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Ship Structural Design Course Note

- Ship Structural Design
- Dnv Hull Structure Course 547 1024
- Calculation (midship) of ship
- Ship Structural Design Notes
- Ship Design
- Deck Strength Calculation Report
- Geometry of Ships - Letcher
- Finite Element Techniques in Ship Structural Design
- Scantling Calculation
- Design Report of a ship
- Ship Design Procedure Booklet
- Design of Ship Hull Structures-A Practical Guide for Engineers.pdf
- Handbook of Ship Calculations, Construction and Operation
- Scantling Calculations
- FEM MidShip Project Report
- Analysis and Design of Ship Structure
- Midship
- Commercial Ship Design
- Ship Structure
- Copy of Stiffened Plate Buckling DNV-RP-C201 Rev02-December-2011

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Course Documentation

Contents

1

INTRODUCTION........................................................................ 3

MATERIALS .............................................................................. 4

2.1 MATERIALS USED IN SHIPBUILDING ..................................................... 4

2.2 STEEL IN SHIPBUILDING .................................................................. 4

2.3 STEEL IN MATERIAL SCIENCE ............................................................ 6

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

STILL-WATER BENDING MOMENT ...................................................... 10

DIMENSIONING ACCORDING TO LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH ........................ 12

OTHER LOADS ........................................................................... 13

MODELING ............................................................................... 15

4.1 GENERAL REMARKS ON BULKHEADS ................................................... 17

4.2 PLATES ................................................................................... 17

4.2.1 Stiffeners ......................................................................... 19

REFERENCES .......................................................................... 25

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Introduction

Ship structural design differs from design in mechanical engineering. Some characteristic

differences are:

Mechanical engineering

kinematic/kinetic

gears, bearings, screws etc

Screws, bolts, adhesives, etc.

2-d, 3-d, explosion drawings

Function

Elements

Connection

Plans

static

plates, profiles, brackets

welding, adhesives

largely 2-d

Initial design affects detailed (structural) design. Ignoring structural design in the initial design

stage can lead to considerable problems in subsequent design stages, often connected with

increased steel mass and construction cost. E.g. unsuitable distribution of ballast may lead to high

bending moments requiring stronger (and heavier) scantlings.

Ship structural design and marine engineering need to work closely together. There are many

interfaces. Example: Structural support for main and auxiliary engines. Here geometrical

requirements (position of engine and bolts to structural support) and stiffness requirements must

be met. This often requires larger double bottom height in the engine room. Other constraints

come from the assorted large pipes running in the engine room (e.g. for cooling water).

For ship structural design, an engineer needs to bring together knowledge for assorted aspects of

his craft:

Knowledge

Knowledge

Knowledge

Knowledge

about

about

about

about

the production processes

regulations pertaining to structural design of ships

analysis methods as needed for first principle design

Design for production starts with understanding the production processes. In the following we will

look at the technological developments of ship production.

Structural design rules of classification societies and navies are based on physics often enhanced

by some empirical corrections, e.g. for material imperfections, environmental uncertainties and

other deviations from ideal assumptions. A fundamental understanding of general strength analysis

is essential for the structural designer. While the ship is a complex 3-d structure, fundamental

beam theory can already aid much of the initial dimensioning and helps in a qualitative

understanding of many of the rules aiding structural design in ships and offshore platforms. This

lecture requires a very concise (and also somewhat superficial) treatment of the topic. Basics of

technical strength analysis can be found in many textbooks. These are recommended for further

studies, particularly if the here employed concepts of strength analysis are missing or forgotten.

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2.1

Materials

Rolled plain steel for usual applications (plates and profiles for ship hull, foundations, etc.)

Rolled special steel (high-tensile steels, low-temperature steels e.g. for LNG tankers, corrosion

resistant steel for product tankers, non-magnetic steel for compass area)

Cast steel (parts of rudder, stern, stem)

Forged steel (parts of the equipment like anchors, chains, rudder shaft)

Light metals, particularly aluminum (compass area, superstructure, boats)

Plastic and wood (interior equipment, boats, pipes)

Steel is by far the most important material for shipbuilding. Aluminum, titanium, fiber-reinforced

plastics (FRP) and composite materials play a relatively small role. Typical material costs in the

year 2000 were:

2900 /ton Aluminum

7500 /ton FRP

15000 /ton composites

Supply and demand introduce considerable fluctuations in raw material prices. However, the basic

fact remains that steel is much cheaper than other materials for large ships.

The higher-value materials are predominantly used for fast ships (V > 35 knots), yachts and navy

ships. In the former Soviet Union, titanium has been used as a shipbuilding material, particularly

for submarines.

