this passage, says that Thomaii

Lupton, in his first Book of Notable Things, bears repeated
testimony to the virtues of the toad-stone called crapaudiua.
In his seventh book he instructs how to procure it, and afterwards tell us
"You shall knowe whether the toad-stone bd



the rj'ght



stone, the tode will

would snatch

Holde the stone before a

it be a right and true
leap towarde it, and make as though he

perfect stone or not.

so that he









envieth so



should have

that stone.

From a physical manuscript in quarto, of the date of 1475,

formely in the collection of Mr. Herbert, of Cheshunt, now in
my library, I transcribe the following charm against witch-

"Here ys acharme for wyked Wych.

In nomine Patris,
Per Yirtutem Domini sint
medicina mei pia Cruxijiet passio Christi^. Vulnera quinque
Domini sint medicina meit^. Virgo Maria mihi succurre, et
defende ab omni maligno demonio, et ab omni maligno spiritu
Amen, iftaifig^lt^a^ Tetragrammaton.

et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti,











Domini, miserere mei,

Amen, ifi Marcus i{i Matheus ifi Lucas i{i Johannes mihi sucsempiterna Deus,
currite et defendite, Amen.
iSjf Omnipotens
hunc N. famulum tuum hoc breve scriptum super se portantem
prospere salvet dormiendo, vigilando, potando, et precipue
Bompniando, ab omni maligno demonio, eciam ab omni maligno
Jesus Nazarenus rex judeorum,





In Scot's discovery, p. 160, we have "A special Charm to

At Easter, you must take
all Cattel from witchcraft.
certain drops that lie uppermost of the holy paschal candle,
and make a little wax candle thereof and upon some Sunday
morning rathe, light it, and hold it so as it may drop upon and
between the horns and ears of the beast, saying, In nomine
Patris et Filii,' &c., and burn the beast a little between the



horns on the ears with the same wax and that which is left
it cross-wise about the stable or stall, or upon the
threshold, or over the door, where the cattle used to go in and
out and for all that year your cattle shall never be bewitched.'

thereof, stick


tells us,

in his


in Scotland, that the farmers

by placing
boughs of mountain-ash and honeysuckle in their cowhouses
on the 2d of May. They hope to preserve the milk of their
cows, and their wives from miscarriage, by tying threads about
carefully preserve their cattle against witchcraft




they bleed' the supposed witch to preserve themselves

from her charms.

Gaule, as before cited, p. 142, speaking of the preservatives
among the Papists, "the

against witchcraft, mentions, as in use

tolling of a baptized bell, signing with the signe of the crosse,

sprinkling with holy water, blessing of oyle, wax, candles,


cheese, garments, weapons, &c,, carrying about sainta


thousand superstitious foperiers ;" and then

enumerates those which are used by men of all religions " 1.
In seeking to a witch to be holpen against a witch. 2, In using
a certain or supposed charme, against an uncertaineor suspected
3. In searching anxiously for the witches signe
or token left behinde her in the house under the threshold, in
the bed-straw and to be sure to light upon it, burning every
odd ragge, or bone, or feather, that is to be found. 4, In swearing, rayling, threatning, cursing, and banning the witch as if
this were a right way to bewitch the witch from bewitching.
In banging and basting, scratching and clawing, to draw blood
6. In daring and defying the witch out of a carof the witch.
reliques, with a

nal security and presumptuous temerity."

The following passage



"The torments


taken from Stephens's Characters,

therefore of hot iron

and mercilesse

uppon and much threatned

before attempted. Meantime she tolerates

scratching navies be long thought

(by the females)

defiance thorough the wrathfull spittle of matrons, in stead of

maintenance to her damnable intentions." He goes on

cannot smile upon her without the hazard of a
perpetual wry mouth
a very nobleman's request may be
denied more safely than her petetions for butter, milke, and
small becre and a great ladies or queens name may be less
doubtfully derided. Her prayers and amen be a charm and a
curse her contemplations and soules delight bee other men's
mischief e her portions and sutors be her soule and a succubus
her highest adorations beyew-trees, dampish church-yards, and
a fayre moonlight her best preservatives be odde numbers and

fuell, or


mightie. Tetragramaton."




A soRCEBER and

magician, says Grose, differs from a witch in

her power from a compact with the

the infernal spirits, by
his skill in powerful charms and invocations; and also soothes
and entices them by fumigations. For the devils are observed


a witch derives

a sorcerer


commands him, and

to havs delicate nostrils, abominating


of Egypt, driven




some kind of

witness the flight of the evil spirit into the remote parts

by the smell of a

fish's liver

burned by


are also found to be peculiarly fond of certain perfumes

insomuch that Lilly informs us that, one Evens having raised

n spirit at the request of Lord Bothwell and Sir Kenelm Digby,
and forgotten a suffumigation, the ?-pirit, vexed at the disapointment, snatched him out of his circle, and carried him from his
house in the Minories into a field near Batersea Causeway.
"The art of sorcery
King James, in his Dremonologia, says
-consists in divers forms of circles and conjurations rightly joined
together, few or more in number according to the number of
persons conjurers (always passing the singular number),
According to the qualitie of the circle and form of the appariTwo principle things cannot well in that errand be
wanted holy water (whereby the devil mocks the Papists), and
some present of a living thing unto him. There are likewise
certain dales and houres that they observe in this purpose.
These things being already and prepared, circles are made,
triangular, quadrangular, round, double, or single, according to
the form of the apparition they crave. But to speake of the diverse forms of the circles, of the innumerable characters and
crosses that are within and without, and out-through the same
of the diverse forms of apparitions that the craftie spirit illudes
them with, and of all such particulars in that action, I remit it
over to many that have busied their heads in describing of the
same, as being but curious and altogether unprofitable. And this
farre only I touch, that, when the conjured spirit appears, which
will not be while after many circumstances, long prayers and
much muttering and raurmurings of the conjurers, like a papist priest despatching a hunting masse--how soone, I say, h9



any of


they have missed one jote oi

all their rites

their feete once slyd over the circle,

fearful apparition,

he paies himself

or if

through terror of

at that time, in his

owne hand, of that duo debt which they ought him and otherVI ise would have delaied
longer to have paied him I meane,
he carries them with him, body and soul.
" If this be not now a just cause to make them weary of
these formes of conjuration, I leave it to you to judge upon ;

considering the longsomeness of the labor, the precise keeping,

of dai3s and houres (as I have said), the terribleness of th

and the present

circumstance of


peril that they stand in,

freite that

missing the

they ought to observe

on the other part, the devill is glad to moove them

and squfire dealing with them, as I said before."


to a plain

"This," Grose observes, "is a pretty accurate description

of thic




of conjuration, styled the circular

due respect

to his


Majesty's learning, square and


angular circles are figures not to be found in Euclid or nny of]

the common writers on geometry. But perhaps King James
learnt his mathematics from the same system as Doctor Sacheverell,

who, in one of his speeches or sermons, made use of

'They concur like parallel lines, meeting

the following simile


one common




and an enchanter,
according to Minshew, in his dictionarj', is as follows: "The
conjuror seemeth by jorairs and invocations of God's powerful
names, to compel the divell to say or doe what he commandeth

difference between a conjuror, a witch,

The witch

dealeth rather

conference or agreement between

by a friendly and voluntarie

him and her and

the divell or

have his or her turn served, in lieu or stead of blood

or other gift offered unto liim, especially of his or her soule.
And both these differ from inchanters or sorcerers, because the
former two have personal conference with the divell, and th
other meddles but with medicines and ceremonial formeg of
words called charmes, without apparition."
Reginald Scot, in his Discourse on Devi lis and spirits, p. 72,
tells as that, with regard to conjurors, "The circles by which
familar, to



they defend themselves are commonly nine foot in breath, but

the eastern magicians must give seven."
p. 16, speaking of conjurors says
always observe the time of the moon before they set
their figure, and when they have set their figure and spread their
circle, first exorcise the wine and water which they sprinkle on
their circle, then mumble in an unknown language.
Doe they

Melton, in his astrologaster,


not crosse and exorcise their surplus, their silver wand, gowne,
cap, and every instrument they use about their blacke and damnable art ? Nay, they crosse the place whereon they stand, because they thinke the devill hath no power to come to it when
they have blest it."
The followinfi passage occurs in A Strange Horse-Bace, by
Thomas Dekker, 1613, signat. D. 3 "He darting an eye upon
them, able to confound a thousand conjurers in their own
circles (though with a wet finger they could fetch up a little




The old vulgar ceremonies used in raising the divell, such

making a circle with chalk, setting an old hat in the centre


repeating the

Prayer backward, &c. &c., are

to be forgotten even amongst


altogether absolete,

and seem

our boys.


Anatomic of

in his

" In chanters and charmers

conceited words, characters,

Sorcerie, 1612,




which by using of certain

circles, amulets, and such-like
vain and wicked trumpery (by God's permission) doe worke
as namely in causing of sicknesse, as also
great marvailes
And likewise binding
in curing diseases in men's bodies.
some, that they cannot use their naturall powers and faculties,
as we see in night-spells insomuch as some of them doe take
in hand to bind the divell himselfe by their inchantments."
Th6 following spell is from Herrick's Hesperides, p, 304

" Holy water come and bring

Cast in salt for seasoning
Set the brush for sprinkling

Sacred spittle bring ye hither

Meale and


now mix together,

oyle to either




Give the tapors here their

King the
Far from




was hy the



a speculator or seer, who, to have a complete sight,

be a pure virgin, a youth

who had

or at least a person of irreproachable

The method



saints-bell to affright
hence the evil sprite."

Another mode of consulting

means of



of such consultation


known woman,

and purity

is this



the conjuror,

having repeated the necessary charms and adjurations, with

the Litany, or invocation peculiar to the spirits or angels he
wishes to call (for every one has his particular form), the seer
looks into a crystal or berryl, wherein he will see the answer,
represented either by types or figures and sometimes, though
very rarely, will hear the angels or spirits speak articulately.
Their pronunciation is, as Lilly says, like the Irish, much in the


In Lodge's Devil's Incarnat of this Age, 1596, in the epistle

to the reader, are the following quaint allusions to sorcerers

"Buy therefore this Ch'isiall, and you

their common appearance
and read these





shall see


and you may be sure to conjure them without

crossings but if any man long for a familiar for false dice, a
spirit to tell fortunes, a charme to heale disease, this only book

can best fit him." Valiancy, in his Collectanea de Eebus HiberNo. xiii. 17, says
In the Highlands of Scotland a large
chrystal, of a figure somewhat oval, was kept by the priests to
work charms by wjiter poured upon it at this day is given to
cattle against diseases
these stones are now preserved by the
oldest and most superstitious in the country (Shawe).
were once common in Ireland, I am informed the Earl of
Tyrone is in jiossession of a very fine one." In Andrew's Continuation of Henry's History of Great Britain, p. C88, we read
"The conjurations of Dr Dee having induced his familiar spirit
to visit a kind of talisman, Kelly (a brother adventurer) was appointed to watch and describe his gestures." The dark shining
stone used by these impostors was in the Strawberry Hill collection.
It appeared like a polished piece of cannel coal.
Lilly describes one of these berryls or crystals.
It was, ha


with a cross at the top,
fts large as an orange, set in silver
and round about engraved the names oi" the angels Raphael,
Gabriel, and Uriel.
A delineation of another is engraved in

This mode of inquiry was practised by Dr. Dee, the celebrated mathematician.
His speculator was named Kelly. From him, and others practising this art, we have a long muster-roll of the infernal host, their
different natures, tempers, and appearances.
Dr. Reginald
the frontispiece to Awbrey's Miscellanies.

Scot has given us a


their art




of the chiefs of these devils or

These sorcerers, or magicians, do not always employ

but, on the contrary, frequently exert
to do mischief

to cure

diseases inflicted

by witches,


discover theives,

recover stolen goods, to fortell future events and the state of

absent friends.


this account they

are frequently called

White Witches.
Ady, in his candle in the dark,



speaking of


up and down to play their tricks in fayrs and

markets, says: "I will speak of one man more excelling in
that craft than others, that went about in King James his time,
and long since, who called himself the King's Majesties most excellent Hocus Pocus, and so was he called, becaus that at the

juglers, that go

playing of every trick he used to say:

ontus, vade celeriter jubeo,' a dark

blinde the

ej'es of


Hocus pocus, tontus, talcomposure of words to


In the Character of a Quack-Astrologer, 1673, our wise man,

"a gipsy of the uper form,"' is called "a three-penny prophet
that undertakes the telling of other folks' foriimes, meerly to
supply the pinching necessities of his o?cn." Ibid, signat B. 3,
our cunning man is said to "begin with theft; and to help
people to what they have lost, picks their pocket afresh: not a
ring or a spoon is nim'd away, but pays him twelve-pence toll,
and the ale-drapers' often-straying tankard yeilds him a constant revenue: for that purpose he maintains as strict a correspondence with gilts and lifters as a montebank with applauding
midwives and recommending nurses: and if at any time, to
keep up his credit with the rabble, he discovers anything, 'tis
done by the same occult hermetic learning, hertofor profast
by the renowned Moll Cutpurse."



The following curious passage is from Lodge's Incarnato

13: "There are many in London now adaies

Devils, lo9H, p.

whom I saw on a white

horse in Fleet street, a tanner knave I never lookt on, who
that are besotted with this sinne, one of

with one figure (cast out of a schollcr's studie for a necessary

servant at Borcordo) promised to find any man's oxen were they

any man's goods if they were stolne, and win any

where or howsoever he settled it, but his jugling
knacks were quickly discovered.
In Articlas of Inquirie given in Charge by the Bishop of
Sarum, a. d. 1614, is the following: "67. Item, whether you
have any conjurers, charmers, calcours, witches, or fortunetellers, who they are, and who do resort unto them for counrestore






In the Statistical Account of Scotland, xii, 465, in the account of the parish of Kirkmichael, county of Banfif, we read:
"Among the branches into which the moss-grown trunk of
superstition divides itself, may be reckoned witchcraft and
These, though decayed and withered by time, still



faint traces of their ancient verdure.


present witches are supposed, as of old, to ride on broomsticks

through the

In this country, the 12ih of



their festivals.




one of


of that day ihey are frequently

seen dancing on the surface cf the water oi Avon, brushing the

dews cf the lawn, and milking cows in their fold.
Any un-




generally attributed to their demoniacal

They make



barren or

fertile, raise

whirlwinds, give or take away milk at pleasure.

their incantations







force of

not to be resisted, and extends even to the

the midst of her aerial career.

It is

the good fortune,

however, of this country to be provided with an anti-conjuror

that defeats both them and their sable patron in their combined
His fame is widely diffused, and wherever ho goes
crescil eundo.

^t is


If the



jealous of her husband, the anti-

consulted to restore the affections of his bewitched

If a near



confined to the bed of sickness,

vain to expect relief without the balsamic medicine of the


If a

person happens to be deprived of his senses,



the deranged cells of the brains must be adjusted by the magio

charms of the anti-conjuror.
If a farmer loses his cattle, the

houses must be purified with water sprinkled by him. In

searching for the latent mischief, this gentleman never fails to
find little parcels of heterogeneous ingrediments lurking in the
walls, consisting of the legs of mice and the wings of bats; all
the work of the witches. Few things seem too arduous for his
abilities; and though, like Paracelsus, he has not as yet boasted
of having discovered the philosopher's stone, yet, by the power
of his occult science,


still attracts

a little of their gold from

and in this way makes a shift to

acquire subsistence for himself and family.''
There is a folio sheet, printed at London, 1561, preserved in a
the pockets where



collection of Miscellanies in the archives of the Society of Anti-

quaries of London, lettered Miscel. Q. Eliz. No. 7, entitled,

" The unfained retractation of Fraunces Cox, which he uttered

the pillery in

Chepesyde and elsewhere, accordyng

commaundement anno

to the

beying accused for the use of certayne sinistral and divelysh artes."
this he says that from a child he began " to practise the most
divelish and supersticious knowledge of necromancie, and invocounsels

1561, 25tb of June,

cations of spirites, 'and curiouo astrology.

He now

utterl}' re-

nounces and forsakes all such divelish sciences, wherein the

name of God is most horribly abused, and society or pact with
wicked spirits most detestably practised, as necromancie, geom.
ancie, and that curious part of astrology wherein is contained
the calculating of nativities or casting of nativities, with



other magikes."


Ghost," according to Grose, "

is supposed to be the spirit

commissioned to return for
some especial errand, such as the discovery of a murder, to procure restitution of lands or money unjustly withheld from an
orphan or widow, or, having committed some injustice whilst

of a person deceased,




cannot rest






sion of spirits revisiting this world


Sometimes Iho occa-

inform their heir in

what secret place, or i^rivate drawer in an old trunk, they had
hidden the title deeds of the estate; or where, in troublesome
times, they buried their mone}^ or plate.
Some ghosts of mur
dered persons, whose bodies have been secretly buried, cannot
be at ease till their bones have been taken up, and deposited in
consecrated ground, with all the rites of Christian burial. This
idea is the remains of a very old piece of heathen superstition:
the ancients believed that Charon was not permitted to ferry
over the ghosts of unburied persons, but that they wandered up and down the banks of the river Styx for an hundred years, after
which they were admitted to a passage.
" Sometimes ghosts appear in consequence of an agreement
made, whilst living, with some particular friend, that he who
Glanvil tells us of
first died should appear to the survivor.
the ghost of a person who had lived but a disorderly kind of


it was condemned to wander up and down the

company of evil spirits till the day of judgment.
In most of the relations of ghosts they are supposed to be mere



t irth,


in the

without substance, and that they can pass through

solid bodies at pleasure.
A particular instance
f this is given in Eelatiun the 27th in Glanvil's Collection,
ivhere one David Hunter, neatherd to the Bishop cf Down and

"?riul beings,

and other

Connor, was for a long time haunted by the apparition of an old

woman, whom he was by a secret impulse obliged to follow

whenever she appeared, which he says he did for a considerable

if in bed with his wife: and because his wife could
not hold him in his bed, she would go too, and walk after him
till day, though she saw nothing; but his little dog was so well
acquainted with the apparition, that he would follow it as well
as his master.
If a tree stood in her walk, he observed her always to go through it.
Notwithstanding this seeming immaterialitj', this very ghost was not without some substance;
having performed her errand, she desired Hunter to lift her
from the ground, in the doing of which, he says, she felt just
like a bag of feathers. We sometimes also read of ghosts striking
violent blows; and that, if not made way for, they overturn all
time, even




impediment, like a furious wbirhvintl.

Glanvil mentions an
17tli, of a Dutch lieutenant who had
the faculty of seeing ghosts; and who, being prevented making
way for one which he mentioned to some friends as coming
towards them, v/as, with his companions, yiolentlj'^ thrown down,

instance of this, in Eelation

and sorely bruised. We further learn, by Relation 16th, that

the hand of a ghost is as cold as a clod.'
" The usual time at which ghosts make their appearance is
midnight, and seldom before it is dark; though some audacious spirits have been said to appear even by daylight: but of
this there are few instances, and those mostly ghosts who have
been laid, perhaps in the Eed Sea (of which more hereafter),
and whose times of confinement wei'e expired: these, like felons
confined to the lighters, are said to return more troublesome
and daring than before. No ghosts can appear on Christmas
Eve; this Shakspeare has put into the mouth of one of his char'

Ghosts," adds Grose, "

acters in

commonly appear in the same dress

they usually wore whilst living; though they are sometimes
clothed all in white; but that is chiefly the churchyard ghosts,
who have no particular business, but seem to appear pro bono

drunken rustics from tumbling over their

cannot learn that ghosts carry tapers in their hands,
as they are sometimes depicted, though the room in which they
appear, if without fire or candle, is frequently said to be as light
Dragging chains is not the fashion of English ghosts;
as day.
chains and black vestments being chiefly the accoutrements of
foreign spectres, seen in arbitrary governments: dead or alive,
English spirits are free.
" If, during the time of an apparition, there isa lighted candle
in the room, it will burn extremely blue: this is so universally
acknowledged, that many eminent i^hilosophers have busied
themselves in accounting for it, without once doubting the truth
of the fact. Dogs, too, have the faculty of seeing spirits, as is
instanced in David Hunter's relation, above quoted but in that
case they usually show signs of terror, by whining and creeping
to their master for protection: and it is generally supposed that
they often see things of this nature when their owner cannot

publico, or to scare



there being son:e"persons, particularly those born on a Christmas


who cannot see spirits.

The coming of a spirit


b)' a variety


r.nnounced some time before its

and dreadful noises; sometimes

of loud

rattling in the old hall like a coach

and down the



staircase like the trundling of

and rumbling up
bowls or cannon-

open, and the spectre stalks

and opening the curtains, looks
steadfastly at the person in bed by whom it is "seen; a ghost
being very rarely, visible to more than one person, although there
It is here necessary to observe, that it
are several in company.
has been universally found by experience, as well as affirmed by
divers aj^paritions themselves, that a ghost has not the power to
speak till it has been first spoken to: so that, notwithstanding
the urgency of the business on which it may come, everytLing
must stand still till the person visited can find sufficient courage
to speak to it: an event that sometimes does not take place for
many years. It has not been found that female ghosts are more
loquacious than those df the male sex, both being equally restrained by this law.
" The mode of addressing a ghost is by commanding it, in
the name of the three persons of the Trinitj', to tell you who it
is, and what is its business: this it mny be necessary to repeat
three times; after which it will, in a low and hollow voice, declare its satisfaction at being spoken to, and desire the party addressing it not to be afraid, for it will do him no harm. This
being premised, it commonly enters its narrative, which being
completed, and its requests or commands given, with injunctballs.

At length the door





the bed's foot,

ions that they be immediately executed,

it vanishes away, frequently in a flash of light; in which case, some ghosts have been
so considerate as to desire the party to whom they appeared to

Sometimes its departure is attended with deDuring the narration of its business, a ghost
must by no means be intewrupted by questions of any kind; so
doing is extremely dangerous: if any doubts arise, they must be
stated after the spirit has done its tale.
Questions respecting
its state, or the state of any of their former acquaintance, ar<3 offensive, and not often answered spirits, perhaps, being restrainf
shut their eyes.

lightful music.




cd from divulging the secrets of their prison-honse. Occasion,

spirits will even condescend to talk on common occur-



" It is somewhat remarkable that ghosts do not go about their

business like the persons of this world. In cases of murder, a
ghost, instead of going to the next justice of the peace and laying its information, or to the nearest relation of the person mur-

some poor laborer who knows none of the

draws the curtains of some decripit nurse or alms-woman, or hovers about the place where his body is deposited.
The same circuitous mode is pursued with respect to redressing
injured orphans or widows: when it seems as if the shortest and
most certain way would be to go to the person guilty of the injustice, and haunt him continually till he be terrified into a resdered, appears to




are the pointing out lost writings generally


aged in a more summary way; the ghost commonly applying to

a third person ignorant of the whole affair, and a stranger to all


it is


to scrutinize

too far into

these matters: ghosts have undoubtedly forms and customs peculiar to themselves.



after the first appearance, the persons



performing the message or business

committed to their management, the ghost appears continually
to them, at first with a discontented, next an angry, and at
length with a furious countenance, threatening to tear them
in pieces if the matter is not forllivrith executed: sometimes terrifying them, as in Glanvil's llelation 26th, by appearing in
many formidable shapes, and sometimes even striking them a
violent blow.
Of blows given by ghosts there are many instances, and some wherein they have been followed with an
or are prevented


incurable lameness.

"It should have been observed that ghosts, in delivering their

commissions, in order to ensure belief, communicate to the persons employed some secret, known only to the parties concerned and themselves, the relation of which always produces the
effect intended.
The business being completed, ghosts appeal
with a cheerful countenance, saying they shall now be at rest,
and will never more disturb any one; and, thanking their


by way


communicate to them something relawhich they will never reveal.

Sometimes ghosts appear, and disturb a house, without
deigning to give any reason for so doing: with these, the shortest and only way is to exorcise and eject them; or, as the vulgar
term is, lay them. For this purpose there must be two or three
clergymen, and the ceremony must be performed in Latin; a
language that strikes the most audacious ghost M'ith terror.
ghost may be laid for any term less than an hundred years, and
in any place or body, full or empty as, a solid oak the pommel of a sword a barrel of beer, if a yeoman or simple gentleman or a pipe of wine, if an esquire or a justice. But of all
places the most common, and what a ghost least likes, is the
Red Sea; it being related in many instances, that ghosts have
most earnestly besought the exorcists not to confine them in
that place.
It is nevertheless considered as an indisputable
fact, that there are an infinite number laid there, perhaps from
its being a safer prison than any other nearer at hand; though
neither history nor tradition gives us any instance of ghosts escaping or returning from this kind of transportation before their

of reward

tive to themselves,


In the Statistical Account of Scotland,

xxi. 148, parish of


communications from the Rev. A.

Johnstone, we read: " In opinion, an amazing alteration has
been produced by education and social intercourse. Few of the
old being able to read, and fewer still to write, their minds were
clouded by ignorance. The mind being uncultivated, the imagquihitter, in the additioDal

ination readily admitted the terrors of superstition.



pearance of ghosts and demons too frequently engrossed the

conversation of the young and the old.
The old man's fold,
sacrificed to the demon for his corn and cattle,
could not be violated by the ploughshare. Lucky and unlucky
days, dreams, and omens, were most religiously attended to,
and reputed witches, by their spells and their prayers, were artful enough to lay every parish under contribution.
In short, a

where the Druid

system of mythology fully as absurd and amusing as the mythology of Homer obtained general belief. But now ghosts and



no longer


The old man's







The sagacious old woman, who has survived her

and means, is treated with humanit)-, in spite of the
grisly bristles which adorn her mouth; and, in the minds of the
3'oung, cultivated by education, a steady pursuit of the arts ox
life has banished the chimeras of fancy.
Books, trade, manufacture, foreign and domestic news, now engross the conversation; and the topic of the day is alv\^ays warmly, if not ingenuously, discussed.
From believing too much, manj'-, particularto tillage.


ly in the higher walks of

life, have rushed to the opposite extreme of believing too little; so that, even in this remote corner,
scepticism may but too justly boast of her votaries."
Gay has left us a jjretty tale of an apparition. The golden
mark being found in bed is indeed after the indelicate manner
of Swift, but yet is one of those happy strokes that rival the felicity of that dash of the sponge which (as Pliny tells us) hit off

so well the expression of the froth in Protogenes's dog.

It is

impossible not to envy the author the conception of a thought

which we know not whether


to call

more comical or more point-


[The following singular account of an apparition is taken from

a magazine of the last century: " As I was turning over a parcel

some time ago, I discovered an original letter from

Mr. Caswell, the mathematician, to the learned Dr. Bentley,
when he was living in Bishop Stillingfleet's family, inclosing an
account of an apj^arition taken from the mouth of a clergyman
who saw it. In this account there are some curious particulars,
and I shall therefore copy the whole narrative without any omission, except of the name of the deceased person who is supposed
to have appeared, for reasons that will be obvious.
of old papers



To the Rev. Mr. Eichard Bentley, at my Lord Bishop of

"Worcester's House in Park Street, in Westminister, London.

When I was in London, April last, I fully intended
have waited upon you again, as I said, but a cold and lameness seized me next day; the cold took away my voice, and the
other my power of walking, so I presently took coach for Oxford.
I am much your debtor, and in particular for your good intentions in relation to Mr. D., though that, as it has proved, would






my advantage. However, I am obliged to

you upon that and other accounts, and if I had opportunity to
shew it, you should find how much I am your faithful servant.
" I havo sent you inclosed a relation of an apparition; the
story I had from two persons, who each had it from the author,
and yet their accounts somewhat varied, and passing through
more mouths has varied much more; therefore I got a friend to
bring me the author at a chamber, where I wrote it down from
the author's mouth; after which I read it to him, and gave him
not have turned to


another copy; he said he could swear to the truth of





as far as

the curate of Warblington,

of Arts of Trinity College, in Oxford, about six years standing
in the University; I hear no ill report of his behaviour here. He
is now gone to his curacy; he has promised to send up thehanda
of the tenants and his man, who is a smith by trade, and the
Mr. Brereton, the
farmer's men, as far as they are concerned.
rector, would have him say nothing of the story, for that he can
get no tenant, though he has offered the house for ten pounds a
year less. Mr. P. the former incumbent, whom the apparition
represented, was a man of a very ill report, supposed to have
got children of his maid, and to have murthered them; but I
advised the curate to SfcV nothing himself of this last part of P.,
but leave that to the parishioners, who knew him.
Those who
knew this P., say he had exactly such a gown, and that he used


to whistle.






" I desire you not to suffer any copy of this to be taken, lest

some Mercui'y news-teller should print it,

sent up the testimony of others and self.
H. H. Dec.
" Narrative.


the curate had

15, 1695.

At Warblington, near Havant,

in Hampshire,

within six miles of Portsmouth, in the parsonage-house dwelt

Thomas Perce the tenant, with his wife and a child, a man-ser-


and a maid-strvant. About the beginning

anno 1G95, on a Monday, about nine or ten at night,
all being gone to bed, except the maid with the child, the maid
bing in the kitchen, and having raked up the fire, took a candl^


of August,



in one hand, and the child in the other arm, and turning about
saw one in a black gown walking through the room, and thence

out of the door into the orchard. Upon this the maid, hasting
stairs, having recovered but two steps, cried out; on which


the master and mistress ran down, found the candle in her hand,

neck with the other arm.

would not thatnight
tarry in the house, but removed to another belonging to one
Henry Salter, farmer; where she cried out all the night from
the terror she was in, and she could not be persuaded to go any
more to the house upon any terms.
On the morrow (i. e. Tuesday), the tenant's wife came to
me, lodging then at Havant, to desire my advice, and have consult with some friends about it; I told lier I thought it was a
flam, and that they had a mind to abuse Mr, Brereton the rector, whose house it was; she desired me to come up; I told her
I would come up and sit up or lie there, as she pleased; for
then as to all stories of ghosts and apparitions I was an infidel.
I went thither and sate up the Tuesday night with the tenant
and his man-servant. About twelve or one o'clock I searched
all the rooms in the house to see if any bod}'- were hid there to
impose upon me. At last we came into a lumber room, there I
smiling told the tenant that was with me, that I would call for
the apparition, if there was any, and oblige him to ccme. The
tenant then seemed to bo afraid, but I told him I would defend
him from harm and then I repeated Barbara celarent Darji,
(fee, jestingly; on this the tenant's countenance changed, so that
he was ready to drop down with fear. Then I told him I perceived he was afraid, and I would prevent its coming, and reshe grasping the child about


them the reason


of her crying out; she

peated Baralipton, &c., then he recovered his spirits pretty well,

and we left the room and went down into the kitchen, where we
were before, and sate up there the remaining part of the night,

and had no manner of disturbance.

" Thursday night the tenant and I lay together in one room
and the man in another room, and he saw something walk along
in a black gown and place itself agr.inst a window, and there
Friday morning the
stood for some time, and then walked off.
man relating this, I asked him why he did not call me, and I


thought that was a trick or flam he told me the reason

call me was, that he was not able to speak or
Friday night we lay as before, and Saturday night, and


why he


did not

had no disturbance either of the nights.

Sunday night I lay by myself in one room (not that where
the man saw the apparition), and the tenant and his man in one
bed in another room; and betwixt twelve and two the man heard
something walk in their room at the bed's foot, and whistling
very well; at last it came to the bed's side, drew the curtain and
looked on them; after some time it moved off; then the man
called to me, desired me to come, for that there was something
in the room went about whistling.
I asked him whether he had
any light or could strike one, he told me no; then I leapt out of
bed, and, not staying to put on my clothes, went out of my
room and along a gallery to the door, which I found locked or
bolted; I desired him to unlock the door, for that I could not
get in; then he got out of bed and opened the door, which was
I went in three or
near, and went immediately to bed again.
four steps, and, it being a moonshine night, I saw the apparition move from the bed's side, and claj) up against the wall that
divided their room and mine. I went and stood directly against
it within my arm's length of it, and asked it, in the name of God,
what it was, that made it come disturbing of us? I stood some
time expecting an answer, and receiving none, and thinking it
might be some fellow hid in the room to fright me, 7 put out my
arm to feel it, and my hand seemingly went through the body of it, and
felt no manner of substance till it came to the wall; then I drew hack
my hand, and still it was in the same place. Till now I had not the
least fear, and even now had very little; then I adjured it to tell
me what it was. When I had said those words, it, keeping its
back against the wall, moved gently along towards the door. I
followed it, and it, going out at the door, turned its back toward me. It went a little along the gallery.
I followed it a
little into the gallery, and it disappeared, where there was no

and before

came to the end of the galfound myself very cold from

my feet as high as my middle, though I was not in great fear. I
went into the bed betwixt the tenant and his man, and they
corner for


to turn,

where was the






complained of



being exceeding cold.




leaned over Lis master in the bed, and saw me stretch out my
hand towards the apparition, and heard me speak the words;
the tenant also heard the words. The apparition seemed to have

morning gown of a darkish color, no hat nor cap, short black

meagre vissage of a pale swartliy color, seemed to

hair, a thin

be of about forty-five or fifty years old; the eyes half shut, the
arms hanging down; the hands visible beneath the sleeve; of a
middle stature. I related this description to Mr. John Lardner,
rector of Havant, and to Major Battin of Langstone, in Havant
parish; they both said the description agreed very well to Mr.
P., a

former rector



of the place,

this the tenant

who has been dead above twenty


his wife left the house,


has remained void since.

Michaelmas-day, a man of Chodson,

Havant fair, passed by the foresaid parsonage-house about nine or ten at night, and saw a light
in most of the rooms of the house; his pathway being close by
the house, he, wondering at the light, looked into the kitchen
window, and saw only a light, but turning himself to go away,
he saw the appearance of a man in a long gown; he made haste
away; the apparition followed him over a piece of glebe land of
several acres, to a lane, which he crossed, and over a little
meadov/, then over another lane to some pales, v. hich belong to
which were
farmer Henry Salter, my landlord, near a barn,
some of the farmer's men and some others. This man went into
the barn, told them how he was frighted and followed fiom the
parsonage-house by an apparition, which they might see stand-

The Monday

after last

in Warwickshire, having been at

ing against the pales,


they went out; they went out, and saw

and make a hideous noise; it stood

some time, and then disapi^eared; their description agreed
with what I saw. This last account I had from the man himself,
whom it followed, and also from the farmer's men.
" Tho. Wilkixs, Curate of W."

scratch against the pales,


" Dec.

11, 1695,


The learned Selden

observes, on this occasion, that there was

never a merry world since the fairies left dancing and the pareon left conjuring. The opinion of the latter kept thieves in




and did as mnch good in a country as a justice of peace.

Bournen chap, ii., lias preserved the form of exorcising a
haunted Louse, a truly tedious process, for the expulsion of
demons, who, it should seem, have not been easily ferreted out
of their quarters, if one may judge of their unwillingness to
depart by the prolixity of this removal warrant.

Bourne's zeal in honor of his Protestant

The vulgar, he
end of his tenth chapter.
think them no conjurors, and say none can lay spirits





at the

but popish priests: he wishes to undeceive them, however,

to prove at least negatively that our own clergy know full



of the black art as the othert? do.

some African conand singular observation;

Miserable and wofal creatures that we are, we cannot so much



said to have insulted

jurors of old with this humiliating


as expel fleas,


less devils."

" Obsession of the devil is

In possession the evil

distinguished from possession in this:

In obsession,
one was said to enter into the body of the man.
without entering into the body of the person, he was thought to
besiege and torment him without. To be lifted up ''nto the air,
and afterwards to be thrown down on the ground violently,
without receiving any hurt; to speak strange languages that the
person had never learned; not to be able to come near holy
things or the sacraments, but to have an aversion to them; to
know and foretel secret things; to perform things that exceed
the person's strength; to say or do things that the person would
not or durst not say, if he were not externally moved to it; were
the ancient marks and criterions of possessions,"
In the Statistical Account of Scotland, xiii. 557, parish of
Lochcarron, county of Eoss, we read: "There is one opinion
which many of them entertain, and which indeed is not peculiar to this parisli alone, that a popish priest can cast out devils
and cure madness, and that the Presbyterian clergy have no
such power. A person might as well advise a mob to pay no att-ention to a merry-andrew as to desire many ignorant people to
stay from the (popish) priest."
Pliny tells us that houses were anciently hallowed against
vil spirits with brimstone
This charm has been converted by



what our satirist, Churchill, in his Prophecy of

Famine, calls " a precious and rare medicine," and is now used
(but I suppose with greater success) in exorcising those of our
later times into

unfortunate fellow-creatures


fetl themselves possessed


a certain teazing fiery spirit, said by the wits of the south to be

well known, seen, and


and^very troublesome in the north.


Divinations differ from omens in

indication of something that

is to

omen is an
which happens

that the



to pass,

it were by accident, without his seeking for it;

whereas divination is the obtaining of a knowledge of something
future, by some endeavor of his own, or means which he him-

to a person, as


designedly makes use of for that end.

Gaule, in his Mag-astromancers Posed aud Puzzel'd,

p. 165,

enumerates as follows the several species of divination: " Slweomancy, or divining by the elements; Aeromancy, or divining by
the ayr; Pyromancy,



Hydromancy, by water; Geomancy,

by the revelation of
word of God; Dcemonomancy, by the suggestions of evill daemons or devils; Idolomancy,
by idolls, images, figures; Psyehomancy, by men's souls, affections, wills, religious or morall dispositions; Aniinopomancy, by
the entrails of men, women, and children; Iheriomancy, by
beasts; Orniihomancy, by birds; Ichihyomancy, by fishes; Boianomancy, by herbs; Lithomancy, by stones; Cieromancy, by lotts;
Oniromancy, by dreams; Onomalomancy, by names; Arilhmancy,
by numbers: iograri^/iTnancj/, by logarithm es; Sternoinancy, from
the breast to the belly; Gasirotnancy, by the soiind of, or signes
upon the belly; Omphelomancy, by the navel; Chiromancy, by the
hands; Pcedomxincy, by the feet; Onychomancy, by the nayles;
Cephaleonomancy, by bray ling of an asses head; Tuphramancy, by
ashes; Capnomancy, bv smoak; Livanomancy, by burning of
frankincense: Carramancy, by melting of wax; Lecanomancy, by


earth; Iheomuncy, pretending to divine

the Spirit, and

by the

Scriptures, or




a basin of water; Caioxtromancy, by looking-glasses; Chartomancy,

(this is retained in 3hoosing Valentines,

by writing in papers

by knives or swords; Chrysiulloinancy, by

Dadalomancy, by rings Coseinomancy, by sieves Axinomancy, by sawes; Caitabomancy, by vessels of brasse or other
metall; Roadomancy, by starres; Spaialamancy, by skins, bones,
excrements; Scyomancy, by shadows; Astragalomancy, by dice;
&c.); Macharomancy,



Oinomancy, by wine;

Sycomancy, by figgs;

Typomancy, by the

coagulation of cheese; Alphitomancy, by meal, flower, or branne;

by grain or corn; Aleciromancy, by cocks or pullen;

by rounds or circles; Lampadomancy, by candles and
lamps; and in one word for all, Nagomancy, or Necromancy, by
inspecting, consulting, and divining by, with, or from the dead.*'


In Holiday's Marriage of the Arts,

of divination not in the above

4to., is



introduced a species
of them, entitled



Divination by the rod or wand is mentioned in the prophecy
Hosea, too, reproaches the Jews as bting infected
with the like superstition: " My people ask counsel at their
of Ezekiel.

stocks, and iheir siq^ declareth unto them,"

Chap. iv. 12. Not
only the Chaldeans used rods for divination, but almost every
nation which has pretended to that science has practised the

same method. Herodotus mentions it as a custom of the Alani,

and Tacitus of the old Germans.
[The earliest means made use of by the miners for the discovery of the lode was the divining rod, so late as three years ago
the process has been tried. The method of procedure was to
cut the twig of an hazel or apple tree, of twelve months' growth,
into a forked shape, and to hold this by both hands in a peculiar way, walking across the land until the twig bent, which was
taken as an indication of the locality of a lode.
The person


generally practices this divination boasts himself to be the

seventh son of a seventh son.

The twig

of hazel

bends in his




to the conTiction of the miners that ore is present; but

then the peculiar manner in which the twig is held, bringing
muscular action to baar upon it, accounts for its gradual deflection, and the circumUaaco of the strata walked over always
containing ore gives a farther credit to the process of divination.

The vulgar

notion, still prevalent in the north of England, ol

the hazel's tendency to a vein of lead ore, seam or stratum of
coal, &c., seems to be a vestige of this rod divination.

The virgula divina, or baculus divinatorius, is a forked

branch in the form of a Y, cut oH an hazel stick, by means
whereof people have pretended to discover mines, springs,
&c., underground.
The method of using it is this: the person
who bears it, walking very slowly over the places where he
suspects mines or springs may be, the effluvia exhaling from
the metals, or vapor from the water impregnating the wood,
makes it dip, or incline, which is the sign of a discovery.
In the Living Library, or Ilistoricall jJeditations, fol. 1621, p.
283, we read: " No man can tell why forked sticks of hazill
(rather than sticks uf other trees growing upon the very same
places) are
silver are.


to shev/ the places vvhere the vtines of




gold and

itselfe in the places, at the


tome where the same veines are." See Lilly's Historj^ of his Life
and Times, p. 32, for a curious esperiuient (which he confesses,
however, to have failed) to discover hidden treasure by the
hazel rod.
In the Gent. Mag. for February 1752, xxii. 77, we read
when he was upon his voyage to Scania, hearing his
secretary highly extol the virtues of his divining wand, was willing to convince Inm of its insufficiency, and for that purpose
concealed a purse of one hundred ducats under a ranunculus,
which grew by itself in a meadow, and bid the secretary Imd it
The wand discovered nothing, and M. Linnseus's
if he could.
mark was soon trampled down by the company who were


present; so that

ment by
to seek


when M. Liunaus went

to finish the


fetching the gold himself, he was utterly at a loss where


The man with the wand assisted him, and proway they were going, but <juito

that he could not lie the



and actually
dug out the gold. M. Linnaeus adds, that such another experiment would be sufficient to make a proselyte of him." "We read;
in the same work for Nov. 1751, xxi. 507: " So early as Agriccla
the divining rod was in much request, and has obtained great
credit for its discovery where to dig for metals and springs of
water: for some years past its reputation has been on the decline,
but lately it has been revived with great success by an ingenious
gentleman, who, from numerous experiments, hath good reason
He says, that
to believe its effects to be more than imagination.
hazel and willow rods, he has by experience found, will actualthe contrary: so pursued the direction of his wand,

answer with all persons in a good state of health, if they are

used with moderation and at some distance of time, and after
meals, when the operator is in good spirits.
The hazel, willow,
and elm, are all attracted by springs of water; some persons
have the virtue intermittently; the rod, in their hands, will attract one half-hour, and repel the next.
The rod is attracted
by all metals, coals, amber, and lime-stone, but with different
degrees of strengtli. The best rods are those from the hazel, or
nut tree, as they are pliant and tough, and cut in the winter
months. A shoot that terminates equally forljied is to be met
with, two single ones, of a length and size, may be tied together with a thread, and will answer as well as the other."
In the Supplement to the Athenian Oracle, p. 234, v/o read,
the experiment of a hazel's tendency to a vein of lead ore
is limited to St. John Baptist's Eve, and that with an hazel of
that same year's growth."