2.2

Steel in shipbuilding

Plates

Plate dimensions differ from shipyard to shipyard. Actual plate dimensions follow from many

aspects: maximum possible dimensions, volume sections, necessary steps in forming plates,

scrap, etc. The maximum plate dimensions depend on external factors (e.g. railway limitations)

and internal factors (crane facilities, plate storage, etc.). Thickness of plates is increased in

steps of 0.5 mm. Classification rules come often in the form of formulae giving the required

thickness of plates. These are rounded down to steps of 0.5 mm if they exceed by 0.2 mm

maximum, otherwise rounded up. E.g. 10.67 mm becomes 10.5 mm, 10.73 mm becomes 11

mm. The steel mass of plates is generally taken as 8 kg/m2mm, accounting for margins in

rolling.

Standard plates are kept (always) in storage; typical dimensions are (dimensions always in

mm):

8000 2400 56.5

12000 2700 712

Standard plates have the following advantages and disadvantages:

+ simple and cheap storage, exchangeability and availability

more scrap

The alternative is commissioned material which is ordered specifically for each ship. The

percentage of standard plates and commissioned plates differs again from shipyard to

shipyard. The plates are delivered within margins of accuracy following EN 29, Table 2.I. The

plates can thus have considerable initial deformations.

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Table 2.I: Admissible deviations from ideal plane for standard normal plane,

Euronorm EN 29; all dimensions in mm

Admissible deviation from plane

Nominal measured

1500 2000 2500

thickness length

<1500 <2000 <2500 <2750

3<4

1000

7

8

10

2000

14

18

22

4<6

1000

7

7

8

10

2000

14

16

21

25

6<8

1000

7

7

8

8

2000

14

14

16

17

8<10

1000

7

7

7

7

2000

13

13

14

15

10<20

1000

7

7

7

7

2000

12

12

12

13

20<50

1000

7

7

7

7

2000

11

11

12

12

50

1000

Individually agreed

2750 3000 3250

<3000 <3250 <3500

8

20

8

8

9

16

18

20

7

8

8

13

16

18

7

8

8

12

13

14

3500

<4000

9

20

9

16

Youngs modulus

Poisson coefficient

Shear modulus

2.1105 N/mm2

0.3

0.81105 N/mm2

Table 2.II: shows examples of plate consumption for some ship types.

tanker (200 000 tdw)

Bulker (150 000 tdw)

Tanker (120 000 tdw)

containership (4500 TEU, 40 000 tdw)

LNG tanker (50 000 tdw)

containership (1000 TEU, 20 000 tdw)

Required

[t]

42000

28000

20000

17000

14000

11000

5000

13-58

13-55

14-55

12-48

13-78

9-48

12-65

Profiles

Rolled or built profiles are used as stiffeners of plates in shipbuilding. The most popular profiles

are:

a)

b)

c)

d)

Angular profiles following DIN 1028 / DIN 1029

Built profiles from flat steel welded using fillet welds

Profiles with a flange or corrugated plates

application. Usually only one profile form (often Holland profiles) is kept on stock to simplify

storage management and assembly plans.

HP and L profiles are used for small and medium stiffeners being cheaper than built profiles. Lprofiles are less available in qualities required in shipbuilding and feature a stronger asymmetry

making them more susceptible to fold over, but they offer more section modulus per mass

(important e.g. for reefers). The relatively thin flange of the L-profiles allows easier longitudinal

butt welds than for HP-profiles. Built profiles from flat steel are employed for large stiffeners

(longitudinal deck and bottom stiffeners in large ships etc.).

High-tensile steels are increasingly used. However, care should be taken in using high-tensile

steels. Corrosion and fatigue strength are not improved, cost are higher, ductility and safety

margin between elastic yield and fracture reduced.

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A 3500 TEU containership requires approximately 12000 t steel of different quality in plates and

profiles. From the base material, approximately 37000 steel plate parts and 28000 profile parts are

made. This requires approximately 130,000 cutting meters and 450,000 welding meters. Cutting

and welding processes depend on steel quality. The steel quality can be tailored towards certain

properties by adding other elements, by the thermo-mechanical treatment and by the rolling

process.

2.3

"Steel" denotes iron-based material which is suitable for rolling. The essential difference between

ordinary steel and pure iron is the amount of carbon in steel which reduces the ductility but

increases the strength and susceptibility to hardening when rapidly cooled from elevated

temperature. With very few exceptions (containing high amount of chromium), steel contains less

than 2% carbon. The carbon content of cast iron is higher. Steel may be alloyed or not. Alloyed

steel contains further substances such as chromium, nickel, etc. beyond minimum threshold

values. Various micro-structures may be obtained by different heat-treatments.

Non-alloyed steels are important for shipbuilding as welding material. High-tensile steels are

generally alloyed quality steels. Steels are classified according to EU 156-80 norm in Europe.

Classification societies have adapted these norms and supply tables with classification of steels and

corresponding quality requirements concerning chemical composition and production method. For

shipbuilding steels, four characteristics are of prime interest:

strength

corrosion properties

The desired properties sometimes conflict and are not easy to obtain. The steel production process

generally follows several steps allowing enough ductility to improve the desired properties as far as

possible.

Metals form on a sub-microscopic level grid structures. We distinguish two elementary forms: facecentred cubic and body-centred cubic, Fig.2.1. Certain substances can exist in two or more

crystalline forms, e.g. graphite or diamonds are allotropic modifications of carbon. Allotropy is

characterized by a change in atomic structure which occurs at a definite transformation

temperature. Four changes occur in iron, denoted by , , , . Of these, , , and are bodycentred, and is face-centred. Iron has thus two allotropic modifications. The change in atomic

structure from austenite (body-centred) to ferrite (face-centred) in cooling down is marked by a

significant contraction.

The pure forms are an ideal. In real materials, the grids contain assorted errors which influence the

material properties (like strength). The sub-microscopic grids form crystallites or grains which are

separated by grain boundaries (unoccupied grid positions, discontinuities in orientation of grid etc).

The number and distribution of grain boundaries depends on thermo-mechanical production

process. Welding changes the grain structure near the weld. Grains range in size from several m

to 1 mm.

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DNV GL Rev.1.0

Fig.2.2: Iron-Carbon diagram: temperature and carbon content determine microscopic structure

The iron-carbon diagram (Fe-C diagram), Fig.2.2, shows the various forms of iron/steel with the

technical terms denoting the microscopic structure. Only the left part of the Fe-C diagram is

important for shipbuilding steels.

Austenite

Ferrite

Martensite

Perlite

Fig.2.3: Microscopic structures of iron/steel

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DNV GL Rev.1.0

The various forms differ in the arrangement of carbon in the iron matrix, the crystalline structure

and the extent of carbon between grains. The main forms are, Fig.2.3:

Ferrite

Austenite

is face-centred cubic (-Fe), highly ductile and not magnetic. Austenite at room

temperature is only possible in alloyed steels.

Cementite

is the crystallized iron carbide Fe3C. It is very hard and brittle, of high strength, but

not ductile.

Perlite

denotes lamellar deposits of iron carbide in ferrite crystals. In the perlite mutation,

carbon leaves the -grid before the sudden conversion to -grid

Martensite

is the instable conversion product of the austenite. Martensite is formed when the

cooling is too rapid to allow perlite formation. The carbon atom then is trapped

inside the -grid which induces high internal stresses. Tempering (hardening) of

steel is based on this process.

Bainite

is the structure form between Perlite and Martensite, consisting of ferrite needles

with embedded carbides

During heating and cooling, this structure changes. Rapid cooling creates e.g. Martensite which is

brittle. Reheating and slow cooling results then again in ductile ferrite structures.

The properties of a steel are determined by chemical composition and crystalline structure. These

are influenced by the metallurgical composition (alloy), rolling technique and heat treatment. Steel

is produced in several steps, starting with raw iron and recycled steel. Raw iron is useless as basic

material for construction as the high contents of carbon, sulphur and phosphor make it brittle and

unsuitable for welding. Thus the contents of elements making the material brittle (C, P, S, Si, Mn)

have to be reduced already in the raw iron. Further processes turn raw iron and recycled steel to

raw steel. Small and homogeneous grains are desirable for both strength and ductility. This can be

achieved e.g. by adding small quantities of aluminium during the desoxidation process of the steel

production.

Modern steel rolling equipment allows detailed control of temperature and rolling pressure. The

time history of pressure and temperature (together with the chemical composition of steels)

determines the structure of the steel. Heat treatment allows a finer, more homogeneous

redistribution of the carbon in the steel resulting in better strength and ductility. Rapid cooling

leads to brittle microscopic structures. This is a problem in welding, i.e. the plate will have good

strength properties, but the weld will introduce local transitions.

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Structural Design

3.1

Failure modes

The whole structure should be designed sufficiently strong, but with a minimum of financial effort.

''Sufficiently strong'' encompasses various aspects depending on the function of a structural

member and how often failure may be acceptable:

Yield: Usually design rules require that the total stress in a structural member stays below

an elastic yield limit, i.e. failure is defined as plastic deformation.

Buckling: Structures under axial compression may suddenly buckle. This buckling leads to

plastic deformation as the load continues to act after the buckling initiates.

bending, torsion or buckling is acceptable. If the stresses stay below the rupture limit, the

structure will then deform, but still continue to function. This ultimate strength philosophy

applies to ship collisions or shock impact for navy ships.

Fatigue: Ships and offshore structures are subject to time-dependent loads due to seaway,

vibrations from engine and propeller, and changing load conditions. Even if the individual

load cycles remain below the elastic strain limit, after millions of load cycles the

microscopic structure of the material changes. This is called fatigue of the material.