This is a species of divination performed by opening tho
works of Virgil, &c., and remarking the lines which shall be
covered with your thumb the instant the leaves are opened; by
which, if they can be interpreted in any respect to relate to you,
they are accounted prophetic.
This custom appears to have





been of very ancient date, and was tried with Homer's poem as
well as Virgil's. They who applied to this kind of oracle were
said to try the sortes Ilomericce, or sories Virgiliance.

King Charles the First is said to have tried this method of

fate, and to have found the oracle but too certain.

learning his

Dr. Johnson, in his Life of Cowley, suspects that great poet

have been tinctured with this superstition, and to have con-

sulted the Virgilian lots on the great occasion of the Scottish

and that he gave credit to the answer of the oracle.


Dr. Ferrand, in his Love Melancholy, 1610, p. 177, mentions

the " kinde of divination by (he opening of a hooke at all adventures;
and this was called the Vale)dmian chance, and by some sories

of which the






Emperor Adrian was wont



adds, " I shall omit to speak here of as-

tragalomancy, that wae done with huckle bones; ceromancy, and


other such like fooleries."

Dr. Nathaniel



his Daemonologie, ]650, p. 81, says:


sorcery, properly so called, viz. divination

much apparent how



For lusory


lotts, it


the state

groans under the losse by them, to the ruine of many men and
families; as the churches lament under the sins by them and
for other lots, by sieves, books, &c., they abound as witchery,





among the

ancient Christians practiced

similar kind of divination by opening the Old and Neio Testamoif.

Fall, vi. 333.
He is speaking of
who, marching from Paris, as he proceeded
with decent reverence through the holy diocese of Tours, consulted the shrine of St. Martin, the sanctuary and oracle of
Gaul. His messengers were instructed to remark the words of
'the psalm which should happen to be chanted at the precise
moment when they entered the church. These words most
fortunately expressed the valor and victory of the champions of

See Gibbon's Decline and


A. D.



heaven, and the application was easily transferred to the newJoshua, the new Gideon, who went foiih to battle against the
enemies of the Lord. He adds: " This mode of divination, by
accepting as an omen the first sacred words which in particular
circumstances should be presented to the eye or ear, was derived





from the Pagans, and the Psalter or Bible was substituted to the
poems of Homer and Virgil. From the fourth to the fourteenth
century, these sories sanciorum, as they are styled, were repeat-


condemned by the decrees

by kings, bishops, and




and repeatedly



Mr. Pennant gives an account of another sort of divination
used in Scotland, called sleina-nachd, or reading ihe speal bone, or
(Mr. Shaw'
the hlade-hone of a shoulder of mutton, well scraped.
says picked; no iron must touch it.") See Tacitus's Annals, xiv.
When Lord Loudon, he says, was obliged to retreat before the
rebels to the isle of Skie, a common soldier, on the very moment
the battle of Culloden was decided, proclaimed the victory at
that distance, pretending to have discovered the event by looking through the bone.
Selden tells us: " Under Henry the Second, one "William
Mangunel, a gentleman of those parts, finding by his skill of
prediction that his wife had played false with him, and conceived by his own newphew, formally dresses the shoulder-bone
of one of his own rammes, and sitting at dinner (pretending it
to be taken out of his neighbor's flocke) requests his wife
(equalliag him in these divinations) to give her judgment. She
ciiriously observes, and at last with great laughter casts it from
The gentleman importuning her reason of so vehement an
affection, receives answer of her, that his wife, out of whose
flocke that ramme was taken, had by incestuous copulation with
her husband's nephew fraughted herself with a young one. Lay
all together and judge, gentlewomen, the sequell of this crosse

But why she could not

was, as the other secret,


I will tell




as well divine of

have more

refers to Girald.

way, in his Travels into Persia,


vol. 1. p. 177,

that country too they have a kind of divination

a sheep.

whose flocke

skill in


cap. 11.



us, that in

by the bone






History of Lis Life unci Times, there

experiment of tbis sort made,



a curious

should seem, by the desire of


Charles the First, to

in what quarter of the nation he

he should have effected his escape, and
not be dicovered until himself pleased.
Madame "Whorewood
was deputed to receive Lilly's jiulgment. Ee seems to have
had high fees, for he owns he got on this occasion twenty

mi<ht be


safe, after

pieces of gold.


the Nauticum


directing Merchants,


how (by God's blessdangers which commonly happen

riners, Captains of Ships, Ensurers, &c.

ing) they


escape divers

in the Ocean, the

posthumous work of John Gadbury,



appears that figures were often erected concerning the voyages

of ships from London to Newcastle, &c. In p. 123, the predictor tells us his ansM^er was verified; the ship, though not lost,

had been

in great danger thereof, having unhappily

sprung a shroud, and whollj'

run aground

her keek At p.
93, there is a figure given of a ship that set sail from London
towards Newcastle, Aug. 27, 11 p. m. 1G69. This proved a forat Newcastle,


"As, indeed," saith our author, "under so

it had been strange if she had
missed so to have done; for herein you see Jupiter in the ascendant in sextile aspect of the sun; and the moon, who is lady
of the horoscope, and governess of the hour in which she weighed
anchor, is applying ad triuum Veneris.
She returned to Lontunate voyage.

auspicious, a position of heaven

don again very well


in three weeks' time, to the great

content as well as advantage of the owner."



his History of Great Britain,

astrology, tells us: "

Nor did



speaking of

this passion for penetrating into

among the common people, but also among

persons of the highest ranke and greatest learning.
All our

futurity prevail only


and many of our





and great barons, had

in all undertakings of great importance."

ha observes,

their astrol-

resided in their families, and were consulted by

ibid. chap. iv. p. 4.03,

The great man,

kept these " to cast the hor-

oscopes of his


cliil Jren,



discover the success of his designs, and

" Their predictions,"

were couched in very general and artful terms." In

the public events that were to happen.

he adis,


another part of his history, however, Dr. Henry sajs:



ogy, though ridiculous

and delusive in itself, hath been the best

friend of the excellent and useful science of astronomy."

Zouch, in his edition of Walton's Livos, 179G, p. 131, note,

mentioning Queen Mary's reign: "Judicial astrology was
much in use long after this time. Its predictions were received
with reverential awe; and men even of the most enlightened
understandings were inclined to believe that the conjunctions

and oppositions of the planets had no little influence in the affairs of the world.
Even the excellent Joseph Mede disdained


apply himself to the study of astrology."

ridiculed in a masterly


in Shakespeare's


King Lear,



sc. 8.

Mason, in his Anatomie of Sorcerie, 4to. Lond. 1612, p. 91,

mentions in his list of the" prevailing superstitions, " erecting
of a figure to tell of stolne goods. " In the Dialogue of Dives and
Pauper, printed by Pynson, a. d. 1493, among superstitious
prac:ises then in use and censured, we meet with the following:
" Or take hede to the judicial of astronomy- -or dyvyne a mans
lyf or deth by nombres and by th spere of Pyctagorus, or make
any dy vj^ning therbj'', or by songuary or sompnarye, the boke
remes, or by the boko that is clepid the Apostles lottis."
The severe author adds: "And alio that use any maner of
wichecraft or any misbileve, that alio suche forsaken the feyth
of holy churche and their Cristendome, and bicome Goddes
cnmyes, and greve God fall grevously, and falle into dampnacioa withontea ondc, but they amende thoym the soner."
Lodge, in his Incarnate Devils, 150G, p. 12, thus glances at the
superstitious follower of ths pl.met.iry houses: "And he ij so
busie in finding out tlio houses of tlie planets, that at last ho is
cither f.iine to house himselfo in an liospitall, or take up hi?
inn3 in a prison." At p. 11 also, is the following: "His name
i3 Curiositie, who not content with the studies of jirofite and
the practise of commendable sciences, setteth his mind wholia
on astrologie, negromancie, and magicke.
This divel prefers

an Epliimericles before a Bible; and his Ptolemey and Hali before Ambrose, golden Chrisostome, or S. Augustine: promise
him a familiar, and he will take a flie in a box for good paiment
He will show you the devill in a christal, calculate the nativitie of his gelding, tallce of nothing but gold and silver, elixir, calcination, augmentation, citrination, commentation;
swearing to enrich the world in a month, he is not able to buy
himself a new cloake in a whole year. Such a divell I tnewe in
my daies, that having sold all his land in England to the benefite of the coosener, went to Andwerpe with protestation to enrich Monsieur the king's brother of France, le fau Eoy Harie I
meane; and missing his purpose, died miserably in spight at
Hermes in Flushing." Ibid. p. 9o, speaking of desperation,
Lodge says: " Ho persuades the merchant not to traffique, because it is given him in his nativity to have lossa by sea; and
not to lend, least he never receive again."


Thekb was anciently a species of divination called onychomancy, or onj-mancy, performed by the nails of an unpolluted
boy. Vestiges of this are still retained.
Sir Thomas Browne,
as has been already noticed, admits that conjectures of prevalent humors may be collected from the spots in our nails, but
rejects the sundry divinations vulgarly raised upon them such
as that spots on the top of the nails signify things past, in the
middle things present, and, at the bottom, events to come.
That white specks presage our felicity, blue ones our misfortunes that those in the nail of the thumb have significations
of honor of the forefinger, riches.


"This," says Potter, in

Greek Antiquities,




was genany
by which

erally practiced to discover thieves, or others suspected of

manner they tied a thread to the sieve,

was upheld, or else placed a pair of shears, which they held
up by two fingers; then prayed to the gods to direct and assist
them; after that thej' repeated the names of the persons under
suspicion, and he, at whose name the sieve whirled round, or
moved, was thought to have committed the fact.
In the directions for performing divination by " coscinomancie,
crime, in this


or turning of a sieve," introduced in ITolidny's Marriage of the

Arts, 4to., the shears are to be fastened, and the side held iip

with the middle finger, then a mystical form of word ? said,

then name those that are suspected to have been the thieves,
and at whoso name the sieve turns, ho or she is guilty. This


of divination


and practiced

for their

mentioned there

to tell



also as


being more gen-

shall get such a person

spouse or husband. Mason, in tlie Anatomic of Sorenumerates, among the then prevailing super"Turning of o. sieve to show who had hewilched one."

cerii, 1612, p. 91,


Melton, in his Astrologaster,

p. 43, gives a

catalogue of


whereof this occurs:

"That if anything be lost amongst a company of servants, with
the trick of the sivo and sheers, it may bo found out againe,
and who stole it." Grose tells us that, to discover a thief by

superstitious ceremonies,

the sieve







must stick the point of the shears in

and let two persons support it, balanced

shears, j^ou

of the sieve,

upright, with their two fingers; then read a certain chapter in

the Bible, and afterwards ask

the thief,




Peter and


the persons you suspect.




On naming



suddenly round about.

Eeginald Scot, in his Discovery, p. 283, tells us that "Popish
priests, as the Chaldeans used the divination by sieve and

real thisf, the sieve will turn

sheers for the detection of theft, do practice with a psalter

key fastened upon the forty-ninth psalm,



discover a thief,

and when the names of the suspected persons are orderly put
into the pipe of the key, at the reading of these words of the





If tliou sawest a tliief


thou didst consent unto him,*


book will wagg and fall out of tlie fingers of them that hold it,
and he whose name remaineth in the key must be the thief." I
must here observe that Scot has mistaken the psalm it isthd
fiftieth, and not the forty-ninth, in which the passage which he

hr8 cited is found.

In the Athenian Oracle, i. 425, divination hy a Bible and key is
thus described "A Bible having a key fastened in the middle,
and being held between the two forefingers of two persons, will
turn round after some w'ords said: as, if one desires to find out


a certain verse taken out of a psalm

and those who are suspected nominated, and

the book and key will turn, else not."

is to


be repeated,

they are guilty,


BuETON, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, ed. 16G0, p. 538,
speaks of "cromnysmantia," a kind of divination wdth onions
laid on the altar at Christmas Eve, practiced by girls, to know

when they

be married, and how many husbands they

This appears also to have been a German custom.


shall have.

"We have the following notice of

of Naogeorgus's Popish





Barnabe Googe's translation


In these same dayes young wanton gyrles, that meete for marriage be,


search to






that shall their hus-

bands bee.

Four onyons, five, or eight, they take, and make in every one
Such names as they do fancie most, and best to think upon.
Thus neere the chimney them they set, and that same onyon

doth sproute, doth surely beare the name of their

good man.
Their husbande's nature eke they seeke to know, and all his




TVhenas the sunne hath,






the starrie



Unto some wood-stacke do they





wliile they there


Eche one drawes out a

faggot-stiche, the next that





and even be, and have no knots at all,

husband then they thinke shall surely to them falL
liut if it fowle iind crooked be, and knottie here and theare,
A crabbed, churlish husband then they earnestly do feare.
These things the wicked Papists beare," &c.

if it streiglit



LuPTON, in his Tenth Book of Notable Things, 1660, p. 300,
No. 87, says Lay a green ivie-leaf in a dish, or other vessel of
fair water, either for yourselfe or any other, on New-year's even,
at night, and cover the water in the said vessel, and set it in a
sure or safe place, until Twelfe-even nexte after (which will be
the 5th day of January), and then take the said ivie-leafe out of
the said water, and mark well if the said leafe be fair and green
as it was before, for then you, or the party for whom you lay it
into the water, will be whole and sound, and safe from anysicknesse all the next yeare following. But if you find any black
spots thereon, then you, or the parties for whome you laid it
into the water, will be sicke the same year following. And if
the spots be on the upper part of the leafo towards the stalke,
then the sicknesse or paine will be in the head, or in the neck,
or thereabout. And if it be spotted nigh the midst of the leafe
then the -sicknesse will be about the stomach or heart. And
likewise judge that the disease or grief will be in that part of the
body according as you see the black spots under the same in the
leafe, accounting the spots in the nether or sharp end of the

leafe to signifie the jmines or diseases in the feet.


be spotted


shall die that yeare following.


all over,


or few, at one time,





signifies that you, or the par-

You may prove

by putting them

this for

in water, for everie

one a leaf of green ivie (so that every leafe be dated or marked
to whom it doth belong).
This was credibly told mo to be very


In a most rare tract in


possession, dated April 23d, 1591,

by Thomas Bradshaw, we find a

paraphrase upon the third of the Canticles of Theocritus, dialoguewise.
Amaryllis, Corydon, Tityrus.
Corydon says:
entitled the Shepherd's Starre,



a cnstomo amongst ns swaynes in Crotona, (an aun-

cient in Italy, on that side w here Sicilia bordereth), to

elect by our divination lordes and ladies, with the leaf of the

flower Telej)hilon, which being laide before the



leapeth unto

and skippeth from them whom it hateth.

Tityrus and I, in experience of our lott, whose happe it should
be to injoye your love, insteade of Telephilon we burned mistletoe and boxe for our divination, and unto me, Amaryllis, you
fled, and chose rather to turne to an unworthy shepherd than to
burn like an unworthy lover." Signat. G. 2. "Lately I asked




counsell of Agrgso, a prophetesse,

ever love mee: she taught

leafe that




know Amaryllis should



hilon, because


to take Telephilon, a

pepper beareth, so called of Delej

foresheweth love, and to clap Ihe leaves in the palmo of my

hand. If they yeelded a great sound, then surely shee should
love me great! j ; if a little sound, then little love. But either I
was deafe, being senceles through love, or else no sound at all was
heard, and so Agrseo the divinatrix tolde




a true rule.


which the
flowers, some signifying death and some mourning, but none
belonging to marriage, do manifest that Amaryllis hath no respect of meane men." He had before said "I will go gather a
coronet, and will waave and infolde it with the knottes of truest
love, with greene laurell, Apollo's scepter, which shall betoken
her wisdom, and with the myrtle, fare Venus poesie, which
shall shewe her beautie. And with amaranthus, Diana's herbe,
whereby bloud is stenched, so may shee imitate the herbe, and
have remorse."
I preferre


in sorrowful hast, of




are indebted to that valuable and interesting magazine

" Popular SScieuce Mouthly," lor the following explanation
It wan writtsn by a
of the i)henouienon of mind reading.
phyfiieiiin of high standing (George M. Beard, M. D.) who has
given much attention to this and kindred subjects.

In the history of science and notably in the history of i^hysiology

and medicine, it has often happened that the ignorant and obscure have stumbled upon facts and phenomena which, though
wrongly interpreted by themselves, yet, when investigated and
The phenexplained, have proved to be of the highest interest.
omena of the emotional trance, for example, had been known for
ages, but not until Mesmer forced them on the scientific world,
by his public exhibitions and his ill-founded theory of animal
magnetism, did they receive any serious and intelligent study.
Similarly the general fact that mind may so act on body as to
produce involuntary and unconscious muscular motion was by
no means unrecognized by physiologists, and yet not until the
* mind-reading " excitement two
years ago was it demonstrated
that this principle could be utilized for the finding of any object
or limited locality on which a subject, with whom an operator is
in physical connection, concentrates his mind.
Although, as I have since ascertained, experiments of this kind
had been previously pe.-formed in a quiet, limited way in private
circles, and mostly by ladies, yet very few had heard of cr witnessed them; they were associated in the popular mind very
naturally with " mesmerism " ot "animd magnetism," and by
some were called " mesmeric games," The physiological explanation had never been even suggested hence the first public
exhibitions of Brown, with his brilliantly successful demonstrations of his skill iu this direction, were a new revelation to phy;

siologists as well as to (he scientific

The method
but one of

world in general.

of mind-reading introduced

many methods

by Brown, which

that have been or

may be







operator, usually blind-folded, firmly applies the back


of the

hand of the snbject

be operatad on against Lis own


hand presses

forehead, and with his other



upon the palm

fingers of the subject's hand. In this position

if sufficiently

expert, the slightest

tension, or relaxation, in the

quests the subject


he can detect,
movement, impulse, tremor,

He then remind on some locality in the

or on some one of the letters of
of the subject.

to concentrate his

room, or on some hidden object,

the alphabet suspended aloDg Ihe -wall.
The operator, blindfolded, marches sometimes very rapidly with the subject up and
down the room or rooms, up and down stairways, or out-of-doors
through the streets, and, when he comes near the locality on
which the subject is concentrating his mind, a slight impulse or




to his

hand by the hand of the sub-


both involuntary and unconscious on the part

is not aware, and is unwilling, at first, to
believe, that he gives any such impulse; and yet it is sufficient
to indicate to the expert and practised operator that he has arrived near the hidden object, and then, by a close study and
careful trials in different directions, upward, downward, and at
various points of the compass, he ascertains precisely the locality, and is, in many cases, as confident as though he had received verbal communication from the subject.

This impulse

of the subject.



Even though the article on which the subject concentrates his

mind be very small, it can quite frequently be picked out from
a large number, provided the subject be a good one, and the operator sufficiently skillfuh




sometimes found

once, with scarcely any searching, the operator going to




without hesitation, and with a celerity and precision that,

and until tha physiological explanation is under-

at first sight,

most thoughtful and skeptical,

saw Brown, before a large audience, march off
rapidly through the aisle and find at once the person on whom
the subject was concentrating Lis mind, although there was the
privilege of selecting any one out of a thousand or more present.)
These experiments, it should be added, are performed in public
or private, and on subjects of unquestioned integrity, in the
presence of experts, and under a combinution of circumstance

stood, justly astonish even the


New Haven


and conditions

for the elimination of sources of error that


necessary to rule out at once the possibility of collusion.

The alternative is, therefore, between the actual transfer of

fhought from subject to operator, as has been claimed, and the
theory of unconscious muscular motion and relaxation on the
part of the sulject, the truth of which 1 have demonstrated by
numerous experiments.
One of the gentlemen with whom

I have experiment, Judge

powers directly after I first
called public attention to the subject in New Haven, claims to
succeed, even with the most intellectual persons, provided they

Blydenberg, who bcgnn to



\vith the conditions,

concentrate their minds.


test his


and honestly and persistently

One fact

of interest, with regard to his

the exceeding minuteness of the objects that he


of the audience empty their pockets cn

covered vith a medley of keys, knives,
trinkets, and miscellaneous small oljects.
Out of them the
6u1 ject belects a small sec<l a littlo larger than a pea, and even



the table, until



Kcme searching, hits precisely.

bunch of keys, throw them on the table,
and he picks out the very one on which the subject concentrates

this the operator, after

One may

take a large

his mind.


fact of interest in his

thinks ovtr a
and, after



is that, if

a subject

of articles in different parts of the room,

some doubt and

hesitation, finally selects



the operator will lead him, sometimes successively, to the different objects

on which he has thought, and will wind up w ith

He also performs what is

the one that he finally selected.
known as the " double test," which consists in taking the hand
who knows nothing of the hidden object, but
connected with another party who does know, and who
concentrates his mind upon it. The connection of these two
persons is made at the wrist, and the motion is communicated
from one to the other through the arms and hands. The
"double test" has been regarded by some as an argument
against the theory that this form of mind-reading was simply
the utilizing of unconscious muscular motion on the part of the
persons operated upon.
of a third party,







This gentleman represents that the sensation of muscular

very slight indeed, even with good suhjects; and, in order to detect it, he directs his own mind as closely as possible to
thrill is

the hand of the subject.

In all these experiments, with



mind-readers, the require-

for the subject to concentrate the

mind on

the locality

agreed upon is absolute; if that condition is not fulfilled, nothing can be done, for the very excellent reason that, without such
mental concentration, there will bo no unconscious muscular
tension or relaxation to guide the operator.

Experiments of the following kind I havo made repeatedly

with the above-named gentleman:
A dozen or more pins may be stuck about one inch or half an
inch apart into the edge of a table; I concentrate my mind on

any one

of these pins, telliug

no one.

room, gets the general direction

and, when he has ccme near to
the physical connection to one
firmly against one of mine, and

The operator

enters the

of the object in the usual way,

the row of pins, he will limit

of his index-fingers, pressing

way ho soon finds the

head of the pin on which my mind has been concentrated. The
only limitation of area in the locality that can be found by a
good mind-reader with a good subject is, that two objects should
not be so near to each other that the finger of the operator strikes
on both at once,
"When I began the study of this subject, I supposed, even after
the true theory of the matter had become clear to me, that very
small objects and narrow areas could not be found in this way.
Subsequent experiments showed that this supposition was erroneous. In a wide hall, in the presence of a large audience,
where the subject had the right to think of any object he chose,
Brown once found, after considerable searching, so limited an
area as a capital letter in the title of a newspaper pinned up on
About an hour af'er, in the
the wall and barely within reach
Bame place, he iound a very small vial out of quite a large number ranged in a row. Although reasoning deductively from the
known relations of mind to body, I had established conclusively
to my own mind that the so-called mind-reading was really
xnuscle-readiDg, yet I could cot believe, until the above-named
in this




experiments had been made, and frequently repeated, that it

possible for even the most expert operator to find Bnch
F.mall oljects; r.nd no physiologist, I am sure, vould have believed snch precision in these experiments conceivable until his
general deductions had been many times verified, and supplemented by observations in which every source of error was

guarded ag.ninst.
As already remarked, there are a variety of ways of making
the physical connection between subject and oj^erator. A lady
may go out of the room, and while she is absent an object is
hidden. She returns, and two ladies, who know where the object is, stand up beside her in the middle of the room and placo
both cf their hands upon her body, one hand in front, the other
behind; all three stand therefor a moment, the two subjects
who know where the object is, keeping their minds intensely
concentrated on that locality. In a moment or so this lady who
is to find the object moves off in the direction where it is, tho
other ladies with her still keeping their hands upon her, and in
nearly all cases she finds it. This is accomplished by the unconscious muscular tension of the two ladies who know where
the object is, acting upon the person of the lady who is seeking

have repeated with a number of amateur

cases with pretty uniform success.
method is easier, both to learn and to practice, than some of the
others; it is also far less artistic, and is not at all adapted for the
finding of very small localities. It illustrates, however, the
general principle of mind acting on body producing muscular
tension in the direction of that locality on which the thoughts
This experiment

performers, and in


are con'^entrated.


when the locality or its neighborhood is

not so distinctly appreciated in this method of ex-




perimenting, which


BufScient, however, to ens.ble the operator

to get the right direction




proceed until the corner or side

reached; then, by a combination of manipulation

and guess-work, she will, after a few trials, get hold of the pre-

of the

cise ol ject


hidden, or locality thought


Yrhen the operator

and subject are connected by the methods practised by i3rown.


it is

possible to detect also the relaxation

reached, and, guided by

when and where



the locality

the master in the art

to stop, and, in very





cases, feels abso-

and with a good subject is no more

liable to error than he would be to hear wrongly or imperfectly
if directed by wor J of mouth.
The special methods of muscle-reading here described may
be varied almost indefinitely, the only essential condition being,
that the connection between the subject or subjects is of such a
nature as to easily allow the sense of muscular tension or relaxInstead of two subjects, there may
ation to be communicated.
be three, four, or half a dozen, or but one. With a number of
lutely sure that


is right,

subjects the chances of success are greater thr.n with one, for
the twofold reason that the united muscular tension of all will

be more readily foU than that of but one, and because any single
subject may be a bad one that is, one who is capable of muscular control- -while among a number there will be very likely
one or more good ones. For these two reasons, amateurs succeed in this latter method when they fail or succeed but imperfectly after the method of Brown.
A method frequently used, although it is not very artistic,
consists in simply taking the hand of the olject and leading
him directly, or, as is more likely to be the case, indirectly to
the locality on which his mind is concentrated.
J. Stanley Grimes thus describes the performance of a mind-

"I repeatedly witnessed similar performances with different experts in this branch and under circumstances where every element of error from intentional or unintentional collusion was rigidly excluded. At the request of the
reader in Chiccgo:

company the same young lady was again sent from the room
and blindfolded, as on previous occasions. The gentleman requested the company to suggest anything they desired the
subject should be willed to do, thus removing any possibility of
It was suga secret agreement to deceive between the parties.
gested that the young lady should be brought into the room
and placed in a position with her face toward the north; that
the gentleman should then place his fingers upon her shoulder,

before; that she should turn immediately to the right facing





.incl proceed to a certain figure in tbc parlor-carpet;

tnrniug to the west, slie \vas to approach a sofa in a remote
corner of the room, from which she shouhl remove a small tidy,
which she should take to the opposite side of the room, and

the sontli,



upon the head

companj''; she

was then

of a certain

young gentleman in the

extreme end of the

to proceed to the

parlor, and take a coin from the right vest pocket of a gentleman, and return to the opposite side of the room, and place the
coin in the left ves^ pocket of another gentleman named; she was
then to remove the tidy from the head of the gentleman upon
whom it had been placed, and return it to the ide-u-ieie where
she originally found it.
"I must confess to no little surprise when I saw the young
lady perform, with the most perfect precision, every minute detail, as above desribed, and with the most surprising alacrity;
in fact, so quick were her motions that it was with the greatest
difficulty that the gentleman could keep pace with the young
lady's movements."
I have seen a performer who, though one of the pioneers in

this art, is far less skillful than


many with whom

take a hat from the head

private circle,

and carry


have experia small

of a gentleman in

across the

room and put it on the head

of another gentleman; take a book or any other object from one

person to another; or go in succession to different pictures hanging on the wall, and x^erform- other feats of a similar character,
while simply taking hold of the wrist of the subject. In the ex-

periment described by Mr. Grimes the subject placed three fingers of his right hand on the shoulder of the operator. Note the
fact that in all these experiments direction and locality are all that
the miud-reader finds; the quality of the object found, or indeed
whether it be a movable object at all, or merely a limited locality, as a figure in the carpet or on the wall, is not known to the
mind-reader until he picks it up or handles it; then if it be a
small obj ^,ct, as a hat, a book, or coin, or tidy, he very naturally
takes it and moves off with it in the direction indicated by the
unconscious muscular tension of the subject, and leaves it where
he is ordered by unconscious muscular relaxation. In the great
excitement that attends these novel and most remarkable exper-



imcnts the entranced audience fail to notice tliat the operator

reall}' Unds nothing but direction and localUy.
I have said that various errors of inference, as well as of observation, have been associated with these experiments. A young
lady who had been quite successful as r.n amateur in this art
was suljected by mo to a criiical analysis of her powers before
a large private audience. She supposed that it was necessary
for all the persons in the audience to concentrate their minds on
the sul jsct as well as those whose hands were upon her. I
proved by some decisive experiments, in which a comparison
was made with what could be done by chance alone, that this
was not necessarj^ and that the silent, unexpressed will of the
aiiclicnco had no effect on the operator, save certain nervous sensations created by the emotion of expectanc}'.
Similarly, I
proved that, when connected with the subjects by a wire, she
could find nothing, although she experienced various subjective
sensations, which she attributed to " magnetism," but which
were familiar results of mind acting on body.
Another lady, who is quite successful in these experiments,
thought it was necessary to hide keys, and supposed that " magnetism " had something to do with it. I told her that that was
not probable, and tried another object, and found that it made
She supposed that it was
no difiference what the object was.
necessary that the object should be secx'eted on some person. I
She does not always succeed
found that this was not necessary
in finding the exact locality at once, but in some cases she goes
directly to it; she very rarely fails.
In order to settle the question beyond dispute whether unconscious muscular action was the sole cause of this success in
finding objects, I made the following crucial experiments with
this Lidy:
Ten letters of the alphabet were placed on a piano,
the letters being written on large pieces of paper. I directed her
to see how many times she would get a letter which was in the
mind of one of the observers in the room correctly by chance
She tried ten times, and
purely, without any physical touch.
got it right twice. I thrn had her try ten experiments with the
hand of the person operated on against the forehead of the operator, the hand of the operator lightly touching against the fin-



hand, and the person operated on, concentrating her

t :e object, and looking at it.
In ten exj)eriments, tried this day, with the same letters, she was successful six times.
I then tried the same number of experiments
with a wire, one end being attached to the head or hand of tho
gers of



the while on


and the other end to the head or hand of the operator.

The wire was about ten feet long, and was so arranged being
made fast at the middle to a chair that no unconscious muscular motion could be communicated through it from the person on


she was operating.

She was successful but once out of

by pure chance she was successful
twice out often times; by utilizing unconscious muscular action
in the method of Brown she was successful six times out of ten.
Wben connected by a wire she was less successful than when
she depended on pure chance without any physical connection.
ten times.

In order

Thus we


see that

further to confirm this, I suggested to this lady to

find objects with two persons touching her

we have above


in the


two to deceive her, concentrating their minds on the object hidden, at the same time
using conscious motion toward some other part of the room.
These experiments, several times repeated, showed that it was
possible to deceive her, just as we had found it possible to deI told these


ceive other muscle-readers.

The question wli ether it is possible for one to be a good

muscle-reader and pretty uniformly successful, and yet not





is done, must be answered in the affirmbecome quite an adept in this art with-

the trick

It is possible to

out sTispecting, even remotely, the physiological explanation.

The muscular tension necessary

to guide the operator is but

and the sensation it produces may be very easily referred by credulous, uninformed operators to the passage of " magnetism;" and I am sure that with a number of operators on whom
I have experimented this mistake is made.
Some operators de-


clare that they cannot tell


is to

how they

them a mystery

find the locality, that their

these declarations are

made by

amateur performers, who have no motive to deceive me,

and whoso whole conduct during the experiments confirms
their statements.
Other operators speak of thrills or vibrations



xrhich tbey feel, auras and all sorts of indefinable sensations.

These manifold sj'mptoms are purely subjective, tbe result of
mind acting on the body, the emotions of wonder and expec-

tancy develoinng various phenomena that are attributed lo " animal magnetism," " mesmerism " or "electricity "in short, to

everything but the real cause. I have seen amateurs who declared that they experienced these sensations when trying without success to " read mind through the wires, or perhaps with-

out any connection with


subject whatever.

Persons who are

in the vicinity of galvanic batteries, even though not in the circuit, very often report similar experiences.



which sustain the theory that the




unconscious muscr.lar
tension and relaxation on the part of the subject may be thus


really mus('le-reading


Mind-readers are only able to find direction and locaUly, and,
must be in physical connection
wi:h th'j sul.ject, who must move his body or some portion of it
as the fingers, hand, or arm.
If the sul ject sits perfectly still,
and keeps his fingers, hand, and arm, perfectly quiet, so far as
it is possible for him to do so by conscious effort, the mindreader can never find even the hcalitrj on which the subject's
mind is concentrated; he can only find the direction where the
locality is.
Mind-readers never tell what an object is, nor can
they describe its color or appearance; locality, and nothing more
definite than locality, is all they find.
The object hidden may
be a coin or a corn-cob, a pin or a pen-holder, an elephant's
tusk or a diamonnd-pin it is all the same. Again, where connection of the operator with the subject is made by a wire, bo
arranged that mass-motion cannot be communicated, and the
subject concentrates his mind ever so steadily, the operator does
just what he would do by pure chance, and no more.
This I
have proved repeatedly with good subjects and expert perform1.

in order to find even these, thej'




subject can successfully deceive the operator in various

of all, by using muscular tension in the wrong diandmtiscular relaxation at the wrong locality, while at



the same time the



concentrated iu the right direction.



deceive a good oper.ator in





not always easy, but

can be acquired, and it is a perfectly

fair test in all experiments of this nature.
Yet another way to deceive the mind-reader is, to think of
some object or locality at a great distance from the room in which
the experiments are made, and, if there be no ready means of



i^ractice the art

I am aware that
the performer will be entirely baffled.
feats have been done in the way of finding

some very surprising

distant out-of-door localities

by muscle-readers, but in these

cases there has usually been an implied understanding that the

search was to be extended to out-of-doors; muscle-readers nave

thus taken their subject up and down stairs or from one room or
hall into another, and out-of-doors until the house or locality

was reached.
In Danielsonville, Connecticut, Brown, after an evening's exhibition in which his failures had been greater than usual (the
intelligent committee having the matter in charge

being prepared by previous discussion of the theory of unconscious mus-

and led him from the hotel in the

darkness through the streets, to some rather out-of-the-way
building on which the subject had fixed his mind. A somewhat
similar exploit is recorded of Corey, a performer in Detroit.
cular motion), took a subject,

Another wr.y in which deception may be jiractised is for the

some object or locality on the person of the
muscle-reader. This object may be a watch, or a pocket-book,
or a pencil-case, or any limited region of his clothing, as a butIf such a selection be made, and
ton, a cravat, or wristband.
the method of physical connection above described be used, the
experiment will be a failure, provided the muscle-reader does
not know or suspect that an object on his own jierson, is to be
Similarly, if the subject selects a locality on his own
person, as one ot the fingers or finger-nails of the hand that connects with the muscle-reader. When such tests are used, there
is not, so to speak, any leverage for the tension of the arm toward the locality on which the mind is concentrated, and the
muscle-reader either gets no clew, or else one that misleads
subject to select


When a


who has good

control over his mental




muscular movements, keeps the arm counected with the operator pcr/ed/^/ stiff, even thoufjh his mind be well concentrated on
the hidden oLject, the operator cannot find either the direction
or the locality. This is a test which those who have the requisite
physical qualifications can sometimes fulfill without difiiculty.
Here I may remark that the requirement to concentrate the
mind on the locality and direction sought for all the time the
search is being made is one that few, if any, can perfectly fulAny number of distracting thoughts will go through the
best-trained mind of one who, in company with a blindfolded
operator, is being led furiously up and down aisles, halls, streets,
and stairways, fearful each moment of stumbling or striking his
head, and followed, it may be, by astonished and eager investigators.
And yet these mental distractions do not seem to interfere with the success of the experiment unless the arm is kept
studiously rigid, in which case nothing is found save by pure
chance. The best subjects w^ould appear to be those who have
moderate pov.-er of mental concentration and slight control over
their muscular movements.
Credulous wonder-loving subjects
are sometimes partially entranced through the emotions of reverence and expectation; with subjects in this



are quite sure of success.


The uncertainty and

capriciousness of these experiments,

even with expert operators, harmonize with the explanation

here given. Even with good subjects all mind-readers do not
uniformly succeed; there is but little certainty or precision to
the average results of experiments, however skillfully performed.
An evening's exhibition may be a series of successes or a
series of failures according to the character of the subjects;


even in the successful tests the operator usually must try various
directions and many localities, sometimes for ten or fifteen minutes, before he finds the locality sought for; cases where the
operator goes at once in the right direction, stops at the right
locality, and knows when he has reached it, exceptional.
5. Many of those who became expert in this art are aware that
they succeed by detecting slight muscular tension and relaxation

on the part of the



operators have studied the subject scientifically,

and are


able to analyze witli considerable precision



different steps in

In the minds of many this fact alone is evidence

adequate to settle the question beyond doubt.
G. A theoretical and explanatory argument is derived from the
the process.

recent discovery of motor centers in the cort?x of the brain.

was repeating the experiments of Fritsch and Hitzig at the

when my attention -vvas first directed to the remarkable exhibitions of Brown, and the results of my studies in the electrical irritation of the brains of dogs and rabbits suggested to me
the true explanation of mind-reading before any opportunity
had been allowed for satisfactory experiments.
The motto "when we think, we move," which I have sometimes used to illustrate the close and constant connection of
mind and body, seems to be justified by these experiments on
the brain, and may assist those who wish to obtain a condensed
statement of the physiology of mind-reading. Taking into full


consideration the fact that


physiologists are not in full ac-

cord as to the interpretation to be given to these experiments,

phenomena are due to direct or reflex

must be allowed, by all who study this subject
experimentally, that thought-centers and muscle-centers are

whether, for example, the

action, still


near neighbors,


not identical.

The popular theory


account for these failures

ness or exhaustion of the operator; but both in


New Haven



the weari-

New York and

was observed that Brown met with his most

brilliant successes in the latter part of the evening, the reason

being that he happened then to have better subjects.

From an editorial in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal
(September 23, 1875), referring to the mind-reading exhibitions,
and accepting the explanation here given, I make the following

"The whole performance seems

to us to furnish good
one or two well-known principles of great physiological interest.
Of these the most important is one that finds
at once support and application in the modern doctrine of the
nature of aphasia and kindred disorders; namely, that the
thought, the conscious mental conception, of an act differs from
the voluntary impulse necessary to the performance of that act
only in that it corresponds to a fainter excitation of neryous een*

illustrations of


which in both cases are anatomically

Thus, in certain forms of aphasia, the power to think
iu words is lost at the same time with the power of si')eech. Some
persons think definitely only when they think aloud, and it
ters in the cortex cerebri


would readily be believed

interfered with


they were not permitted to read aloud.


a half-premeditated act of any kind slips often into per-


formance before

and uneduwould often be seriously

in the case of children

cated persons that the ability to read




aware of the

Further, there


reason to think, from the experiments of

Ilitzig, that


same centers may be excited by the stimulus of electricity so as

to call out some of the simpler co-ordinated movements of the
muscles on the opposite side of the body. Applying, now, this
principle to the case iu hand, it will be evident that for the person experimented with to avoid giving 'muscular hints,' of
either a positive or negative kind, would be nearly impossible."
In all tbese experiments it should be observed there is no one
muscle, there is no single group of muscles, through which this
tension and relaxation are developed; it is the finger, the hand,
the arm, or the whole bod}', according to the method employed.
Among the various methods of making connection between the

subject and operator, are the following:

1. The back of the subject's hand is held firmly again?t the
forehead of the operator, who, with his other hand, lightly
touches the fingers of the suLject's<4iand.



undoubtedly, the most

The hand

artistic of all

known methods.

of the operator loosely grasps the wrist of the




a very inartistic method, and yet great success

tentimes attained by


is of-


finger of the operator is applied to one finger of the

subject, papilla3 touching papillae.



a modification of the


method; by



small objects or localities are found.

connected in the usual way with a third

locality thought of by the subject,
but is connected with the subject by the wrist (" double test").
In this experiment, wliich astounded even the best observers.



oijerator is

who does not know the



the imconscions muscular motion was communicated from

Buliject to the

arm of tho

third party,


and through the arm of

the third party to the operator.

snljects, who agree on the locality to
apply their hands to the body of the operator in
front and behind.
This method is excellent for beginners, and the direction is
easily found by it; but it is obviously not adaj^ted for the speedy
finding of small objects; it is frequently used by ladies.

Two, Ihree or more

be thought



The hand

of the subject lightly rests

on the shoulder of the


methods the operator is usually blindfolded, so

no assistance from any other source than the
unconscious muscular action of the subject.



that he maj' get

The movements


may be
and reckless.

of the operator in these experiments

either very slow, cautious,


deliberate, or rapid

in his jiiablic exhibitions,

was very careful about getting

the physical connection right, and then



very rapidly,

sometimes in the right direction, sometimes in the wrong one,

but frequently with such speed as to inconvenience the subject
These rapid movements give
on whom he was operating.
greater brilliancy to public experiments and serve to entrance
the subject, and thus to render him far more likely to be unconscious of his own muscular tension and relaxation through which
the operator



The power of muscle-reading depends mainly, if not entirely,

on some phase of the sense of touch.
Dr. Hanbury Smith tells
me that a certain maker of lancets in London, had acquired
great reputation for the superiority of his workmanship.

Suddenly there was a falling off in the character of the instrument

that he sent out, and it was found that his wife, on whom he had
depended to test the sharpness of the edge on her finger or

thumb, had recently died.

That the blind acquire great delicacy of touch has long been
known; Laura Bridgman is a familiar illustration. Dr. Carpenter states (although there are

always elements of error through

the unconscious assistance of other senses in cases of this kind)



that Miss recognized bis brother,

met for a



she had not

by the touch of the hand alone

Every physician recognizes the fact of this difference of susand in the diagnosis of certain conditions
of disease, much depends on the tadus erudlius. I am not sure
whether this delicacy of perception, by which muscle-reading
ceptibility lo touch;




the ordinary sense of touch, tbat of contact,

or of some of the special modifications of this sense.




physiologists and students of diseases of the nervous system a


fact that there are several varieties of sensibility to

touch, to temperature, to pressure or weight,and to pain- -which,

possibly, represent different rates or


of vibration of the


The proportion of persons who can succeed

by the methods here described, is likewise


in muscle-reada natural subject

Judging from the fact that out of the comparitively

few who have made any efforts in this direction, a large number
have succeeded after very little practice, and some few, who have
given the matter close attention, have acquired great j)roficiency,
it is i)robable that the majority of people of either sex, between
the ages of fifteen and fifty, could attain, if they chose to labor
for it, with suitable practice, a certain grade of skill as musclereaders, provided, of course, good subje cts were experimented
It is estimated that about one in five or ten persons can
be put into the mesmeric trance by the ordinary processes; and,
of inquirj'.

under extraordinary circumstances, while under great excitement, and by different causes, every one is liable to be thrown
into certain stages or forms of trance; the capacity for the trancestate is not exceptional; it is not the peculiar property of a few
individuals it belongs to the human race; similarly with the
capacity for muscle-reading.