Microscopic cracks grow under continued load cycles typically with a speed of 10-8 to 10-3

mm per load cycle. Eventually the crack reduces the residual strength of the structural

member to an extent that the structure fails. Fatigue strength of structures depends on

many aspects like load collectives (amplitudes and frequencies of load cycles), stress

concentration, microscopic properties of the material etc. For practical design, a

compensation factor accounts for the fatigue strength reducing the permissible static

stress. This compensation factor depends on the structural detail and is high for sharp

corners. The factors are usually derived employing model tests with typical structural

details.

Vibrations: Vibrations (usually coming from propeller or engine) are not only a problem in

terms of fatigue strength, but can in themselves be unacceptable, e.g. in passenger ships,

for certain measuring equipment etc. Over the decades, the trend in ships has been

towards lighter structures and higher installed power. This has lead to increasing vibration

problems. Today, a structural designer must also consider excessive vibration as a failure

mode to be avoided.

Deflections: For some structures, excessive deflection means failure. This applies for

foundations for main engines, supports for propeller shafts etc. If these structural elements

deflect too much, the supported parts will not function, e.g. a propeller shaft will destroy its

bearing.

Usually for the dimensioning of the main structural elements, we assume a static load, even though

in reality the ship is subject to a time-dependent (dynamic) load due to the seaway. The static load

model simplifies the computation considerably and is sufficient for most cases.

The failure mode then specifies either upper limits for stress or strain (deformation) in the

structures. Loads on the ship are due to pressure from the water and weights from the ships own

weight and its cargo. These loads are distributed as local stresses through the whole structure of

the ship. Global bending and torsion stresses superimpose with local loads (e.g. weights from an

engine, a cargo item, local wave impact). The structural design must now ensure that everywhere

there is sufficient safety against all failure modes. Usually one or two failure modes dominate the

design.

Structural design follows a top-down approach. The loads are considered rather globally and the

ship is considered as a first approximation as a beam. This results e.g. in a required section

modulus W for the midship cross section to avoid longitudinal stresses exceeding the elastic stress

limit1. Buckling considerations require then longitudinal and transverse stiffeners. These may be

locally strengthened for additional local loads. Manufacturing technology and the need to have

1 Usually the upper deck is the most critical region in this respect requiring very thick plates for containerships.

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DNV GL Rev.1.0

pipes and cables running through the ship require assorted cut-outs in the structure and the

individually stiffeners and bulkheads need to be connected by smaller connecting plates assuring

sufficient strength and stiffness (against buckling). These connections are usually particularly

sensitive to fatigue strength and are designed in the end. Strength considerations and

manufacturing consideration need often compromises. Usually the manufacturing consideration

determine the general type of design, i.e. the general geometry of stiffening profiles, and the

strength considerations determine the actual thickness of the material employed.

The structural weight of the ship is a main weight item reducing the available payload which earns

the income of the ship. This is particularly critical for fast ships where the engine and fuel already

account for a considerable weight item. On the other hand, a very intelligent light-weight design,

balancing the stress distribution in all structural members as evenly as possible, will result in an

expensive ship in manufacturing. Reasonable compromises are found employing experience

(qualitative understanding of individual factors) and numerical simulations.

3.2

In a first simple global consideration, the ship hull is considered as a beam subject to external and

internal forces (hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, weight). Following basic static principles, the

forces must be in equilibrium:

F=0

M=0

and

Systems are statically determined if the unknown internal forces (bending moment and transverse

force) can be determined from the equilibrium conditions. The freely floating ship hull is a statically

determined system. One distinguishes between still-water loads and additional loads in seaways.

The ship hull in still water can be considered as a free-free supported beam. Thus bending moment

and transverse force must both be zero at the forward and aft ends. The load on the ship hull

consists of weight and lift forces, Fig..3.1. Both are differently distributed over the length of the

ship. The sum (integral) of each force component must be the same, and centre of gravity and

buoyancy must have the same longitudinal position. Otherwise the ship would trim and sink until

this condition is fulfilled. The integration of the difference between weight w(x) and lift forces b(x)

from one ship end to a cross section gives the transverse force Q at that cross section:

x

Q( x) = ( w( x) b( x)) dx

0

x

M ( x) = Q( x) dx

0

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DNV GL Rev.1.0

These computations are performed in practice by CAD programs, varying draft and trim

systematically until the residual forces and moments at the ship ends are zero.

A complete computation of the longitudinal strength includes also the deflection of the ship hull.

This computation requires the Youngs modulus E and the longitudinal distribution of the (area)

moment of inertia of the cross sections. The parts considered in this computation must at least run

over a major part of the ship length. This yields then the section modulus for deck WD and the

section modulus for the bottom WB, Fig.3.2.

''Neutrale Faser''=neutral fiber, ''bei Trockenfrachtern''=for cargo ships

For a first estimate of effective shear areas, only the vertical ship hull and longitudinal bulkheads

are to be considered. The shear stresses are later computed more precisely in a finite element

analysis (FEA).