The age at which this delicacy of touch is most marked is an

inquiry of interest; experience, up to date, would show that the
very old are not good muscle-readers. I have never known of
one under fifteen years of age to study this subject; although it

conceivable that bright children, younger than that age, might

to acquire th art, certainly if

have sufficient power of attention

they had good instruction in it




In these mind-reading experiments, as indeed in all similar

or allied experiments with the living human beings, there are
fiix sources of error, all of which must be absolutely guarded
against if the results are to have

any precise and authorative

value in science.
1. The involuntary and unconscious action of brain and muscle, including trance, in which the subject becomes a pure auto-


have used the phrase "involuntary


"to cover


phenomena of the system that appear independently of

the will. The mnjority of those who studied the subject of mindreadidg even physicians and physiologists tailed through

want of a proper understanding or appreciation of


side of


Neglect of this source of error

2. Chance and coincidences.
was the main cause of the unfortunate results of the wire and

chain experiments with mind-readers.

3 Intentional deception on the part of the subject.
4. Unintentional deception on the part of the subject.

Collasion of confederates.

sources of error

it is

To guard



the above

necessary for the experimenter himself to

use deception.
6. Uuintentional assistance of audience or bystanders.
When the muscle-reader performs before an enthusiastic
audience, he is likely to be loudly applauded after each success;


the excitement be great, the applause, with shuffling and

may begin before he reaches the right locality, while

he is approaching it; when^ on the other hand, he is far away
from the locality, the audience will inform him by ominous
The performance thus becomes like the hide-and-seek
games of children, where they cry " "Warm " as the blindfolded
operator approaches the hidden object; ** Hot " as he comes
close to it; and " Cold " when he wanders far from it.
of the apparent successes with the wire-test may be thus exrustling,


In regard to all the public exhibitions of muscle-readers, it

should be considered that the excitement and eclat of the occasion contribute not a little to the success of the operator; the
ubjects grow enthusiastic are partly entranced,


may bo



become partners in the cause of iLe performer and unconBciously riJl liira far more tlian tliey would do in a similar entertainment that was purely private. In a private entertainment
of muscle-reading at vi'bicli I was present, one of the subjects,
while standing still, with liiii Lands on the operator, actually
took a step forward toward the locality on which his mind was
concentrated, thus illustrating in a visible manner the process
by which muscle-reading is made possible.
The subject under discussion, it will be observed, is to be
studied bolh inductively and deductively. The general claim
of mind or thou.qht reading is disproved not by any such experiments as arc hero detailed, no matter how accurate or numerous the;' may be, but my reasoning deductively from the
broad principle of phj'siolo'gy, that no human being has or can
have any qualifies dirercnt in hbul fjora those that belong to
the race in general. The advantage v.hich one human being
has over another not excepting the greatest geniuses and tho
greatest monsters is, and muct be, ct degree only.



Alchkmy was the most important branch


for its

of natural magic;

aim the transmutation of metals, that



the conver-

sion of the baser metals into solid, virgin gold.


attain this end, the alchemists sought as well to discover

powder of prcjection," as they termed it, which, thrown

upon any metal, instantaneously converted it into gold, as to

seek out the "Philosopher's Stone," or base of all matter, which

enjoyeel the additional property of repairing the ravages of dis-

and time upon the human frame, and, in this wise, securing
not only unlimited wealth but health and vigor to a very old


Authors of the Middle Ages, occupied by these day dreams,

be it understootl, the names of a goodly number of personages, who, they state, had actually discovered the philosopher'?





de Villeneuve was conducted tbrongli his researches

which he assumed to be the
"Elixir ot long life," but the augmented use ot this article, in
our day, experience has shown to be far from conducive to the
to the discovery of a substance,

health or happiness of a majority of the people.

In th^ following terms he announces his discovery in his

The Conservation of Y"outh."
" Who would have imagined that from wine we could extract

treatise entitled "

a liquid,

demanding diSerent treatment, which has neither


color, its nature,

its efifects?

or better. Water of Life {Aqua


This water



is spirits




of wine,

befits it for

causes us to live a long time."

Nicholas Flamel is the most illustrious of all those to whom

has been attributed discovery of the philosopher's stone. A
writing master and engraver, Nicholas Flamel succeeded in obtaining the most colossal fortune of his

the king came to tap the

the famous




so that, oftentimes,

chest of the artisan.



of Saint Jacques, from the bell of which, in a

subsequent century, rang the signal for commencing the Masand enriched the church with magnificent donations. He carried his luxury to such a degree as to
enact, during his lifetime, a mausoleum for Pernella, his wife,
and himself, covered with bas reliefs, in which alchemists in a
later day pretended to have discovered the various operations
indicated for the correct accomplishment of the Great Work.
Flamel himself declared that he had discovered the philososacre of St. Bartholomew,

pher's stone,


had a



according to the historian,


Martiuiere, his

marvellous origin.

Flamel, according to this version, had been called as a writing

master to make out an inventory of some goods to be sold at
auction, and among the articles he discovered a little manuscript
book, written in part in Hebrew and in part in some
characters which he purchased for three sous.


Several days afterwards Flamel and Pernella made a pilgrimage to the Church of Saint Jacques de- Galice. While returning
they encountered a Jewish rabbi, whom they accosted. Flamel

showed his book




to the labbi, who, having read it, informed

contained the veritable rules for making the philoso-


pher's stone,


Flarael offered the



work together

as faithful partners.

During the time that Flamel, PerncUa and the rabbi were
toil, the king issued a mandate
that all Jews mast instantaneously' evacuate France, carrying
nothing with them, as all their goods had been confiscated.
The Jews left their treasures in charge of Flamel, and as they
were all massacred, he found himself enriched from their stores.
In order not to be disturbed in possession of this sudden wealth,
laboring conjointly at alchemical

Flamel sagaciously circulated the report as

to his discovery of

the philosopher's stone.

Nevertheless, despite


the mishaps, encoTintered by those

to prosecution of the Great Work,

who have given themselves up

there are alchemists in these


there are a




At the present

of learned scholars devoted to the

practice of alchemy.
It is

curious to examine the recipes


to obtain

the philosopher's stone or the powder of perfection.

Here we have one of them:

"Take a crucible in which the earth of Saturn can be held at
a great heat. Then take a pound of river sand and as much
Place them in a crucible, over a strong fire, until they
and reduced to earth; then take glass and place it in
the aforesaid crucible, and above place a quantity of iron, which
cannot be dissolved at a red heat during twelve hours; after

are melted

which time you

carried off





and find your


which has

coloring matter and the gold which could be iron;

after that you pulverize the whole and put it into aqua regia;
which charges itself with r.ll the gold then you cause this to
evaporate, after which take the gold and place it in a crucible

purpose of melting it."

is another recipe, which is scarcely more clear;
"In the name of God, take a denier of fine gold, three deniers
of silver, melt them together, throw in ten deniers of saturne,
which is the true mediator, do not keep them long melted, but
throw in, as soon as possible, an ingot, which you have placed
in subtile filings, then mix with them a philosophic egg, hermetically sealed, and then consign them to the secret furnace. The
for the



This blackness, starting from ft small

matter will grow black.
continues night and day until you reduce your matter into


oil; at last it will


fire to

congeal and

commence to turn

ness will commence, augment

more days




and the red-


a degree for each one during forty days

another degree for thirty

becomes red as blood.

all practices of divination are to magic
however the most ancient of the soothsay-

Astrology, posterior as
properly so called,


ing devices.
If historians are to be believed it was invented by the Chaldean shepherds, who were the original observers of the stars and
chroniclers of regularity in celestial phenomena.
These shepherds in selecting their stars, in approximating
their appearance and occultation to certain circumstances in
daily life, were rapidly led to a conclusion that the human body
submitted to the influence of the bodies, peopling the firmament.
However some modern savants have given to astrology a totally dififerent origin from this creation popularly assigned to it.
In the first ages, say they, men, perceiving that monuments
erected to perpetuate memory of events could not resist the ravages of time, bestowed upon the stars, sole durable monuments,



cf heros or of




Clerc, a savant

of the twentieth century, has pubblshed in the eighth volume

of his " Uuiversal Library," a work by the Cyrean philosopher

Erathenes, in which the names of the constellations are explain-

ed after the historical

facts they


From Le Clerc's

authority, this origin has been assigned to judicial astrology.

The populace, philosophers

in themselves,

lieving the celestial bodies to be inhabited


concluded in beintelligences, to

which they should address their prayers, who likewise presided






Ancient Greece and Eome believed in astral influences.

Cbristiaiaity itself could not uproot this superstition which
was perpetuated down to the Eighteenth century.

Kings and great lords had their



they con-

sulted before embarking in any great enterprise, or affair of importance.



attempted nothing without the advice of Mortius

whom he had taken from the
court of Matthias Corvin, King of Hungary. It was in accordance
with his counsels that to prevent a war between France and
Burgundy, he journeyed to Peronne on a visit to the Duke of
This latter,
Burgundy, Charles the Bold, his mortal enemy.
happy of having Louis XL within his power, incarcerated him
Galeotti, a celebrated astrologer,

in the citadel at Peronne.

Louis XL furious against his astrologer, who had placed him

in this perilous situation, caused him, to


to his prison after

having notified Tristan the Hermit, excutioner of France, to

But the astrologer remarked the
hang him as he emerged.
headsman and his assistant in the antechamber, leading to the
royal apartments.

Louis XI. after having reproached him bitterly for bis treason,
addressed him this question: " Will your science allow you to
state the moment of ycur death ?
" Yes," replied Galeotti boldly, " I will die just twenty-four
hours before your majest3^"
This answer astonished the King, who was superstitious. He
reconducted in person the astrologer who went forth safe and
sound, thanks to his presence of mind.
Catharine de Medicis placed blind confidence in her astrologer, Euggieri.

Count of Boulainvil-



in the Eighteenth century, the



a great reputation as an astrologer.

be believed his prophecies were not always

to me," said the great writer, " that
I was to die in my thirty-second year, and behold for over thirty
years I have made him lie; I fear he will never forgive me."
At present astrology boasts few dupes; consequently it is only
If Voltaire is to



He announced

necessary to rapidly expose

an idea of the


futility of



cardinal principals to give mere-



Astrologers believe the stars to have a great influence

terrestial events



and they examine them:

To know the omens, promising success or reverses.

To know the character and destiny of a new born infant

this is called casting a horoscope.



create talismans.

This name is given to metal plates or precious stones, upon

which are engraved signs or characters, corresponding to the
various constellation.

These are worn upon the person

to pro-

pitiate the stars.

Astrologers divide the zodiac into twelve hours, each one cor-



one of the

twelve signs.




destiny varies according to the place of the sun in the heavens at



of birth.


He born beneath


this sign will


be happy in love and make a

fortune in business.



be a woman, she will be very intelligent but will not

and be an unfaithful

love work; she will have severe sickness

If a man, he will admire the
dying through accident.


liberal arts


and run the

risk of


The man, born beneath this sign, will be robust, presumptuous and cruel. He will be a miser at home and a prodigal outside,
nevertheless everything will be prosperous with him.
The woman will be weak in character, will cause great misfortunes through her indiscretion, her falsehoods and her calumnies.






A man,

born beneath this sign will be afflicted with many

He will be virtuous and a good father of a family.
Nevertheless he will have many enemies who will prosecute him


A woman


be handsome, gracious, learned and well behusband happy. At fifty years of age

loved; she will render her

Bhe will undergo severe sickness.


A man

born beneath


this sign will


be small


will speak

slowly and be of indifferent intelligence and unhappy iu his




A woman

will die poor.

commit many follies, be given to gosand scandal and addicted to drink. She will be the scourge
of her household
will be robust,






A man

born beneath this sign will be hardy, courageous, inwrath although gifted with a naturally good
His talents will bring him into good society and
make him ever welcome. He should anticipate great misforclined towards


The woman


humor. She
husband jealousy.

be beautiful, but headstrong and of a poutwill be deeply loved and will cause her
She will never have a large fortune.


A man

born beneath


this sign will



execute none; he will love study and the sciences.






very fortunate in love.

The woman

will be tall and good looking, much loved, and

have a great memory, and acquire the art of pleasing.




The man born beneath this sign will be wise and prudent;
manner will cause him to be beloved by every-

his agreeable


be unfortunate in his household.

be devoted to dancing; she will marry young
and render her husband happy.


The woman



A man

a long



born beneath this sign will be undecided and uncon-

He will make many enemies by his intrigues and remain

time poor. He will undertake many journeys, will marry

under difficulties, and Unisli through acquisition of fortune.

A woman, born during the month of October, will be handsome, of an excellent disposition, very intelligent and universally loved.
She will be annoyed by many law suits, out of
which she will come triumphant. Her marriage will be happy.


The man, born beneath

ion and travel much.


this sign, will


be of a light complexand be en-

will be devoted to labor

gaged in large business operations.

The woman will be good looking, quarrelsome and vary laborious.
She will be a victim to slander.


A man,

fine appearance.

and undergo severe


The man, born beneath


will encounter



this sign, will


be of diminutive


and very eloquent. Ho will bo poor in kia joutk^

travel much and lead a vexed existence.




born beneath this sign, will possess a handsome counHe will be haughty and given to tale beariDg a

woman will betray him.

The woman will be of




The woman

will be

good looking, of excellent disposition, and


tweIjFLH house.



The man, born beneath this sign, will be tall in stature,

proud, distrustful and indiscreet
nevertheless he will succeed

in his enterprises.

The woman


be aimable, coquettish and very unfortunate

in her old age.


upon the state of the heavens when the

undertaking has been commenced of which we seek to discover
the auspices. In practice, all astrologers vary so as to render
Foresights depend

the stars the more favorable.

Talismans are fabricated at fixed periods in accordance with

They are generally impressed with
seven stars, in this wise figureing the Great Bear, the Little
Bear, the constellation of Cassiope or of the Hydra.
influence of the moon.




not long ago, (he jewelers of Paris were in a high

and justly so, for the news had reached

them from lae Academy of Sciences that two chemists, MM. E.
Fremy and Fell, had discovered a process for the manuf.:cturo
by the pound of certain kinds of precious stones ranking in
value next to the diamond, and frequently commanding still
state of excitement,

larger prices than the hitter namely, the ruby, the sapphire,

and the most precious of


the Oriental emerald.




Parisian jewelers consoled themselves with the thought that the

genuine stones would always be preferred to the artificial ones,

but the excitement increased when it became known that 'MIL
Fremy and Feil did not propose to imitate precious stones, but
that iheir productions would be perfectly equal to the natural



and taat a watch would run on

on natural ones, becaaso botn

tlieir artificial


rubies as

them were equally

hard. Nov/ tho dealers in precious stones asserted that it was
sinful to imitate ITaturo's work in that manner, and that tho
Government ought to prohibit it. On tho other hand, a few cnwell as


ihnsiastio feuiudonistes proclaimed that tho discovery in question

foreshadowed a still more important one that of making gold

and diamonds; that the dreams uf tho alchemists were about to
be realized, and that poverty and wretchedness would be no

Of the prospect of poverty and wrt;;chedness coming to an end

say nothing here. As for the transformation of lead and
other base metals into gold and silver, we have to declare that
this branch of alchemy is something altogether different from
the manufacture of precious stones. Most of our modern chemists hold metals to be simple, immutable elements, which have
ahvays been what they are now, and which may change their
form, but never their peculiar nature. Not so with precious
stones, most of which, and especially those that are most highly


origin indeed.
In the eyes of tho
chemist the ruby, the sapphire, the topaz, etc., are simply modifications of one siibstance (alumina), which, as clay, forms tho

prized, are of very lowly

greater portion of the earth's crust;

the prince of all precious stones,

and the diamond, which is

simply pure crystallized


carbon, and so allied to charcoal, lampblack,

Other highly
esteemed precious stones, such as the emerald, the aqua-marina,
and chrysoberyl, on the one hand, and the hyacinth, on tho

other, contain "earths" chemically related to argillaceous earth



the former consists of beryl-earth, and the latter of

zirconia; but these earths in themselves are neither rare nor

some countries the streets are paved with the

The same is true of all other
including pearls
in the main they are formed
no value whatever, and to be found everywhere,

precious, so that in

irapurer brothers of the emerald.

precious stones,
of substances ot

such as agillaceous earth, silicic acid, fluor-spar, boracic acid,

Their only superiority consists in the fact
lime, magnesia, etc,
tkat tho common substance in them Las reached an extraordi-



nary degree of crystallization, for, aside from tlieir beauty, their

rarily enhances their value in the market.
Chemical combinations and simple substances of mineral as
well as ot organic nature assume their due crystal shapes, which
are so well defined as frequently to bear a strong resemblance to

those of cut stones, only

the solid

when they

and they assume a


transition takes place very slowl}'.

in hot water as

pend in the

For instance,


when this
we dissolve

much alum


as can be dissolved therein, and suswhile allowing it to cool in a quiet place, a

a brisket, a rosette, or a crown, wrapped in wool

Gnd next morning that wire vessel covered with glasstransparent, more or less large, glittering octahedral crys-

wire vessel


pass from the liquid into

large size only



unable to hold in solution as large a

water; and the surialus, as the temperature of the v/ater decreases, has to separate slowly from it.
In so doing, small crystals are formed. They grow constantly

Cold water


quantity of the


salt as


as the separation goes on, and, if

to the fresh air so that



leave the solution exposed


shall at last ob-

alum contained an impure adthey would remain in the water. Ci'ys-

tain very large crystals.

mixture of other


slowly evaporates,
If the

tallization, as a general thing, is also a purification ot foreign




in the

many precious stones have formed

same manner; and most mineralogists concur in the

probability, in Nature

opinion that rock-crystals, consisting of nothing but silicic acid,

and frequently weighing hundreds of pounds, have originated
It is almost certain that this formation from liquids into
solid bodies has taken place in a large class of half-precioua

ing but

such as quartz and pyrites, consisting likewise of nothnamely, agate, jasper, opal, chalcedony, chrysosilica

prase, carnelian, heliotrope,



At the same meeting of the Parisian Academy where MM.

Fremy and Feil described their process of manufacturing artificial rubies and sapphires, M. Monnier stated that he had obtained artificial opals by pouring a hiLjlily-dilu ted solution of
oxalic acid cautiously upon a solution as thick as molasses cf
siliyate of soda, which brings about a slow separation of the sii_



icic acid.

in so doing,


he used a solution of the sulphate

of nickel protoxide, he obtained apple-green stones, such


Thus we see that, as long as the process of

separation lasts, we may talk of the growth of precious stones
and we perceive, from the laws of crystallization, how by the
attraction of similar parts, and the exclusion of foreign ones, the
formation of precious stones of perfectly "pure water" among
the more impure cneS; which are frequently found, becomes
more intelligible.
the chrysoprase.

Another process of crystallization is the slow cooling of molten

This can be explained very strikingly to students
of chemistry if a kettle of sulphur or molten bismuth is cooled

slow]}', until it is

to speak.

covered with a crust of congealed matter, so

Pierce that crust in the middle, and pour out a por-

tion of the liquid,

and there


form on tho walls of the cavity

thus created crystals of surpassing beauty, and the whole assumes the appearance of a so-called crystal druse, a form often
assumed by amethysts and other half-precious stones. It has

been thought that, to make artificial diamonds, it was necessary

only to melt coal; but, unfortunately, the results thus far obtained are of no value.
Nature's most successful way of producing precious stones was
not to dissolve minerals, but to put them into a fiery liquid condition, and to separate tho new productions slowly from their
former impure parts by chemical and electric influences, as we

The earth, like the sun and most fixed stars

was undoubtedly formerly in a fievy, liquid condition.
Then the elements were commingled; all substances met,
and entered the strangest combinations; the whole globe was an
shall see directly.



immense chemical


The earthy substances with the

light metals, at tho last period of those gigantic processes, prob-

ably formed tho " mother-liquor," from which, under various

chemical agencies, there separated


valuable metals,


more frequently substances which were

ennobled by crystallization. The " mother-liquor," cooled with

grains of gold, and


productions, we call primitive formations granite, feldspar,

porphyry, etc. It may here be stated that these primitive processes have rscently been imitated in part, and that two princi-




pal components of feldspar, albite and crthoclase, have lately

been obtained from a fiery, liquid mixture of minerals.
Precious stones so formed would be colorless if, in the terribla
furnace of the primordial world, fire-proof metals had not taken
upon themselves the task performed by aniline in our present
dying-works. Long before there were colored plants and animals, metals played the parts of pigments in Nature, and thus

produced, in stones, colors almost surpassing in brilliancy those

be found in the animal kingdom. Eubiea and emeralds are
probably colored with tchrome, sapphires with cobalt, lapisto

laiulis with iron, and other precious stones with copper, nickel,
manganese, etc. But we only have to ref^r our readers to the
magnificent windows of Gothic cathedrals, with their gorgeous
colors, produced by combinations of metals in the molten state.
The false precious stones made in Paris with so much perfection
from heavy strass-glass are colored with metallic oxides in aa
lasting a manner as the genuine stones.
Tho first precious stono reproduced, not only in its appearance, but its real nature, and in all its component parts, is tho
lapis-lazuli, the sapphire of tho ancients, not to be confounded
with the sapphire of our modern jswelcrs. This ud transparent
stone, of a magnificent azure-blue color, was most highly prized
by the ancient Hindoos, Assyrians, Persians, Jews, Egj'ptians,





this irrefragably refutes tho erroneous theory

archceologists that t!io ancients v/erc unable to distin-

guish the blue


"When pulverized, this stono furnishes

the surpassingly beautiful ultramarine color with w^hich tho ar-

had to pay tho most extravagant prices lor tho pigment, which they always charged in the
bills of those who had ordered a sacred picture from Ihcm.

of the middle ages delighted to paint the mantle or

of the Virgin Mary, although they



or sixty years ago, Gmelin, the


chemist, dis-

covered that this most beautiful of blue colors could bo artificially produced by heating argillaceous earth with soda, sulphur,

and now that Guimet, the French chemist, has

Europe manufactures annually about 100,000,000 pounds of this pigment, most of which ia
produced in Germany.

and carbon

practically introduced this process,



At a very eaily period cliemists devoted tlieir attention to the

reproduction of rubies and sapphires, which, as vr&
have said before, consist of nothing but crystallized argillaceous
Several decades
earth, colored by minute particles of metals.
ago, the chemist Gaudin succeeded in obtaining small ruby
pellets from pure argillaceous earth, precipitated from dissolved
alum and moistened with cbromate of potash. The color ot
these rubies, according to the quantity of chromate which they
contained, was either tliat of a rose or bordering on purple. The
pellets were so hard th.-it they easily cut glass, garnets, and topazes; but they were not crystals, and their transparency was
by no means periect. Similar experiments were made by th
chemists De Bray, Sainte-Claire Deville, Caron, Senarmont,
Ebelmann, and others. It was long aclmowledged that a crystallization of argillaceous or berj'l-earth had to be obtained, and
to that end it was necessary to reduce them with the requisite
quantities of the coloring metallic combinations into a state of
Boric acid was selected for that purpose,
fiery liq-aefaction.
because when heated it slowly evaporates. It appears as vapor
in volcanic countries, and is especially obtained in Tuscany.
The belief that this liery means of reduction had played in Nature a part in the formation of precious stones was perfectly
justifiable; and so boric acid was placed in comparatively largo
quantities with argillaceous or beryl-earth in open platinum
crucibles, which were subjected to a long-continued heat in porcelain furnaces.
In fact, as soon as the larger portion of the
boric acid has evaporated, there are evolved from the fiery, liquid
mass small rubies, sapphires, or emeralds. This was discovered
some twenty years ago, but the crystals were too small to make
the process a remunerative one.
Far more satisfactory were the results of Fremy's recent experiments. They are based upon a different principle, namely,
that of sex>arating the argillaceous earth slowly from its usi;al
combination with silicic acid, as it is found in Nature everywhere, by bringing to bear upon it a substance of stronger affinity for the acid.
In consequence, small crystals of argillaceous earth are formed in the fiery, liquid "mother-liquor,"
irhich, in the coarse of further separation, grow slowly.
In the



M. Feil, quantities of tliis " mother-liquor " of

precious stones, weighing from twenty-five to fifty pounds, wero

glass-factories of

two and three weeks, and

The most ad-

easily kept in a fiery, liquid state for

in this

way very

favorable results were obtained.

vantageous process turned out to be the separation of the argillaceous earth from the silicic acid by means ot oxide of lead, for
which purpose a mixture of equal parts of pure porcelain-clay
and red-lead was placed in a large crucible of firt-proof clay and
exposed for weeks to rn intense red heat. Usually, the lead also
extracts the silicic acid



which the walls of the crucible contain,

holes through them.


precious-stone crucible should be placed

to avoid



m another.

After several weeks of patient vv-aiting, vividly recalling tho

expectant watching of the old alchemists at their crucibles in
which the philosopher's stone was to be created, the crucible is

taken out and cooled.

tents are


After destroying the crucible, the con-

to consist of



sisting principally of silicate of lead,

above a glassy one, con-

and below a


one, containing the most beautiful crystals of argillaceous earth,





nothing but argillaceous earth and red-

lead has been placed in the crucible, these crystals are as colorless as glass.


will cut glass


rock-crystal, nay,


corundums or
the diamond and

tho very hard topaz; in short, they arc precious

because, next to

diamond-spar, bo called
crystalline boron,


it if

the hardest of

rubies, sapphires,

colored corundums,

by the addition

all stones.

and Oriental emeralds,

and the former two can bo

are nothing but



of the requisite quantities of the coloring metal-

"When there was added to the mixture of ai>

and red-lead two or three per cent, of bichromate of potash, the crystals showed the beautiful rose-color of the
ruby; when only a small quantity of that salt waa used, and
simultaneously a still smaller quantity of oxide of cobalt was
added, sapphires were obtained. The i:)recious stones thus prolic


gillaceous earth

duced, as a rule, are covered with a firm crust of silicate of lead,

is best removed chemically by melting it with oxide of
lead or potash, or by means of hydrate of fluor-spar. Among a




pounds of such

crystals of argillaceous earth





to the Academy, there were nucould not be distinguished at all from natural rubies and sapphires.
They possessed their crystalline
shape, their M eigbt, hardness, color, and adamantine lustre, although the latter was not altogether faultless.

the inventors submitted


jiieces that

How completely the imitation of Nature has succeeded, may

be inferred from a peculiarity which the artificial rubies have in

with the natural ones: both, upon being heated, lose

and do not recover it until they are cooled
The diamond-cutters who were requested to grind these

their rose-color,

rubies found them not only as hard as the natural ones,

but in many instances even harder; they were not long in
blunting their best tools made of the hardest steel. For the use
of watch-makers they are, perhaps, better than the natural



jewelers, too, are certain, sooner or later, to derive a great

deal of benefit from these discoveries.

The rubies

hitherto ob-

tained, although very beautiful,

did not equal the first-class

natural stones; but they are only the first productions of a new
process, and it is decidedly creditable to the inventors that they
immediately divulged their method without trying to mystify


may follow up this new branch of

Perhaps more time should be given to
the crystals for their formation, for Nature had a great deal of
time for such productions, and it was owing to this fact, perhaps, that it achieved such glorious triumphs. There can be no
doubt but that, at some future time, these crystals of argillaceous earth will be colored also green, yellow, and purple, and
that thus the precious stones, which were hitherto distinguished
as Oriental emeralds, topazes, and amethysts, from inferior stones
of the same name, will be produced.
The addition Oriental,"
in this connection, has no geographical meaning, and was applied by jewelers to the harder and better classes of emeralds,
topazes, and amethysts.
Perhaps these Oriental stones will be
cheaper at an early day than the inferior ones, and the middle
classes may wear as brilliant stones as piincesses do now.
the public.

others, too,

a promising alchemy.




The aphorism

that " history repeats itself" is in

true than in regard to the subject on which I

no case more

am now to


For there has been a continuity from the very earliest

times of a belief, more or less general, in the existence of *' oc-


cult" agencies, capable of manifesting themselves in the production of mysterious phenomena, of which ordinary experience

does not furnish the ralionale. And while this very continuity
maintained by some to be an evidence of the real existence of
such agencies, it will be my purpose to show you that it proves
nothing more than the wide-spread dijBfnsion, alike among minds

of the highest and of the lowest culture, of certain tendencies to

thought, which have either created ideal marvels possessing no

foundation whatever in fact, or have by exaggeration and distortion invested with a preternatural character occurrences which
are perfectly capable of a natural explanation.
Thus, to go no
further back than the first century of the Christian era, we find
the most wonderful narrations, alike in the writings of pagan
and Christian historians, of the doings of the Eastern "sorcerers" and Jewish "exorcists" who had spread themselves over the



Among these


Simon Magus



tioned in the book of Acts was one of the most conspicuous,

being recorded to have gained so great a repute for his "magic

arts" us to have been summoned to Rome by Nero to exhibit
them before him and a Christian father goes on to tell how,
when Simon was borne aloft through the air in a winged chariot
in the sight of the emperor, the united prayers of the apostles
Peter and Paul, prevailing over the demoniacal agencies that
sustained him, brought him precipitately to the ground.
Nothing is more common than to hear it asserted that these
are subjects which any person of ordinary intelligence can inBut the chemist and the physicist would
vestigate for himself.
most assuredly demur to any such assumption in regard to a
chemical or physical inquiry the physiologist and geologist

would make the same

protest against the


of unskilled

persMLS in questions of physiology and geology; and a study of



mesmerism, odylism, and spiritualism, extending over more

than forty years, may be thought to justify me in contending
that a knowledge of the physiology and pathology of the human
mind, of its extraordinary tendency to self-deception in regard
to matters in which its feelings are interested, of its liability to
place undue confidence in persons having an interest in deceiring, and of the modes in which fallacies are best to be detected
and frauds exposed, is an indispensable qualification both for
the discrimination of the genuine from the false, and for the reduction of the genuine to its true shape and proportions.
It was about the year 1772 that Mesmer, who had previously
published a dissertation " On the Influence of the Planets on
the Human Body," announced his discovery of a universal fluid,
"the immediate agent of all the phenomena of Nature, in which
life originates, and by which it is preserved;" and asserted that
he had farther discovered the power of regulating the operations of this fluid, to guide its currents in healthy channels, and
This power he
to obliterate by its means the tracks of disease.
in the first instance professed to guide by the use ot magnets
but having quarreled with Father Hell, a Professor of Astronomy at Vienna, who had furnished him with the magnets with
which he made his experiments, and who then claimed the discovery of their curative agency, Mesmer went on to assert that
he could concentrate the power in and liberate it from any substance he pleased, could charge jars with it (as with electricity)
and discharge them at his pleasure, and could cure by its means
the most intractable diseases. Having created a great sensation
in Bavaria and Switzerland by his mysterious manipulations,
and by the novel effects which they often produced, Mesmer returned to Vienna, and undertook to cure of complete blindness
u celebrated singer. Mademoiselle Paradis, who had been for
ten years unsuccessfully treated by the court physician. His
claim to a partial success, however, which was in the first instance supported by his patient, seemed to have been afterward
so completely disproved by careful trials of her visual powers,'
that he found himself obliged to quit Vienna abruptly, and
thence proceeded to Paris, where he soon produced a great sensation.
The state of French society at that time, as I have al-'



ready remarked, was peculiarly favorable to his pretensions. A

which caused the jjublic mind to
be violently agitated by every question which it took up. And
Mesmer soon found it advantageous to challenge the learned societies of the capital to enter the lists against him; the storm of
opposition which he thus provoked having the effect of bringing
over to his side a large number of devoted disciples and ardent
He professed to distribute the magnetic fluid to his
congregated patients from a baquet or magnetic tub which he had
impregnated with it, each individual holding a rod whic)i i)ro_
ceeded from the baquet bat when the case was particularly interesting, or likely to be particularly profitable, he took it in
hand for personal magnetization. All the surroundings were

feverisli excitability prevailed,

such as to favor, in the hysterical subjects who constituted the

great bulk of his patients, the nervous paroxysm termed the
cri.=is," which was at once recognized by medical men as only
a modified form of what is commonly known as an "hysteric
the influence of the imitative tendency being manifested
as it is in cases where such fits run through a school, nunnery,
factory, or revivalist-meeting, in which a number of suitable
subjects are collected together. And it was chiefly on account
of the moral disorders to which Mesmer's proceedings seemed
likely to give rise that the French Government directed a scientific commission, including the most eminent savants of the
time such as Lavoisier, Bailly, and Benjamin Franklin to in-

came to the
conclusion that there was no evidence whatever of any special
agency proceeding from the baquet; for not only were they unable to detect the passage of any influence from it that was appreciable, either by electric, magnetic, or chemical tests, or by
the evidence of any of their senses; but, on blindfolding those
who seemed to be most susceptible to its supposed influence, all
its ordinary effects were produced when they were without any
quire into them.

After careful investigation they

connection with

but belived that







in a

garden of which certain trees had been magnetized, the patients,

either when blindfolded, or when ignorant which trees had been
aiagnetized, would be thrown into a convulsive fit if they believed themselves to be near a magnetized tree, but were really



no effect M'oiild follow

one of these trees when they believed
Further, the
themselves to be at a distance from any of them.
commissioners reported that, although some cures mij^ht be*
wrought by the mesmeric treatment, it was not without danger,
since the convulsions excited were often violent and exceedat a distance



while, conversely,

their close proximity to

among men feeble in body and

and almost universally among women and they'

ingly apt to spread, especially


in mind,

dwelt strongly also on the moral dangers which, as their inquir-

showed, attended these practices.

this report, although referring to a form of mesmeric
procedure which has long since passed into disrepute, really
deals with what I hold to be an important principle of action,
which, long vaguely recognized under the term "imagination,"
now takes a definite rank in physiological science; namely, that
in individuals of that excitable nervous temperament which is



temperament by no means confined to

and vigorous men), the expectation
of a certain result is often sufficient to evoke it.
Of the influ^
ence of this "expectancy" in producing most remarkable changes
as "hysterical" (a

women, but

rare in healthy

in the bodily organism, either curative or morbid, the history

abundant and varied illustrashow you that it operates no less

movements which, not being con-

of the history of medicine affords



shall presently

remarkably in calling forth

by the person who executes them, have beei/

sciously directed

attributed to hypothetical occult agencies.

In the hands of some of his pupils, however, animal magnetMesmerism (as it gradually came to be generally called),

ism, or

assumed an entirely new development. It was discovered by

the Marquis de Puysegur, a great landed proprietor, who appears to have practised the art most disinterestedly for the sole
benefit of his tenantry and poor neighbors, that a state of profound insensibility might be induced by very simple methods
in some individuals, and a state akin to somnambulism in
others and this discovery was taken up and brought into vogue
by numerous mesmerizers in France and Germany, while, d'^iring the long Continental war, and for some time aiterward,
remaiaed almost unknown in England. Attention seems to




hav been



to it in this

country by the publication of

the account of a severe operation performed in 1829, by M.

Cloquet, one of the most eminent surgeons of Paris, on a female
patient who had been thrown by mesmerism into the state of
somnambulism in which, though able to converse with those
around her, she showed herself entirely insensible to pain, while

it she had subsequently no recollection

About twelve years afterward, two amputations were
performed in our own country one in Nottinghamshire, and
the other in Leicestershire- -upon mesmerized patients, who
showed no other sign of consciousness than an almost inaudible
moaning both of them exhibiting an uninterrupted placidity
of countenance, and declaring, when brought back to their ordinary state, that they were utterly unaware of what had been
done to them during their sleep. And not long afterward Dr.
Esdaile, a surgeon in Calcutta, gave details of numerous mos*
severe and tedious operations i^erformed by him, without the
inlliction of pain, upon natives in whom he had induced the
mesmeric sleep the rank of joresidency surgeon being conferred upon him by Lord Dalhousie (then Governor-General of
India), " in acknowledgment of the services he had rendered to
humanity." The results of minor experiments performed by



that took place in


various persons, desirous of testing the reality of this state, were

quite in harmony with these. Writing in 1845, Dr. Noble, of

Manchester (with whom I was early brought into association by
Sir John Forbes in the pursuit of this inquiry), said
"We have seen a needle thrust deeply under ^e nail of a
woman sleeping mesmericallj', without its exciting a quiver; we
have seen pungent snuff in large quantities passed up the nostrils under the same circumstances, without any sneezing being
produced until the patient was roused, many minutes afterward; we have noticed an immunity from all shock when percussion-caps have been discharged suddenly and loudly close
to the ear; and we have observed a patient's little-linger in the
flame of a candle, and yet no indication of pain. In this latter
case all idea of there having been courageous dissimulation was
removed from our mind in seeing the same patient afterward
evince both surprise and indignation at the treatment received;
as, from particular circumstances, a substantial inconvenience
was to result from the injury to the linger, which was by no



*SrUUh mnd


MtdUal Stvitw,





This "mesmeric sleep" corresponds precisely in character

with what is kuown in medicine as *' hj-steric coma;" the insen-*
sibility being as profound, while it lasts, as in the coma of narbut coming on and
cotic poisoning or pressure on the brain

passing off with such suddenness as to show that it is dependent

upon some transient condition of the sensorium, which, with

our present knowledge, we can pretty cerfainly assign to a reduction in the supply of blood caused by a sort of spasmodic
contraction of the blood-vessels. That there is no adequate
ground for regarding it as otherwise than real, appears further
from the discovery made not long afterward by Mr. Braid, a
surgeon practising at Manchester, that he could induce it by a
very simple method, which is not only even more effective than
the "passes" of the mesmerizer, bat is, moreover, quite independent of any other will than that of the person who subjects
himself to it. He found that this state (which he designated as
hypnotism) could be induced in a large proportion of individuals of either cex,


and of

fix their


ranks, ages, and temperaments,

on an object brought so near


maintainable only by a

to their eyes as to require a

of convergence of their axes that



gaze for several minutes consecutively



first state

thus induced


usually one of profound coma-

tose sleep; the "subject" not being capable of being roused


sensory impressions of any ordinary kind, and bearing without

the least indication of consciousness what would ordinarily pro-

duce intolerable uneasiness or even severe pain.

But, after

some little time, this state very commonly passes into one of
somnambulism, which again corresponds closely on the one
hand with natural, and on the other with mesmeric, somnambulism.
In fact, it has been by the study of the somnambulism
artificially induced by Mr. Braid's process that the essential
nature of this condition lias been elucidated, and that a scientific
can now be given of a
omena reported by mesmerizers


large proportion of the phen.

as having been presented by

It has been claimed for certain mesmeric somnambules, however, that they occasionally possess an intelligence altogether




as to things present, past,


received the designatiu^i "lucidity;" and

it is

future, wLicb Las

contended lhal the

testimony on which we accept the reality of phenomena which

are conformable to our scientific experience ought to satisfy us
equally as to the genuineness of those designated as "the
higher," which not only transcend but absolutely contradict

what the mass of enlightened men would regard as universal

experience. This contention, however, seems to me to rest upon an entirely incorrect appreciation of the probative force of
evidence for, as I shall endeavor to prove to you in my succeeding leciure, the only secure basis for our belief on any subject is the confirmation afforded to external testimony by our

sense of the inherent probability of the fact testified to; so that,

been well remarked, "evidence tendered in support of

new must correspond in strength with the degree of its
incompatibility with doctrines generally admitted as true and,
where statements obviously contravene all past experience and
the universal consent of mankind, any evidence is inadequate to
the proof, which is not complete, beyond suspicion, and abso-

as has



lutely incapable of being explained away."

It was asserted, about thirty years ago, by Baron von Reichenbach, wliose researches on the chemistry of the hydrocarbons
constitute the foundation of our present knowledge of paraffin

and its allied products of the distillation of coal, that he had

found certain "sensitive" subjects so peculiarly affected by the
neighborhood of magnets or crystals as to justify the assumption of a special polar force, which he termed Odyle, allied to,
but not identical with, magnetism; present in all material substances, though generally in a less degree than in magnets and
but called into energetic activity b}' an 3' kind of physchemical change, and therefore especially abundant in

ical or

human body. Of the existence of this odylic force, which

he identified with the "animal magnetism" of Mesmer, he found
what he maintained to be adequate evidence in the i^eculiar
sensations and attractions experienced by his "sensitives" when
in the neighborhood either of magnets or cr3'stals, or of human
beings specially charged with it. After a magnet had been repeatedly drawn ulong the arm of one of these subjects, sha




would feel a pricking, streaming, or sliooting sensation she

would smell odors proceeding from it or she would see a small

volcano of flame issuing from


even in broad daylight.



when gazing



in the magnetic sleep light is often

seen by the somnambule to issue from the operator's fingers, so

the odylic light was discerned in the dark by Von Eeichenbach's "sensitives," issuing not only from the hands, but from
the head, eyes, and mouth, of powerful generators of this force.

One individual

in particular was so peculiarly sensitive, that

she saw (in the dark) sparks and flames issuing from ordinary

and hooks in a

was further affirmed that certain

hands so powerfully attracted
by magnets or crystals as to be irresistibly drawn toward them
and thus that if the attracting object were forcibly drawn away,
not only the hand, but the wliole body of the "sensitive" was
dragged after it. Another set of facts was adduced to prove the




of these "sensitives" found their

special relation of odyle to terrestrial


magnetism namely,

"sensitives" cannot sleep in beds

magnetic meridian; a position


at right angles to it



across the

being to some

quite intolerable.

Von Keichenbach's

doctrine came before the British publio

under the authority of the

late Dr. Gregory, the Professor of

Chemistry in the University of Edinburgh who went so far as

"by a laborious and beautiful investigation,

Eeichcnbach had demonstrated the existence of a force, influto



whatever name be given to it

from all the known forces, influences, or imponderable fluids, such as heat, light, electricity, magnetism,
and from the attractions, such as gravitation, or chemical attraction." It at once became apparent, however, to experienced

ence, or imponderable fluid


is distinct

physicians conversant with the proteiform manifestations of that


nervous temperament, of which

have already had to

speak, that all these sensations were of the kind which the
;" the state of the sensorium on
which they immediately depend being the resultant, not of
physical impressions made by external agencies upon the or-

physiologist terras "subjective

gans of sense, but ot cerebral changes connected with the ideas

with which the minds of the "sensitives" hud come to be "pos-




The very

fact that

no manifestation of the supposed

force could be obtained except through a conscious



ganism should have been quite sufficient to suggest to any

philosophic investigator that he had to do not with a new physical force, but v/ith a peculiar phase ot physical action, by no
means unfamiliar to those who had previously studied the influence of the mind upon the body. And the fact which Von
Reichenbach himself was honest enough to admit that when a
magnet was poised in a delicate balance, and the hand of a
"sensitive" was placed above or beneath it, the magnet was
never drawn toward the hand ought to have convinced him
that the force which attracted the "sensitive's" hand to the magnet has nothing in common with physical attractions, whose
action is invariably reciprocal; but that it was the product of her
own conviction that she must thus approximate it. So "possessed" was he, however, by his pseudo-scientific conception,
that the true significance of this fact entirely escaped him; and
although he considered that he had taken adequate precautions
to exclude the conversance of any suggestion of which his "sensitives" should be conscious, he never tried the one test which
would have been the experimenlum crucis in regard to all the supposed influences of magnets that of using eleclro-magnels, which
could be "made" and "unmade" by completing or breaking the
electric circuit, without any indication being given to the "sensitive" of this change of its conditions.
And the same remark
applies to the more recent statement of Lord Lindsay, as to Mr.
Home's recognition of the position of a permanent magnet in a
totally-darkened room; the value of this solitary fact, tor which
there are plenty ot ways of accounting, never having been tested
by the use of an electro-magnet, whose active or passive condition should be entirely unknown, not only to Mr. Home, but to
every person present.

That "sensitives" like Von Reichenbach's, in so far as they are

not intentional deceivers (which many hysterical subjects are
constitutionally prone to be), can feel, see, or smell, anything
that they were led to believe that they would feel, see, or smell,
was soon proved by the experimental inquiries of Mr. Braid,


of which I myself witnessed.

He found

that not only in




but in

many men and women

''of a



concentrative and imaginative turn of mind," though otherw'iso

it was sufficient to fix the attention on any
form of expectonc?/ such as pricldng, streaming, heat,
cold, or other feelings, in any part of the body over which a
magnet was being drawn luminous emanations from the poles

in ordinary health,


of a

magnet in the

dark, in

some cases even

in full daylight; or

the attraction of a magnet or crystal held within reach of tho

hand for that expectancy to be fully realized. And, conversely,

the same sensations were equally produced


the subjects

same agency was being employed, although nothing whatever was really done the saruo
flames being seen when the magnet was concealed by shutting
it in a box, or even when it was carried out of the room, without
the knowledge of the subject; and the attraction of the magnet
for the hand being entirely governed by the idea previously


them were led

to believe that the

suggested, positive or negative results being thus obtained with

either pole, as Mr. Braid might direct.
"I know," he says, of
one of his subjects, "that this lady was incapable of trying to
deceive myself or others present; but she was self-deceived and
spell-bound by the predominance of a preconceived idea, and
was not less surprised at the varying powers of the instrument
than were others who witnessed the results."*
One of Mr. Braid's best "subjects" was a gentleman residing
in Manchester, well known for his high intellectual culture,
great general ability, and strict probity. He had cuch a remarkable power of voluntary abstraction as to be able at any time to
induce in himself a state akin to profound reverie (corresponding to what has been since most inappropriately called the
"biological"), in which he became so completely "possessed" by
any idea strongly enforced upon him, that his whole state of
feeling and action was dominated by it.
Thus it was sufficient
for him to place his hand upon the table and fix his attention
upon it for half a minute, to be entirely unable to withdraw it,
if assured in a determined tone that he could not do so.
his gaze had been steadily directed for a short time to the poles
of a magnet, he could be brought to see flames issuing from

"The Power

of the

Mind over the Body,"

1846, p. 20,



them of any form or color that Mr. Braid chose to Dame. And
when desired to place his hand upon one of the poles, and to
fix his attention for a brief period upon it, the peremptory assurance that he could not detach it w as sufficient to hold it there
with such tenacity that I saw Mr. Braid drag him round the
room in a way that reminded me of George Cruikshanlc's amusing illustration of the German fairy-story of "The Golden
Goose." The attraction was dissolved by Mr. Braid's loud,
cheery "All right, man," which brought the subject back to his

normal condition,



as the attraction of a

electro-magnet for a heavy mass of iron ceases



the circuit


Now the phenomena of

the "biological" condition seem to


of peculiar significance, in relation to a large class of those

which are claimed


as manifestations of a

supposed "spiritual"

number of persons of that "concentrative and

imaginative turn of mind" which predisposes them to the "bioagency.

sit for a couple of hours (especially if in the

dark) with the expectation of some extraordinary occurrence

logical" condition

such as the rising ond floating in the air, either of the human
body, or of chairs or tables, without any phj-sical agency the
the contact of the
crawling of live lobsters over their persons
hands, the sound of the voices, or the visible luminous shapes,
of their departed friends it is perfectly conformable to scientific probability that they should pass more or less completely

which is neither
which they see,
by touch, anything they have been led to expect

(like Keichenbach's

waking nor

"sensitives") into a state

sleeping, but between the two, in

hear, or feel,

And the accordance of their testimony, in

will present itself.
regard to such occurrences, is only such as is produced by the
community of the dominant idea with v.'hich they are all " possessed," a community of which historj' furnishes any amount of
And thus it becomes obvious that
strangely-varied exnmples.

the testimony of a single cool-headed skeptic, who asserts that

nothing extraordinary has reidlj- occurred, should be accepted
as more trustworthy than that of any number of believers, who
have, as
tion of



were, created the sensorial result


their anticipa-



I have now to show you that the like expectancy can also produce movements of \arious kinds, through the instrumentality
of the nervo-rauscular apparatus, without the least consciousness on the part of its subject of his being himself the instrument of their performance; a physiological fact which is the key
I very
to the whole mystery of table-turning and table-talking.
well remember the prevalence in my schoolboy days of a belief
that, when a ring, a button, or any other small body, suspended
by a string over the end of the finger, was brought near the outside or inside of a glass tumbler, it would strike the hour of the
day against its surface; and the experiment certainly succeeded
in the hands of several of my schoolfellows, who tried it in all
good faith, getting up in the middle of the night to test it, in
entire ignorance, as they declared, of the real time.
But, as
was pointed out by M. Chevreul, who investigated this subject
in a truly scientific spirit more than forty years ago, it is impossible by any voluntary effort to keep the hand absolutely still
for a length of time in the position required; an involuntary
tremulousness is always observable in the suspended body, and
if the attention be fixed on it with the expectation that its vibrations will take a definite direction, they are very likely to do so.
But their persistence in that direction is found to last only so
long as they are guided by the sight of the operator, at once and
entirely losing their constancy if he closes or turns away his
Thus it became obvious that, in the striking of the hour,
the influence which determines the number of strokes is really
the knowledge or suspicion present to the mind of the operator,
which involuntarily and unconsciously directs the action of his
muscles; and the same rationale was applied by M. Chevreul to
other cases in which this pendule explorateur (the use of which
can be traced back to a very remote date), has been appealed to
for answers to questions of very diverse character.
When, liowever, "Odyle" came to the front, and the world
of curious but unscientific inquirers was again "possessed" by
the idea of an unknown and mysterious agency, capable of
manifesting itself in an unlimited variety of ways, the pendule
exploraieur was brought into vogue, under the name of odometer^
by Dr. Herbert Mayo, who investigated its action with a grat




ot scientific precision

starting, however,

with the fore-

gone conclusion that its oscillations w ere directed by the hypothetical " odyle," and altogether ignoring the mental participation of the operator, whom he supposed to be as passive as a
thermometer or a balance. By a series of elaborate experiments,
he convinced himself that the direction and extent ot the oscillations could be altered, either by a change in the nature of the
substances placed beneath the "odometer," or by the contact of
the hand of a person of the opposite sex, or even of the experimenter's other hand, with that from which it was suspended.
And he gradually reduced his result to a series of definite laws,
which he regarded as having the same constancy as those of
physics or chemistry.

who worked

Unfortunately, however, other experi-

out the inquiry with similar perseverance

and good faith, arrived at such different results, that

came to be obvious that what astronomical observers





personal equation" of the individual has a very large share in

determining them, A very intelligent medical friend of my

own, then residing abroad, wrote m'e long letters full of the detailed results of his own inquiries, on which he was anxious for
my opinion. My reply was simply "Shut your eyes, or turn
them away, and let some one else watch the oscillations under
the conditions you have specified, and record their results you
will find, if I do not mistake, that they will then show an entire
want of the constancy you have hitherto observed." His next
letter informed me that such proved to be the case; so that he
tad come entirely to agree with me as to the dependence of the
previous uniformity of his results on his own expectancj'.
A very amusing rpose of the mystery of the ' magnetometer"
resulted from its application by Dr. Madden, an homoeopathic

physician at Brighton, to test the virtues of his " globules," as

which he had, of course, some performed conclusions of his
own. The results of his first experiments entirely corresponded


with his ideas of what they ought to be; for when a globule of
one medicine was taken into his disengaged hand, the suspended ball oscillated longitudinally and when this globule

was changed

for another of opposite virtues, the direction of the



Another homoeopathio physi-



however, was going through a similar course of experiments; and his results, while comformable to his own notions
of the virtues of the globules, were hy no means accordant with
those of Dr. Madden, The latter was thus led to reinvestigate
the matter with a precaution he had omitted in the first instance;
namely, that the globules should be placed in his hand by another person, without any hint being given him of their nature.
From the moment he began to work upon this plan, the whole
aspect of the subject was changed; globules that produced longitudinal oscillations at one time gave transverse at another, while
globules of the most opposite remedial virtues gave no sign of
And thus he was soon led to the conviction, which
he avowed with a candor very creditable to him, that the system
he had built up had no better foundation than his own anticipation of what tbe results of each experiment should be; that anticipation expressing itself unconsciously in involuntary and




of his finger,

rhythmetical vibration to the framework

the ball suspended from


which communicated a


the oscillations of

were watched.

Thus, by the investigations of scientific experts who were alive

to the sources of fallacy

which the introduction of the human

element ahvays brings into play, the hypothesis of odylic force

was proved to be rompletely baseless; the phenomena which
were supposed to indicate its existence being traceable to the
physiological conditions of the human organisms through whose
instrumentality they were manifested. The principle that the
state of " expectant attention " is capable of giving rise either to
sensations or to involuntary movements, according to the nature

had been previously recognized in phj' was not invented for the occasion; but the
have been describing to you are among its most

of the expect;incy,
gical science,


pregnant instances."

The same

principle furnishes what I believe to be the true

scientific explanation of the

rod, often used

where water

and in mining-districts

supposed mystery of the diviningis

scarce for the discovery of springs,

for the

detection of metallic veins.

This rod is a forked twig shaped like the letter Y, hazel

being usually preferred; and the diviner walks over the




be explored, firmly grasping its two prongs with

its stem points forw^ard. After
a time the end of the stem points downward, often, it is said,

his hands, in such a position that

with a sort






turns backward, so as

body of the




motion, especially

and sometimes it even

to point toward instead of away from the
Now, there is a very large body of
testimony, that when the ground has


opened in situations thus indicated, either watersprings or metallic veins have been found beneath; and it is
quite certain that the existence of such a power is a matter of


unquestioning faith on the part of large numbers of intelligent

persons who have witnessed what they believe to be its genuine
This subject, however, was carefully inquired
into more than forty years ago by MM. Chevreul and Biot and
their experimental conclusions anticipated those to which I was
myself led in ignorance of them by physiological reasoning.
They found that the forked twig cannot be firmly grasped for a
quarter of an hour or more in the regulation position, without
the induction of a state of muscular tension, which at lasts discharges itself in movement and this acts on the prongs of the
fork in such a manner as to cause its stem to point, either upward, downward, or to one side. The occasion of this discharge

and the direction of the movement are greatly influenced, like

the oscillations of bodies suspended from the finger, by expectancy on the part of the operator so that if he has any suspicion
or surmise as to the "whereabouts" of the object of his search,
an involuntary and unconscious action of his muscles causes

the point of the rod to dip over


Again, since not one individual in forty, in the localities in

which the virtues of the divining-rod are still held as an article

of faith, is found to obtain any results from its use, it becomes
obvious that its movements must be due, not to any physical
agency directly affecting the rod, but to some influence exerted




that this influence is his expectation of

the result may, I think, be pretty confidently affirmed.



has been clearly sLown, by careful and repeated experiments,

that, while the rod dips when the " diviner " knows or believa





over a water-spring or a metallic vein, the results are un

simply negative, when he is blind-

certain, contradictory, or

folded, so as not to



be aware precisely where he




a striking case of this kind that has been lately brought

my knowledge:

A friend of mine," says Dr. Beard,* " an aged clergyman, of

thorough integrity and fairness, has for many years the larger
part of his natural life, I believe enjoyed the reputation of
being especially skilled in the finding of places to dig wells, by
means of a divining-rod of witch-hazel, or the fresh branches of
apple or other trees. His fame has spread far, and the accounts
that are given by him and of him are, to those who think human
testimony is worth anything, overwhelmingly convincing. He
I found that
consented to allow me to experiment with him.
only a few momenta were required to prove that his fancied gift
was a delusion, and could be explained wholly by unconscious
muscular motion, the result of expectancy and coincidence. In
his own j^ard there was known to be a stream of water running
through a small pipe a few feet below the surface.
over and near this, the rod continually pointed strongly downward, and several times turned clear over.
These places I
marked, blindfolded him, marched him about until he knew not
where he was, and took him over the same ground over and over
again; and, although the rod went down a number of times, U

did not once point to or near the places previously indicated.

remember having heard, some thirty-five years

from Mr. Dilke (the grandfather of-the present Sir Charles),
of an experiment of this kind which he had himself made upon
a young Portuguese, who had come to him with a letter ot introduction, describing the bearer of it as possessing a most remarkable power of finding, by means of the divining-rod, metals
concealed from view. Mr. Dilke's family being at a summer
residence in the country, his plate had all been sent to his
chamber." in the Adelphi, where he was visited by the Portuguese youth; to whom he said, "Go about the room with your
rod, and try if you can find any mass of metal." The youth did
so; and his rod dipped over a large standing desk, in which
Mr. Dilke's plate had been temporarily lodged. Seeing, however, that there were circumstances which might reasonably suggest this guess, Mr. Dilke asked the youth if he was willing to
I very well


* Eevieio of Modicine

and Pharmacy (New York), September,




nllow his divining power to be tested under conditions which

should exclude all such suggestion and, having received a

ready assent, he took his measures accordingly. Taking his

plate-box down to his country residence, he secretly buried it
just beneath the soil in a ncAvly-ploughed field; selecting a spot
which he could identify by cross-bearings of conspicuous trees,
and getting a plough drawn again over its surface, so as to make
this correspond precisely with that of the rest of the field. The
young diviner was then summoned from London, and challenged to find beneath the soil of this field the very same i)late
which he h^d previously detected in Mr. Dilke's desk at the
Adelphi but, having nothing whatever to guide him even to a
guess, he was completely at fault. Mr. Dilke's impression was
that he was not an impostor, but a sincere believer in his own
power, as the " dowsers" of mining-districts seem unquestionably to be. The test of blindfolding the diviner, and then
leading him about in different directions, so as to put him completely at fault in regard to his locality, is ono that can be very



as I shall


show you

the diviner

acting in good faith


in the next lecture,

precautions to blindfold a person





requires very special


and, in some of the cases which seem to have stood this

to see

test, it

seems not improbable that vision was not altogether precluded.


additional reason for attributing the action of the divin-

ing-rcd to the muscular


called forth

by a

state of

expectancy (perhaps not always consciously entertained) on the

part of the performer seems to me to be furnished by the disuch as
versity of the powers that have been attributed to it
that of identifying murderers and indicating the direction of

their flight, discovering the lost boundaries of lands, detecting

the birthplace and parentage of foundlings,


The older

powbut learnedly discuss whether they are due

"When in the last century
to natural or to diabolic agency.


do not in the

least call in question the reality of the

ers of the hazel-fork,



scientific study,

grasp of law,

and magnetism became objects of

but had not yet been comprehended under the

of electricity


was natural that those of the divining-rod



should be referred to agencies so convenient, which seemed

ready to account for anything otherwise unaccountable, But,
eince physicists and physiologists have come to agree that the
moving power is furnished by nothing else than the muscles of
the diviner, the only question th:;t remains is, What calls forth
its exercise?
And the conclusive evidence I have given you that
the definite oscillations of suspended bodies depend on invol-

untary movements unconsciously determined by states of expectwe have in the sup-

ancy, clearly points to the conclusion that

posed mystery of the divining-rod only another case of the same

kind. It is well known that persons who are conversant with
the geological structure of a distiict are often able to indicate

with considerable certainty in what spot, and at what depth,

water will be found; and men of less scientific knowledge, but
of considerable practical experience, frequently arrive at a true
conclusion on this point, without being able to assign reasons
Exactly the same maybe said in regard to
for their opinions.
the mineral structure of a mining-district
the course of a
metallic vein being often correctly indicated by the shrewd
guess of an observant workman, where the scientific reasoning of the mining-engineer altogether fails.
It is an
experience we are continually encountering in other walks of
life, that particular persons are guided, some apparently by an
original and others by an acquired intuition, to conclusions for
which they can give no adequate reasons, but which subsequent
events prove to have been correct; and I look upon the diviningrod in its various applications as only a peculiar method of giving
expression to results worked out by an automatic process of this
kind, even before they rise to distinct mental consciousness.
Various other methods of divination that seem to be practised in
perfectly good faith such, for example, as the Bible and key
test, used for the discovery of stolen property are probably to
be attributed to the same agency the cerebral traces of past occurences supplying materials for the automatic evolution of a
result (as they unquestionably do in dreams) when the occurences themselves have been forgotten.
Many of the cases of so-called thought-reading are clearly of
th same kind; the communication being made by unconscious




muscular action on the part of one person, and automatically

interpreted by tlie other as in the following instance: Several
persons being assembled, one of them leaves the room, and
during his absence some object is hidden.
On the absentee's
re-entrance, two persons, who know the hiding-place, stand one
on either side of him, and establish some personal contact with
him; one method being for each to place a finger on his
shoulder, and another for each to place a hand on his body, one
on the front and the other on the back.
He walks about the
room between the two, and generally succeeds before long in
finding the hidden object; being led toward it (as careful observation and experiment have fully proved) by the involuntary
muscular action of his unconscious guides, one or the other of
them pressing more heavily when the object is on his side, And
the finder as involuntarily turning toward that side.
These and other curious results of recent inquiry, while
strictly comformable to physiological principles, greatly extend
our knowledge of the modes in which states of mind express
themselves unconsciously and involuntarily in muscular action;
and I dwell on them the more because they seem to me to afford
the key (as I shall explain in my next lecture) to some of these
phenomena of spiritualistic divination, which have been most
perplexing to many who have come in contact with them, without being disposed to accept the spiritualistic interpretation of




Fast seven days in a lonely place, and take incense with you,
such as benzoin, aloeswood, mastic, and odorif erous wood from
Soudan, and read the Chapter 1001 times (from the Koran) in
the seven days a certain number of readings, namely, for
everyone of the five daily prayers. That is the secret, and you
will see indescribale wonders; drums will be beaten beside you,
and flags hoisted over your head, and you will see spirits full
of light and of beautiful nnd benign aspect " Upper Egypt;
its people and products," by Dr. Klunzinger, p. 386.
An acquaintance of hi=?, who had undergone the course of selfmortification, said that he really saw all kinds of horrible forms
in his magic circle, but he saw them also when his eyes were
shut At last he got quite terrified and left the place.


Notwithstanding that mesmerism Is denounced as a " Modem
Humbug, " appearing from time to time under the different names
of "Animal Magnetism," " Statuvolism, " "Artificial Sonambul"Pathetism," "Hypnotism," "Biology," "Psychology,"
"Clairvoyance," "Trance," etc., etc.; yet we find by searching
the annals of the past, that its principles have been well known in
ages long gone by, though enshrouded in mystery and superstiism,"


That the Heathen Magi of India possessed a knowledge of the

method of producing the mesmeric sleep, is quite evident from the
images of the gods of India, which may be seen even to this day.
Chiven, Vichenow, Parachiven, and many others, have an extraordinary number of arms, all presenting the hands open, with palms
inclining downwards, and with fingers in the very best possible poIt is not unreasonable to suppose
that the divine honors paid to heathen gods were originally conferred on men of high renown and fame, for being possessed of
unusual magnetic powers, such powers being symbolized by num-

sition for successful fascination.

erous additional arms and hands.

ceus of Mercury possessed the



was supposed that the Caditany one whom it

of putting

touched to sleep. He used it to deepen the slumbers of Argus,

after having lulled him to sleep with the music of his lyre. A passage in Piautus makes him say of Sosia, " What if I stroke him
gently with the hand, so as to put him to sleep."
This goes to show
that the use of the " Caducevs " was sometimes dispensed with in
the operation of inducing sleep. The priests of Egypt made the
knowledge of the secret, the last and holiest rite of their ancient
magic, in the initiation of their candidates, and they made great
use of fascination in the cure of diseases. The well-known record in
the Scriptures, where the psalmist David, in his old age, had his
days lengthened out, by deriving a fresh supply of life from the
physical and ner^'ous system of the young damsel who was commanded to share his couch, is an instance of the operation of
a natural law which is often ridiculed at the present day.



might be many instances given, where the systems of the superannuated are built up at the expense of the health of their young
It used to be a practice among the natives of some of
the Pacific Islands, to relieve weariness and exhaustion by patting the tired one, a process which resulted in a complete restoration of physical energ}'.
Even the gestures and motions, incantations and mummeries of an Indian "pow-wow," are intimately dependent on the efficacy of magnetism for the desired result aided,
no doubt, by the excited imagination of the patient operated upon.
St. Gregory, Bishop of Tours, tells us of the efficacy of pilgrimages
to the tombs of saints.
He says " Any person filled with faith,
coming near the tombs and praying will be speedily cured of
whatever illness may befall them.
Some affirm that the saints
appear to them in the night, during their dreams, and reveal the
proper remedies. " Protogene, St. Martin, St. Fortunatus, and
many others, give similar testimony. Fabricius, in speaking of
the practice of the country people, who went to the Church of St.
Anthony, of Padua, for the purpose of obtaining salutary visions
during their sleep, says: "This exactly resembles the ancient
pagan worship and, in truth, even at the present day, the churches
of the saints are resorted to, to receive the same kind of revela-

tions for curing diseases." The Queen of Navarre, while l3'ing at

Metz, at the point of death, described the battle of Jarnac in every

minute particular; told of her sons victory; the death of the

Prince of Conde, and the enemy's flight; all of which was soon
afterwards confirmed. This instance of clairvoyant vision is as
well attested as that of Emanuel Swedenborg, who saw a city
burning, while eighty miles distant, and described the progress of
the fire to the surrounding by-standers. Cardanus, in 1501, performed man}' great cures by fascination. He could go into the
state at will and could wake when he chose, and while in the
state cured himself of slight attacks of the gout, prescribed remedies, saw objects at a great distance, and foretold future events
with correctness. For all this he was imprisoned as a sorcerer at
Bologna, though he only claimed that nature had endowed him
thus strangely. In 1679, William Maxwell, an Englishman, laid
down propositions similar to those afterwards promulgated by
Mesmer. In the seventeenth century, there appeared in England
a Dr. Streper Levret, an Irish gentleman, and also Valentine


Greatrakes, who professed to cure diseases by stroking with the
hands. Greatrakes, who was a very pious man, felt impressed, he
said, to lay hands on cases of ague, and afterwards to treat all
kinds of diseases. " I laid hands on all that came," said he, "and
many were cured and some were not." The Eoyal Society examined into the mystery and accounted for the phenomena by supposing that there existed a "Sanative Contagion in Mr. Greatrake's body, which had an antipathy to some particular diseases
and not to others." Truly a sage conclusion. The science was
first made widely manifest in Europe, about the close of our Revolutionary War by Dr. Anton Mesmer, and though he was by no
means the first who applied it to the cure of disease, yet to him is
undoubtedly due the credit of its revival, and hence it is usually
called mesmerism, in his honor. Mesmer was born in 1734, at Mersburg, on the shores of Lake Constance, and died in 1815. When
42 years old, he took the degree of doctor of medicine in the UniIt is said that the Professor of Astronomy at
versity of Vienna.
Vienna had invented a peculiar form of magnetized steel plates
which he applied successfully to the cure of diseases. Mesmer
obtained these magnets from the astronomer and applied them in
his own way, and soon found out that the efficacy was not in the
form of the plates, but in the manipulations that the peculiar mode
of using them to insure success was in making passes, as they are
now called. A quarrel sprung up, and the final result was that
Mesmer was obliged to leave Vienna, and in 1778, he arrived at
Paris, whither his popularity preceded him.
So great became his
success, that the French Government took up the matter and offered him a large annual income, if he would unfold his secret.
This proposition Mesmer rejected, though he sold the secret to individuals, requiring them to pledge themselves not to reveal his
After many vicissitudes, the sum of 14,000 was
raised by his disciples, whom he had instructed, but whom he did
not consider entitled to practice it publicly.
Mesmer used a box
filled with iron filings and pounded glass.
A cord was passed
around the bodies of the subjects, connecting them with one
another, a piano-forte was used, and a rod of iron was held by the
magnetizer while making the passes.
Some of the patients M^ere
some were affected by coughing and spitting others
were troubled with slight pains, universal heats and perspiration



others were terribly agitated and tortured with convulsions. Some

of these convulsions were extraordinary in number, duration, and
severity, and were often accompanied with spasms of the throat
and wandering motions of the eyes, to which were added, piercing
shrieks, weeping, immoderate laughter and hiccough. In view of
these absurd preparations and unnecessary manifestations, it is
hardly to be wondered that the Committee of Investigation appointed by the French Academy of Science and Medicine, reported
"In conclusion, as most of the patients
in language lilie this
were of a nervous temperament, we have thought that the whole
thing may be explained by referring the whole matter to the power
This conclusion,
of the imagination, as this power has no limit."
however satisfactory to themselves, was like "jumping out of the
frying-pan into the fire." One of Mesmer's pupils, the Marquis
De Puyseger, retired to his estate in the country, to heal the sick,
and there he made the discovery of "Clairvoyance." Up to this
time all the operators had used steel rods, according to Mesmer's
instructions. When the clairvoyant was asked where the magnetizing influence came from, he replied: " From your hands, from

He was then asked, what

eyes, from all parts of your bodies."
was the use of the metallic rods. " They are of no use at all ;" so
they were discarded. About the year 1810, a Yankee from Connecticut, named Perkins, probably following the idea suggested by


galvanism, made a forked instrument from diiTerent metals, and

called it a " Tractor." This was passed over portions of the human body affected by disease, and in a great many cases the operation was followed by relief. He went over to England and secured the introduction of his "Tractors" in the hospitals, and the
'* Friends" built an establishment in London, for the gratuitious
use of them for the afflicted. After a while, a Dr. Haygarth made
an imitation "Tractor" of wood, and cured a rheumatic patient
with its use, and then he proclaimed that the whole matter was
the result of imagination, and every body believed him. However,
there was no denying the fact that cures were effected, which set
thinking men to work at experimenting, and as one theory after
another was exploded, fact was added to fact, and the truth of the
science was gradually brought to light, through patience and perseverance.


" Natare hears bat one kind of questions they are experiments.
answer is phenomena." Liebig.






In presenting this little work to the public we feel that

we arc supplying a wjint tliat lias been lung felt by those
who have niade a study of the subject of Animal Magnetism, or Mesmerism, as it is commonly called. Heretofore it has been necessary to buy a groat deal of b )ok in
order to get a small amount of practical infortnatiou on
the subject under consideration, and it is to obviate this
diflSculty that this work has been written and sent forth




will first direct our attention to those individuals
faith in Mesmerism, and believe it all a hum-

who have no
bug because

so unreasonable.
Dear friends, will yru be
so kind as to explain how it is that electricity, one of the
most subtile elements in nature, is capable of producing

such stupendous results ? It dashes tlie tall oak to splinters here, fires a house there, destroys life, both vegetable
and animal, and yet man has bridled it, and has made
it the world's messenger.
You know these things arc
true, for you have seen and heard
but can you explain
the why and wherefore ? Until you can, do not denounce
what thousands upon thousands have seen and felt and do
testify to.
Permit us to cull your attention to a few
familiar facts which have a direct bearing on our subject,
that you may try your skill in explaining every-day mysteries.
To begin wiih
It is a well established fact that serpents possess the
ability to charm birds by using some mysterious power to
fascinate them and cause tliem to become the victims of
the charmer.
Many a person whose integrity cannot be
questioned, has testified to this strange fact. Cats possess




same power as

serpents, though perhaps in a less


Wo know of one niosmerizer who so cliarmed a bird that

he w:is enabled lo catcli it, tiioiig'h it was a work lasting
three hours.
Another operator so completely magnetized
a cat tliat it was in vain that its niisirOv-s called it; it
heeded not, fur it was in the power of the operator, who,
by the way, was a stranorer to the family. There is a
method of stopping the flow of blood, which is nmch
practiced tlirouj;hotit the land, which consists in the repeating of tlie bleed ng person's name in connection with
a certain verse in the book of Ezekiel. This is done
several limes, and, as a general rule, tie bleeding soon
Knowitig that the principle of mesmerism was
the secret of the whole matter, we have frequently stopped
bleeding of the nose by simply fixing our minds on the
afflicted one and willing resolutely for the bleeding to
One of our pupils, who had taken lessons in magstop.
netism from us, was enabled to stop a serious bleeding
resuliing from a cut received by his brother, by willing it
to slop, according to the instructions we had given him.

Another mysterious matter we will speak about is what

denominated "Mind Reading" a subject which has
attracted considerable attention in the newspapers of late.
The operator, or medium, is
It is performed in this way
blindtolded, while some other person in the room secretes


a knife, ribbon, or handkerchief* Then the

mediun) takes the hand of the person who hid the object,
and presses it against his (the medium's) forehead, keeping it there. The one who hid the object must keep his
mind fixed firmly on the secreted article, and resolve mentally to go towards it, ^et at the same time making not the
least muscular movement that would indicate tiie direction
of his thoughts. The medium will feel an indescribable
" drawing" sensation f om the hand he holds against his
forehead, and by following the indications of the " drawing"" he will be enabled to lead the owner of the hand

some object



In ma iy cases much flcpends on

direcfly to llio object.
closely f(;l!()vvini;' tin; iiisinicti iiis wo liavc g'iven.
expcriirKMit is often resorti d t'> I'y young 1< Iks as a moans
of passing time awny, and affording* amusemeiil at social
gatherings. Tli cliarming .M\v:iy of wnris, tuni trs, and
various di>cas(.'S, is doubtless cn'cctivo from llic K;imo cause
as stopping ilio fl>)\v of blood, assisted very mucli in some
cas s by t!ie iuKigiii it on. You may suiilo at tlic word
imagination, but Iheio is a great power in it, as all must
Tell a young l.idy .-.t the tibliilli;it slio Iims just
Bw.dlowc a lly ill her soup, and wc \v.)uld know what the
be, altiiough th(?
iiause .ting icsult wou d
mioht bo uiterly f.dse. Make a very scn-itive indiviJu il
believe t' at ho Ins slept duiing the pa<t night in llie bed
of a c' olera patimt, and t'sc icsult wou d be serious, if
Imaginaiioii is not a hmnbng by uny mcaiM.
noi f'iital.
saying f, ''Spe.ik of t':e devd and he
'i'he oft-rei eate
will nppear," and others of sbuilar import, have ihcir orijrin
in t e iaet th it a person's appronching prenence is fclr,
even before lu makes his appearance. Innmnerabio instances mi;;ht be jiivcn where tiKJUghts <jf the absent
thrust thcms(dves on the ndnd very abruptly, an^l were
followed by the unexpected appearance of the subject of
tho e thoughts. Ttiese occurrences are S) common that
they have long since ceased lo at'ract attention.
AVe wid mention another mysb-rious experiment that is
easily perfoi m* d.
l>et a young man prostrate himself on
the floor, or ground, lying on h s back, with arms by his
Then let f ur or six other peisons stand by the resides.
cumbent one, two or three on each side, and stooping,
plactt the tips of their lingers under the prostrate man, as
Now all must draw iii their breath in conif to Mt him.
cert, ai d exp(l it in like manner, and aft r repeating the
united breathing three or iour tim(\s the lungs of all are
fdled oni e more in com ei t, and at the very moment of the
fu lest inspiration all suddeidy lift their burd(,'n with their
finger-tips, and the man will be tossed up in the air as




lightly as a fcathor, and no mistake.

Remember that all
must breathe together, and all must 1 ft together at the
exact moment of fullest breach. It is bc-t to have some
by.^tander couni re^Aulaily, ro that all may act together in
accordance with his signals.
If these directions are
faithlully oh>ei \^ed you wid b(; lUteily astonished at the
apparent lightness of the person tilled.
ail leinend^er what an excitement was created a few
years ago by that wonclerl'nl little " Planch ette," which



introduced to the juiblic by the publishers of this

Seemingly on'y a " heai t-i-haped" piece of wood,
with only iwo legs, the third being formed by a sharpened


lead pencil.

Planchette at work.
If this little tripod be placed on a blank sheet of printing paper, and the fmgers of on or more persons be laid
very li.Li htly np')n it, in a short lime the connection will be
established and it will begin 1o move, carry iig the fingers
with ir. Great care must be taken not to influence the
motion of th-j " plancliettu" in the least by any muscular
action of the fingers.
At first the m V(Miients will be indefinite, in curves and eircles, but after a while it will
begin to write ''yes" and " no" in answer to leading questions.
In tiic course of repeated trials, answers of all
kinds Will be rec( ived, both s(a'ious, solemn, and trnthftil.
For some persons "plunchettc" will not move at all; for



others of peculiar organization it will move freely in from

one t) twenty minutes. Sometimes, if several will place
their fingers on it at once, it will move readily for them,
although it relusea to make any motion lor any of ihem
my persons have received wonderfnl revelations
have known it to write out
from the liitle tripod.
answers in accordance with the mental dictation of a bystander.
The operators, who were asking the questions,
were much chagrined at the apparently irrelevant answers,
but were compelled to acknf)wle'l^e the joke when the by-


slander explained how he. had brought his will power to

bear in making " planchette" answer as he desired.
We wdl leave this phase of magnetic phenomena and
return to everyday matters ngiin. The power of the
human eye over the brute creation is undoubtedly the result, in part at least, of a mesmeric influence.
You can
h irdiy get a dog to look you in the eye for more than a few
seconds, if you fix your gaze st'^adfastly in return. If you
are in danger of being bitten by a dog at any time, keep
cool if 3^>ii can, and look resolnt*ly in the eyes of tlie
brute, and bring all your powers of concentration to bear
in willing him to keep away from 3'ou.
my dogs will
turn away and walk off on being treated tliiis, but. nov7
and then yon will come across a cur who is only Mibject to
the intluence while your eye^ arc (ixed upon him
tne moment the gaze is withdrawn the brute is ready to advance
It is said by many who prof(3ss to have the power to
ch arm away diseases by a j irgon of incantations, t'aat
they dare not give tln-ir information to those of opposite
sex, for in s doing ihey will lose th power themstdves.
This is quite trne, f(jr wlien they b.'lieve they hive lost
their pow<'r, their confiilence is gone, iin
they can do but
little or nothing.
But let t-u*h persons un lerstand the
prineiph's of mes ne ism, and th y will fi id tint their
" peeping and mntte ing" is cniir. ly superfluous and may
be dispensed with. The peculiar pcsychoiogicul powers of




which wc treat are exercscd a great deal in the world,

even unconsciously. Tli(3 l iwyor who appeals to the j<ny;
the preaclier who is a snccess'ul revivalist; the peddler
wlio disposes of J)isw;ir(;.s to reluct int buyers; the leacher
vliose reso!utu)n intimidates an unr.dy sehnol
and even
the lover who woos liis fair one, ami the rnotiier who
Foothes hi'F fretful iiif tnt all, all unf^onscionsly hring lo
bear to a .c^reater or less exient, one of the m ist \v >n'lerful
powers of mind with which a wise Creator has eudovvcd
the humuu family.



It is of the .areatest impo* tance that the moRmcvizin|i^

opera'or shou'd be a heahiiy person, ])os-cssing" "a sound
mind in a honnd body." This is vrry cs.-entiiii, from the
fact that the nervous flu d which passes I'lom the system
of the operator into that <f the snbj ct niesmen'zcd
Bhould be derived from a healthy somce, lest the snbj- ct
be injured by tlic reception of a diseased nervuus Ihi d ;
nlso for another reason, tiiat if the (tperator is in p or
health he weakens iiis own s\stfm still more by ma;^netizin;^ during a time ot phys'c d indisi osition.

The ()peraior slionid be of tint aL'^e when in rnlire posBCPsion of the highest powers of bodily energy and mentul
r of aged deactivity, neiiher of j'onihlul immaturity
The Btreng h of both mind aiid body should be
rder to
that of confirmed manhood or womanhood, in
reach the very best results, more especially in the treatment of diseases.
All mesmeiizers who desire to be pu cessfnl in their
work should possess the highest moral character, and bo
actuated at all times by a sincere desire to do good to
others, and to advance the cause of honest investigations.



They should be quick to perceive and observe sound in

judgment, and of reteniive memory, that they may thoronglily karn ail the minutiaB of operating, and be ab'e to


ju*t liow inucli progress they are making when rnagTlicy should ba of henevolent turn of mind,
ever actnaled by kind feelings, and also conscientious, that
tiieir motives may ho pure, and cautions, that they may
not be led into oxper mems of doubtfnl propriety, and that
t-iey ntay ahvays prudently take into consideration all the
esseniiais of successfnl opLMation.
They should bj firm
and r* s diite, that they m:iy not grow weary with delay,
nor be alarnK.'d at unpleasant demonstrations that may l)e
ma Ic hy eitlier snhjc 't or sp'.'ctaiois conlid-'Ut, becuuso
of their own knowledge of iho science in all its details ;
C')ol, even under the jilxjs and nnoering remarks of tho
c ilm and collected, though their suhjeet Khould
go into convu sions under tlieir hands; and they sh >uld
puss 'ss Kuch p *wvYs of conct-Mitration as will enable them


keep their minds on t'lei v w->rk, regai'dless

be passing on around t*ieni while operating:.



what may

gor)d practical knowUdge of physi )l<gy is

indispen -able if one
wislies to bo ennnenlly sueces-fil in treating even the
most oidin try dis(Nses, and snch a kn >wl ^Igc will bo a
great he'p at all times, wiiether one treats for disease, or
only experiin<'nts witli liealihy subjects.
No person with
any jnclgment will undertake to experiment in so siraugo
a science as that of "animal magnetism" until he has become thoroughly acquainted with ail tle details of man pulation, and intbraied iiim<elf about the dangers to be
enconntered and the meuiis of avoiding them.
not advise a beginner to atten)pt to mesmerize an individual who is ignorant on t!ie snbject of which we write
a well-posted snbjeet is the best at ail times, since he is
not liabhi t get alarmed and thus disturb the 0}'erator.
It is a wise plan not. to make any ^reat pn tetisions of
wh can be done, for Irequently failures result without
any apparent reason. Never bpend any lime in trying to





convince unbeli<^vcrs let tliem oxpl.iin the phenomena if

they clioose. Do not be led into iryinLC rash and perilous
experiments simply because some of tiie an<li(*nco ask it ;
lay out the plan you intend to pursue, and adhere to it

strictly uidcss

you see


for prudejitial reasons, to devi-

from it. Tlie operator who places himsi^lf at the disposal and control of a promiscuous or even select audience
will soon find out the folly and dang-<n* of it.
And anotliei- thing, dea;- re.ider It* you do not possess
enou*;"h moral firmness to withstand a bitter t>nd unrelenting persecution and basest misrepreseniationsj, even from
somu whom you c ll your frieu'is, then do not practice mesate

merism ; for the age of superstition is not gone by, and

people, now-a-days :i8 in b^'g )ne d lys, still stigm:tize that
which is heyond their compiehension a=5 the " work of the
evil one," and tlmse who have mastered the mystery as
being " children of the devil." And it you are essentially
bad at heart, a id have purcliased this W(jrk with the sole
inteniion of using mesmerism for evil and immoral purposes, th'n you will have " your trcjuble fi>r 3'our pains,"
be hatfled and exposed in ^our un worthy attempts
least expect it, and under circumstances whicii
Noli oi;ly this, but
will result in your utter <liscomfiturc.
you will in all probability lose ynur power to a ^reat
extent, and if you persist in alu>ing ywur girt it will bo
tak( n from youentiiely, and 30U will then know whatyou
cannot now realize, that J^rovidenee has widely placed the
magnetic powers under the contr< I .md jzuidancc of the
moral laeuliies of the mind, and not under the rule of the
ba<er passions.
Everybody possesses magnetic powers to a greater or
less degree, and doubtless nearly every one can find persons whom they can nesmer ze to s nne extent, at least.
Everybody can be magnetized in all probability, though
comparatively few will pass into thj me>meric coma, or
The great trouble is that many peisons will not
submit themselves passively to the operation, or if they



when you



FO, clo not repeat tlio sitting.^ a siiffi(;ient number of

A linndrcd sittings
times fo prodiic<j u p ilpable n^snlt.
m-iy be necessary to l)riug one porson under the infliueiiC(j,
wliilc .'inotlier individnal m ly Call into the magnetic state
in a f(;\v minutes' time, at ihe very first sitting.
Strength (-f mind or body has but little to do with ihe
matter of 8nsceplil)ility, nnle-s they are used in the way
of resistance to the operator. Some of our best su' jects
p)ssess( d the strongest minds and best developed bodies.
Many nncoriqnorablo subjects beco'ne tractabb^, and sire
easi y subdued after being made thoroughly acquainted
with the principles of magnetism.
Wc will now proceed to speak of the conditions to bo
observed when mesmerizing.
In the first place, never
undertake to magnetize any ojjc unless there is a third
person present, except wh'^n j^our relations to the subject
are such that no scandal will be the result.
Do not magnetize a female unless a female friend of the subject is
Never exp'rimcnt with minors urdess you have
the fdl consent of their parents or guardians to do so.
speak of these things not so much because there is
any great danger of serious mischief being done, but in
onh r that yon may avoid even the appearance of evil, and
thuci give no room for the foundation of slanderous reports.
The i)re8enee of a confidential friend of tlie subject on all
occasions is a preliminary that the mesmerist siiould never
negb ct. Not only is his own character and that of his
subject involved, on account of real or supposed possibility of abuse of power, but the credit of a science having
m;ny able and bitter enemies is at stake, and, therefore,
this precaution against plausible misrepresentation should
on no account be ovei looked and, further, the njind of the
subject is more compl. tely lesigned where a friend is at
hand. The mesmeric sitting should take place in a suitable apartment, neiiher too warm nor too cold, but simply
All drafts of a r from doors or windows
should be avoided, and iho operator and subject should so




seat Ihomsolvc^ tliat tlic light will not s'jiiio directly into
t'le eyes of eitli T, but fro n o;ic s de
All 1 xul noises,
suclj as slamming of doors, crying of chi'dreii, an 1 loud
talking in oilier rooms of ihiiiou-c, sli )uM be guarded
aga'nst as much a.i p )S3 blc, for ih i reason th tt Ihey distract the atli'nlion of t!ic hubj(3ct, and tiins bring about
uns tisfactory results. Tii( au iiiMice, wiiether ic be s nail
or lariTC, sh tuld keep silence during the sitting, f )r there
is nothing so unplea-^ant lo an opcrat ir, and s
to a subj 'C", as th<? tittering, wh sp< rinj:^ and iWa remarks
Above all, the mL'smcrizer s'loid d root ihe
of spectators.
others to keep t'jcir eyes turned away froju the subject,
and not even to ])l:ic th(M*r minds on hi ii unt 1 his mesmeric Ktatti is establ s'iod. Some persons, beinx very susceptible to magnetic iuflncnces. will be affected lo ;i conHiderable extent by s mp'y g izing at the ra.ini{)ulation-i of
the person making the p isses.
The person t be nuismerizid should be entirely free
itter to such an extent
from fear, and instructed in the
du ing the
that he will not be likely to b^ceme alarme
In fact, if he is thoroughly informed on the subsit ing.
ject of "Mesmerism," it will bo all the better for boih himself and the operator.
Those persons who boldly announce that you cannot
mesmerize them, and also state their willingness to let
you make the trial, are not proper subjects, because their
minds are antagonistic to yours by reason of their arrogant skepticism. Should you try t) put them to sleep,
and even sensibly affect them, they will at once begin to
resist you and neutralize your efforts ra:her tlian be practically convinced by yielding to your will power.
Entire passiveness is the mental condition t;> l)e maintained by the suhject neither r- sisting the will of the
magnetizer by mental opposition, nor hindering the process of the mesmeric state by an over anxiety to he under
its influence.
The subject should be entirely negative;
thd operator vory positive. The subject should assume an




en^j position in a c!i lir or on a 8'>fi, so ft mtiscle need

carccly be moved during tlic cntiie ^iitin^.


when Mesmerizing.

necessary in the way of experimont should be provided

imd the assistant well instructed as to bis
duties thut there may be no confusion.
Avoid mesmerizing drnnkurds as much as possible, for
Iboy S( metimes prove rather unpleasant customers when
magnetized. Neither would we advise you to undertake
to mesmerize pers(ms suffering from orgaijic, heart, or
brain divseases, unless you are a wcll-infoimed physician as

well as mesmerivst.
When operatinor before a pvomiscnons audience l)e careful to g-ive tliem no information before ihe sitting takes
place that wdl enab c unprincipled persons to interfere
mentally witn j our work
;nKl if there be any individuals
in the aufliencc who are practical mesmerists, get acquainted with them if you can, and get their good will and,
if po>sil)h', their assistance.
in private assemblies, and on other convenient occasion-<, be ready to give all the information desired, and
never attempt to invent your processes with an air of my**
tery or supernatural power.






des cribe very minutely the mode of

brin^Mns^ n person into ihe mesmn-ic .state.
Lot the
oper.itor an<l subject seat thcns -Ives fxca to faco, thtj subject being seat<nl a little lower than the op-n-ator to enable
him to work with greater ease.* The knees of the subject
may be placed between t'loso of tho operator, or, in the
case of a lady Ku!)ject, atone side
any position
ly bo
assume! which will lighten the labor of the mesmerist
when making the pisses. Now suppo-tia^ yourself to be
the operator, y u will tiki the left hand of your subject
in your ri^^ht, and his right hand in your left, placing the
ball of your thumb in th center of the upper part of tlio
palm of his hand near where ic j ins the wrist, and near
the root of the thumb
the subject h d.ling his p ilnis upward while your thumbs arj in t'.ie position described and
your fiuijers clasped over the backs of his hands. Each of

Thumb on Median


yonr thumbs is now pressinT^ against the median nerve,

the second of the brachial plexus, and a compound nerve
having the power of both motion and sensation. Now
lean a little forward and fix your p^aze firmly upon the eyes
of the subject, with a determination in your mind to control and bring him into the mesmeric st ite
the subject
returning the gaze placidly and with a dos're in h's mind
The subject sliould be entirely
to pass into the sleep.