Continuous hatch coamings are considered as part of the longitudinal carrying structures.

Germanischer Lloyd (GL) takes the distance of the outer fiber as

eD' = z (0.9 + 0.2y/B)

z and y are the distance of the upper edge of the hatch coaming from the neutral fiber and centreplane, respectively. This determines the maximum longitudinal stress acting on the upper edge of

the ship hull. The superstructure is not considered as a supporting member in the longitudinal

strength analysis of the ship hull.

D =

M '

eD

I0

respectively

B =

M

eB

I0

Q S

I0 t

S = moment of the structurally effective cross section with respect to the neutral fiber, t = plate

thickness.

Assuming in first approximation I =const., we get the approximation for the deflection:

wB ( L / 2) = M ( L / 2)

L2

11.4 EI

The still-water bending moment can be influenced by shifting masses. This changes the trim while

keeping the displacement constant.

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DNV GL Rev.1.0

3.3

The dimensioning of civilian ships for longitudinal strength follows the rules of Classification

Societies. Navies usually pass their own rules which are usually stricter than the rules for cargo

ships, but increasingly cooperate with Classification Society. The rules are harmonized between the

individual Classification Societies to ensure a common safety standard for the most important

strength criteria. These rules specify e.g. maximum permissible stresses. The design equation for

longitudinal strength is:

MT perm Wmin

MT = MSW + MWV = total bending moment

MSW = still-water bending moment

MWV = (vertical) additional wave bending moment

The minimum section modulus Wmin and the permissible stress perm are specified. The additional

wave bending moment can be hardly influenced. This leaves the calm-water bending moment as

main design quantity. To meet the above condition, the design should be such that the calm-water

bending moment is small enough for the minimum section modulus Wmin to suffice. Otherwise, the

section modulus has to be increased.

The following condition is internationally agreed, Nitta et al. (1992):

The minimum section modulus in [cm3] is

Wmin =k C L2 B (CB + 0.7)

where L and B are in [m].

C is the wave parameter:

C = 10.75 [(300-L)/100]1.5

C = 10.75

C = 10.75 [(L-350-L)/150]1.5

k is a material constant:

k=1

k = 0.78

k = 0.72

for 90 L 300 m

for 300 < L 350 m

for

L > 350 m

for HT 315

for HT 355

MWV,hog = 0.19 M C L2 B CB [kNm]

The factor M describes the distribution over the ship length:

M = 2.5 x/L

M=1

M = (1-x/L)/0.35

for 0.4 < x/L 0.65

for 0.65 < x/L 1

MWV,sag = -0.11 M C L2 B (CB+0.7) [kNm]

Thus the ratio of hogging to sagging moments is:

M WV , hog

M WV , sag

0.19 C B

1.73

=

0.7

0.11(C B + 0.7)

1+

CB

The value for CB is determined as the maximum of 0.6 and the actual block coefficient. The

hogging moment is thus always smaller than the sagging moment.

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DNV GL Rev.1.0

Combine the requirement for a minimum section modulus with the additional wave bending

moment in sagging condition to get the dynamic stress in seaways:

=

For the hogging condition we get

M WV , sag

Wmin

= 110

= MWV,hog = 89 MPa

= MWV,hog = 110 MPa

[MPa]

for CB = 0.6

for CB = 1.0

The permissible maximum stress amidships for standard mild steel is perm = 175 MPa. Thus less

than half the permissible stress is left for the smooth-water bending moment. High-tensile steels

allow higher values depending on the yield stress: perm = 175/k.

Similar rules apply to transverse forces. Details are found in the rules of the Classification

Societies.

The formulas for the permissible additional wave bending moments are based on a probability of

10-8 over the life span of the ship, Nitta et al. (1992).

Bending moments and transverse forces in calm water are generally computed in a detailed

manner. They depend on load condition, amount and distribution of provisions (fuel, fresh water,

lubrication oil, etc.) and ballast water. Thus calm-water moments and forces change over the

voyage of the ship. Classification societies prescribe computations for begin and end of the voyage

as well as for intermediate conditions. The dimensioning is then based on the maximum load of

these conditions.

For most ship types, a suitable arrangement of the ballast compartments and load cases allows to

achieve permissible stresses with the minimum section modulus. For some ship types, e.g. ro-ro

ships, this target can often not be reached.