See Engraving on page




tranquil and passiv(> in mind, and as quiet and easy in

:is possible, and in no ca-c should ho mentally resist
ihe influence of the operator.
The method of establishing the communications, as it is
culled, tlirou<i^h tlie channel of the "Median Nf.rvk" is the
very best mclhod known, as it enal)les you to bring your
influence to bear on tlie brain at <>nce, as the examination
of he nerve in a physiolo^iical state will convince j'ou.
Another method of uniting the h ^nds is to place the balls
of your Uiumbs agninst those of j^our subject, and then
clasping your fingers (.vcr tliC lower part of his thumbs ;
,VOur finger-tips will then be resting on the upturned pahns
of the subject and partly on the " Median Nerve," perhaps.




Thumb. Fingers on Median Nerve.

In this posiiion avoid bending the thumbs of the subject

80 back as to cause pain or in^ onvenience.
Of course,
it is as necessary to estahlish the gaze iu this second as
the gaze being an important feature at all
in the first


After having joined hands with the subject and continued the gaze a few minutes, disengage your hands and
place tlieni on tlie crown of the subject's head, with your
thumbs resting on his f uehead just bovo the nose, on
ihe organ of ** Indiv iduality," phrenologically speaking.
Let your hands rest on the sul'jectAs head for a few moments then pass them down tiKi sides of his face till you
reach the shoulders, when* you let t ieni ve.^t again a few
moments ; theu pass ou down the bre^ist, resting them a
moment on the stomach, and continuing the pass till you
reach the knees, where you will cease unless you can con*



renienlly lengthen the pas until you rcacli the feet of the
Make sever <1 of llie>e long passes and then folnbjcct.
low with other passc:*, commencing at ihc head as bcforo

Thumb on

Individuality. Taking



and terminatinor at the stomach, interspersed with olhers

passing down the arms an-i ending at tlie subject's hnnds,
which w 11 now be roslinix on liis knees. After using
tlicsc shorter passes f>r eight or ten minutes, 3'ou will
make a few long passes d< ser bed at first, for the purpose
of equalizing tlie niesuicric fluid in the subject's system,
and then return to the short ])as8es. on which tlie desire<l
result mainly depend
n t forgetting to commence each
pass at tiio t 'p of tin) head.
In making the passes the fingers should be slightly
curved and a little apart, and the hands moved slowly
downwards wiih the tips of the fingers jmd thumbs almo.'-t
touching the subject
actual contact of the fini^ers with
thtj Rutject while in motion not being nece-s iry.
downward motion of the hands should be made slowly, or
the effect will be much retarded.
At the end of eaeh pass
throw your hands outwurdly from the subject and shake



slightly, a-; if flinginj]^ something from

your liiif^ers. This is to t>reak the connection.
It may al-o lc accomplished by nibbing- yuur tbiinib quickly
aiToBs 3^oUi- finger ends, and still more CMsily by simply
shutiin^- }oi\v hands quicivly, keeping your fingers clasped
again.-t your palm-i.
Wo now w sh t call your attention to the manner of
your raising your hands lo ihe siilject in order to repeat

them a few times






Ciielessncss in


ibis respect


rcsnlt in

throwing off the inflnence as fi>t as yon create an cffeirt.

When you have coniplett d a pass, raise your hands wiih
the backs t the sn' ject, c ith 'r by flinging them up closely
in fio t of yourself, or by carrying ihem up a i'oot distant
from the sides of liie subject, u itil y<>u reach the top of
To raise \ our hands with the palms tothe iicad again.
wajds the sul j''ct would undo j-our work.
There are two otiier meihods of r.iising the hands about
as good as tliti foregoing.
One is to clasp j'our fingers to your palms and raise them ns you like, and tho
other way is to ilirw your hands out still further after
breaking the connection ;ind raise theju by describing a
large arc several feet, from the sides of the subject or, if
held closed, let them be brought up a lit:le behind the subject, in order to avoid the necessity of turning the palms


At all times while making passes keep your oycs fixed

on those of the subj ct, and com;<'ntrate your mental energ es upon yr)r.r work, nn avoid tiring yourself by unusual
Siiould yju get wijuried at
eifort in tiie manipula lions.
ony time, r st yours df by ceasing t) make the passes
and tikiiig up tlie c>)nn(;cti()n of tho hands as at the beginninj: and coirinuing it
r a lew minutes
or you can
connect one ban with tho hubject's and make passes with
tl.c oiher, and ihen c laiigc.
The lirst j-3'inp ot!i which indicates your progress in
mesmerizing tli(; subject is the decrease of the temperature






will perceive

that the cxtremitiua of



tlinmba find fltigors liccomo cold uud very likely moist

Arioiher infallible si^ii tliat ttio nubject is entering'
dcsir<M| state is a peculiar diooping- of llic ('yclid^^,
more pan icid ir'y noticoHblo wl:oii tin; p >sscs are made
direct y in iVont of llictn.
Tlicy will giadn.illy druop



r aiul lower uniil at last lliey close beyond tlic ability

of thr) subject to open them.
Sometimes persons enter
the magnet it; slate wifiiou"^, closure of the eyes taking


place Sit all, but ilic coolness (t tite cxuetniiies is always

pn sent t-o far as we liav.i observed. Should tlic lumds
become warm again durinjf ihe sitting, or the eyes lose
their sleepy expression and get wide-awake, it will be best
to en
ihc sitting at once and throw oif the fluid from tlic
subject's system, as you Avill not be likely to make any
fnrilicr prugi'ess at that time.
It will be much easier to
bring ><Mir sijl-ject up to the same point at a future sittin>r, for it seems to be a prim ip'e in in ignctism that all
progress made at any silting is readily attained ever a^ter,
and by mak ng a little })r gress at each sitting (which
should never exceed thirty or Ibrly minutes), a complete
stat(; of com i may 1)0 reached in ten or fil'teen cr even a

hundred consecutive trials.

Some ma^netizers make a practice of rccovcr'ng the
control of the subject when the hands begin to get warm
ind the eyes commence opening, by walking him briskly
across the room a few times, keeping u;) the connections
keeping the mind on the work,
)f the hands, ;ind also
b^'equently the subjects may le thrown deeper in the state
after their eyes ate closed, by asking ihem to look mencally into somebody's house which they are familiar with,
or by a^king them about: the contents ot a certain drawer,
This is a step towards clairvoyor 8om(? similar question.
ance which rarely fails to deepen the sleep of tiic sal ject.
You need not fear that such questions will waken him.
Whenever your sitting is ended, no matter whether yoti
have pr)duceel any at>parenr, effect or no^, always, invariYou cannot bo too careful about
ably, throw off th J fluid.








sometimes a person



pletely in a muL^nctic state :intl ilie operator not aware of

it, nor the Kubj< ct nor bystandei- eiLhcr.
Dispersive |)asses :iro the reverse of the mesmeric manipulations already described.
Plac your h;nds directly
front of the suhjecl's face, with the backs lojrc^tljor ;
then spread tliem ap.irt quickly as if brush'np^ s >mething
off Lis lace
al o throwinj:^ your hands over liis head as if

brushing his hair back with the palms.

Demesmerizing. Hands move

Continue these

in direction of dotted lines, briskly,

passes briskly for half a minute or so, without touching

the suhject, but hitting your hands pass over and around
his head.
Finish by clapping your hands sharp'y in
should he btill feel a 1 tile
front of his face a few limes
These direcqueer, repeat the whole throwing off process.
t ons mu^t ba followed in ordin ary cases when little or no
apparent eHect is produced, no matter what the subject
may say about its not being necessary.



Should the subject be entirely


and yon wi-h to



him, you
let him alono and he will wake of l>i3
own accord in a few hours, but th s is not advisab c by
any means. If you tell him lo " Wake up now," in ii firm
tone, ho will do so in a minute or two, when you will use
the disp'Tsivc passes as already given.
Another w;iy
still is to use tiie dispersive p:\ssrs across the chest smd
stomnch by puttim^ ihe backs of your hands tog ther and
sprcadiiitr thquickly, as h;is abeady been shown, following up with deMiesmerizin^ p isscs across the face and over
the head, and finishing' by clapping- the hands.





Hands move in direction of dotted lines, briskly.

waken the subject by making the pas^^cs

<f downwa d, takiii.< care to turn ihe
hands upward and to make the motions in


palms of yoiir
brisk and lively manner.
The subject can be instantly
jmi g >ing lo
awakened in this way
S:iy to iiim,
waken y-in. I shall say, 'one, two, three!' and at the
Word 'three' I will clap my hands and you will be perfectly
awake. Arc you ready?" If so, you will si}',





"THREE," and


SpoMk resolutely and


slap your
sulject will

at (ho word
pcrfccily awake.




This last metliod is apt to shock the subject a little with

its suddenness, and on that account should not be resftrted
to CM all occasions, but it is the best method by which to
completely demesmerize tlie suiiject and to cjtpcl the surplus nervous fluid he has received.


We will now proceed to descri'^e the phenomena of that

branch of animal ma<^netisni termc^d Electrical Psychology,
and will Ret forth in a (ew words what was so ably advocated twenty-live 3'ears 0,(^0 by Dr, John Bnvee Dods in
his lectures throughout the United States.
Take any person by tlie hand in the presence of one other person, or
bef )re a hundred, placinuf the ball of your thumb on tiic
back of his hand an inch above th(i knuckle of tho ring
finger, between it and the wrist.
Your thumb will then
be resting (irmly cm the ulxar nerve, which spreads its
branches to the ring and little linger. Let the subject

Thumb on Ulnar


place his eyes on your own as soon as yon take his hand.
With a fixed determination to inlluencc him, return his
gazij a haltminute or irore.
Then tell him to lose liis
eyes, and when he has done so, press the eyelids down
gently wi h your finders, usin;;- the hand whi< h is fn c.
Now place this hand on the top of his head, letting the




rest on lii.s foreliead* just aliovc llic nose, bearings

partially downwards, slill Kccpinp^ 3'onr other tliumb on llio
ULNAR NERVK. K(<wtell liim 111 tlic Miost resoliitc maiiiicr,

**You cannot open yovr eyes." ]f \a should su(

cc( d, try


two or ihr< o lin es n ore, vcpsing his lids down as hefoic.

If you cannot, by your will powe r, old his vyvA shut or
produce any effect, then end the expcrinM-nt. A much bet|


your tliumb on the mkdian NERVK,f and

the rest of the xpei im( nt as we hav(,' just
shown. If you can hold your sul jeet's eyes closed by ihc
modes just mentioned, or if yon can contnd Ihe action of
the lids to a considerable extent, ihen tell him lo clasp his
liands togother t ghtly on his head or across his knee, and
then say, " You can't separate thenj." To the inlinite surprise of almost everybody, he will be able to do so only
wiih f^rcat difficulty, or hot at all. Let him he seat( d, and
taking hold of the chair, firmly say, " You can't rise." He
will remain seated in spile of all his efforts. Give him a stick
to lioldand you can prevent him from letting it fall, though
he may strive his best to do so. You can prevent his walking ii single step. Yon can arrest h s voice in the middle
of a sentence, and he will vainly strive for utterance. In


to place


his muscular efforts in any way you

by simply speaking your commands in a resolute
tone, and keeping your mind firmly on the work.
must be taken not to let the subject injure himself by overexertions.
AYc once caused a subj<!Ct to strain his back,
while trying to lilt a single chair, which, light as it was,
he could not move an inch. Freqn(3ntly you will succeed
better by making a few passes ovt r the arms, hands, or
fingers, before giving a command, observing to make the
slrke in the direcnon of the extremities.
You may not
be able to control the subjf'ct to any gi eater extent than
already described
but if he is very imprrssible you can
do much more, which we will speak of hereafter. You


yon can control


* See Engraving on page 20.

t See

Engraving on page




may bring about tlic samo results l)y calling up a number

of jiersoMs, say twenty live or thirty, and letting each Uold
acoiniu ilie open pixlm. Let each one choose any posiwhich h(j can occupy for twenty or thirty minutes
wi hout moving a sinixie muscle except the eyelids in


winking. Let each subjc.'ct hold the coin about a foot

from liis cyi-a, and fix his gMze on it, wi.h his mind perfectly passive and withdrawn as mucii as possible from all
external surroundings.
During the twenty or t!iirty minutes occupi d, the spectators must be as silmt as the
gi ave, and the eyes of e;ich subject rive ed on his coin, and
his muscles as motion'ess as a statue.
The result will be
more I'avoiable if you keep your mind on the entire class
of subjects, and still better if you occasiona'ly make
passes over them, though you may safely withdraw your
mir.d from them and direct your attention to keeping the
audience as quiet as possible. When the half-hour has expired, attend to the subjects, one at a tinjo, and take the
communication throu;^h the ulnar or median nerve, as
already .shown, and you can experiment wiih all those
whoso eyes you succeed in closing. Qu'te likely yon will
find one or two who have passe into the mesmeric slumber b(,'fore the sitting is ended, especially if ym have instructed every one not to res st the drojping of their eyelids and the drowsy feeling while gazing at the coins.
We should mention that you should gather up your coins
(or buttons, marbles, or whatever is used instead,) before
taking tlie communication to close the eyes, in order lo
relieve the su! jects
but, at the same time, let each
remain perfectly still until his turn comes. ThOvSe whom
you cannot influence to any degree, you will pass by,
re ainiiig only the most itnpressible to experiment with.
Only be sure to throw off the influeiice from every one who
holds a coin, and be sure that you do not forget to do so
belore the entertainment is brought to a close.
you su' ceed in closimy- the eye-} of a subject in mesmerizing, and you can hold them shut by y>>ur will power,
you cau succeed in the experiments wo have spoken of at




of Ibis chaptiT, and if tlic subject i^^ easily conyou can continue by addin^^ the following, and





like nature.

You cau

m;ikc liim do these things

by simply willing bim

to do so, wiibout snying a word to

bim, if be be very susceptible, ihnngb sncli cases arc not
as frequent as tiiose who must be commanded au'libly.

You can make

the subject believe that the handkercliief

is a snake ; that be is in a nest or hornets
that i;e is a stump speaker tiiat he is a jig dancer ;
tliat be is in a thunder-sioim
in a battle
or in any other
place you wish.
You can place your knife in his band and
make it feel j-o hot th >t be will drop it in pain. You can
mak(^ bim nurse a pillow as if it were a little babe, an
amusing cxperinu nt when an old bachelor is t'le subject.
You can c.insc bim lo shed tc^ai's over the prostrate ttody
of so ne one of the au lience previously informed, by telling
iiim be bcho'ds the lornr of sume ne ir and dear unc.
Yon mav give him a j>lass of water to drink, and if you




him it was strong drink he wi-ll stagger like a drnnkcu

man. If any of th(; auduMicc try to joke iii ti, he will show
an apiness of reply and a brdli;incy of rcpaitce far beyond

bis ability in the







be atoired till be beci)mcs almost dangerous to tiiose

whom be lancies to be bis enemies. Be carelnl in cxperinu nt ng not to
ake the changes too abrupt, lest the nervous systc
of the subject be sh;ikeu.
Never end the
series f experiments with anyihii g of an unpleasant charif _)ou do, the subject w)ll feel badly for hours
afteiward. Let the last experiment be of a lively nature,
pleasing to the subject as well as those looking on.
Noliiing should be impres.-ed on the mind of the ui ject
"which, if real, would endanger bim mentall}', or which, if
an actual occurrence, would result in physical de..t!. In
short, be very ])rn(leiit and cauti >ns, and attempt nothing
but what is s.ife, no m ittei- what tlionghts bystanders may
keep your mind on
clamor for. Keep cool ai d collecte
the subject, so as to control him fully, and never g^et
alarnwid nur out of patience, and all will be wll.




We now c^^mc to

speak of the dangei s of animal maof*

imaginary ;ind real. The lirst tlioui^lit wliich
enters Ihc minds ot* a majority of persons, \vli< n tli' y arc
n)ado to realize the trutli of mcsmedsn), is, that it may
become an a.i;cnt of great power for cvd in iha bands of
bad njcn. But it is a fact, wiiii li all observing inesmerists
have noticed, that the moral liicnlties pi ty
pait in the sncccssfnl cxereise of the ma^Mietic power. Wo
r<dy on the word of eminent wiiters on the subject, and
also tlie testimony <.f nnmeions operatoi-s, that wlien m<^n

ncti>rn, boili

nake a l'a<l nsi; of tl)o power lliey possess magnetically,

they finally loose ihat power eniiiely. Cases of this kind
and further, that wh'Mi once the power is
arc on record
The same law governs the mental
lost, it is lost forever.
man that governs the pliysical man as the abnse of the
funetions of a physical or<!aii n-snits in the loss of the
fnnciion, so the abuse of a mentil p.iwer, like mesmerism,
TluMcforo we would say to those un)ss.
resjilis in its
prinC'! led villains who study this bo.>k f <r an evil purpose,
yon will not oidy lose a mystcnions power, l^estowed lor
good pnrposos, but yon will be thwarted in another way
whieh we will now mak() known. Many things may be
nccoraplisi.ed in he w >y of exp rimcnts w'lieh could not
be Inought about by lh<^ pi raior if he were in earnest.
The mind of the Kubj(3et feels that the op.-rator is not n ally
meaning to lead him into harai, and In^ governs hims- lf
accordingly. But the m- ment an operator is influenced by
ses Control of his subject, and the subbyd m dives he
will resist him both mentally ai.d p!iy>ically.
j( ct
A clergyman who had smcc- ssfnlly treated
a lady for disea.'^e. by the use <d" mesmerism, attempted
to lake liberties vviih her person. Uis base attempt aroued




her moral foelings to such a degree that she was conruUcd

anil wakened, and her sci earns brought help immediately.
If a person be moral before being mesmerized, he w ll be
donl)ly so in tlie mngn' tic state, and also stronger physieull\
and in case lie sees fit, ulide magniMized, to resist
the operator, he becomes almost as dangerous as an enraged lunaiic. But all such attempts as the one just
refeired to may be baffled by taking the precaution to
have at least one friend of the subjeet pri^ssnt during the
'Ihis should never be neglected.
Let u-; suppose
that mesmerism could be used lor infamous purpose-^, as
many will sli 1 contend who are opposed to ir. That
would make it a prime necessity for every intelligent man
and woman to become; practically acquainted wiili its phenomena, in order that they might be able to guard themif mesmerism is dan^-erous, how
selves and tlieir friends,
great the need to comprehend the danger, and to l)e able
The oltener a person
to delect it under all circumstainrcs.
allows himself to be mesmerized, the more easily and
Such persons sometimes bereadily he enters the state.
come feai ful 1( St. they may be thrown into the state unawares, while other persoiis who have never been subj' cted,
If a person who
ofjen entertain fears of like character.
is easily subjected wishes to ward otT tiie influ( nee of any
one whom he has reason to believe is trying to magnetize
him, let him join the tips of his ihumbs and fingers, and at
lie \vi 1 b(. still more sucthe same time resist mentally,
cessful in resisting the influence if he grasps his hands
together so as to unite the median nerves of his two palms,
and resist menially also. This method forms a circl(3
within one's own syslem, gu irded at all points, like the
military hoUww squ ire of ''Guard against Cavalry.''^ But
the best plan of all is for the susceptible subject to become deeply mesmerized, and while in the state let the
operator speak to him in regard to his fears, etc.: " Now

do you wish


y to resist the influence, that you

mesmerized in the least agaiubt your

for the abili

not become



" Yes, of contsc," snys the Riil joct, or perhaps ho

iMd. "Well," continues ihe operator, *' resolve
firmly in your mind that yon siiall not, at any future time,
be snbjccied contrary t your wishes/' *'Alake a strong
determinaticn to be at all times free from the nK^smcric
influence except at such times as you are perfectly willinii^."
The snlject wiil he seen to piess his lips together in a
very dccid' d manner, and the oper;it(r<l continue his
advice, telling liim that by firm resolntion he will he able
Whei tlie subject is wakened he
at all times to resist.
will find himself able lo ward off all inflnences, if he
This depends uf)on one of the principles
choosovs to do so.
of nicsmerism, that impress ons made on the mind of the
puhjoct whih; in the sleep are retained after ho is awakent d.
This should lead tHe operators to be a little careful jbout
the mental impressions they make on t eir subjects, lest
unpleasant consequences lollow.
very com:n<>n etror,
into which m;ny fall, is that of a good snbject submit ing
himself to many operators in the conrse of a short time.
When an excellent snbject is found, he is often retjuired to
sit for this peralor, then in a few honrs to sit for that one,
at the rate of a dozen or more operators in the space of a
week, or less. This is very injurious to the nervous system of the subject, since it is impossible to throw off all the
nervous fluid that an operator has imparted, and a little
nervous fluid from each of a dozf^i ditl'erent individuals is
not calculated to benefit a snbject, by any nieans. It is
bi'St for a snbject to confine himself to one operator, and to
allow no change until several days have intervened. There
seems to be a difference in the efficiency of different operators with regard to the same subject, whi< h indicates a
difference in the quality of the nervous fluid.
should not submit themselves to operators of immoral character, or of impure physical hab.ts, as the nervous fluid


may simply


The subis an undesirable po.-sessioji.

fjequently mesnjerized by a niesmeristof poor
find himself loaded with the operator's disease ;

from bad persons








wliile, on the otlier liand, the operator will find his own
Bystcrn improving" at ihc expense of the unwise subject.
The h:i(\ ollects of lettin.s;' children sleep wiJi the old and
inlirm is an example of like chai actor.
Do not impress it
on tlie mind of a magnetized subject that you cannot
awaken him, or else you may lind tiiut you will not. be able
to briti;^ him out of tlie si ate ; as liie subject will then
contiol liimseU", and will not wake till he gets ready.
S.)inetiines you will be truuMed a Utile by the influence of
the minds of the bystanders, who have, ignor.intly or o herwise, put tl'emsclves iu communie:ition with the subject l>y
handling him too freely or by fixing their gaze and attention upon him loo intently.
few words to the snbjfct,
instructing him to obey you alone, and to ward off ou side
Attempt no
interference, will set matters right again.
dangerous experiments with a siibjoet. Remember that
the impressions m:ide on his mind are seemingly real to
him, and the shock or scare y(n\ may produce will be
once caused a
likely to cling to him when awakened.
subject to weep over what he supposed to be the dead body
of his father; and then, as the audience were seriously
affected, we brout^ht him into a natural state and dismissed
But the young man who was the subject,
(he asfecmbly.
told us jifierward, tliat the saddening influences affjcted him
considerably tlie next day. Jr^o, you see, one cannot be too
Let all changes be gradual, and let the last cxperim nt be of a cheer! ul natuie. Av'oid drunkards, for
though they are generally subjected with ease, they are


hard to w.iken, and are likely to deceive you by making

you believe that they are iKJt in the least unde-r the influence, when, in reality, they are completely mesnierized.
We would advise you to steer clear of tliose who may have
a predisposiiion to insanit3', or who may be subject to
organic disease of the heart. It is best to be on the safe
side when you mesuierize Ibr the purpose of try ng experiments. If the subject t^hows any convulsive action when
you arc making the passes, breathe gently on top of Lis



nnd down to tlic back of liis nccV. Sometimes it is

well to breathe on the part Mflccted. Slioiild the Bubject
show any difficul y in breathin.G:, m:iko a few dispcrsivo
passes over the chest, and tlic breaihinij will become nat-


Sometimes the

snbjei t jiets alarmed, whicli frethe case, when he has not previ.>n.-ly been
instructed in the matter, or when Kome of the bystaiKlers
get scared. Under sucli circnm^tances thnnv the 8iihject
out of the state, anil have no more tod witli persons Ii.ivin^
60 little ^^ood sense.
Persons are some itnes thrown into a
''trance" at rel'^iou-? mci;iings. This is <'f en brouo^ht




about by

the minds of

tiie preacher
seeker for reliiriOn, in
connection wiih tlie patting-, embracing, nnd hnnd-s baking",
which are so frequently practiced at extraordinary revivals.
The exhaust on of those at the "anxious sea'" r(?nder.t
them very susceptible to magnetic influences. Frequent y
persons are thrown into a tr.mce i this way. Tiie preacher
is very enthusiastic and earnest.
He sees, we will say, a
female in tiie congregMtion who is deeply aflecfed. As a
matter of course, he wdl naturally direct bis mind toward



and members upon



mind of




her to be converted to resi;^-n Ijersclf

giving lip all and Ihc result m ly be that she is thrown
into a cataieptic state, called "trance," and that withont
any thought of such a resnlt on the part of tlie preacher.
Now, if the preacher or auy other person, will put himself
in communication with the individual who is in the
"trance," by nutans of the median nerve and hand on the
head, and use the means described lor demesmcrizing, the
her, desirino:

entranced one will wake up in a few minutes. We have

known more than one person bronjrht out of a revival
"trance" in this way. More tlian that, we have seen a
number of persons thrown into the psychological state
(like that in tlie coin experinu ni, descril^ed in chapter
four), and a few into a "trance" state, l-y the efforts of the
preacher in charge, who did not sciuple t use mesmeric
passes until we detected him and exposed his practice to
the cliurch, when th(i wonders ceased, and the people's eyes
were opened. We do not mention these tilings to scoff at
religion, nor to ridicule any demoustiational practice, but
to put well meaning peop'e on their guard, that they m ly
not have mere m -wiie.ic phenomena palmed off on them as
being a high order of religious experience.




propose to give a few directions in regard to the

use of mesmerism in curing diseases of the simph-r sort.
Serious cases of disease should be treated mesmerically
only by operators who arc tliorough'y {icquainted with the

human system and


vice of a physician


ailments, or wlio act under the adis well informed on the subject of
animal magnetism. It is generally best to begin as though
YOU were g(Mng to mesmerize your patient, and should ho
become purti.tlly mr.gneiized, or even pass completely into
the state, it will do no harm wliatever. You cmnot be too
careful in making the pusses when mesmerizing for disease,
as there is danger of throwing the patient's disease upon
your own system. Throw your Iiands away ftoin your
body not towards it at th-; completion of each pass.
Some cperatois wash their hands Ireely in cold water
when they hive done ti eating a sick person. A great
many operators declare they feel sympathetic sympioms
in their own bodies not unlike the pains of the patient
whom they are magnetizing. Such diseases an nervous
lie.idache, nenralg a, toothache, earache, rlieumat'sm, and
local inflammation, are easily subdued in the manner hereafier desciibed.
But one must exercise some common
sense, rr els(} he will throw away his strength and accomplish but 1 ttltj good.
For instance, it would bo out of
the qu' Stion to cure a sick-headache which was the result
So long as the
of indigestion in an ovei loaded stomach.
caus'j of a disease is not removed tlie resulting pains can-

not be more than temporardy iclieved. Where t'le disease

pro liKjed by a disarrangement of the nervous system,
mesmerism wdl prove a swift and 8urc cure. Headache
can be relieved by making upward passes from the neck

i >



crown of tlic hend, as if demcsmerizing. This is

doMo by the operator walking nroiind the patient so as to
affect every portion of the h(jad, finisliing eacli pass ae if
to the

drawing some
S'line cuses

dehjtia'ions influence from tiie pati' nt's licad.

can be cured by making downward instead of

npwaril passes.
Fre(]ucnily the patient will be relieved
bieatliing on his head a lew times alter you have comnkcnced (lie passes. Sliould the disease not yield to this
treatment (which is to be used while the patient is awake),
then ])nt the patient to sleep and follow the foregoing
directions tiie same as when he was awake.
when sev< re, is best treated by the complete mesmeiizing
of the patient, ami as soon as the sleep is produced let
local ])asses, without contact, b(? mad<! over the pait
Mild cases can usnally be relieved ly a few
general passes, as in mesmerizing a subject, followed by



of Curing Toothache, Neuralgia, or Headache.

All local passes

local passes over the seat of disease.
used in tr<'ating di-ease should l e finished by a drawing
motion of the hands ; the operator at the same time will-

ing firndy to draw some malevolent influence iVom the

patient's system, the removal of which, though not seen,
is nevertheless proceeding under the man pulati(ms. Wtien

each pass


finished, iiing

your hands briskly fiom the


patient (not in the diiection of your



person), as


you weie throwing the di^-eat^c from your fin^-er-tips.

Rheumatism may be treated by local passes, continuing
the treameiit for Imlf an liour at a time, preceded by tlse
mesmeric slumber in very severe cases. Let t!ie local
passes be mude in the diicctiun wliich the arterial blood
flows, tliat is towards llie extremities, commencin^^ each
pass at tlie point of diseased action nearest tlui heart.
u gener;l rule, all local passes should be made in like
manner, observing also not to hold ti:e hands in such a
position as to demesmerize while bringing them up to re"
peat the passes. Should ri<ri<'.ity of the patient's muscles
n su't fiom your man pulations, it can be easily removed
by patting the rigid part gently with your hand, or by
blowing ir briskly two or llirc c tinv s, or y a few reveiso
Molheis and nuises may frequently prevent fi's
and convulsions during teething, by makii g downward
passes over the head, lace, and dic^t of the chdd. Earache, that comm<jn com|)l int amon;^ children, may bo
cured by fobowing the direeiions for relieving head icho,
and by liieaihing in tie ear .-flectjd. It is a g' od plan
to force the l)reath into a folded liandK<M'chief placed t-n
the sj)ot where the pain is located.
When peisons are
naturally very susceptible to mesmerism, r have become
BO by repeat(jd trials, then any portion of their bod es may
be rnagn(Mized by local passes without affeciing the lest of
A jaw ly be mesmerized and a tooth
their systems.
drawn without pain a fi^ot may be made insensible and
an ingrowing nail taken away. Serious surgical operations may be f)erforme(l by mesnjeiizing th(3 paiiint most
profoundly, and wdiile in the htale e will be insensible to
the pain, and he may e awakfned. except that poriiou of
the body operated on by the surueon, which portion may
bo left to rapidly heal in a magnetic state, without pain.
The curious fact tl at persons deeply magnetized become
compleb ly insensible to pain at the will of the operator,
prumis( s muc li future good to the human family. Another




fact equally curious

is, thiit while the subject feels no pain

on Ids own body, he is keenly sensitive to pains
given the hody of the perator who controls him. A needle
thrust in tlie operator's arm will cause the subject to flinch,
while, at the same time, he will pay no attention whatever to a thrust in his own person.
Anoiher very successful method of mesmeric treatment
practiced by one ol the leading magneti.^ f)hysicians is to
instruct the patient when deeply magnetized to make a firm
resolntion, with all the poweis of his will, that he shall be
well and free from his di.-ease upon awaking.
Let the
subject he thoionghly taught, while in the magnetic Uate,
to forgot his disease, to be rid of it, and in no case be
allowed to entertain ideas that he will feel badly when
awaki^ned, and the result will be astonishing. D sease of
a simple character, like ague, is often cured by one trial.
Some magnetizers make a practice of letting their patients
describe their own diseases while in a magnetic state, and
also to prescribe the remedies.
We think t!iis decidedly
unsafe, unless th(! p itient has developed un loubted clairvoyant faculties of a high degree. The patient may describe
symptoms and condiiions which do not exist in his system,
and the impression, while mignetized, though f il-ein it-elf
may bring about real results whivh will be directly the
reverse of those mentioned in the preceding paragiaph
also, the subject's own mental prescription while in a state
of coma may cause a physical necessity for the remedies
Let all the impressions entertained by the
subject be of a nature to bi ing about a favorable result,
since the power of magnetic imagination will produce
great results in the natural state, so far as the physical
B^'stem is concerned.
In your treatment, be actuated by a sincere desire to do
good follow the directions given in full conlidence see
that your sul ject is made free from all fear, and you will
be absolutely astonished at ^^jurself, and the only trouble
will be that you will be annoyed by tiie springing up of a
neighborhood practice for ihe treatmeut of simple diseases.








will not be amiss to p^ive our readers a


hints on the above-named subject, since a lew of tliem, at

any rale, will ultimately s(^ek t<) difinsc the knovledge of
mesmerism through the powers of oratory and declamation.
While we do not wish to restrict the tyro lecturer
to onr particular plan, yet we believe that a definite plan
will be of f^reat advantage to tlie beginner, who may
vary the programme to huit his individual taste and the

circumstances wliich surround iiim.