3.4

Other loads

Ship in a seaway: Natural seaway is irregular and described by spectra which can be

interpreted as a superposition of regular elementary waves of different amplitude, length

and direction. Basics of ship seakeeping and spectra can be found in Bertram (2000). Here

we consider for general understanding only the effect of a sinusoidal regular wave of same

length as the ship length ( = L). The largest bending moments occur near this wave

length. The computation is performed quasi-static. The ship is then put in the wave in such

a way that it is in equilibrium for trim and sinkage. The computation of the internal forces

follows in principle the same way as for still water. The section areas are taken from a

section area curve (or computed from a CAD description) for the appropriate local draft in

the wave. The difference in transverse forces and bending moments with respect to the

still-water case are computed from the difference lift distribution between still water and

wave integrating again over the ship length. These difference internal forces are then

superposed to the still-water internal forces.

Torsion: Apart from longitudinal bending, torsion plays a major role. Fig.3.3 explains

qualitatively why the hull is subject to torsion in oblique waves. The eccentric action of the

lift resultant force induces a torsion moment. (This consideration is simplified omitting

some further effects responsible for torsion moments such as mass distribution and radius

of inertia around the longitudinal axis.) Simulation tools for ship seakeeping (strip

methods) can compute the torsion moments in natural seaway considering also the ship

motions. But these computations require some effort and dedicated software. A simple

estimate for the maximum torsion moment [kNm] in seaways is:

MTor,wave = C 0.11 L B2

The torsional moment is particularly important for short, wide ships because the ship width

affects the moment quadratically. The absolute value of the wave torsional moment is in

general much smaller than the longitudinal bending moment. It causes significant stresses

only in particularly soft (with respect to torsion) ships.

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DNV GL Rev.1.0

Fig.3.3: Torsion moments in oblique waves; G = weight resultant force of the cross

section; B = lift resultant force of the cross section

Container ships with their quasi-open cross sections are particularly critical in this respect.

It is now much more difficult to specify an adequate cross section quantity (corresponding

to the midship section modulus) to determine the resulting stresses. The main problem is

that torsion deflection and bending deflection are always coupled in a container ship. Thus

under the action of torsion moment, there are both shear and normal stresses. Fig.3.4

shows a ship-like body under torsion with a typical pattern of deflection. Furthermore, the

computation of the stresses due to torsion is complicated as closed and open cross section

alternate and the ship hull is not prismatic (particularly short parallel midbody for most

container ships). Thus finite element analyses have to be employed early in the design to

give a realistic prediction for this case.

For container ships, we can then no longer simply compare load moments, but must

compare resulting stresses. The difference between permissible total stresses and dynamic

total stresses yields the calm-water stresses. These are the results of the combination of

longitudinal stresses and torsional stresses. The dynamic total stresses depend on the draft

for these ship types. Thus for each draft (load case) a separate computation is required to

give a stress balance which then is compared to permissible stresses.

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DNV GL Rev.1.0

3.5

Modelling

The structural analyses of modern maritime structures employ predominantly the finite element

analyses (FEA). FEA can solve both static and dynamic (vibration) problems. The basic idea is to

discretize a complex structure into a finite number of simple elements, Fig.3.5. All elements are

described by nodal points which are connected by straight lines or curves to form the element's

geometry.

The deflections within the individual elements are described approximately as functions of the

deflections of the nodal points. The synthesis follows then from the condition of continuity, i.e.

shared nodal points between elements must have the same deflection. This results in a system of

linear equation for the nodal deflections. The size of the system of linear equation corresponds to

the number of nodes and degrees of freedom. The system is sparse and special algorithms exist for

fast solution. The solution of the system of equations yields the relation between loads and node

deflections. Then further information like stress distribution is easily derived.

In the past, classification societies gave simple rules for dimensioning plates and girders, e.g.

giving directly thickness or requiring section modulus. The trend is towards first-principle design,

i.e. design based on analysis rather than experience. Increasingly classification societies now

include a FEM stress analysis as alternative or even substitute old rules by a rule specifying only a

maximum stress level. This means more freedom for the designer, but also a more sophisticated

and expensive design process. Even if the stress analysis is optional, following the simple old

approach means over-dimensioned, non-competitive ships.

Fig.3.5: Types of finite elements; top row: truss, beam, plain-strain plate; bottom row: plate,

volume, shell

There are many books on finite element methods, outlining the general theory. There also are

several commercial multi-purpose finite element programs with associated documentation.

However, in addition considerable experience is required to generate suitable and efficient finite

elements grids with the associated input (moments of inertia, etc.) quickly. This experience is

difficult to maintain with only occasional analyses. Shipyards therefore often out-source finite

element analyses, predominantly directly to the classification society who is also in charge of

approving the analysis. The Rules of DNV GL give guidelines for global FEA for containerships and

local FEA for fatigue.

In making the FEA model, one needs to define first what information is required in what accuracy.

This determines the level of detail of the model and thus the required effort for grid generation and

computation. Consider the crane in Fig.3.6 as an example. Fig.3.7 shows as an elementary truss

model which allows to determine how the force p is transmitted versus hanger and boom as a

function of the boom angle 1. This task can still be solved manually without the help of a

computer. Fig.3.8 shows a refined model using beam elements for the crane column allowing also a

simple estimate of forces and bending moment in the foundation. Plate elements are required for a

detailed analysis of the stress in the foundation and the crane structure. Fig.3.9 shows a complete

ship hull model with the integrated crane.