In addressin.;- an audience on the important subject of
Animal Magnetism, it is best lo inform them that the
great mystery has been known to the world for age.'',
and th;it it. is no new-fani^'led humbug, but a truth will
After citing to them historical accounts of
magnetic wonders, call tl;cir attention to the mysterious
facta of our present tifne, giving such instances as cannot
be gainsayed. Seek to impress the audience that there is
much more in this thing which they are inclined to
ridicule than they imngine.
VVe do not know as it is
worth while to spend much time in exphiining a theory
one fact is worth a thousand theories and then, too,
there are so many theories advocated in regard to the subject, that perhaps it would be just as well to st-t them all
A promisctious audience ran ly lias the patience
to sit quietly and listen to a line sputi arojument which,
after all, may be entirely w mistake.
When you have
finished 3'onr address, which should deal with the subject
only in a g( iieral w;iy, you can state to the audience that
yon are leady to experiment, but that if they wish your
cxjieriment to be entirely successful they must obey orders.
Of cuuruo you will not coujmic so grave a mistake us to



give Ihrm such information as to cnab'c evil-disposod persons to tliwart and liinder von in any of tlie mesmeric processes. Yon can call five or s<'vcn persons forward, lakmg
care to select intelligent individuals, if possible, i\nd give
explicit directions liowr to peiforin tiie lilting experiwe have efore de>ciil)cd. liepeat the experimeni im:il the fiers work in unison, when it will be a
great success. Afh r all arc sealed again, yon will explain

ment, as

the following experiment to tlie audience, and then make

one or two trials of it. Let all the assembly close their
eyes t'ghlly for lialf a minute or m- re. During that tine
fix your mind (irmly on tlie who'e assembly, wi.ling their
c\es to remain closed. Then tell them that they cannot

Perhaps two or three in the crowd will

s:iys about one in twenty live on
an average),
liosc who cmnot open their eyes will be
excellent sid'jects for any experiment you may wish to
perf rm during the evening
that is, if yuu can get them
to come forward and snbniit tht inselves.
Next try the
coin experiment, getting as many individuals to submit
themselves as possible. We will not repeat the directions
given in a preceding chapter. Whoa you (ind a subject

0|)cn their e^'cs.

be able to do t^o



who is easily controlled by " taking ilie communication"

through the median nerve, with thumb on the foiehcad, first
experiment in controlling his muscles let him clasp his
hands tightly together over his head, across his knees, and
around {I cane, stren-^thening ;\our influence by a few
passes over his hands before telling him lh t he cannot
separate them.
Do not let him injure himself when trying, in vail), to lift clntirs, sticks of wood, etc.
Now let him li')ld a knife ti^hily between his thumb and
fing^er and tell him he cannot drop it to save his lifa



tell liim ilic


is liot




burn him.


e instantly, or will liold

it ;is ]on>^ as lio can bciir the imag nury pain, and then
ilinr^ it down and look jit his hand and
it in ih" most
lud croiis
Give hitn the kiiifc again to iiold, and
ccptilile subject will

tl'O loii


" See. it is bc!L>'inning to ciawl on

tell iiiin it is a bznid.
your hand
Lo k look at it !" lie flmgs it to ihe lioor,
" Tin re, tlieie. it is crawling: np your leg
anil you say
It is iictting in yonr boo'
OIF couu'S
pull it off ^^ac/j
tiuj I'oot, unless yon lell him the reptde h ts e-caped.
Tell h m lui is in a hornets' nest, and let Idiii slap away
at his iniaginiiry to- mentors tor a while.
Pretend to rub
Fonie nied cue on him
say iodine to cure the ^*tihg8.
When he appears r< li(n'etl, tell him the i odino is turning
him Hack, lie will iry in vain to >ub the black otf. Now
he istu ned to a negro y'ii cmh Citll on him lor a negro
somelldng about robbiu-j;' a hen-roos^. This will
create agieat (h.-al of amu-eujent if the sebject is inclined
to be huniorouM \\ hm in a rormal state.
You can step
his speech by m.aking a pass at him or by tellmg him ho
cann t ^ay another wo d. When his chicken s'oiy is
done, tell hini he has stolen so many ch ckens that he is
tiuMiinu- into a chicken himself:
"Yes, your f-'atheis are
bei;inhing to grow now.
n your hi ad. And
J^ce them
lo k Jit Nour^purs! (.h, what a splendid game fowl you
aro j:(ing lo Ite !" 'i'urniuu" to the audience, you say
"Lid (,'s jiud genlletnen, tids is a per'eet specim
of the
?pani.->h game chit-ken, an-l tlu finest in t u; Stale.
Just him crinv."
\]y this tinni y< ur mbject is slrutiing
arom d in the most mirth-pi <>vo1<ing w;iy, and he will (row
He cm be m :de to tight an imaiiuary f-aiiiercd
I'oe d you choose to h iv
him <lo so.
If y u can't spar
liini. Use yonr lists on
him," you say.
This brings him
bat k to a humni Icing again.
Now make a line j'Cioss
the floor and tell y<'nr suhject lo knock down tlie lirst man
who cicss( s it. Caution the audience ag iinst stepping
too far^ t^r he will strike some one before they can get out





of llic way. Tell h'm siidi njr.nii'lstHtions of aiip^cT arc

entirely wronir, and that he must a>k lbr;iveiies8 of the
not: only b<>, I'nt iliat lie must pray Heaven for
lie will drop t his ktiecs if y n ur.i^e li m to
and will pray :iu>;ib!y unlc-s you ciierk l:in but
do s
this ex|)erini('nt is apt to sliock the scnsil)ilities of reli;j^i' us
people aiul peilinps had bett
bv3 dispensed with.


a s rious mood, infortn liinj ihat his f;dlier, or

brother, or some other dear on<', is v ry sick, and biin^
him to look ai the sick one, who is rc|>rcseni< d by S' mo
one of the aud encc revionsly instructed. Let him sro
his rehitive bei oiue a corpse, and lu; will slu d tears as it'
the vision were a reality. Th n tell him ih t ii is a case
ol catah psy, ;tnd proceed to waken the supposed dead perWin n y(.nr subject's spirits are res oted, inviic iiim
to g
untinjr, lor instance.
to take sonn? recreation
him to c dl the elopes n set them alter a labb.l then to
Bhoot at some qu tils then to catch a W(,undetl one in the
grass tell him t be s!y about it, and he will Lc as cautious as an Indian.
While hutitin;:-, a thnnder-slorm comes up, and hn seeks
The thunde r continues, and 30U tell him it is not
" No, look over on
thunder, you arc incl ncd to thiidc.
It is cannon tiring.
There are the slndis bur.-tthat hill
ing there is going to be a battle. 'J'h<yare fu :ng this
Dodge the big ones. There c me ti c
way. Look out
sohiic s.
Get \onr gun ready, for we must fight it out,"
Tell him theic is a sharp-shooter trying to ^hoot him in the
Do ni^t let him get wounded in a vitil sp(jt, or you
may have a har<l cs sc of it in truth, " There, he h; s hit
you in the Knee" He wiil stagger, and peihaps fall, and
you must carry him to a lounge. Examine the ])!ace tell
him it is not seiiou<, but that a wound in the arm is really
bad, and that the limb wiil hav<3 to be cut oil* above the
elbow. Lay bare his am), and t II him yon are g"ing to
make it insensible by me.-n.criz ng-, f-o that he will not ia 1
the least bit of pain during the surgical upcraiiou. Make






pajscs to (1< open your influence over llic subject's head

and body, aud ovvr tlic arm.
Yi u \v\ \ find that the limb may be' punctured with a
nc('(!lo, or i)iiKh(


severely, witiiout attracting the least

him ;i li ilo water, and t< 11 liim it

produce the mo-t deli<;htfiil dreams.



vis"t the
j(;iirn('y to sec distant irieiids
can let
jei;ioi 8 ol r;r;idirc ai d htc un^'cls :Jiid de:id relatives
ti avcl in loieigii clim< a
look into the inrcnml r< g Ons
anything l8C you wish. You can strengthe!i the im ressiou if you have stjuie smai ))liot(.s to gaz at yourself,
wh le talk n;^- to him of the vaiious K cm s they n pi es< nt.
Tell im lo recollect all he'Vecs to remember it wh n he
wakes and to be sure and notice everything pnrticnhirly.
1. t
him tasle of the
liring him to a bouqu< t taMc. an
Give him a, liiile w.iter, an tell hi?n it is briindy
'i'his will make h in drunk ;
as svvallow(d it.
alter he
Let him take something
tell him he cam ot walk stra'ght.
some' lung bitter will cause hiui to
to kill the alc hoi
make a very wry f ce. Tell him to get np and slnike off
the cflVcts of the liquor y dancing a little.
Iluni a tune,
ard he will ke( p excellent t me to the niu<ic. Voti can
have him s ng a soni: it you wish. B( ing imw in a pleasant mood, ill. press him to remember all his dieam, and
Wiiken him np gradually, tcllii g him al the time not to
forgi t what lie has cx| cr:ej:c< d.
If you do not impicss
him 10 lememl'ei-, quite likely he will know nothing of tho
whole mat er when awakened.
Thus \\c have given an ontlir.c of experiments in psychoid gy moie s a guide for the beginner than ;.8 a ermanent nn del. You will notice ti at the cluingcs aic giadual
nothing is abrupt, but that the mind of the i-ubject is
somewhat pn pared in advance f)r the next experiment.
Too great care in this lespect cannot betaken in regard to
impress ons of a serious pliy.>ical or moral nature.
In conclusion, you can say a few words to your now
serious audience about the importance of investigating the

d will
him take a

opiiite, a-




on liavc so sncrcssfnll y ilhistiMtod. Tell them

u.S( d t'san they area^vjuc of.
'J'liat many a peddler sells Iiis waies moro le.idily h'oni;h
its ajreiify.
'J hat
a sn<-( S>lul criminal lawyer mploys it
Tlmt even ilic noted
to intliKMiee a snscep;ii''e juryman.
revivalist mny soniclimes nnconsriiuisly nsc its power
when stion;jly persnad in.L*: sinners, and last, but n'>l leas'",
tliat nui' li which tl:c woi ld cnlls " love," is ni-thing* moro
or le-s tlian psj'c mlop^ c:d influence, and the CMnsecpience
is that there are nuuierous mi^mitehed eouples in the
bonds ofmatriujony. " How allimportai.t, then, that every
one sljonld become th 'ronizhly inlbrmed on this str^ni^e
and wonderful s ience." If yuu ave any jiood works on
" mes:j!( rism," ofier them f r sa!e
if not, then riv(? tho
audience our ad Iress.;dl t'i:it y.n do and s;iy be ol'
nature to d ffuse a knowledge of tho suhjoet do not Linu: in
a mysterious wa}' perfoi in nojug'gleiy, but be frank and
open in eveiy Act withoui coi c< :dmen, not on!^^
f()r your individu 1 wcllare, but lor the wel arc <<f a science
which is beg- nning to claim the at.euiion of many of the
leading scientific men of the day.


tliat TiK siiicrisiM is imicli iiioro



an extract from a letter wrilten by J. G. Forein Lexington, Ky., and which was pub.ished
in the " Maprnet"
"The object for which I commenced this communication
was to relate an accident that occurred wiih the lad
already alluded to, of quite an alarming character, ami
one that will serve as a caution to pcMsons unacquainted
with the nature of the mysterions intinencc. Aft. r I left
Danvdle, the lad was maunetized by any one who felt an
inclination to do so, notwithstanding the warning 1 gave

man, while




pubi c letrtnrc of the d n^or of meddlinjif wilh it

a Uiio\vle(lg>! of its prim iples jmd of the Imrn iu
Bysteni in f^rne al.
The conseqin nco was that in a s'lort
time Ik? was ve y tnucli injiuvd. Persons were allowed to
mauiK tizc on v u ioiH Crasions, and many of them, in
exciting th" d flereut parts uf th brain, handled him very
r -n;:j ily.
His mind bi'canje cons deral>ly aff ct d and dintui bed him in his sleep, and to conclude the amount of
injury dori" hi'n lie linally bee ime deaf and dumb.
" Several d.iys aft<'r tiiis occurrence I happetied to bo
I saw the bid, and he could neither
in Danville aj;ain.
hear iior 8p(iak. He used a slate and communicit d wiih
me in wriiin<2:. He seemed viny mucli grieved about his
affl'ciion, and h id already learn< d tlie deaf and dumb


and \va- beginning lo learn signs. He had nit

meaioiy of words, but h s o gans of lu aring and
sp' C( h iiad become paralyzed.
1 persuaded him to
d'twn nd let me magnetize him propi rly, and I to d him
it would probab'y cure him.
He c -nsented. and in a few
minutes was fist asle<p. Then, while in this conditon,
ho fave an account of tin? cause of his deafness, and stated
magnetized him on several occasions for the
that Dr.
amusement f liis friends, and in ex{>erim"nting in phn nom 'gnetism, had injured his bnin by the rou^h manner
wi ii which he had t uclied his head. He also attributed
the injury, in some measure, to \ similar treatment from
others who iiail b en in tli<i habit of experimentinof on his
This statement wascoi.fiimed by his brother and
without learniu<!: anything more of import anc(i from hiu),
I waked the lad up.
As he opened his eyes he was perfect'y astonished to s e me in the room ; asked me when I
came i) Danville, and talked to me Ireely as it nothing
had happened. We soon discovered from his conversation
thati li
was perfectly unconsciou-! of the lime lie had been
in the deaf and dumb state, and upon asking hi-n what
day it was, he named the very day on which lie f. ll into
this lemarkable C(mdition. He had no recollectiui of being
dei*f and dumb, and was astonished at our inquiries."

V lust i



Dr Underbill, in his work on Mcsmcriam, mentions a
case which happened lit a party of yonng fo'ks .-orne
nesvspiper artic'e was read on this new subje t. No one
prt sent had any knowlo Ige of liic subjccL or was ready
A yomig lad}' propose d
to own any belief in the matter.
to make a trial on her.
to Mr. B
He did so succL'ssfuily,
and afierward.s, ai^ain and a'j^ain, put her t) slci p and
brought her out of it successfully. Suddenly tlierc came
a change. Slie went to sleep without U s m-mipulationa
and contrary to his uisli or desire, and no one cnuld wake
" It harrassfd my life our, and no one
licr but himself.
can imagine my anxiety," suid ha to me. *' She to'd me
she had c 'mmenced a letter to her parents, in whicli slie
Ihongiit sho would dfjscribe the case.
The moment I lixed

my mmd

upon it I went lobhep'" He went olF to St.

Louis, detei mined to st:iy away from her.
'J'he next day
came a message tint she was a-leep and that he must
'I'he next day came another, and he refused again.
The n xt day c imo a m"8s igc dt^elarin^- that she wouhl d "e
This compelled him to return. He
if hj did n..t return.
wrote East for information what to do, and was advised
to nie.smerize her as deeply as he could and ask her.
obeyed, and she tol him tiiat he must mesnKM ize her as
deeply as he could for a few days, and the lastt me ket'p
her asleep so many hours I have f rg )t;en how many),
and then awake her and Ijc \ronld have no more trouble



he case.

The following







extracted from a letter written by the


" In October, 1842, on ray way to the Pynod of Genesee,

I spent ttio night at the house of Mr. Hail, at Byron.
called on Rev. iMr. Chil ls.
On entering the
the evening
room I found his son, an intelligent boy ten 3'ears of age,
then ia a cataleptic fit, sitting in his falh(;r's arms and his
In a few minutes ha recovered.
feet in warm water.
frequently had Irom three to six liis a day had rercivcd

the best medical atteudance iu the region

was no




lie had for pcvcral d jys entirely lost the

daily worse.
power ot* speech. Greijt foar.-* were felt tliat he would
There was a sore place oii th*^ back of his
iievc'i'iec vcr.
liead and ^pine, occa-^ioned by alall some mouths j)revioii'<.
When llie nis aased ntt" he became linngry and not at nil
drow>y, and dining the intervals he j^ppean d prema uiely

and en/aged as usual in sports wiih is companhad conversid a few minutes. I said: *l
would have him magMn tized.' To which his fatiier repl cd,
If y<u
I don l believe in it at :dl,'and the m ithiu* ad'Icd,
will put jne to slei p, I'll believe, and nit witl.'out.'
I replied, *! Would try it; it may do gO'd and can do no
During ih s conversation
m;ide a ft-w passes in
front of the ch id, ch efly v/iih ou'r hand, and without any
par icular concen ration of tbo min or wdl, and mostly
with my face Iowa ids the mother. In less than a minute




tlni la;h('r



clare, 1 believe he is





No, In? isn't

I desurprised (for 1 liad
surely cmnot be what



never mesmerized one), I ^aid, It

have di)ne, but if so, I can waken him.' Then with a
few revii.-ed passes he awoke. 'Well, this is strange,'
Baid 1 ;
l)Ut I can put him to sleep again if it is i^eal.*
then Seriously repeated the pas-es with both hands ior one
or two minutes, and placed him in a peifect mesmeric
then lixed m eyes on a lady on the opposite
Side of the room
the boy not having spoken for three
days and s aid, Ilenry, what do yo<i sec' ? In a full,
decided voice, he replied,
I then looked his
mother in the face, saying, What do 3*011 ^ee' ? IJe gave
a name unknown to me. I looked to his father, who replied, 'It is her maiden name.'
took vinegar into
1 then
my month, and said, 'Wli .t do you ta^te' ? 'Vinegar,'
speaking with :reat tartness, and at. the same time making many contortions of the lace. The mother now whisperid to one of the ch Idren who left lier seat, and I said,
*lleniy, what is she going for'?
'Sugar, and 1 love it/
he answered.
She went to the closet and brought the








put some into my mouth, which seemed to give

sumo pleasure as if 1 liatl put it in his own. I


then said,
What kind of su^^ar is it' ?
Wliat is its color'?
Wrll, sir, a kind of liglit brown/
A sm ill ftdass jar wiih a large cork was now placed in
my hard, when immediate'y I observed the olfactory
nerves affected and the muscles about the nose contract


at the same
to which the

moment. I s:iid
boy answered,


to the girl,





do you

I myself neither knew nor smelt.

'I stnell it.'
then took out the cork and applied it to my own nose,
when he instantly placed his lingers (,n t'lat ))art of the
nose next the foreliead, an
'I f el it here'; just
where myself expeiienced the burnin:.;' sensation. I then
silently and without any willing, .md with a fjeling of
curi >s.ty to see and te t the m tter, tone led Rever nee.'
Hig couatenauce at once a^sumod a softened and so!ema


j^ou like tj pray'?

'Yes, sir.'
'Ilenr}^ woul
You miy.' lie then commenced praying inaudibly. 'You
may pray aloi d.' Ih) then praye i a low audib e vo'ce.
On touch ng Tune,' he sang, though not in tlio habit f
singing. On touching CombativcuL'ss,' he rjised his fist



He was i-novant of Phr( nolop^y, and also
to strike me.
of my intention to toixli any particular organ nor did f,
any case, will the activity of the organ
now took



wa'cli, um'.




towards myself and

vision, his eyes being cl.)8ed and his

1m)w* d forward, and my hand being also between
him and tlie watcli, I asked h m, ilenry, what time is it' ?

above the





Eig lit o'clock, si'; whcli was exactly the time by the
watch, lhon;h by the dock in the rooin it wms lift* en
minnt h fa-ti r. 1 now left him for an hour and w. nt back
to Mr. Llal 's, giving h in leave to converse (mly with his
On my return lonnd him in the same istutc. lie
utterly rel'usf d to speak to any one except tiis father, and
told 'hat he sli uM net have ano her fit till the next
Sabb ath (this \\ as Monday evening), which proved tru ;

but when that day came he liad several. One day alter
that Sabbath he cam to^iis mother, much aj^itited and app rently goi. g into a tit, and m.ikin'4" the pa>8 s, he asked
her io <lo it
who, merely topacily hirn, pa st d her fingers
ove him, and soon he passed into the iiifNineric sleep, and
escsip d t e lit.
After this he was so highly charged by
his sister that, whrn she was in the n xt room in the
closet, he wonid ins an ly tas e anything she tasted, eat
what s! e ate, etc. Jn ten days I retnrned and magnrt ze I
him again, and went through scvi^r;.! of the above expeiim nts. lie ahvay-i, while' in the mesmeric state, declared
that it benefited him, relieved ail pain, and would euro
Afier 1 1. ft, at my su/irestion. he was daily maghim
netiz d.
His fits 1 ft him, h s voice returned, the noie
spots on his head and back were healed, and he iec<)vered
rapidly, till the family coul no loMgr mesmerize him,
man in the village was found who could a d dai y did. till
he appe red entirely well. On omitimg it he had a lit or
two, and it was resumed, and when 1 last saw tlie father
he inlorraed n.e that they considered the c ill cured."
now give un im:ident which iiappt iied when we
gave an exhibiiion of magnetism at a certain place, as-




In the cveninp:, 1 ef )rc lecsisted by two of our pupils.

ture t'me, we Imd all partaken of a Inncli, but from some
iinacconntabU; causo we liecame very sick at tlio 8tom ich,
the nausea lasting about li;lf an liotn-, tli 'U^h our two
Companions were not afTcctetl. After the lecture was
ended we took cliar>:c of two of tlic aud.enco wi;o ramo
forward to be maj^neiized, while our Iwo assistants took
Just as we had brought omi of
char;:;c of some nioro.
them into the magnetic state, by the C' in cxper menr, as
previously explained, he
ec;imo deadly sick at his
Ktomach, and at vomited profusely. This wascmirely
unlookcd for, but we quickly set a chair on the 11 lor and
threw a shawl over it so as to hid. 3 the lonths ane sight
frt)m the astinished au<lience, and then took charge of another subject which one of our ])upi!s had mesmrr'z d
while we were operating. The audienctj secnK d to think
the whole affair a p irt of the programme, and t e man
hat he was often subjected to such attacks. Our
told MS
Bubsequcfit experience has inclineil us to belief that
our own sickness was transferred to the system of the
snliject, at least to such an extent as t> indm e the unpleasant sensations which resulted so ridiculously.


MooRE, in his " Use of the Body in Relation to the Mind,"

Bays: "There is another form of supersensnons vision, for
the existence of which we can scarcely di -cover sufBoic^ht
reason, unless to intimate an un<leveloped faculty, which,
The natme and
in another state, may be proper to nann?.
character of this strange endowment will be best expressed
in the language of one who believed himself to be possessed
of it. Ileinrich Z-Jchokke, a man remarkable f^r the extent of bis iiouorublc labors as a statesman and an author,



solemnly writes ilic following passrigc in Iiis an^obiograpliy:

It has happened to luc Fonicliines, on my first inret'


wiih s,

that their





ntly listened to tlieir di>conrso,





tlierewith eo inecied, or freqti'Mitl v soino. particular scene

in that life, has passed qm'tc involuntarily, and, as it were,
Dnrin^i^ this, yet p< rfectly distinct, liefoie me.

the contt-mplaI usually feel so entirely absorbed in

of t!:e stranger's lile that at last I i;0 longer see
clearly the f;ice of the unknown wherein I nndcsi^:n< dly
rca<1, nor cistinct'y hear the voices of tlie speakers, winch
bef're served in home leea^uie as a cnmmentary on the
tt xt
For a !< ng lime I held such visions
f their features.
as a delusion of the laucy, and the more so as ihey showed
me ev< n the dre>s and motions of the actors, rooms, furni-


and o lier aeces-or:es.'

" lie WiiS at lei'gth ast< nished to find his dream-pictures
invariably ct nfirmed as r; jdiiies, and ho relat< s this intuic,

One day in
8 an ex imph; of his visionary j:ift:
the city of \Va!d>hut I en'eied an inn (The Vine), in company with two young sui-ients.
\Vc supped with a
numerous company at the tabh* d'hote, v/here the guests
were making very meiry with the pcculiai itics of the
Swiss, with Mesincrs' magneti-m, Lavntei's ph^siognoMiy, etc
Oik^ of my companions, whnse nation. d pride
was Wounded by their mockery, beg<icd me lo make Komo
rep'y, paniculaily to a handsome young man who sat
o posite to us, and who Inid allowed liMnself extraordinary
This man's lite was at that moujent pres'nted to
my min i. I turned to him and aske l whether he would
ansvvt r me candidly, if 1 lelated to him some of the most
secret passag -s of ids life,
knowing as little of him personally as he did of mo.
lie |>rotnised, if I were correct,
lo admit it frankly.
then k dated what my visinn had
shown me, and the wh<<le company weie
tde acquaifitod
with the private histoiy of the young merchant his school
years, his youthful errors, and, lastly, with a fault com*




mitted in reference to llie st ongboxof lis principal. I

doNcribcd llie iin in habited room vvitli wliiicntd walls,
wluTc, to the right of the brown floor, on a t:il>!e, stood a
bl.ick money box. etc.
A deud silence prevailed during
the uhnle narrative, which I occrtsionally inteirnpted by
inqiiiiing wlietlier I spoke xho truth
The startled youn;;
man confirmed every particubir, and vcn, what I scarcely
expected, the last mentioned. Touched by his candor, I

shook hands with him, and said no more.

lie is


stdl living.'
Ir, is record* d that Apolloniu^ Tvrannu^
was a man of
prodiyrious magnet c ability, not only lor curing disoas(^s,
bnt for clairvoyance, and for accurate prevision. Attlie
time that the tyrant Fmperor Domitian was being assassinated at Rome, Apollonius was deliveiing a |.ul<lic lectu e at Ephesus, in the midst of a large audience.
paused in the midst of his address, and described minut(dy
to t le crowd the circumstances of the Emperoi's murder,
and aTinounccd the very moment wh< n he was slain. It
wag afterward found that ihe di scription was true in every
respect, and the wonderfid incident has been recorded in
history as well au henticated.
It is said that Ap llonins
possessed so great a nervous inlluence ih (t he cou'd quell
riots by his mere presence, without utterin-j: a sin>;le word.
Once upon a time, wheri the Queen of Sweden was jesting Swedenborg, with lespect to his pretensions to intercou se with th<i s iritual world, he offered lo Convinc ii r
She told him
of the fact in any wMy she might sujgest.
tliat her husband, the late king, at the moment of deatii,
when she was tdone with h m, had whi^pelc<l something
very important to her, and if he (Swedmborg) coukl tell
what tlic king had said, she would yield the point.
The next day fewedenborg called on the queen, and after
ment oning that he had held a communication with tlio
deceas d king, who had informed him of the seciet message, he repealed it to her Her majesty fiint d away, and
on recovering cxprefcsed the greatesi astunishment at the




pliilosoplior's revelation, ai

d w;is


ready to admit


The cliiiivoyance of Swedt'iibcM'^ must, bo ailiit( rt .iiicd

mitti'd, no maMn* what v'cws may
rcgMrd to iiis ibeoh^ cal ideas. A reinaikabe a>e
to lis by a c'er^vman whose veracity was nnr lat' d


child lay at the point of death IVotn croup.

t the attendant physici.m, a njagnctizer,
in ih'^ aid of a clairvoyant, who often accompanied
When in the ma^^netio stare tiio ebiirh ni to his p itienls.
voyant <:e>cribed the remedy for the child as beiie^ li t lo
he gav(.' a fun iter d scripiion, and finally spoke
the laste
He directed
the name of the remedy, "cayenne pe[)per."
t lat it should l>e applied cxtf^nally to the cliiM's tiiro it, in
tlio form of a poultice
The physician followed the prescription, and the child was saved, alrhougli in the normal
Tiie clairvoj^ant was entirely ignorant of " MATi'MaA
Many instances of a still more remarkable naMEOiCA."
As a
ture are on leconl, and equally well anthenticat d.
remarkable instance of liie ower of human nlagneti^m
over \hii bru'e creation, w(! pi( sent the lollowing xiract
from a lecture delivered in St. James Ha'l, London, by
Ileibcrt llanulton, 15. A., author of "Na'ural Forces,'* and
several other works:
In the year lh50 I was ai Leamington, in England, where 1 delivered two lectiu'es on
p-ychology. a c 'in-nittee of gentlemen prop )sed, aft<T
the second lecture, 1 should pay a v sit to W.jnibweb'a
ni na^erie, theti stopping in that i-Iace, lo try my p -wers
on >ome of the animals. At ten o' in the evening tho
beasts were fed. Arriving* ten minut(S I'cfoie this time, I
passed fu ir of the cajc^s in leview, and subjecte the two
lions, a j ickal, and a 13en^al tiger t psychologidl fascination.
Tne aninials were at this tune veiy t-avag(5 and
nvenou-, as is usual ;it fi'eilir g t me. To the snrpiisc of
all, the lour animaU n fuse>l to move, butl ly crouching in
the r cages, not uoticiiu' ilio foodiive!i lo Ihem.
'J he pr(jpriet.or and keeper became alarmeil, feiring they were
1 Buggesied thj keeper should cater tome of their



a bist n so





cagrs and examine liis charges. This lie refused, saying
it was more than his lile was worth to go in at leedin;^
1 Ih n re(iU"sLLd p'M*m;ssion, wliicli (al'ter cxpl;iiniiig tliC ijiflii(?ncG the animals wuro under) was readily
and like a second Daniel, I entered the lions den.
The lingo bi a^^ts took no notice of me whatever. Then I
appioaehed them ami subjected botn to further influence,
When they conimeiu^c d to play with me, skipping and
jumping two kittens. After leaving tin? den 1 removed
the spell and they were ns savage and noisy as ever.
Hundreds witnessed this peiTormance, Vv'iiich took place

A correspond nt of tlic Amei ieaii

12, 1850."
Phrenol'gicalJournal, writing from W^asidngton Territo y,
gives the following account of in iian magnetism, under
date of July, 18C4: "A few evenings sinc(,* J was inmoied
by a vi>it from the chief of the Inapomish Inli.ais, Ka'-num,
and thinking to amuse and astonish hiin, 1 threw a young
man into the mesmeric s ate, fasten mI his head to the tabh^,
his feet to the 11 lor, and punctured his hand wiih a pin,
witht/Ut any symptoms of p in, etc.
On asking the chief
what he thought ol it, he replird, meman iamanius' (small
per!ormanc< ), and then related the do'ngs of a certain
mctlieine man of his tribe.
Ue said that he invariably
healed the sick by lading on f hands, and, when necs3ary to |>erform any surgical operation, he Juhbed iho
and th( n <1 welt
patient until he w.js insensible t j^ain
with great enthusiasm uj on his li'Vianiii.-i stukivub,* or
magnetic stick which he said the doctor often caus^-d to
danre and pass all ar-iund tin? wigwam overhead, without
touching It.
askeil lio\v he did this, and he lepliel:
Hy j)lai'inga numi erof pei sons, cf bo- h sexes, in a circle,
all witli sticks ia their hands, which they pointed t -ward
the do tor's sti( k, he standing in the d iiter of the circle
and pointing his stick upward. A song was then sung, in
which all joine l, keeping time with their feet, and occasi-mally by punc lin^;- tln ir sticks ag linst he board roof of
the wigwam, until the doctor's stick would leave hia hand






and pass ovor




conlidc'iico in tiie

some addition
spirit ori;^in,




sometimes so violcntJy Ihnt

to avoid its blow.'

liiive f ill
triitli of tliis statcfiicut, niid it may throw
li-lit on the jilictiomcnn attributed to

to croucli




" llcspectf.illy yours,


over the wor'd.

H. H.


M. D."

know an

instance wliero a proaclier con<Uictcd <%

rcrgions meeting and brought about Wonderful results
IlirMugli tin; agency of anim il ma-jfnetism
He had a fashion of bhuking hands with thosj of the audleuco who stood

and while shaking wiih one band bo

the other on the head of tb ^ you.'g p- rsou
whose hai.d h held. Among those who n he tiea'ed thus
was a half<:rown boy who hud been mesmerized by a
magnetic ]>hy<ici;in s )me months previous. Of course
this l.d quickly detcc cd the pe idi r sensation of mesmerism pnxhired by i' e "la.\in4' on" of ilie |)r<'acher's
were post d
b.n<ls. This g.ivc t'C alarm, and the lew wh
on the subj -ct of mesnwnsm quietly watched ih pro-ress
cl< rieal -enticman actuf the meeting, autl detected
ally making n smcric pa^S"s during the C 'nfnsi'.n a'tendliefore the meetiu^ the "'anxious seat'' demonstrations,








ing doPcd Diimbei s went into a " ti'ovce" and the manif.vstaiioiis were su' li as to attr;ict tlie aiteiition ol tlic peolirougli ihe ag-cncv
tl e bef'ieple
Y mWi s arc und.
niciitioi cd lew, several of tlie ''.<leepns" were l)i()noht out
Irovce^'^ and this fact opened tiic
ol their
yes of the
nutie thiid<ing' ])i rtion of the coiiiiiii:n ty. and then the
denj()n>tra i.-ns oi adually d rninished in mngniiude.
Believ n,u: trmly, av Ih all due re^pect to lhu>e ciimch ineni'1








hoiicstly d Her fn ni ns, that iiiagiietism was at

f the wlmle afla r in ihis c:ise, we d( termined



to test the inaiter for our own individual sat s'action.
one n ght, when th(^ excitement uas at ihe very highest,
we fix l our mind rmly on one ex( it' d 3'ouiig m.m, win so
eye we hapi)ened to catch, and willed him to iiustantly
shake aiids
ih ns.
As quick as a (lash of lightning e
lunged iorward tiirough tlie lanks of the sunounding hyin iho most lervt nt m nst.iiiders and g'laspe
\\v hand
Of c)nrso the inc.d nt eausi d much at entio from
the audience, wh we; 0 lujt in liic secret. S- v: ral otti< r
experiii eiits ot like diar; ctt r were quite a^ snccc-sfid in
tlieir r<*su't'.
Pome of the veiy besr, snljec s we ever
hm.dled \\et(^ persoi s who ire<|U" iitly ni< re<l ihe "fra-'Ct^'
state at leviv.ils, at times, t o, when \.o niisirui u ons miii/yintj ivonders.''
is'cf w ;is deceiving iho ic plo with



r< ihvaL troiuya'' .-no produced by
sonie m:ig!:etiz(M-; but that tlie i)!ie! <)meiia is of ;i magin-t c
character, so (:ir:is its imivsical m FKJTi are coiiccrm d, uill

do n





tliC p.uns to
bo deniid by jmy one who 1
>'ometimes it is not un ikc'y that tht) condition is induced
y nervous exh.iusiion, c onsequ' nt upon
great m< ntal excitement. In conclns on, um; will lemirk
tliat ven catalepsy m.iy be )>roiineed in tluj same m inner
in legird to wliuh. we jiive ihe tullowin^- extract.
The Anieriean i'hysician "
KiuL'-, in his w^ak
uses the f<jll(> -vin^,* l;inunagG in legnrd to tliat sin^n'ar disea>e knmvu as " cat i/ep<ii, or (rance^\' *' Cat jilep-y is tint
Condi iiQu in which, without any fever necissaiity, a person









power of voluntary motion


a long-cr or

th a pai tial or complete su>:pen'-io!i of tlio

five senses
the mnsdes leinj^ sometimes n<:iil and at
otlior lim<'s fiiovab'e, keopim;- the p )siiion in whieh ili'-y
were when att;ieked, or. in wliich ih y m;iy he placed hy
sliorter time,

otiier peisoiis snbsei|iieiitly.

sliorler time,



f r a lon.2^er or
leavinp^ the person in his

It contiiMie

sni sid-


nsnnl li< alth, lnt wiihont any rceollecti n of what lias

pa-sed. It Very mncli r< S' mhlfs t'lC cond tion pr duced by
In speakin^j^ of t' c treatmei.t t ^nch c^ses,
'1 have seen a m< smerizcr m d\e h s
lie goes on to say
mesmeric pisses ftr a ( w minut's over a c naleptio patient, and imm< di;it< ly aft< r either awnken him or
o able
to conver.-e with him l'r< el}' dnrinLT the p iroxysm, and [
have seen night somna-nbulisni cured by tlio smne m thod;
but I do n(t pro'ess to nnderstand how or why this ptcu*
liar influence was tflcCiCd."




Wf. will concbub' by giving explicit directions how to

mcsmci ize one's self th'* stmngest thing of all. Let tlic

operator pla c th(? subject rpoii a chair or so'a wliere ho

can rest cut rely at eas<. Then tin; sub ject w II close th
(y s ai d remain oitirely pa-si vo in mind
and comp'e:ely
relax* d in body, without st rring in t!ie leas'.
he operator will instruct tin.' subject to throw his mind to some
familiar place; where he (the subject) has been and where
he would be glad lo go ag;in, ev< ii menially. The opera'or must keep t!ie miml of the subject on ihe place he
s eks nicntally. by speaking to him and reqnes'in^ him to
i!na.rin<' himsi lf leaily there, and to ibrm a mental image
of the place or persons he is endeavoring to see. If the
subject gets tired of one place, his attenli-ui must bo
diiecied to another, and bO on until he really ecenid to



see the place


looking" at
whicli peculiar mental (and pliysiciil) state is calie
If patience and perseverance ;ire extMcised, the result
may be sut cessful at the (irst trial ; thougli it Homctiines
liis ruiii'l is

happens than twenty or

may take

tliiity Kitti.iirs

placo be-

fore tiie sabjert will resign liimse'f as completely as is

After a lew times of practice the subject will
to cuter the clairvoyant ntate w thout the
assistance of an operator to keep his mind on the matter.
It is best to have some one piesent, however, lest the
subj -et get to waiidrriiig about like a sleei)-walker.
When persons arc; ent rin.u;' the magnet c state by this
meHiod, they become drowsy and experience a swimming
ot the head, together with a tingling sen>ation ail f)ver it.
Somi; ima.L^ine themselvi s as ligiii ;is a leather, while others
feel as hough they were siidvingdown, ut on I'e 1 particularly unpleasant. The'>r will find that he cannot
waken them nnless they hoose t do >o, and he will be
obliged to let them use their own pleasure. Un'css the
subjects ure rendnded that they must reeolleet what they
expeiience in the clairvovant sta'c, tliey will htve no
knowledge of what has transpired <luring the sitting.
What they icsolve while in the .--tate to rimemher when
awake, will not be luigolten, whether it be a part or all
of their experience.
They Can do more
they can rid themselves of bad
habits; th(3'Can banish disease; they can siicngtlicn their



mental powers; ;dl by siinply reso!vin;j^ wij L; c airvoyant

But still more; they wdl be ab!e t tlirow any
to d so.
part of their body into the mesmeric state at will, even to
a little finger; in short, a cnmplish by their own will
what is spoken of in a preceding chapter as being bionght
about by the will of the oi)eiator.
The clairvo^-ant state may be rem'^mbered in many
cases (especially if no operator is present), as oidy a sleep
wiih many vivid dreams
or it may be almost real in its
life-like intensity.
The state is o ten produced by the
usual magnetic passes, and as every operator will be



likoly to witness cl n'rvoyant mani Temptations, we will p^ivc

a few hints liow to instruct ilio subjects who show a disposition to hccorne clairvoyant.

by yoni mind, bnt teach

and persona, independent
When a
of wliat may be in ynur thoughts as operator.
suljc'Ct bc;;ii!S to "sec thinj^s wilii his eyes lmt," pbice a
band tg'c over his eyes (if you wish to make a sure test),
and let some one of the audience place a pocket knife in
the clairvoyant's hand. Tiicn, if half a dozen bystanders,
including the owner of tlic kni''e, whf) presented if, will
stand near the clairvoyant, ha will lake the hand of each
om.' at a time, and give t!i(^ knife to the person whom ho
detects ns ihc owner. He will be able to read words
to describe pictures by runplaced against his foiehf^ad
ning iiis lint;('rs over them; to give tiie contents of distant
rooms witii which lie is not acquainted; to describe distant
places he has never seen, and even give the thoughti of
persons present.
If the Hubject looks to you for answers he will speak
ihc impressions deiived from your thonghts
but if he
holds hijuself indepvnd n^, and is nf)t led by the mind of
any one pre>ent, he will, if a good subj cf, disclose revelations whicli will sislonish and even alaini the audience.
Those clairvoyants i\u* solution of quesiiona
in the minds of others are called dependent clairvoyanU
tho-e who a'O not iuflu(3nced b}*" surroundings arc indepewienl dairvjyant.^, and ai(; by tar the most reliiible
nothing is sure when; outside mental influence may so
easily prodn. e a false impression on the subject's mind.
It is an easy thing to send a subject on a mental journey to a dis ant friend, or to the realms above, or the regions beneath, if you tell hit!j to go while in a mesmeric
slumber, and the incidents of liis travel will appear real
to hiin.
To tin? !nind of an ignorant person it would seem
he h;is really made the trip in spirit, but it is very
plain hat he is menially subordinate to the operator who
g^ivcs him the first impulse, and ihen leaves hiiu to linisb

Do not


iillovv tlicni to he biased

to sec 5ibs(Mit thin<^s, places




the Irip alono. Tliis is not clairvoyance, tliouj^h if eonios

jiroity closo to it, and a successful cxpciimcnt of tliis
may eventually lead to it.
Ill C' nc!usion, wc wo;ild remnrk that you arc now in posscss'on
f about all the facts concernini!;- pr;iciical Mesmerism, and if you wi 1 labor to extend your knowledge
it, will greaily lariKtate
3'our investigations.
A couple f
dozt'ii copies of this lit.le work ci culated in your neighborhood, amongst ti e old and young, male and fein;.lc,
will not on'y be beneficial to those who re, id, but will
create an jii)preciative public sentiment which will be of
great a'lvant.ige to sincere investigators.
On t'le o hi r liand, should yaii keep this book under lock
and ke}'', or loan it sleahliily to a favon d few, yon will
cre;ite a leel ng of fi ar ai.d distrust tliat may be disastrous
ta yours If as weil ;is to others.
The very best thing 3'ou
can do, if 3'o'i wish to experiment any, is to influence your
friends to purchase a c )py of tliis work and study it thoroughly; in tiie me.jntime post yourself. In regard to those



will oppose 3^ou, for you will meet wiiii bitter opponenls, wc would advise you to state the facts, show the
phenomena, and, let ihem say wliat they please, "Truth
Sht.uhl you wi h to extend your knowledge of mesmerism, cspeci.illy wiih rega d to 'he th<'ory, we would recimmend ''Klecirieal rsvchohigy," by John I)ovee Dod and
" Siat wolism, or Artdici .l Somnambulism," by William 13.

Fiihnestock. Thcs j two W'>rks a e dir. ct^y oi)posi e in

theory, l<ut boih are indispensable, and may be liad f the
Th re arc ot'ier
pubii liers of ihis book, at $1.50 eaeh.
useful bouks in c rculation, some of them liigli-priced, but
these two cnibracj all th .tan oidina-y inquirer will be
likely to desire in the way of theory jmd scien'ilic explanations.
Neither of the works Jire spiritnali-t c or materialistic in their teachings, :tnd are entirely safe so far as
their tenden< y is cncerned.
And now, friend y ica lers, hoping you will strengthen
your powers by a riglit UoC of ihem, wo bid yuu udieu.



Fortune-Teller and Dream-Book.



EULE.The person whose fortune is to be told is to prick with
a pin, or other sharp point, on any letter they choose i.i the lirst
Tablet, but by chance (with the eyes shut) ii the best way to do it
then refer to the second Tablet, to the letter, under which is a particular magical figure, and has reference to the Oracle in the two
following pages, and which will determine the fortune of the inquii*er.



P N 0 C D L Q



0 N


Tablet Xo. 2.



















If this number is fixed upon by a man, it assures him, if single,
a homely wife, but rich if married, an access of riches, numerous
children, and good old age. To a lady, the faithfulness of her lover,

and a speedy marriage

3. Very good fortune, sudden prosperity, great respect from high
personages, and a letter bringing important news.
7. This number, to a woman, is wonderful in showing, if single,
a handsome, rich, and constant husband and if married, a faithful partner, and who must be of a good family, as she must know
she has married above her condition. To a man, the same.
8. This is a general good sign, and your present expectations will
be fulfilled, and you have some on the anvil.
9. If a married man or woman draws this, if under fifty, let them
not despair of a young family. To the single, very sudden mar;


A friend has crossed the sea, and will bring home some riches,
parties will be much benefited.
An uncommon number, belonging to

by which the

shows the party




scriptural signs,


have success in all their undertaliings.

doubt but the chooser is very poor, and thought insigbut let his friends assist him or her, as they are much

16. A very sudden journey, with a pleasant fellow-traveler, and
the result of the journey will be generally beneficial to your family.
18. A sudden acquaintance witli the opposite sex, which will be
opposed but the party should persevere, as it will be to his or
her advantage.
21. A letter of importance will an'ive, announcing the death of
a relation for whom you have no very great rs^*pect, but who has
left you a legacy.
22. Be very prudent in your conduct, as this number is very precarious, and much depends on yourself it is generally good.

Shows the

loss of a friend, bad success at law, loss of money,

imfaithfulness of lovers, and a bad partner.
4. A letter announcing the loss of money.
5. The man who draws this number, let him examine his mol(?s,
and he will find, I linow, more about liim than he imagines.
you may expect generally not to succeed
6. Very bad success
in any of your undertaliings.
11. I should rather suspect the fidelity of your husband or wife,





you are shockingly deceivecL





13. "You want to borrow money, and you hope you will have it
but j^ou will be deceived.
14. The old man you have depended upon is going to be married,
and will have a child.
17. You have mixed with this company, and pretend to despise
our tablets, but you rely much upon them, and you may depend on
it that you will be brought to disgrace.
19. Look well to those who owe you money, if ever so little
letter of abuse may be expected.
20. A drunken partner, and ad success in trade the party will
never be very poor, but always unh ippy.
25. The man or woman who chooses this unlucky number, let
them look well to their conduct; justice, though slow, is sure to
overtake the wicked.



The palms of the hands contain a great variety of lines running

in different directions, every one of which bears a certain relation
to the events of a person's life; and from them, witli the most
infallible certainty, can be told every circumstance that will happen
to any one, by observing them properly. It is therefore recommended to pay strict attention to this subject, as by that means
you will undoubtedly gain very excellent knowledge for your
And first is given the names of the several lines as they hold
iheir places, and then particularize their qualities.

There are five principal lines i;i the hand, viz

The Line of Life.
The Line of Death.
The Table Line.
The Girdle of Venus.
The Line of Fortune.
And besides these arc other Lines, as the Line of Saturn, the
some others, but these only serve to explain the
liver Line,
principal Lines.
The chief Line on which persons of the profession lay the greatest
stress, is the Line of Life, which generally takes its rise where the
thumb-joint plays with the wrist on the inside and runs in an
oblique direction to the inside of the innermost joint of the fore


of the

nex\; is the

hand on the

Line of Death, which separates the fleshy part

little finger side, from the hollow of the hand,

running in \arious directions in different people.

The Table Line originates with the Line of Life at the wrist, and
runs through the hollow of the hand towards the middle finger.


The Girdle of Venus takes its course from the extremity of th
lowermost joint of the litllo linger, and, forming a curve, terminates between the fore and middle fingers.
The Line of Fortune strikes from behind the ball, or mount of
the fore linger, across the palm and Line of Life, and loses itself
in or near the fleshy part of the hand, cn the little finger side.
If the Line of Life ii crossed by other lines at or near the wrist,
the person will meet with sickness in the beginning of life, and
the degree ot sickness will be proportioned to the size, length, and
breadth of the intervening lines.
If the Line of Life runs fair
and uninterrupted, the person will enjoy good health and according to its length towards the outside of the fore finger, you may

judge if the person will live long, as the longer the line the longer
the life.
If the Line of Death is short, and runs even, without being
broken or divided, it shows that the person will enjoy a good
length of days, and not be subject lo many maladies; but if it is
interrupted, it evidently shows that the person's life will be endangered by illne^ss. If this line ends abrablly, and with a broad
point, it shows that the person will die suddenly i it goes olf in
a tapering point, the last illness will be slow, and consuming by
degrees. If other lines run across it, the person will be of a
weakly and infirm habit of body, often incapable of following any
hard or laborious business.
The line of Fortune, by its approach to the Girdle of Venus,
shows that there ii a strong kindred between them, and their distance, at their two extremities, clearly jioints out that love is inconsistent with childhood and eld age; yet i:i those where the
cros> lines approach from the one \j the other i:ear their ends,
1 rove that the persons were, or v. ill l;e susceptible ci iDve i.i child/ooJ or old age. For example, it the cross lines are at the beinni ig of the Girdle ot Venu^, ami bear towards the tail of the
Line of Fortune, it evidently iadicutcs that the perrjon was susceptible of love at an earlier period tlian U3ual; it these lines of
communication are crossed by other small lines, the person has
been disappointed i i his wishes, cr f everely punished for r,ratifying them if plain and straight, that ]ie has been successful if the
lines take their rise from the tail cl: the Girdle, and lead towards
the head of the Line of Fortune, tlie i)er5on will be amorous in his
old age, and, according to the situation cf the transverse lines,
will be successful or unfortunate i.i his amours; if the Line of
Fortune runs smooth, broad, and clear, the person will enjoy
afilaence through life, and be prosperous in all his undertakings
if it is intersected by short lines at the beginning, near the fore
finger, it denotes that the person was poor, or at least with a
small capital; if these lines occur towards the middle, at either
end, he will be prosperous in the first and last of life, but meet




with disappointments at raid-age if the cross lines occur at the

extremity, and not before, lie will die poor and distressed. If
transverse lines, crossed by others, pass from the Line of Life to
the Line o Fortune, the person vv'ill be engaged in quarrels and
broils, or lawsuits and disunion with his neighbors.
If the hollow palm of the hand, which some call the Plain of
Mars, is full of cross lines, running into each other, the person
will bo of a humorsome, uneven, and testy temper, jealous and
hasty, quarrelsome and lighting, and endeavoring to set others by
the ears; he will meet with very frequent misfortunes, and bear
them very uneasily whereas, if the hollow or palm of the hand
has none but the unavoidable lines, that is to say, those that must
unavoidably pass through it, he will bo of a sweet and amiable disposition, full of sensibility, gratitude, and love, faithful benevolent, and kind
and, though subject to crosses, losses, and disappointments, will bear them with a:i oven and agreeable temper
from this part chielly it is recommended to persons to choose their
companions for life, cither for friendship or marriage.
The mount or ]jall oi the thumb bears a peculiar analogy to the
events of a person's liic, with respect to disputes, quarrels, and
lawsuits if tliis moimt has m.any long, stniight lines, reaching
from the thumb to the Lino of Life, they show that the i)erson will
have several personal encounters, either with hands, clubs, pistols,
or swords but if the lines are curved or crooked, they indicate
lawsuits, and, according to the degree of crookedness, they will
be long or short but if these lines end in n, straight direction towards the Line of Life, they will end prosperously if otherwise,
they will be attended with an unfavorable issue.

The Greeks attach much importance to Moles, but i;i a different

mode to the old English track, as to the limbs, features, etc. To

those born in the first week of tlie year, reckoning from the first
of January to the seventh, they pronounce all moles above llie
shoulders to be fortunate indicators, the more in number the
better and all leneath, the reverse to those born in the course of
the second week. Moles of any sort arc ominous of evil in the
early part of life. Fourth week So many important turns of fate
as there are spots. Fifth week So many lovers. Sixth week
So many important journeys. Seventh week Moles on the arms

indicate prosperity.

Tenth week





Ninth week

So many intrigues.
week So many children. Twelfth week So many opportunities
Fourteenth week
of good. Thirteenth week Same as the
So many voyages to sea. Fifteenth week So many journeys by


Sixteenth week So many amours.

Seventeenth week
The more moles on the body, the more mixture of fortune one
mole, and no more, great prosperity. Eighteenth week A mole
on the neck shows dangerous elevation. Nineteenth week So
many dangers. Twentieth week Of no import at all, except on


it betokens advancement through love.

import at all, save on the legs, when they denote
Twenty-first week A great genius.
week Controversies. Twenty-third week Failures in several
undertakings. Twenty-fourth week Suits at law. Twenty-fifth
Many friends. Twenty-sixth week Many enemies.
Twenty-seventh week Many moles, happiness
week The more moles the more miser3\ Twenty-ninth week
mind full of stratagems. Thirtieth week So many battles.
Thirty-first v;eek Exertions in vain.
Thirty-second week Pru-

the face, then

week Of no

Thirty-thir.l week Avarice.

Thirty-fourth week Lust.
Thirty-fifth week Caprice.
Thirty -seventh week
Deeds that
will require penitence to obliterate. Thirty-eighth week Flattery
Thirty-ninth week Prone to anger. ForIs your weakest point.
So many children. Forty-first week Three moles,
tieth week
good indicators, a greater number the reverse. Forty-second week
Fortunate escapes. Forty-third week Arrests that will concern
you. Forty-fourth week Lucky speculations. Forty-fifth week
Reasons for rejoicing. Forty-sixth week Intemperance Forty-


Forty-eighth week
Bright genius.
Beventh week
Fiftieth week A divorce.
Forty-ninth week Legal disputes.
Fifty-first week
Sufferings by theft. Fifty-second week A rambling


It is to be observed, that the above predictions are stronger or

weaker according to the mumber of moles.

The B'rlh of Chil'lren, and Other Eventa, tciih Bespecl to ihe Moon's
Age and Daj of ihe ^Veek. To bo born the first day of the new moon
portends tlieir life shall be pleasant, with an increase cf riches.
A child born on the second day will grow apace, and be inclined
to lust, of either sex. It is lucky on this day to send messages of
trade, buy land, and sow seed.
A child bora on the third day will be short-lived. Never begin
any work of moment on this day. Thefts committed on this day

be discovered.
fourth day is bad. Persons falling sick on this day rarely
recover, and the dreams will have no effect.
The fifth day is favorable to begin a good work, and the dreams
will be tolerably successful the child bom on that day will bo
deceitful and proud.
The sixth day, the dreams will not immediately como to paaa;
and the child born will not live long.

will soon




The seventh. Do not tell your dreams on this day, for much
depends on concealing them if sickness befalls you on this day,
you will soon recover the child born will live long, but have many


The eighth day, the dreams will come to pass, and it is a very
prosperous dn,y.
The ninth day differs very little from the former; the child born
this day will arrive at great riches and honor.
The tenth day is likely to be fatal those who fall sick will rarely
recover but the child born on this day will live long, and be a
great traveler.
The eleventh is a good day to be married, or commence a journey. A child born at this age of the moon will be healthy, handsome, and of a good constitution, with a particular mole on his
lorehead. If a female, will be remarkable for wisdom.
On the twelfth day, the child born will meet every affection, but
be of a bad temper. This is a very unlucky day, particularly to
those falling sick.
A child born on the thirteenth day will be unfortunate both in
temper and estate though a good day for marriages, or to find
things which have been lost. Persons imprisoned this day will
soon have their liberty.
A child whoso nativity is on the fourteenth day, will die as a
An excellent day to ask a favor. Take physic on this




thing that



very unfortunate.

A good

day to

find any-

is lost.

The child born on the sixteenth day will bo unmannerly and unfortunate. Buy and sell on this day. Dreams portend luck on this
The seventeenth of the moon, a child to be born on, shows it
You may take physic, let blood, or contract busiwill be foolish.
ness on this day.
The eighteenth day is fortunate, both for male and female, bom


nativity on the nineteenth day, the child will be wise ana urtuand will arrive at great honors.
Your dreams portend good on the twentieth day of the moon
though a child born on that day will be dishonest.
A child born the twenty-first day will be of so unhappy a disposition, that, let him look to the sword of justice, perhaps "black
with murder, sacrilege, and crimes." An unhappy fatality attends
this day.
On the twenty-second day, the child that is born will purchase
a good estate he will be handsome, religious, and well beloved.
This is a good day to remove bees.
On the twenty-third day, the child that is born will be of an



ungoveniablo temper, a groat traveler, but will die miserable.

Good day to be married, or commence business.
On the twenty-fourth day, the child born will achieve many heroic actions, and will be much admired for them.
Thj c'lild born on the twenty-flfth day will be very wicked, and
meet wdth many dangerj. It is a very unfortunate day, and
threatens vexation.
On the twenty-sixth day, the child bc:n shall be very amiable;
if a male, will meet but an indifferent state in the world
if a
female, she will bo married to a rich man for her beauty.
On the twenty-seventh day, a child born on this day will have
every engaging quality, but will not rise to any great preferment.
This i j a ver / lucky day.
On the twenty-eighth day, the child that is born shall be the delight of his i^arents, but have much sickness.

To Know Whe'her Your Love of a Person loill be Mutual. Take tho

number of tho first letter o[ your name, the number of tho planet,
and day of tho week, put all these together, and divide them by
30 if it be above, it will come to j-our mind, and if below, to the
contrary and mind that number which exceeds not 30.


This is a hard trial, but what is not possible
FjLit of S'. Anne's.
to any young Ixdy who wishes to know her lot in marriage ? that
most important change in human life.
Prepirj yourself threo days previous to the eve of this female
saint, by living on bread and water and sprigs of parsley, and touch
no other thing whatever, or your labor will be lost the eve begins
at the sixth hour. Go to bed as soon as you conveniently can, and
speak not a word after you once begin to undress get into bed, lay
on your left side with your head as low as possible, then repeat the

following verse three times

Anne, in silver clouds descend.

Prove thyself a female's friend
Be it good or be it harm,
Let me have knowledge from the charm;





husbands one, two,



in rotation see

if Fate decrees me four.

(No good maid could wish for more),
Let me view them in my dream,
Fair and clearly to be seen




But if the stars decree
Perpetual virginity,


I shall

sleep on,

and dreaming

know my

single lot.


Magic Bose. Gather your rose on the 27th of J une let it be full
blown, and as bright a red as you. can get pluck it between the
hours of three and four in the morning, taking cu,rc to have no witness of the transaction convey it to you chamber, and hold it
over a chaffing dish or any convenient utensil for the purpose, in
which there is charcoal and sulphur of brimstone hold your rose
over the smoke about live minutes, and yon will see it have a wonderful effect on the flower.
Before the rose gets the least cool,
clap it in a sheet of writing-paper, on which is written your own
name and that of the young man you love best; also the date of
the year, and the name of the morning star that has the ascendency at that time fold it up and seal it neatly with three separate
seals, then run and bury the parcel at the foot of the tree from
which you gathered the flower; liere let it remain untouched till
the Gth of July take it up at midnight, go to bed and place it under
your pillow, and you will have a singular and most eventful dream
before morning or, at least before your usual time of rising. You
may keep the rose under 3-our head three nights without spoiling
the charm when you have done with the rose and paper be sure
to burn them.

Cupid's Nosegay.
On the first niqrht of the new moon in July,
take a red rose, a white rose, a yellow flower, a blue one, a sprig
of rue and rosemary, and nine blades of long grass bind all together with a lock of your own hair kill a white pigeon, sprinkle
the nosegay with the blood from the heart, and some common salt
wrap the flowers in a white handkerchief, and lay it under your
head, on the pillow, when you go to rest; and, before morning,
you will see j-our fate as clear as if you had your nativity cast by
the best Astrologer in the world not only in respect to love, lovers,
or marriage, but in the other most important affairs of your life
storms, in this dream, foretell great trouble and graves or churchyards are fatal tokens, and so is climbing steep and dangerous


To be Tried the Third Night of a New Moon. Take

Love's Cordial.
brandy, rum, gin, wine, and the oil of amber, of each a teaspoonful
a tablespoonful of cream, and three of spring water drink it
as you get into bed rei)eat
This mixture of love I take for my potion,
That I of my destiny may have a notion
Cupid befriend me, new moon bo kind.
And show unto me the fate that's design'd.


You will dream

of drink, and, according to the quality or manner

being presented, you may tell the condition to which you will
rise or fall by marriage.
Water is poverty and, if you dream of
a drunken man, it is ominous that you will have a drunken mate.
If you dream of drinking too much, 3-ou will fall, at a future
period, into that sad error yourself, without great care and what
is a worse sight than an inebriated female ?
She can not guard
her own honor, ruitis her own and family's substance, and often
clothes herself with rags.
is often used as an excuse for
this vicious habit, but it gives more troujle than it takes away.


The Xine Jic^s. Got nine small keys they must all bo your own
by begging or purchase (borrowing will not do, nor must you tell
what you want them for) plait a three-plaited band of your own
hair, and tie them together, fastening the ends with nine knots,
fasten them with one of your garters to your left wrist on going to
bed, and bind the other garter round your head then say

take it not amiss.

To try your favor I've done this
You arc the ruler of the keys,
Favor me, then, if you please;
Let me then your influence prove,
And see my dear and wedded love.
This must be done on the eve of St. Peter's, and is an old charm
used by the maidens of Rome in ancient times, who put great faith
St. Peter,



The Ring and O'.ive-hranch. Buy a ring, it matters not it being

gold, 80 as it has the semblance of a wedding-ring, and it is best
to try this charm on your own birthday. Pay for your ring with
some small bill for, whatever change you receive, you must f.ive
to the lirst begger you meet in the street and if no one asks alms
of you, give it to some poor person for you need not, alas go far
before you find one to whom your charity will be acceptable carefully note what they say in return, such as "God bless you," or
wishing you luck and prosperity, as is usual. When you get home,
write it down on a sheet of paper, at each of four corners and, in
the middle, put the two first letters of your name, your age, and
the letters of the planets then reigning as morning and evening
stars get a branch of olive and fasten the ring on the stalk with
a string or thread, which has been steeped all day in a mixture of
honey and vinegar, or any composition of opposite qualities, very
sweet and very sour cover your ring and stalk with the written
paper carefully wrapped round and round wenr it in your bosom
till the ninth hour of the night then repair to the next churchyard
and bury the charm in the grave of a young man who died unmarried ; and while you are so doing, repeat the letters of your own



CJhristian name three times backwards return liome, and keep as

silent and quiet as possible till you go to bed, which must be before
eleven put a light in your chimney, or some safe place and, before midnight, or just about that time, your husband that is to bo
will present himself at the foot of the bed, but will presently disappear. If you arc not to marry, none vv ill come ; and, in that
case, if you dream before morning of children, it shows that you
will have them unmarried and if you dream of crowds of men,
beware of prostitution.

The Witches' Chain. Let three young women join in making a

long chain, about a yard will do, of Christmas, juniper, and mistletoe berries and at tlie end of every link put an oak acorn. Exactly
before midnight lot them assemble in a room by themselves, where
no one can disturb them leave a window open, and take the key
out of the keyhole and hand it over the chimney-piece have a good
fire, and place in the midst of it a long thinnish log of wood, well
sprinkled with oil, salt, and fresh mould then wrap the chain round
then sit
it, each maiden having an equal share in the business
down, and on your left knee let each fair one have a prayer-book
opened at the matrimonial service. Just as the last acorn is burned,
the future husband will cross the room each one will see her own
proper spouse, but he will bo invisible to the rest of the wakeful
Those that are not to wed will see a coffin, or some misvirgins.
shapen form, cross the room go to bed instantly and you will all
have remarkable dreams. This must bo done either on a Wednesday or Friday night, but no other.


receiving a love-letter that has any particular

lay it wide open then fold it in nine folds, pin
it next your heart, and thus wear it till bed-time
then place it in
your left-hand glove, and lay it under your head. If you dream of
gold, diamonds, or any costly gems, your lover is true, and means
what he says if of white linen, you will lose him by death and
if of flowers, he will prove false.
If you dream of his saluting
you, he is at present false and means not what he professes, but
only to draw you into a snare.

declaration in


On going to rest, take a glass of water, half fill It

Strange Bed.
with salt, and drink it off as quick as you can do not speak afterwards, but compose yourself to sleep, and thirst will cause you
to dream which joined to a strange bed, will have a true effect.

a Future Husbavd. On Midsummer-eve, just after sunset,

three, five, or seven young women are to go into a garden, in which
there Id no other person, and each to gather a sprig of red sago, and
then, going into a room by themselves, set a stool in the middle of
tho room, and on it a clean basin full of rose-water, in which the




sprigs of sage nro to bo put, and, tying a line across the room, on
one side of the stool, each woman is to hang on it a clean shift,
turning the v. ron;^ side outwards then all are to sit down in a row,
on the opposite si ic of the stool, as far distant as the room will
admit, not speaking a single word the vWiole time, whatever they
see, and in a few minutes after twelve, each one's future liusband
will take her sprig out of the rose-water, and sprinkle her shift with


On St. Agnes' night, 21st January, take a row of pins, and pull
out every one, one after another, saying a paternoster or sticking
a pin in your sleeve, and you will dream of him you will marry.
A slice of the bride-cake thrice drawn through the weddincc-ring,
and laid under the head of an unmarried woman, will make her
dream of her future husband. The same is practiced in some
parts of Europe with a piece of the groaning cheese.
Another way to see a future spouse in a dream The party inquiring must sleep in a different county from that in which she
usually resides, and, on going to bed, must knit the left garter
about the right-legged stocking, letting the other garter and
stocking alone and as you rehearse the following verse, at every
comma tie a knot

This knot




the thing I know not yet,

that shall my husband be,
hc.goes, and what he wears,

I knit, to
see, the



And what he does


days and years.

Accordingly, in a dream he will appear, with the insignia of his

trade or profession.
Another, perrormed by charming the moon, thus At the first
appearinco cf the new moon, immediately after the new year's
day, go out i i the evening, and stand over the spears of a gato
or stye, and, looking; on the moon, repeat the following lines:

All hail to thee,

I pr'ythce, good
Thio night, who

The person

will then


all hail to


moon, reveal to me
my husband must be

dream of her future husband.

your Fdiure Husband wi'l Have. Take a waland a nutmeg grate them together, and mix them
with butter and Gu::ar, and make them up into small pills, of which
exactly nine must be taken on going to bed and according to her
dreams so v/ill be the state of the person she will marry. If a

To K.ioio

lohat Fortune

nut, a hazlcnut,

a clergyman, of white linen; if a lawyer,

gentleman, of riches;
of darknesi if a tradesman, of odd noises and tumults if a soldier cr sailer, of thunder and lightning if a servant, of rain.



The Lover's Charm. To be tried on any Wednesday or Friday,

throughout the year, Friday in Passion AVeek always excepted, as
no charm or spell must bo tried. It is an offense against the Greek
churcli (or indeed any Christian one) and always proves unfortur
natc to a person so doing and under this head we also record the

fifty- two

Babbaths, Ash Wednesday, and the eve of


The Charm. This must


be tried alone, and with profound

secrecy, between the hours of nine and twelve at night, neither
sooner nor later. Take a v/hite dove, and kill it take out the
heart and liver, and roast it until you can powder it on a piece of
white paper mix one teaspoonful of this witii a drachm of dragon's
blood, put them in half a gill of Cyprus wine, and drink it on going
to bed previously mix the blood that flows from the bird with
wheaten flower, into a cake of the form of a heart, prick it with the
first letters of your name, and the form of a Maltese cross


is thus designed
leave the cake baking over the fire, as it
have a great influence in your dream.
When you dream any particular dream, write it down on a sheet
of paper, round and round i:i a circle, so that the last word comes
into the middle, and place it under your pillow on going to bed,
and you will dream more fully on the subject.


The night before your nuptials, write your

piece of paper, as small as possible, the name of your
spouse elect, the date of the wedding-day, the month, and the year
inclose all in a circle of blood drawn from one of your fingers, fold
the paper i:ito nine folds, place it in the stocking drawn from your
left log, and place it between your head and the pillow, and b}^ your
dreams of that night you may guess what will be the fate attending
your nuptial life.
Hymeneil Charm.

name on a

For a

Girl to Ascertain if She

pod with exactly nine peas

room or entry-way, without

done so


Soon Marry.


a green pea-

in it, and hang it over the door of a

letting any person know that you have

you must then watch the door and see who goes through
a bachelor, or an unmarried young man, you will posi-

if it is

tively be married before the current crop of poas is disposed of if

it is a woman, you will liave to sigh in single 1 lessedness another
year if a married man, be careful and not allow j^our lover too
much liberty in his attentions, or tho consec^uences may bo regretted.





That the form of the features display the disposition of the soul,
and may be demonstrated by the principles of philosophy, is obvious to every person of the least reflection. It is impossible for
man to feel any passion, without the countenance sympathizing
with the sensation, so as exactly to express the internal emotion.
That passion, therefore, which is predominant in the human character, being the most frequently excited, must, by repetition, express the prevailing disposition on the countenance. And as every
person has a temper peculiar to himself, that temper must impress
on the visage such signs as display, to a discriminate observer,
the particular passion or temperament, which distinguishes every
human being from the rest of his fellow creatures.
The face that is plump, round, and ruddy, denotes the person
to bo of an agreeable temper, and deserving friendship, as well as
faithful in love and the man, though sometimes in an unguarded
moment may be led astray, yet he soon returns, and proves more

affectionate than before.

The face that is smooth and even, with well-proportioned features, shows the person to be of a good disposition, but somewhat
inclined to suspicion, yet of an agreeable conversation, and strongly
addicted to the delights of love.
A face whose cheek-bones stick out, with thin jaws, is of a restless disposition, fretful, and always foreboding evil, v^ithout any
plausible reason and more disposed than capable of enjoying the
Dleasures of love.

If the forehead is large, round, and smooth, it denotes the man

or woman to be of an open, generous temper, and will be extremely
good-natured his love for the fair one whom he selects will be
tender, manly, and inviolable, provided her own misconduct does
not banish it from his breast; his conversation vfill be lively,
modest, and pleasing and he will seldom die before he attains
the age of sixty, or upwards.
If the forehead is flat in the middle, the man or woman will be
found to be proud, and little disposed to generosity in love affairs
the man will be violent, and very cautious of his own reputation,
as well as that of his mistress he Vv ill get many children, v/hom
he will not suffer to degrade themselves but if they should, he
will beat them with the utmost severity, and v/ill not be easily
prevailed on to forgive them.
If there is a hollow across the forehead, in the middlo^ of man or
woman, with a ridge, as of flesh, above, and another Ijelow, the
man will be a good scholar, and the woman great in whatever oc;



may be engaged

in they will not be liberal in bethey can be of service without hurting themselves,
they will do it cheerfully love will not be their prevailing passion,
and they will have but few children, and those at very distant
periods perhaps three, four, sometimes seven yeirs, between
every two they will meet with many crosses, but will bear them
with a tolerable share of patience.
If the forehead projects immediately over the eyebrows, running
flat up to the hair, the man or woman will be sulky, proud, insolent, imperious, and treacherous
and will never forgive an injury,
but will take every opportunity to prejudice the person will have
few children, and in quick succession.
If a crescent or half-moon line passeth through the forehead,
the party must beware of evil.
If the temples are hollow, with the bones advancing towards the
forehead on either side, so that the space between is flat, with a
small channel of indenture rising from the upward part of the nose
to the hair, the man or woman will bo of a daring temper, and a
restless and wandering disposition, extremely lewd, and never
seriously attend to one object in understanding will be rather
weak, and will trouble themselves but little about the consequences that may result from their proceedings they will seldom
have above one or two children, and will not live to an advanced

CTipation she

stowing, but



The eye that is large, full, prominent, and clear, denotes a man
or woman to be ingenuous and without deceit of an even, agreeable disposition modest and bashful in the affairs of love; will
suffer no great Iiardships, nor enjoy any great share of happiness
will have several children, but more girls than boys.
The eye that is small, but advanced in the head, shows the man
or woman fo be of a quick wit, lively genius, agreeable conversation, and good morals, but inclined to jealousy.
The man or woman whose eyes are sunk in the head, is of a
jealous, distrustful, malicious, and envious nature he will have
many children, whom ho will, if possible, avoid providing for.
Next, the nose thp.t is even on the ridge, and flat on the sides,
with little or no hollow between the eyes, declares the man or
woman to be sulky, disdainful, and treacherous.
The nose that rises with a sudden bulge, a little below the eyes,
is petulant and noisy.
The nose that is small, slender, and peaked, shows the person

to be jealous, fretful,

The nose that

and suspicious.

small, tapering, round in the nostrils, and

cocked up, shows the person to be ingenious, smart, of a quick
apprehension, but giddy, and seldom looking into consequences.



lips that are thick, soft,


long, bespeak the person to




of weak intellect, peevish, and is strongly addicted to the pleasures

of love.
If the under lip is thicker than the upper, and more prominent,
the person is of a weak understanding, artful, and knavish.
The lips that are moderately plump and even, declare the person
to be good-humored, humane, sensible, and just.
The lips that are thin, show the person to be of a quick and
lively imagination, and eager in the pleasures of love.
The lips that are thin and sunk in, denote the person to be sly
and revengeful, and in love or friendship moderate and uncertain.
The chin that is round, with a hollow between that and the lip,
shows the person to be of a good disposition, kind, and honest;
sincere in friendship, and ardent in love.
The chin that comes dovrn flat from the edge of the lip, and ends
in a kind of chisel form, shows the person to be silly, credulous,
jealous, and ill-tempered.
Thus is shown, according to the most learned and judicious
ancient authors, all that can really be gathered from that index
of the human mind, the face, and all its parts.




This is said to have been the invention of the sage Pythagorus,
whose doctrine was that cver^-thing in the universe was represented and governed by certain figures or numbers, to which he
ascribed mysterious properties and virtues.
According to him,
everything, from the Supremo Being himself down to the minutest
atom, was distinguished by its own proper number and his belief
was shared by numberless other philosophers. Without entering
into any detail of this system, we will proceed to describe how
these calculations are made. An alphabetical table must be first

prepared with


corresponding numbers, thus












200 300 400 500 600


V Hi Hu
700 800 900




accomplished by a






Religion, destiny, the soul,


Solidity, wisdom, power.
5. The


graces, marriage.
6. Perfection, labor.
7. CkDursc of life, repose, liberty, perfect happiness.
8. Justice, preservation.
9. Imperfection, diminution,
grief, pain, expectation.
10. Success, reason, future happiness.
11. Faults, punishment, discord, prevarication.

Good omen, a town or city.



14. Sacrifice, purification.

15. Piety, self-culture.


of numbers, with their various

significations, as follows

Passion, ambition, design.

Destruction, death, catas-


Love, happiness, voluptuousness.

Misfortune, forgetfulness.
Hardening of the heart,

19. Folly.
20. Austerity, sadness.
21. Mystery, wisdom, the creation.
scourge, the divine venge-


Ignorance of the doctrines


A journey.

of Christianity.
Intelligence, a birth.
26. L^seful works.


27. Firmness, courage.

28. Love tokens.
29. Letters.
30. Fame, a wedding.
31. Love of glory, virtue.
32. Marriage.


33. Purity.
34. Suffering trouble of mind.
35. Health, harmony.
36. Genius, vast conception.
37. Domestic virtues, conjugal

Imperfection, avarice, envy.

39. Praise.
40. Fetes, wedding.
41. Ignominy.
short and unhappy life,


the tomb.
Religious ceremonies,

44. Power, pomp, monarchy.
45. Population.
46. Fertility.
47. Long and happy life.
48. Tribunal, judgment, judge.
49. Love of money.
50. Pardon, liberty.
60. Widowhood.
70. Initiated,

75. The world.
77. Pardon, repentance.
81. An adept.
90. Blindness, error, affliction.
100. Divine favor.
120. Patriotism, praises.
200. Irresolution.
215. Calamity.
300. Safety, belief, faith, phil-


Divine messenger.





Long and wearisome voyage.

490. Priests, theology.

500. Holiness.



600. Perfection.
malicious person, machinations,

700. Strength.
800. Empire.

900. War, combats, struggles.

1000. Mercy.
1095. Taciturnity.
1260. Torments.
3390. Persecution.

Now write down the name of the person whose character you
wish to learn, and beneath each letter composing it place the corresponding number. (Should the letter
be one of them, it mast
be represented by two V's, which will give the number 1400.) Add
them all together, and by comparing the product with the table of
significations, you will discover what you wish to know.
the product exceeds the highest number given in the table, the
first number is cut off, and the remainder alone used.
We give an
example, supposing the name to be Jean Jacques Rousseau










0 50
U 200
S 90
S 90









Of this total of



cut off the 2,000, leaving 331, which, on

reference to the table of significations, reads as follows
faith, and philosophy, for 300 love of glory, virtue, for 31 giving
no bad sketch of his character. It may be as well to observe, that,
when the total consists of a number not precisely marked on the
table, the answer may be obtained by dividing it into hundreds,
tens, and units thus, supposing the number obtained was 179, it
could be divided into 100, 70, and 9. Care must be taken to add
up the lines of figures correctly, as the slightest mistake will, of
course, entirely change the whole meaning.


Pour the grounds of tea or coffee into a white cup shake them
well about, so as to spread them over the surface reverse the cup


away the superfluous contents, and then exercise yowC
fancy in discovering what the figures thus formed repreLong wavy lines denote vexations -and losses, their imporsent.
tance depending on the number of lines. Straight ones, on the
contrary, foretell peace, tranquility, and long life. Human figures
are usuilly good omens, announcing lovo affairs and marriage.
If circular figures predominate, the person for whom the experiment is made may expect to receive money. If these circles are
connected by straight unbroken lines, there will be delay but ulSquares foretell peace and haptimately all will be satisfactory.
whilst curved, twisted, or
piness oblong figures, family discord
angular ones, are certain signs of vexations and annoyances, their
probable duration being determined by the number of figures.
crown signifies honor a cross, news of a death a ring, marriage,
if a letter can be discovered near it, that will be the initial of the
name of the future spouse. If the ring is in the clear part of the
cup, it foretells a happy union if clouds are about it, the contrary
but if it should chance to be quite at the bottom, then the marriage will never take place. A leaf of clover, or trefoil, is a good
sign, denoting, if at the top of the cup, speed}- good fortune, which
will be more or less distant ia case it appears at or near the bottom. The anchor, if at the bottom of the cup, denotes success in
at the top, and in the clear part, love and fidelity
The serpent is always the
in thick, or cloudy parts, inconstancy.
sign of an enemy, and if in the cloudy part, gives warning that
great prudence will be necessary to ward off misfortune. The
coffin portends news of a death or long illness.
The dog, at the
top of the cup, denotes true and faithful friends in the middle,
that they are not to be trusted but at the bottom, that they are secret enemies. The lily, at the top of the cup, foretells a happy
marriage at the bottom, anger. A letter signifies news if in the
clear, very welcome news surrounded by dots, a remittance of
money but if hemmed in by clouds, bad tidings and losses a
heart near it denotes a love-letter. A single tree portends restoraa group of trees in the clear, misfortunes which
tion to health
may be avoided; several trees, wide apart, promise that your
wishes will be accomplished if encompassed by dashes, it is a
token that your fortune is in its blossom, and only requires care
it surrounded by dots, riches.
to bring to maturity
signify either friends or enemies, according to their situation.
and success. The
clouds, happiness or misfortune, according as they are bright cr
dark. Birds are good omens, but quadrupeds with the exception
of the dog foretell trouble and difficulties.
Fish imply good
news from across the water. A triangle portends an unexpected
The figure of a man inlegacy a single straight line, a journey.
dicates a speedy visitor if the arm is outstretched, a present;

to drain


when the

figure is very distinct, it shows that the person expected

will be of dark complexion, and vice versa.
A crown near a cross
indicates a large fortune, resulting from a death. Flowers are
signs of joy, happiness, and peaceful life.
A heart surrounded by
dots signifies joy, occasioned by the receipt of money; with a

ring near

How to


approaching marriage.

Bead Your Fortune by


White of an Egg.


a new-

laid egg, and, carefully separating the yolk from the white, drop
the latter into a large tumbler half full of water place this, uncovered, in some dry place, and let it remain untouched for fourand-twenty hours, by which time the white of the egg will have
formed itself into various figures rounds, squares, ovals, animals, trees, crosses, etc. which are to be interpreted in the same
manner as those formed by the coffee-grounds. Of course, the
more whites there are in the glass, the more figures there will be.

This is a very pretty experiment, and much practiced by the

young Scotch maidens, who, however, believe it to have more efficacy when tried on either Midsummer Eve or Hallowe'en (31st October).

To Choose a Husband by the Hair. Black. Stout and healthy,

but apt to be cross and surly if very black and smooth, and a
large quantity, will be found where he fixes his attachment, not addicted to lewdness, make a good husband, and take care of his family but if short and curly, will be of an unsettled temper, given to
drinking, somewhat quarrelsome, will show much fondness at first
paying his addresses, but be unsteady and forgetful afterwards.
White, ok I'aib Haik. Will be of a weak constitution, rather
stupid, very fond of music, will cut no great figure in the world,
very moderate in his amorous wishes, but get many children.

Yellow. Inclined to jealousy.

Light Brown. Neither very good nor very bad, middling in all
respects, rather given to women, but upon the whole is a good

Dark Bko^^n. Sensible and good-humored, careful, attentive

to business, and generally makes a good husband.
Very Dark Brown. Of a robust constitution, and of a grave
very fond of his
disposition, but good-tempered and sensible

though he may chance now and then to go astray.

Ked. Will be artful, cunning, and deceitful, and much given to
wenching loves a chemise so well that his wife will scarce have
one to her back but is generallv of a lively temper.


or, easy

(Fob these

way to find out what


Messengers of Fate



going to happen.
with wonderful facility





occurrences, and are a source of harmless

to the inquirer.)


and knowledge

Have ready three dice, but try your first question with a single
one, the next with two, and the third with three. This may be
done three times over at one sitting, making in all nine questions,
and their suitable answers, but no more for the dice then turn
fatal, and of evil tendenc" to the holder, and only serve to confuse the truth.
One. A letter or paper of great importance.

A long journey from which you will benefit.

Three. A surprise, and causes a strange bed.
Four. You will soon meet with ingratitude.
Five. A new lover, but not the right one yet.
Six. Unexpected money, and prosperity before you.


Two. A vexatious dispute, not easily settled.
Three. A merry night, followed by unpleasant consequences
and expense.
Four. You have something on your mind, and the sooner you

act according to the dictates of your own conscience the better, or

it will be too late.
Five. You will soon have a pleasant adventure.
Six. You arc doomed to be happy in wedlock.
Seven. You will meet with a severe trouble.
Eight. If dice tell true, then peace adieu for you will soon involve yourself in a labyrinth of perplexities and trouble.
Nine. You have made a hasty promise, and do not mean to fulfill it, but you will be compelled'^to do it, and cannot get off.
Ten. You ruin your own fortune by needless delays, and the
opportunities will be lost.
Eleven. You have secret enemies, in whom you confide; but
you will soon discover them.
Twelve. You will never thrive by what is called luck so be
industrious, and that will bring you sure gain and perseverance
will bring you wealth.


Three. A long sail on the wide ocean.
Four. Pleasure in youth, and then a sad reverse.
Five. Many changes, but a happy old age.
Six. Unhappy in love, but fortunate in other respects.
Seven. Something unpleasant is preparing for you.
Eight. A great rise in life, and soon.
Nine. Do not venture on the water for a month to Gom.
Ten. You will be ill-treated by a near relation.



Eleven. You are on the point of entering into an engagement

you will repent.
Twelve. A hasty quarrel through a trifle^.
Thirteen. A great loss, and severely felt.
FotJETEEN. You will soou Change your present abode.
Fifteen. You will soon fall sick, but recover speedily, and
meet with much kindness.
Sixteen. You will soon discover friends from foes.
Seventeen. You will gain a happy establishment.
Eighteen. Long life, riches, happiness, and content.
If the same throw occurs twice to one person, it foretells a
height of power they could never expect.



The day

of the week on which you were born will always be the

best for you to begin any business, but not to complete it Fridays
and Tuesdays are best for women, Sundays and Mondays for men.
There are three months in a year in which it is not reckoned
fortunate to enter on a new house or sign a lease those arc April,
July, and November; neither is the 11th of any month good for

such projects.
Let women be careful what they transact in the thirty-first year
of their life, for it is to all females a year of importance, whether
they are married or single some great change will await them,
or they will lay under peril or temptation, have a great loss or
great gain, go an unexpected journe3^ or, in short, something or
other remarkable is to happen, and dark-complexioned women
have in general this fate stronger than others.

Lucky days

days of the moon's age for

marriage, the 7th, 9th, and 12th requesting favors, 14th, 15th,
and 17th, but beware the 16th and 21st to answer letters, if possible choose an odd day of the moon to travel on land, choose the
increase of the moon and to embark on the ocean, choose the defor business, three first


a fortunate month for beginning a new building and

it is singular, but nevertheless reckoned true, that it is good to
open a concert-room, a music-shop, or begin a new piece of music
on the eve of St. Cecilia. It is not good to marry on your own
birthday, or on any martyr s every other saint's day is fortunate
in this concern neither is it fortunate for a woman to marry in
colors let her dress be as white as possible, except ghe boa widow,
then let her choose some pleasant color, but beware of green and
To meet a funeral as you are going to church to tie the nuptial
knot, betokens the death of your first child in its infancy.




To meet a white horse when you are going on any particular
business is a sign of success, and a piebald one, if you are going
to ask a favor to be followed by a strange dog is lucky, especially
to a man who is going courting.
For a pigeon to fly into the house not belonging to it is a sign of
sickne=is, and if it rests on a bed, it is death ; but two pigeons are a
sign of a wedding.
Never pick up an odd glove in the street; it is not fortunate.
Never tell any dream before breakfast, nor any at all that you
use a charm to procure, even to your most trusty friend. If you
dream any dream three times, look on it as an omen or friendly
warning, particularly if it regard water, traveling, or any other
It may be intended by a watchful Providence
perilous business.
to save you from danger, so do not despise the caution. There
are several remarkable instances in history such as William the
Second, the Duke of Buckingham, and many others who might
have escaped death at that time by a due attention to these warn;



In fortune-telling by cards as in all games in which cards are

employed the Ace ranks highest in value. Then comes the King,
followed by the Queen, Knave, Ten, Nine, Eight, and Seven

these being generally the only cards used.

- The order and comparative value of
the different suits is as follows First on the list stand " Clubs," as they mostly portend happiness and no matter how numerous or how accompanied are
Next come "Hearts," which
rarely or never of bad augury.
usually signify joy, liberality, or good temper; "Diamonds," on
the contrary, denote delay, quarrels, and annoyance
"Spades" the worst suit of all grief, sickness, and loss of


We are, of course, speaking generally, as, in many cases, the

position of cards entirely changes their signification their individual and relative meaning being often widely different
for example, the King of Hearts, the Nine of Hearts, and the Nine
of Clubs, respectively signify a liberal man, joy, and success in
love; but change their position, by placing the King between the
two Nines, and you would read that a man, then rich and happy,
would be ere long consigned to a prison
The individual meaning attached to the thirty-two cards em-
ployed, is as follows

Signifies joy, money, or good news

the joy will be of brief duration.
Kino of Clubs. A frank, liberal man, fond of
Ace of Clubs.



reversed, he will




meet with a disappointment.



Queen of Clubs. An affectionate woman, but quick tempered

and touchy if reversed, jealous and malicious.
Knave of Clubs. A clever and enterprising young man if reversed, a harmless flirt and flatterer.
Ten of Clubs. Fortune, success, or grandeur reversed, want

Nine of Clubs. Unexpected gain, or a legacy reversed, some
trifling present.
Eight of Clubs. A dark person's affections, which, returned,

of success in

some small


reversed, those of a fool, and

attendant unhappiness if reciprocated.
Seven of Clubs. A small sum of money, or unexpectedly recovered debt reversed, a smaller amount.

will be the cause of great prosperity

Ace of Hearts. A



some pleasant news;


versed, a friend's visit.

liberal man reversed, will meet with

A mild, amiable woman; reversed, has
Knave of Hearts. A gay young bachelor, who dreams only
of pleasure reversed, a discontented military man.
Ten of Hearts. Happiness, triumph; reversed, some slight
Nine of Hearts. Joy, satisfaction, success reversed, a passing chagrin.
Eight of Hearts. A fair person's affections reversed, indifference on their part.
Seven of Hearts. Pleasant thoughts, tranquillity; reversed,
ennui, weariness.
soon to be received and,
Ace of Diamonds. A
card be reversed, containing bad news.
King of Diamonds. A fair man generally in the army but

King of Heaets.


Queen of IIeaets.
been crossed in love.



both cunning and dangerous if reversed, a threatened danger,

caused by machinations on his part.

Queen of Diamonds. An

ill-bred, scandal-loving woman
to be greatly feared.
Knave of Diamonds. A tale-bearing serwant, or unfaithful
friend if reversed, will be the cause of mischief.
Ten of Diamonds. A journey, or change of residence; if reversed, it will not prove fortunate.
Nine of Diamonds. Annoyance, delay if reversed, either a

family or a love quarrel.

Eight of Diamonds. Love-making; if reversed, unsuccessful.
Seven of Diamonds. Satire, mockery; reversed, a foolish

reversed, she


N. B.


order to

know whether

the Ace, Ten, Nine, Eight,



make a small

and Seven of Diamonds aro roveraed,

it is

pencil-mark on each, to show which

the top of the card.


better to

Ace op Spades. Pleasure reversed, grief, had news.

King of Spades. An envious man, an enemy, or a dishonest
lawyer, who i3 to bo feared reversed, impotent malice.
Queen op Spades. A widow reversed, a dangerous and malicious woman.
Knave op Spades. A dark, ill-bred young man reversed, he
is plottin-jf some mischief.
Tex of Spades. Tears, a prison; reversed, brief affliction.
Nine of Spades. Tidings of a death; if reversed, it will be

some near relative.

Eight of Spades. Approaching illness reversed, a marriage


or offer refused.
Seven of Spades. Slight annoyances

reversed, a foolish in-


The Court cards of Hearts and Diamonds usually represent persons of fair complexion Clubs and Spades the opposite.

Four Aces, coming

together, or following each other, announce

danger, failure in business, and sometimes imprisonment. If one
or more of them be reversed, the danger will be lessened, but that
is all.


Aces, coming in the same manner.




reversed, folly.

Two Aces. A plot if reversed, it will not succeed.

Four Kings. Rewards, dignities, honors; reversed, they



but sooner received.

Three Kings. A consultation on important business, the result
of which will bo highly satisfactory if reversed, success will be


A partnership in business; reversed, a dissoluSometimes this only denotes friendly projects.

Four Queens. Company, society one or more reversed denotes that the entertainment will not go off well.
Three Queens. Morning calls reversed, chattering and scandal, or deceit.
Two Queens. A meeting between friends reversed, poverty,
troubles, in which one will involve the other.
Four Knaves. A noisy party mostly young people; reversed,



tion of the same.

a drinking bout.

Three Knaves. False friends reversed, a quarrel with some

low person.
Two Knaves. Evil intentions reversed, danger.

Tens. Great

the success will not be

suc,Qei33 in

projected enterprises

so. brilliant,


still it will


bo sure.