15

DNV GL Rev.1.0

crane

16

DNV GL Rev.1.0

4.1

The function of a bulkhead is compartmentation (for separation of cargo, fuel, ballast water, etc.

and for damage stability) and transverse strength.

Minimum number and arrangement of watertight bulkheads follows from various aspects:

1. Minimum requirements from classification society

A collision bulkhead has to be arranged in a distance d from the forward perpendicular (or a

corrected reference line for ships with bulbous bow). The collision bulkhead extends from

bottom to freeboard deck. For cargo ships the distance d follows from:

min(10 m, 0.05 L) d 0.08 L

There are special regulations for ships with bow doors (ferries). Details are given in the

regulations of classification societies.

A watertight bulkhead has to be arranged at each end of the engine room. A watertight

after-peak bulkhead has to be arranged where the propeller shaft leaves the ship. In

modern ships, the after-peak bulkhead coincides usually with the aft end bulkhead of the

engine room.

2. Damage stability requirements

Additional bulkheads may be necessary to meet damage stability requirements.

3. Arrangement of bulkheads

Watertight bulkheads should usually lie within one section plane (x=const). If this cannot

be realised the horizontal parts must also be made to be watertight. The bulkheads extend

usually up to the freeboard deck. For ships with a long forecastle, the collision bulkhead

extends up to the first deck above freeboard deck.

Load assumption for dimensioning bulkheads assumes water pressure on one side. The assumed

water height is 1 m above the upper edge of the collision bulkhead. The reason is possible draft

increase and heel angle in case of damage. The density of water is taken as 1000 kg/m3 for

convenience. (The regulations have their roots in a time when calculations were done manually.)

So the inherent safety of assuming larger pressure height is somewhat reduced in reality.

The dimensioning of bulkheads consisting of flat plat with stiffeners follows from the reasoning

given below.

4.2

Plates

The simplified mechanical model considers a plate strip of width 1 rigidly supported at both ends.

The length of the strip is the stiffener spacing a, the thickness is t. The strip is under constant

distributed load q = p1. (The pressure due to water height 1 m above upper edge of bulkhead.)

a

17

DNV GL Rev.1.0

q a2

12

For linear-elastic material behaviour, the maximum moment appears at the ends:

M =

The section modulus for a rectangular cross section of height t and width 1 is:

W = t2/6

max =

M

p a2 6 p a2

=

=

W

12 t 2

2t2

We employ the usual dimensions for the individual quantities: max [N/mm2], p [kN/m2], a [m], t

[mm]. If the quantities are taken in these dimensions, the formula is re-written as:

max = 10 3

p a2

2t2

This yields the minimum required thickness for a given maximum stress (all quantities in the

dimensions given above):

t = a 10 2

p

20 max

t [mm] = a [m] cp

with

+ tk

f =

235

REH

tk is the corrosion addition; so after a certain time with corresponding corrosion, the bulkhead still

has sufficient strength. The corrosion addition depends on thickness of the plate and what whether

the bulkhead limits a tank (accelerated corrosion).

If we neglect the corrosion addition we obtain within linear-elastic theory:

max,el =

500

C p2

GL gives

Cp = 0.9

This then converts to:

500 R EH

= 1.76 R EH

1.12 235

500 R EH

=

= 2.63 R EH

0.9 2 235

max, el =

max, el

Thus the classification society accepts exceeding the elastic yield limit in the outer layers of the

plate, i.e. partial plastic deformation.

Within an idealised theory of plastification, the linear stress distribution changes to a stress

distribution where the maximum elastic yield stress is reached in a step function over the thickness

of the structure:

18

DNV GL Rev.1.0

stress distribution

linear-elastic regime

after plastification

layers

in

outer

complete plastification

In principle the structure will then support twice the bending moment of the linear-elastic limit

case, before complete plastification is reached. The safety margin of the classification society is

then 2.0/1.76=1.14 for collision bulkheads. The other bulkheads have a safety factor < 1 against

complete plastification. This considers that at larger deformations further structural reserves

appear due to membrane stresses and material hardening.