Theee Tens. Improper conduct

reversed, failure.

or relative.
Three Eights. Thoughts of marriage; reversed,
Two Eights. A brief love-dream; reversed, small pleasures
and trifling pains.
Four Sevens. Intrigues among servants or low people, threats,


Tens. Change of trade or profession reversed, denotes

that the prospect is only a distant one.
Four Nines. A great surprise reversed, a public dinner.
Theee Nines. Joy, fortune, health reversed, wealth, lost by
Two Nines. A little gain reversed, trifling losses at cards.
FouK Eights. A short journey reversed, the return of a friend

folly, flirta-

and disputes reversed, that their malice will be impotent

harm, and that the punishment will fall on themselves.
Three Sevens. Sickness, premature old age; reversed, slight
and brief indisposition.
Two Sevens. Levity reversed, regret.



picture-card between two others of equal value as two

tens, two aces, 6tc.
denotes that the person represented by that
card runs the risk ot a prison.
It requires no great effort to commit these -significations to
memory, but it must be remembered that they are but what the
alphabet is to the printed book a little attention and practice,
however, will soon enable the learner to form these mystic letters
into words, and words into phrases in other language, to assemble
i:hese cards together, and read the events, past and to come, their
pictured faces pretend to reveal.
There are several ways of doing this but we will give them all,
one after another, so as to afford our readers an ample choice of
methods of prying into futurity.
No. 1. Dealing ike Cards by Threes. Take the pack of thirty-two
selected cards (viz., the Ace, King, Queen, Knave, Ten, Nine, Eight,
and Seven of each suit), having laefore lixed upon the one you inLend to represent yourself, supposing always you are making the
'.'ssay on your own behalf.
If not, it must represent the person for
whom you arc acting. In doing this, it is necessary to remember
that the card chosen should be according to the complexion of the
chooser King or Queen of Diamonds for a very fair person, the
same of Hearts for one rather darker, Clubs for one darker still,
md Spades only for one very dark indeed. The card chosen also
loses its signification, and simply becomes the representative of a
dark or fair man cr woman, as the case may be.
This point having been settled, shufilo the cards, and either cut
them or have them cut for you (according to whether you are





acting for yourself or another person), taking care to use the left
hand. That done, turn them up by threes, and every time you find
in these triplets two of the same suit such as two Hearts, two Clubs,
withdraw the highest card and place it on the table before
you. If the triplet should chance to be all of the same suit, the
highest card is still to be the only one \rithdrawn but should it consist of three of the samz v:due but dlffertnt suits, such as three Kings,
etc., they are to be all appropriated.
We will suppose that, after
having turned up the cards tiiree by three, you have been able to
withdrav/ six, leaving twenty-six, which you shuffle and cut, and
again turn up by threes, acting precisely as you did before, until
you have obtained either thirteen, fifteen, or seventeen cards. Kecollect that the number must always be uneven, and that the card
representing the person for whom the essay is made must make
one of it. Even if the requisite thirteen, fifteen, or seventeen have
been obtained, and this one has not made its appearance, the operation must be recommenced. Let us suppose the person whose
fortune is being read to be a lady, represented by the Queen of
Hearts, and that fifteen cards have been obtained and laid out
in the form of a half circle in the order thc}^ were drawn, viz., the
Seven of Clubs, the Ten of Diamonds, the Seven of Hearts, the
Knave of Clubs, the King of Diamonds, the Nine of Diamonds, the
Ten of Hearts, the Queen of Spades, the Eight of Hearts, the Knave
of Diamonds, the Queen of Hearts, the Nine of Clubs, the Seven of
Spades, the Ace of Clubs, and the Eight of Spades. Having considered your cards, you will find among them two Queens, two
Knaves, two tens, three sevens, two eights, and two nines you are,
therefore, able to announce,
"The two Queens before mo signify the re-union of friends the
two Knaves, that there is mischief being made between tliem.
These two tens denote a change of profession, which, from one of
them being between two sevens, I see will not be effected without
some difficulty, the cause of which, according to these three
sevens, will be illness. However, these two nines promise some
small gain, resulting so say these two eights from a love affair."
You now begin to count seven curds, frcm r'ght to left, beginning
with the Queen of Hearts, who represents the lady you are acting
The seventh being the King of Diamonds, you may say,
" You often think of a fair man in uniform."
The next seventh card (counting the King of Diamonds as one)
proves to bo the Ace of Clubs you add,
"You will receive from him some very joyful tidings he besides,
intends making you a present."
Count the Ace of Clubs as "one," and proceeding to the next
seventh card, the Queen of Spades, you resume,
"A widow is endeavoring to injure you, on this very account;



(the seventh card, counting the Queen as one, being the Ten
of Diamonds) "the annoyance she pives you will oblige you to
either take a journey or change your residence but " (this Ten of
Diamonds being imprisoned between two sevens) "your journey or
removal will meet with some obstacle."
On proceeding to count as before, calling the Ten of Diamonds
one, you will find the seventh card prove to be the Queen of Hearts
herself, the person for whom you are acting, and may therefore
safely conclude by saying,






overcome of yourself, without needing any

one's aid or assistance."


take the two cards at either extremity of the half circle,

Eight of Spades and the Seven of Clubs,
imite them, and continue,
" A sickness, which will lead to your receiving a small sum of


are, respectively, the

Eepeat the same manoeuvre, which brings together the Ace of
Clubs and the Ten of Diamonds,
"Good news, which will make you decide,on taking a journey,
destined to prove a very happy one, and which will occasion you
to receive a sum of money."
The next cards united, being the Seven of Spades and the Seven
of Hearts, you say,
" Tranquillity and peace of mind, followed by slight anxiety,
quickly succeeded by love and happiness."
Then come the Nine of Clubs and the Knave of Clubs, fore^


will certainly receive money, through the exertions of a

dark young man Queen of Hearts and King of Diamonds
which comes from the fair man in uniform this rencounter announces some great happiness in store for you, and complete fulfillment of your wiskes. Knave of Diamonds and Nine of Diamonds Although this happy result will be delayed for a time,
through some fair young man, not famed for liis delicacy. Eight
of Hearts and Ten of Hearts Love, joy, and triumph. The Queen
of Spades, who remains alone, is the widov/ who is endeavoring to
injure you, and who finds herself abandoned by all her friends !"
Now gather up the cards you have been using, shuffle^and cut
them with tlie left hand, and proceed to make them into three
packs by dealing one to the left, one in the middle, and one to the
Then continue
right; a fourth is laid aside to form "a surprise.
to deal the cards to each of the three packs in turn, until their
number is exhausted, when it will be found that the left-hand and
middle packs contain each five cards, whilst the one on the right



hand consists of only

Now ask the


person consulting you to select one of the three



packs. Wo will suppose this to be the middle one, and that the
cards comprising it are the Knave of Diamonds, the King of Diamonds, the Seven of Spades, the Qaeen of Spades, and the Seven
of Clubs. These, by roGollccting oar previous instructions regarding the individual and relative signification of the cards, are easily
interpreted as follows
The Knave of Clubs A fair young man, possessed of no delicacy of feeling, who seeks to injure the King of Diamonds
fair man in uniform
Seven of Spades and will succeed in causing
him some annoyance the Queen of Spades at the instigation of
a spiteful woinan Seven of Clubs but by means of a small sum
of money matters will be finally easily arranged."
Next take up the lert-ha:id pack, which is "for the house," the
former one ha\ ing been for tlie lady herself. Supposing it to consist of the Queen of Hearts, the Knave of CIu'ds, the Eight of
Hearts, the Nino of Diamonds, and the Ace of Clubs, they would
read thus
" Queen of Hearts The lady whoso fortune is being told is, or
soon will be, in a house Xnavo of Clubs where she will meet
with a dark young man, v/ho Eight of HcarLs vvdll entreat her
assistance to for.vard his interests with a fair girl Nine of Diamonds lie having met with delays and disappointment Aco of
Clubs but a letter v.nll arrive announcing the possession of money,


remove all dilTiculties."

pack is "for those who did not expect it," and will bo
compose of four cards let us say the Ten of Hearts, Nino of Clubs,
Eight of Spades, and Ten of Diamonds, signifying
" The Ten of Hearts An unexpected piece of good fortune and
great happiness Nino of Clubs caused by an unlooked-for legacy Eight of Spades which joy may perhaps be followed by a
slight sickness Ten of Spades the result of a fatiguing journey."
There now remains on the table only the card intended for "the
surprise." This, however, must be left untouched, the other cards
gathered up, shuflled, cut, and again laid out in three packs, not
forgetting at the first deal to add a card to "the surprise." After
the different packs have been duly examined and explained, as
before described, they must again bo gathered up, shuflled, etc.,
indeed, the whole operation repeated, after which the three cards
forming " the surprise " are examined and supposing them to bo
the Seven of Plearts, the Knave of Clubs, and the Queen of Spades,



are to bo thus interpreted

"Seven of Hearts Pleasant thoughts and friendly intentions
Knave of Clubs of a dark young man Queen of Spades relative to a malicious dark woman, or widow, who will cause him
much unhappiness."



Dealing ihe Cards hy Sevens.


having shuffled the




which, as we before stated,

consist of the Aco, Kin.i?, Queen, Knave, Ten, Nine, Eight, and
Sev n, of each suit, either cut t'lem yourself, or, if acting for
ano her peroon, l^c that pirsoa cut them, taking care to use the
Then count savcn cards, beginning with the one lying
le,iha A.
on tne top of the pack. The first six are useless, so put them
aside, and retain only the seventh, whi( ]i is to be place:! face uppermost on the table beiore you. Repeil this three times more,
then shuffle and cut the carls you hive tiirown on one side,

pack of thirty-two selected cards

toge her with those remaining in your liand, and tell Ihom out ia
sevei s as before, y )u liave thus obtained twelve cirds.
that the one representing th.) persoi
i?, htwever, indispansaV 1
whose fortune is bei ]g told should be among the number; t erefore, the whole operation muit le reeommeace I in case of i n3t
having made its appearance. Your t .velve e r-ls being n )vv spie id
out before you in the order in which they have como to hand, you
may begin to e>;plain them as described in the manner of dealing
the cards in t'.irtei, always bearing in mind both their individual
and relative signification. Thus, you first couat the cards by
sevens, beginning with the one representing the person for whom
you are acting, going from right to left. Then take the two cards
at either extremity of the line or half circle, and unite them, and
afterward form the three heaps or packs and "the surprise" precisely as we have before described. Indeed, the only difference
betwf^e 1 the two methods is the manner in which the cards are
oLtaine 1.



Dealing the Cards hy Fifteens.


having well shuffled

and cut the cards, or, as we have before said, had them cut, deal
them out in two packs, containing sixteen cards in each. Desire
the per:On consulting jou. to choose one of them; lay aside the
first card, to form "the surprise;" turn up the other fifteen, and
range them in a half circle before you, going from left to right,
plaeing them in the order in which they come to hand, and taking
care to re nark whether the one representing the person for whom
ycu are acting be among them. If not, the cards must be all
gathere I up, shuffled, cut, and dealt as before, and this must be
repeate I until the missing card makes its appearance in the pack
chosen by the person it represents. Now proceed to explain them
first, by interpreting the meaning of any pairs, triplets, or quartettes among them then by counting them in sevens, {Toing from
right to left, and beginning with the card representing the person
consul iag you and, lastly, by taking the car'^Is at either extremity
of the line and pairing them. This Ijeing done, gather up the fifteen cards, shuffle, cut, and deal them so as to form three packs
of each five cards. From each of these three packs withdraw the
topmost card, a-id place them on the one laid aside to form "the

surprise," thus forming four packs of four cards each.



Desire the person for whom you are acting to choose one of
these packs "for herself," or "himself," as the case may be.
Turn it up, and sjiread out the four cards it contains, from left to

right, e::plaii.inpj their individual and relative signification.
i-i like manner with the pack on your left hand, which will


t ie house;" then the third one, "for those who do not

expect it;" and lastly, " the surprise."
in. order to render our meaning perfectly clear, we will give
another example. Let us suppose that the pack for the person
consulting you is comj^osed of the Knave of Hearts, the Ace of
Diamonds, the Queen of Clubs, and the Eight of Spades reversed.
By the aid of the list of meanings we have given, it will be easy to
interpret them as follows
"The Knave of Hearts is a gay young bachelor the Ace of Diamonds who has written, or will very soon write, a letter the
Queen of Clubs to a dark woman Eight of Spades reversed to
make proposals to her, which will not be accepted."
On looking back to the list of significations, it will be found to
run thus
Knave of Heaets. A gay young bachelor, who thinks only of

be "for

Ace of Diamonds. A letter, soon to be received.

Queen of Clubs. An affectionate woman, but quick
and touchy.
EiGKT OF Spades. If reversed, a marriage broken




or offer

It will chus ])e

seen that each card forms, as


were, a phrase,

from an p.ssemblage of which nothing but a little practice is required CO for^fi complete sentences. Of this we Vv'ill give a further
example, by interpreting the signification of the three other packs
" For the house," "for those who do not expect it," and "the

surpribe." The first of these, "for the house," we will suppose to

consist of the Queen of Hearts, the Knave of Spades reversed, the
Ace of Clubs, and the Nine of Diamonds, which reads thus
"The Queen of Hearts is a fair woman, mild and amiable in
disposition, who Knave of Spades reversed will be deceived by
a dark, ill-bred young man the Ace of Clubs but she will receive
some good news, which will console her Nine of Diamonds
although it is probable that the news may bo delayed."
The pack "for those who do not expect it," consisting of the
Queen of Diamonds, the King of Spades, the Ace of Hearts reversed, and the Seven of Spades, would signify,
"The Queen of Diamonds is a mischief-making woman the
King 01 Spades who is in league with a dishonest lawyer Ace
of Hearts reversed they will hold a consultation together Seven
of Spades but the harm they will do will soon be repaired,"
Last comes "the surprise," formed by, W9 will suppose, th



Knave of Clubs, the Ten of Diamonds, the Queen of Spades, and

the Nin3 of Spades, of which the interpretation is,
"The Knave of Clubs is a clever, enterprising young man Ten
of Diamonds about to undertake a journey Queen of Spades
for the purpose of visiting a widow Nine of fcpades but one or
both of their live 3 will be endangered.


i\o. 4.

Tiven'y-cn'' Cards.

After having

shuffled the thirty-

two cards, and cut, or had them cut, with the left land, withdraw
fr:m the pack the first eleven, and Tar them on one iJo. The
r mainder twenty-one i:i all
are to ho again shuffled and cut.
T at done, liy the topmost car l on one side to fo:m " ihe surpr:se," and range the remaining twenty before you, in the order in
which they come to hand. Then look whether t'le car.l representing the person consulting you be among them if net, one
must be withihMwn from the el eve i useless ones, and pi c) 1 at the
right extremity of the row, where it represents the missing card,
no matter what it may really be. We will, however, suppose that
the person wishing to make the essay is an officer in the army,
and consequently represented by the King of Diamonds, and that
the twenty cards ranged before j'ou are the Queen of Diamonds,
the King of Clubs, the Ten of Hearts, the Ace of Spades, the
Quee 1 of Hearts reversed, the Seven of Spades, the Knave of Diamon Is, the Ten of Clubs, the King of Spades, the Eight of Diamon Is, the King of Hearts, the Nine of Clubs, the Knave of Spades
rerer :ed, the Seven of Hearts, the Ten of Spade?, the King of Diam^nls, the Ace of Diamonds, the Seven of Clubs, the Nine of
H earts, the Ace of Clubs. You now proceed to examine the cards
as they lay, and perceiving that all the four Kings are there, you

can predict that groat rewards await the person consulting you,
and that he will gain great dignity and honor. The two Queens,
cno of them reversed, announce the reunion of two sorrowfvil
fiieuds the three Aces foretell good news the three Knaves, one
of them reverse !, quarrels with some low person the three Tens,
improper conduct.

You now begin

to explain the cards, commencing with the first

the Queen of Diamonds: "The Queen of Diamonds is a mischief-making, underbred woman the King of
Clubs endeavoring to win the affections of a worthy and estimable
Ten of Hearts over whose scruples she will triumph
Ace of Spades the affair will make some noise Queen of Hearts
reversed and greatly distress a charming fair woman who loves
him Seven of Spades but her grief will not be of long duration.
Knave of Diamonds An unfaithful servant Ten of Clubs will
make away with a considerable sum of money King of Spades
and will be brought to trial Ei^ht of Diamonds but saved from
punishment through a woman's agency. King of Hearts a fair
man of liberal dispositionNine of Clubs will receive a larg

on the






sum of money Knave of Spades reversed which will expose him

to the malice of a dark j'outh of coarse manners. Seven of
Hearts Pleasant thoughts, followed by Ten of Spades .rreat
chagrin King of Diamonds await a man in uniform, vsJ.o is (he
perso i consuting mc Ace of Diamo:ids but a letter he will speedily
receive Seven of Clubs containing a small sum of moncj'
Nine of Hearts will restore his good spirits Ace of Clubs
which will be further augmented by some good news." Nov/ turn
up "the surprise" which we will suppose to prove the Ace of
Hearts "a card that predicts great happiness, caused by a love-i
letter, but which making up the four Aces, shows that his sudden
joy will be followed by great misfortunes."
Now gather up the cards, shuffle, cut, and form into three packs,
at the first deal laying one aside to form "the surprise." By the
time they are all dealt out, it will be found that the two first
packets are each composed of seven cards, whilst the third contains only six.
Desire the person consulting you to select one of these, take- it
up, and spread out the cards from left to right, explaining them as
before described.
Gather up the cards again, shuffle, cut, form into three packs
(dealing one card to the surprise), and proceed as before. Repeat

the whole operation once more then take up the three cards
forming tha surprise, and you then give their interpretation.
We may remark that no matter how the cards are dealt, whether
by threes, sevens, fifteens, or twenty-one, when those lower than
the Knave predominate, it foretells success if Clubs arc the most
numerous, they predict gain, considerable fortune, etc. if pioturecards, dignity and honor; Hearts, gladness, good news; Spades,
death or sickness. These significations are necessarily very
vague, and must of course be governed by the position of the


The Italian Method. Take a pack composed of tliirty-two selected

cards, viz., the Ace, King, Queen, Knave, Ten, Nine, Eight, and
Seven of each suit. Shuffle them well, and either cut or have
them cut for you, according to whether you are acting for yourself
or another person. Turn up the cards by threes, and when the
triplet is composed of cards of the same suit, lay it aside; when
of three different suits, pass it by without withdrawing any of the
three but when composed of two of one suit and one of another,
withdraw the highest card of the two. When you have come to
the end of the pack, gather up all the cards except those you have
withdrawn; shuffle, cut, and again turn up by threes. Repeat this
operation until you have obtained fifteen cards, which must then
bo spread out before you, from left to right, in the order in which
they come to hand.



Care must, however, be taken that the card representing the person making the essay is among them if not, the whole operation
must be recommenced until the desired result is attained. We
will suppose it to be some dark lady represented by the Queen of
Clubs who is anxious to make the attempt for herself, and that
the cards are laid cut in the following order from left to right
Ten of Diamonds, Queen of Clubs, Eight of Hearts, Ace of Diamonds, Ten of Hearts, Seven of Clubs, King of Spades, Kine of
Hearts, Knave of Spades, Ace of Clubs, Seven of Spades, Teu of
Spades, Seven of Diamonds, Ace of Spades, Knave of Hearts.
On examining them you will find there are tl;ree Aces among
them, announcing good news but, as they are at some distance
from each other, that it may be some time before the tidings


The three Tens denote that the conduct of the person consulting
the cards has not been always strictly correct. The two Knaves
are enemies, and the three Sevens predict an illness caused by

You now begin to count five cards, beginning with the Queen of
who represents the person consulting you. The fifth card^^


being the Seven of Clubs, announces that the lady will soon receive a small sum of money. The next fifth card proving to be
the Ace of Clubs, that this money will be accompanied
with very joyful tidings. Next comes the Ace ci Spades, promising complete success to any projects undertaken by the person
consulting the cards then the Ace of Hearts, followed at the
proper interval by the King of Spades, showing that this good
news will excite the malice of a dishonest lawyer; but the Seven
of Spades coming next, announces that the annoyance he can
cause will be of short duration, and that a gay, lair young man
the Knave of Hearts will soon console her lor what she has
The Ace of Diamonds tells that she will soon receive a
letter from this fair young man the Nino of Hearts
a great success Ten of Spades but this will bo followed by some
slight chagrin Ten of Diamonds caused by a journej- Ten of
Hearts but it will soon pass, although Knave of Spades a bad,
dark young man will endeaver to turn her into ridicule. The
Queen of Clubs, being representative of herself, shows that it is
toward her the dark young man's malice will be directed.
Now take the cards at either extremity of the line, and pair
them together. The two first being the Knave of Hearts and the
Ten of Diamonds, you may say
"A gay young bachelor is preparing to take a journey Ace of
Spades and Queen of Clubs which will bring him to the presence
of the lady consulting the cards, and cause her preat joy. Seven
of Diamonds and Eight of Hearts Scandal talked about a fair
young girl. Seven of Spades and Ten of Hearts Great joy

mingled with slight sorrow.

A letter promising money.

The winning of a lawsuit.




Seven of Clubs and Ace of Clubs

Knave of Spades and King of Spades

The Nine of Hearts, being the one

promises complete success."

up the cards, shuffle, cut, and deal them out in five
packs one for the lady herself, one for "the house," one for
"those who do not expect it," one for "those who do expect it,"
and one for "the surprise" in the first deal, for "consolation."
The rest are then equally distributed among the other five packs,
which will four of them contain three cards, while the last only
<!ard left,

Now gather

consists of two.

We will suppose the first packet, for the lady herself, to be composed of the Ace of Diamonds, the Seven of Clubs, and the Ten
of Hearts. The interpretation would read thus
" Ace of Diamonds A letter will be shortly received Seven of
Clubs announcing the arrival of a small sum of money Ten of
Hearts and containing some very joyful tidings."
The second pack, for "the house," containing the King of
Spades, the Nine of Hearts, and the Knave of Spades
"The person consulting the cards will r.^ceive a visit King of
Spades from a lawyer Nine of Hearts which will greatly delight Knave of Spades a dark, ill-disposed young man."
The third pack, for "those who do not expect it," composed of

the Ace of Spades, the Knave of Hearts, and the Ace of Clubs,
would read
" Ace of Spades Pleasure in store for Knave of Hearts a gay
young bachelor Ace of Clubs by means of money but as the
Knave of Hearts is placed between two Aces, it is evident that he
runs a great risk of being imprisoned and from the two cards
signifying respectively pleasure and 'money,' that it will be for
having run into debt."
"The fourth pack, for "those who do expect it," containing the
Eight of Hearts, the Queen of Clubs, and the Ten of Diamonds
" The Eight of Hearts The love affairs of a fair young girl will
oblige the Queen of Clubs the person consulting the cards Ten
of Diamonds to take a journey."
The fifth pack, for "the surprise," consists of the Seven of
Spades and the Ten of Spades, meaning
"Seven of Spades Slight trouble Ten of Spades caused by
Bome person's imprisonment the card of consolation. Seven of
Diamonds which will turn out to have been a mere report."



and Future. The person wishing to try her fortune

(we will suppose her to be a young, fair person,
represented by the Eight of Hearts), must well shufile, and cut
with the left hand, the pack of thirty-two cards after which she
must lay aside the topmost and undermost cards, to form the sur-

Present, Pasf,
in this manner




There will now remain thirty cards, which must be dealt

out in three parcels one to the leit, one in the middle, and one to
the right.

The left-hand pack represents the Past the middle, the Present
and the one on the right hand, the Future. She must commence
with the Past," which we will suppose to contain these ten cards
The King of Clubs, the Ace of Spades, the Knave of Diamonds, the
Nine of Diamonds, the Ace of Hearts, the linave of Hearts, the
Queen of Hearts, the King of Spades, the Knave of Clubs, and the
King of Hearts.
She would rem.ark that picture-cards predominating was a
favorable sign, also that the presence of three Kings proved that
powerful persons were interesiirg themselves in her ailairs. The
three Knaves, however, warn her to beware of false friends, and
the Nine of Diamonds predicts some great annoyance overcome by
some good and amiable person represented by the Queen of Hearts.
The two Aces also give notice of a plot. Taking the cards in the
order they lay, the explanation would run thus
" The King of Clubs A frank, open-hearted man Ace of Spades
fond of gaj-ety and pleasure, is disliked by Knave of Diamonds
a young man in uniform Nine of Diamonds who seeks to
injure him. The Ace of Hearts A love-letter Knave of Hearts
from a gay young bachelor to a fair, amiable woman Queen of
Hearts causes King of Spades a lawyer to endeavor to injure
a clever Knave of Clubs enterprising young man, who is saved
from him by King of Hearts a good and powerful man. Nevertheless, as the Knave of Clubs is placed between two similar
cards, he has run great risk of being imprisoned through the
machinations of his enemy."
The second parcel, "the Present," containing the Ten of Diamonds, the Nine of Spades, the Eight of Spades, the Queen of
Diamonds, the Queen of Clubs, the Eight of Hearts, the Seven of
Spades, the Ten of Spades, the Eight of' Diamonds, signifies
"The Ten of Diamonds A voyage or journey, at that moment
taking place Nine of Spades caused by the death or dangerous
Eight of Spades whose state will occasion
illness of some one
great grief Queen of Diamonds to a fair woman. The Queen



of Clubs An affectionate woman seeks to console Eight of

who the person making the essaj'
Hearts a fair young
Seven of Spades who has secret griefs Ten of Spades causing
her many tears Queen of Spades these are occasioned by the
conduct of either a dark woman or a widow, who Eight of Diamonds her rival."



third packet of cards, "the Future," we will suppose to

contain the Eight of Clubs, the Ten of Clubs, the Seven of Diamonds, the Ten of Hearts, the Seven of Clubs, the Nine of Heaits,




the Ace of Diamonds, the Knave of Spades, the Seven of Hearts,

the Nine of Clubs, which would read thus
"In the first place, the largo number of small cards foretells
success in enterprises, although the presence of three Sevens predicts an illness.
The Eight of Clubs a dark young girl Ten of
Clubs is about to inherit a large fortune Seven of Diamonds
but her satirical disposition will destroy Ten of Hearts nil her
happiness. Seven of Clubs A little money and Nine of Hearts
much 305' Ace of Hearts will be announced to the person
making the essay by a letter, and Knave of Spades a wild young
man Seven of Hearts will be overjoyed at receiving Nine of
Clubs some unexpected tidings. The cards of surprise viz.,
the King of Diamonds and the Ace of Clubs predict that a letter
will be received from some military man, and that it will contain

Hymen's Loitery.

Let each one

present deposit any

sum agreed

on, but of course some trifle; put a complete pack of fifty-two

cards, well shuffled, in a bag or reticule. Let the party stand in a
circle, and, the bag being handed around, each draw three cards.
Pairs of any are favorable omens of some good fortune about to
occur to the party, and gets back from the pool the sum that each
The king of hearts is here made the god of love,
agreed to pay.
and claims double, and gives a, faithful swain to the fair one who
has the good fortune to draw him if Yenus, the queen of hearts,
is with him, it is the conquering prize, and clears the pool
and nines are reckoned crosses and misfortunes, and pay a forfeit
of the sum agreed on to the pool, beside the usual stipend at each
new game three nines at one draw shows the lady v/ill be an old


and three


a bad husband.

Good and Bad Omens. The word omen is well known to signify
a sign, good or bad, or a prognostic. It may be defined to be that
indication of something future whicn vro get as it were by accident,
and without seeking for.
A superstitious regard to omens seems
anciently to have made very considerable additions to the common
load of infelicity. They are in these enlightened days pretty generally disregarded, and we look back with perfect security and indifference on those trivial and truly ridiculous accidents which alternately afforded matter of joy and sorrow to our ancestors.
Omens appear to have been so numerous, that we must despair of
ever being able to recover one-half of them and to evince that in
all ages men have been self-tcrmentors, the bad omens fill a catalogue infinitely more extensive than that of the good.
An extensive set of omens has been taken from what first happens to one,
or what animal or person one meets first in the morning, or at the
commencement of an undertaking the first-foot, as it is called.



To stumble has universally been held to presage misfortune.

Some semblance of a reason might be found for this belief, inasmuch as stumbling may be supposed to indicate that that self-possession and conscious courage, which arc in themselves half a victory over circumstances, are lacking the Vv'antof them, therefore,
being hrJf a defeat but in most cases the interpretation seems altogether arbitrary.
The dread of a hare crossing the path seems
to be widely prevalent while to see a wolf is a good omen. This
feeling is probably a remnant of war-like times, when the timid
hare suggested thoughts of cov^-ardice and flight while the bold
wolf-, sacred to Odin, was emblematic of victory.
The character
of the hare for being unlucky is also connected with the deeprooted belief that witches arc in the habit of transforming themselves into hares.
That to meet an old woman is unlucky, is another very general belief; arising, without doubt, from the same
causes that led to their being considered witches. In some places
women in general are unlucky as first-foot, with the singular exception of women of bad reputation. This belief prevailed as far
back as the age of Chrysostom.
Priests, too, are ominous of evil.
If hunters of old met a priest
or friar, they coupled up their hounds and went home in despair of
any further sport that day.
This superstition seems to have died
out, except in the case of sailors, who still consider the clergy a
" kittle cargo," as a Scotch skipper expressed it, and anticipate a
storm or mischance when they have a black coat on board.
Sneezing, likewise, has long
seems as old as the Prophet Jonah.
been looked upon as supernatural, for this reason, that it is sudden, unaccountable, uncontrollable, and therefore ominous.
person is considered as possessed for the time, and a form of exorcism is used. A nurse would not think she ha.d done her duty, if,
when her charge sneezes, she did not say, "Bless the child," just
as the Greeks, more than tvvo thousand years ago, were in the invariable habit of saying, "Zeus protect thee."
One general remark, however, it is important to make in regard
to omens. A.n omen is not conceived to be a mere sign of what is
destined to be it is conceived as causing, in some mysterious
way, the event it forebodes and the consequence, it is thought,
may be prevented by some counteracting charm. Thus the spilling of salt not only forebodes strife, but strife is conceived as the
consequence of the spilling of the salt, and may be hindered by
taking up the spilled salt, and throvving it over the left shoulder.
Perhaps half the superstitious beliefs that yet survive among civilized and Christian communities frroup themselves round the subject of love and marriage of sucli very interest to all, yet
so mysterious in its origin, and problematic in its issue. The liking or passion for one individual, rather thrin any other, is so unit is of
ftccoimtable, that the god of lovo has been fabled blind



the nature of fascination, magic, spell. And then, whether happiness or the reverse shall be the result, seems beyond the reach of
ordinary calculation. All is apparently given over to mystery,
chance, fortune and any circumstances may, for what we know,
influence or indicate what fortune's wheel shall bring round.
Hence the innumerable ways of prognosticating which of two or
more persons shall be first married, who or what manner of person shall be the future husband or wife, the number of children,
It is generally at particular seasons, as at the Eve of St.
Agnes, and Halloween, that the veil of the future may bo thus lifted.
The observation of lucky and unlucky days v/as once an important matter, and was often the turning point of great events. It is
now mostly confined to the one subject of marriage. In fixing the
wedding-day, May among months and Friday among days aro
shunned by many people, both in educated and uneducated circles
for in this matter, which is the exclusive province of women, and
in which sentiment and fancy are in every way so much more
active than reason, the educated and uneducated are reduced to a


A Book

of Precedents, published in London in IGIG, contains a

many of the days in which have the letter B afiQxed,
which signifieth such days as the Egyptians note to be dangerous to begin or take anything in hand, as to take a journey or any
such like thing."
The ancients thought that some hours in the day were fatal to
life, and modern testimony corroborates this theory.
A writer in
the Quarterly Review,' having ascertained the hour of death in
" The
2,880 instances of all ages, has arrived at this conclusion
maximum of death is from 5 to G o'clock, A. M., when it is 40 per
cent, above the average the next, during the hour before midnight, when it is 25 per cent, in excess a third hour of excess is
that from 9 to 10 o'clock in the morning, being 17A per cent, above.
From 10 A. M. to 3 P. M. the deaths are less numerous, being 16
per cent, below the average, the hour before noon being the most
From 3 o'clock P .M. to 7 P. M., the deaths rise to 5 per
cent, above the average, and then fall from that hour to 11 P. M.,
averaging G per cent, below the mean.
During the hours from 9
to 11 o'clock in the evening there i*s a minimum of G per cent, below the average. Thus the least mortality is during midday hours
namely, from 10 to 3 o'clock the greatest during early morning
hours, from 3 to G o'clock."
'Nail gifts" aro white specks on the finger-nails; which, according to their respective situations, are believed to predict certain events, as indicated in the following couplet, which is repeated
while touching the thumb and each finger in succession



A gift, a friend, a foe,

A lover to come, a journey to go.




To dream



Portends future dignity.

(Captive) Lasting friendship.

(Surprised by one) Treacliery on the part of a friend. (To kill

one) Success, rapid fortune. (To overcome one) Great success.
(To hear one roar) Danger.
A Lioness. Security, ])enovolence, watchfulness.
A Lions Cub. Friendship, protection.
A TiGEE. Fierce enmity. (To kill one) Great triumph obtained
over enemies. (To pursue one) A trap laid which the dreamer will
know how to avoid.
A Leopaed. Ostentation, wickedness. (To surprise one)
(To pursue one) Triumph over evil reports.
Pride brought down.
A Beak. Danger, persecution. (To kill one) Honor, dignity,
and power. (To pursue one) Annoying persecution, from which
the dreamer will llnd it difficult to extricate himself.
An Elephant. Power. (To mount one) Foolish and injurious
(To feed one) A service which will be rendered the

A Zebea.

Betrayed by a friend.
Boae. Bitter enemies. (To chase one) Useless labors.
A victory gained by enemies. (Furious) Separation

A Wild

(To kill one)





A Camel. Eiches. (A Caravan) A quickly dissipated fortune.

A POECUPINE. Business embarrassments.
A ToETOiSE OE TuETLE. Delays and vexations in business. (To


Adjustment of


A Seepent. Ingratitude, betrayed friendship.

(Uncoiled) Trea-

(Hydra-headson of some one under obligations to the dreamer.

ed) Temptations, subtlety.
WoEMS. Contagious disease.
A HoESE. Good fortune. {To mount one) Success in enter(To kill one) Disunion, grief. (Black) Partial success.
(To see one wounded) Failure
(White) Unexpected good fortune.
in undertakings. (To shoe one) Good luck.
A Make. Abundance.
An Ass. A quarrel between friends. (Eeposing) Security.
(Trotting) Disappointed hopes. (To hear one bray) Dishonor. (To
see one's cars) Great scandal. (To kill one) Loss. (One heavily
laden) Profit. (To shoe one) Hard and useless toil.
A Mule. Obstinacy, loss of a lawsuit.
A Cow. Prosperity, abundance.
A Calf. Certain gain.
A Bull. Gain. (To kill one) Affliction. (To drive one) Gaiety.
(Black) Deception, cheating. (In motion) A secret divulged.



(Without horns) Pecula(At work) Fortune. (Drinking) A theft.

(Fighting with another) Fraternal affection.
A Goat. (White) Prosperity. (Black) Sickness, an uncertain



A Stag. Gain. (To kill one) Scandal propagated in the neighborhood. (To chase one) Loss through a failure in business.

A Fawn. Peril.
A Pig. Assured gain.
A Kam. A shameless person.
A Sheep. Great gain.

Lambs. (In the fields) Peace, tranquility. (To keep them)

(To carry one) Success. (To buy one) Great surprise'.
(To kill one) Secret grief. (To lind one) Gain of a lawsuit. (To


eat) Tears.






An averted



Family quarrels,
A Dog. (To play with one) To suffer for former extravagance.
(One running) loss of a lawsuit.
(To hunt with one) Hope.
hear one howling) Great danger.
(To lose one) Want of success.
(One frisking about) Loss of a friend. (Two lighting) A warning
(One barking) Alarm, quarrels.
to beware of false friends.
A Hare. Fear, innocence. (To kill one) Profit. (One running)
Great wealth quickly dissipated.
A Rabbit. (Black) Trouble. (White) Friendship. (A warren)
Expensive pleasures.
Eats. Secret enemies, treason. (White) Triumph of the dreamer over them.
Mice. Business affairs embarrassed through the machinations
of dangerous friends.
A Weasel. Cunning.
A Fox. A ruse to which the dreamer will fall a victim. (Killed)
Triumph over enemies. (Petted) Abuse of confidence, unfortunate
A Wolf. Enmity. (To kill one) Gain, success. (To pursue one)
Dangers averted or overcome.
A Cock. Pride, success, power. (A fight between two) Expen-

A Hen. Profit, considerable gain. (Clucking) Consolation.
(Laying) Good fortune, joy. (Witli chicks) Precarious favor.
A Chicken. Lasting friendship, innocence. (To
one) Delay in money
A Duck or Goose. Profit and pleasure. (To
one) Misforfollies.





(To catch one) Snare laid for the dreamer.

A Turkey. Injurious folly.

A Pheasant. Good fortune.



one) Peril.

(To carry

one) Honor.

A Peacock. Pride,


unbounded ambition.




(Screaming) An approaching storm, which

do some damage to the dreamer.
Larks. Eiches. (Roasted) An accident in the dreamer's houso.
An Eagle. (On the wing) Ambition. (To kill one) Gratified
wishes. (To eat one) Deep grief. (To see one dead) A loss.
A VuiiTURE. A bitter enemy. (To kill one) Triumph over foes.
(To see one devouring its prey) A good omen of returning fortune.
A Falcon. Increase of fortune. (On the wrist) Pleasure.
its tail) Ostentation.


A Spareow-Hawk. Undying hatred.

A ScREECH-OwL. Near death of a relation.
A Dove. Happiness at home.
TuRTLE-DovES. Fidelity,


A Pigeon. Reconciliation.
A Raven. Misfortune, bad

omen. (A troop) Disasters. (CroakMourning, sadness. (On the wing) Tidings of a death.
A Crow.- Refusal of an offer of marriage.
Storks. Robbery. (In winter) Some great misfortune.
Swans. Riches, if the dreamer does not reveal his dream to




A Cuckoo. A bad omen. (To hear one) Sign of mourning.

A Swallow. Complete success in all enterprises. (To see


Happiness and good fortune.


(For it to enter the dreamer's

house) Lasting friendship.

A Blackbird. Scandal, deceit.

A Nightingale. A happy and well-assorted marriage.

A Parrot. Slander, a dangerous neighbor.

A journey. (Singing) Profit, pleasure, and succest.

A happy omen, increase of fortune.
A Canary. Death of a friend, sudden departure.
Reptiles. A cunning and dangerous enemy.
A Crocodile. A catastrophe.
Frogs. Distrust. (To see them hopping) Annoyance, vexation.
Toads. Disgust.
Bees. Gain,
(To catch them) Success. (To be stungby
them) A loss at law.
Flies. Jealousy excited by the dreamer's success.
A Spider. (At night) Success, money. (In the morning) lawBirds.
A Nest.



one) Pleasure.
Fleas, Etc. Weariness, disgust for life. (To kill one) Triumph
obtained over enemies.
A Leech. Help, protection.
Grasshopper. Loss of the proceeds of a harvest.
A Cockchafer. Bad harvest.
Wasps. Annoyance caused by enemies.
Ants. Idleness, negligence.
HzAiiDS, Ambush laid by distant enemies for the -dreamer.






Snail. Debauchery, infidelity.

Fish. Joy, success. (Red)

Delight, contentment.
(To catch them) Will be deceived by friends.
Quarrels, suffering.
Salmon. Deceit. (To eat) Disunion in the family circle.
Trout. Eays of hope.
Mackerel. Robbery, bad conduct.
Soles. Poverty, misery.

Eels. (Alive) Labor. (Dead) Satisfied vengeance.

Oysters. Disgust, gluttony. (To eat them) Low pleasures.
Crabs. A ruinous lawsuit.
Apples. Gain, profit. (To be eating) Disappointment.
(To eat) Tidings oi a death.
(To gather)
Pears. Treachery.
Approaching festivities.
Plums. Pleasiu-e, happiness. (Green) Unchanging friendship.
(Dried) Obstacles to the ureamer's wishes.

(Out of season) Dan-


Almonds. Peace, happiness.

Peaches. Pleasure, contentm ent.

Apricots. Health, contentment.

Cherries. Health. (To gather them) Deception by a woman.

(To eat them) Love.
Currants. (Red) Friendship. (White) Satisfaction. (Black)

A Pomegranate. Power.
Figs. Momentary pleasure.

(Dried) Festivity.

(Green) Hope.

(To eat them) Reverses.

Strawberries. Unexpected good fortune.
A Melon. Hope, success.
Chestnuts. Home troubles.
Nuts. Gratified ambition. (If dry) Troubles and
Oranges. Amusement. (To eat one) Pleasure.

Medlars. Short-lived happiness.

Olives. Dignities, honors.
Grapes. Rejoicings, enjoyment.


(To eat them) Joy, gain.

(To gather them) Considerable increase of fortune. (To throw
them away) Loss, care, and bitterness. (To trample them under


The Vintage. Great gain.

Fruits in General. Rejoicings, gain, profit. (To eat them) A

sign that the dreamer will be deceived by a woman. (To throw
them away) Troubles caused ^y the envy of others.
A Garden. Happiness, bright days to come. (Well kept) Increase of fortune.
(In disorder) Losses, failure in business.
Flowers. Happiness. (To gather) Lasting friendship. (To
cast away) Despair, quarrels.
A Bouquet. (To carry one) Marriage. (To destroy one) Separation.
(To throw one away) Displeasure.



A Gakland. Hope.
EosES. Always of happy omen.

(Full-blown) Health, joy, and

(Faded) Success, prompt but dangerous. (White)
(Red) Satisfaction. (Yellow) Jealousy.
Thorns. Pain, disappointment. (To be pricked by them) Loss

of money.

Declaration of love.
Complete success in all undertakings. (Out of season) Newly awakened affection.
Laurel. Honor, gain.
Holly. Annoyance.
Thistle. Folly, approaching dispute.
Cypress. Despair, death of a cherished object.
Yegetables. Wearisome
(To gather them) Quarrels.
eat them) Losses in business.
Cabbage. Health, long
Cauliflower. Sickness, infidelity.
Beans. Criticism. (Green) Considerable loss,
Pe.\s. Good fortune.
Asparagus. Profit, success.
Artichokes. Pain, embarrassment.
Tdrnips. Annoyance, disappointment.
Cucumbers. Serious indisposition.
Onions. Dispute with inferiors.
Leeks. Labor.
Lettuce. Poverty.
Garlic. A woman's deception.
KuE. Family annoyances.
Herbs. Prosperity. (To eat) Grief.
Corn. Riches.
Hay. Abundance, happiness. (To mow
AVhe at. Money
Barley. Good fortune.
Straw. Poverty.
The Harvest. Wealth gained by a country
A Reaper. A picnic party.
Mills. A legacy from a relative.

Orange Blossom. Approaching







To Grind. (Corn) Abundance.

(Pepper) Affliction.



A Barn. (Full) Wealthy

marriage. (Empty) Distress. (On

Considerable gain.
by a storm) Domestic quar.Trees. (Green) Hope.
(Withered) Grief. (Leafless) Deceit. (In bud) Success. (Cut
down) A robbery. (To climb one) Change of employment.
Green Oak. Health, strength. (Cut down -or dead) Heavy





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