4.2.1

Stiffeners

The pressure height h is taken (following the rules of GL) from the middle of the unsupported

length l to 1 m above upper edge collision bulkhead or bulkhead deck. We distinguish two forms of

end support:

h

L/2

hp

0.6hp

simple support

fixed support

pressure height h

Fixed support is assumed if the stiffener ends are connected via brackets to stiff structures like

longitudinals or floor plates. The simplified mechanical model for a stiffener with fixed support is:

l/2

l/2

The approximation for the maximum bending moment in the beam (exact for triangular load) is:

M max

a p l2

10

19

DNV GL Rev.1.0

The required section modulus according to GL is (in typical dimensions):

W [cm3] = Cs a [m] l2 [m2] p [kN/m2]

Within linear-elastic theory, we then have:

max, el =

M

1

=

W 10 C s

kNm 100

2

cm 3 = C N / mm

s

Cs=0.33f

Cs=0.265f

]

100 REH

= 1.3 REH

0.33 235

100 REH

=

= 1.6 REH

0.265 235

max, el =

max, el

Again, we have to consider the safety against complete plastification. Let us assume in slight

simplification that we have a triangular distributed load:

q(x) = 2 q (1-x/l)

Q ( x) =

2

qx 2

ql 2qx +

3

l

The location of the maximum field moment is where the transverse force is zero:

1

x0 = l1

= 0.423 l

3

M(x0) = 0.128ql2

The load where the elastic yield limit appears in the outer layer of the beam is (in typical

dimensions):

q el = R EH

10

W el

l2

The plastic limit load in the theoretical limit of complete plastification is:

q pl = R EH

15.6

W pl

l2

For typical profiles in shipbuilding, the plastified section modulus is 20% to 50% higher than the

elastic section modulus, thus on average Wpl = 1.35 Wel. This then yields a plastic limit load:

q pl =

15.6

1.35 q el = 2.1 q el

10

The safety against complete theoretical plastification is qpl /qperm . This gives a safety of

2.1/1.3=1.6 (or 60% margin) for collision bulkheads and 2.1/1.6=1.3 (or 30% safety margin) for

other bulkheads. A similar calculation gives 1.7 for collision bulkheads and 1.35 for other bulkheads

for simply supported stiffeners:

20

DNV GL Rev.1.0

l/2

l/2

The two support types thus give similar safety against theoretical complete plastification.

21

DNV GL Rev.1.0

microscopic cracks forming and growing until the structure fails by rupture. Factors influencing

fatigue include: load (amplitudes, frequency, time history of load spectra), quality of detailed

design (avoiding stress concentration), quality of ship construction (alignment, welding,

deformations, etc), level of corrosion, material (steel, aluminium). In all cases, the crack initiation

is due to stress concentration in the structure. Solutions are:

Simple replacement without design change if the fatigue damage appears after many

years accepting repeated repair

Redesign of local structure for better fatigue characteristics (e.g. increasing scantling

thickness, avoiding sharp corners and openings, rounding edges, eliminating hard spots)

and/or construction standards (e.g. heat treatment, grinding of welds)

Generally, the preferred option is today a redesign paying attention to fatigue aspects.

hard spots (rigid structure ending in the middle of a relatively soft structure)

ends of stiffeners and brackets; these zones are particularly prone to fatigue cracks and

thus examined with care by experienced surveyors. The solution consists often in

modifying a brackets shape rather than increasing scantling thickness, adding brackets to

soften discontinuities, or continuing structures to next strong structural zone.

magnitude of difference in cross section and abruptness of transition between the two

cross sections. The solution consists in making the transition gentler, e.g. by introducing

brackets with suitable large radius of curvature.

difference in thickness and abruptness of transition between the two scantlings. The

solution consists in making the transition gentler, having at least a ratio of 1:3 in the

transition.

openings; they reduce the structural cross section and cause in addition stress

concentration. Solutions consist in inserting a plate of larger thickness, adding ring

stiffeners or orthogonal stiffeners around the opening, modifying the shape of the opening

to decrease stress concentration or increasing the spacing between openings. Sometimes

the opening can be omitted completely.

concentration considerably. The solution is to rectify the misalignment (and pay due

attention to proper alignment in new construction)

3-d intersections, Fig.5.2; complex 3-d intersections with hard points are sometimes not

avoidable. Here special care has to be taken to avoid excessive stress concentration.

pores

inclusions

cracks

grindings

22

DNV GL Rev.1.0

transverse stiffener and horizontal plate

In the following, several case studies show typical damages and repair solutions:

damage: crack in bracket

repair

23

DNV GL Rev.1.0

repair

damage: crack in supporting longitudinal

repair

damage: crack in welding

repair

damage: crack in outer plating

repair

Fig.5.8: Fatigue damage at abrupt change in cross section and repair solution

24

DNV GL Rev.1.0

repair

Fig.5.9: Fatigue damage at transition from small to big stiffener and repair solution

Acknowledgement

Parts of these notes are based on the book Grundzge des Schiffbaus of Prof. Dr.mult. Eike

Lehmann and on lecture notes of Prof. H.J. Petershagen (TU Hamburg-Harburg).

References

NITTA, A.; ARAI, H.; MAGAMO, A. (1992), Basis of IACS unified longitudinal strength standard,

Marine Structures, Vol.5, pp.1-21.

25

DNV GL Rev.1.0

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