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fakharah rathore (order #3508941)

Thank you for your purchase from


In the Hands of a Child
Your Premiere Lapbook Provider since
2002!!

Africa
HOCPP 1052
Published: January, 2007
Original Copyright November, 2005

Authors:
Katie Kubesh
Niki McNeil
Kimm Bellotto

For information about other products available from In the Hands of a Child
Call 1-866-426-3701 or visit our website at www.handsofachild.com.
Entire contents of this Project Pack 2007
In the Hands of a Child.
6222 Pierce Street
Coloma, MI 49038

Permission is hereby granted to the individual purchaser to reproduce student materials in this
project pack for noncommercial individual or classroom use only. In the Hands of a Child gives
permission for one copy of all written material to be copied and or printed. Classroom teachers
have permission to reproduce one copy for each student in class. Members of co-ops or
workshops have permission to reproduce one copy for up to 10 children per unit. Reproducible
graphics may be reprinted as many times as needed. Permission is not granted for school wide or
system wide reproduction of materials.
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Printed in the USA.

fakharah rathore (order #3508941)

Bringing Laughter and Learning Together In the Hands of a Child


From the day we first began using and creating Project Packs we fell in love with
them. We knew that this type of hands-on learning experience was just the thing
that was needed to make boring unit studies not only educational but fun and
exciting too!
To help you get started with your Project Pack, we have included some of the
most frequently asked questions we receive about our Project Packs.
What is a Project Pack?
A Project Pack contains both the activities and the lesson plans or research
guide needed to complete the activities. Imagine your child not only learning
about the life cycle of a butterfly, but also creating a cocoon of his or her own.
Students dont just read the story, Blueberry Sal by Robert McCloskey- they
enjoy a blue day complete with a recipe for blueberry pancakes, making a
blue collage, and dont forget painting a blue picture!
Why is this a better way to learn? How does this help me?
Student learning improves when lessons incorporate hands-on projects or crafts.
Children learn by doing. Project Packs put learning into their hands! The
possibilities are endless when your student begins a lapbook with a Project Pack
from In the Hands of a Child. There are no age or skill limits and any topic or
subject can be worked into a Project Pack.
When you purchase a Project Pack from In the Hands of a Child, all the work is
done for you-the parent/teacher, but not for the student. In addition, Project
Packs are easy to store, are an instant review tool, scrapbook, and a ready-made
portfolio of all your students studies.
How do I make a Project Pack?
A Project Pack is simply a file folder refolded into a shutter-style book. Open a
file folder flat, fold each side into the middle and crease the fold neatly. There
you have it!
What supplies do I need?
You need file folders, paper in different colors and weights*, your students
favorite coloring tools, tape, glue, scissors, and a stapler.
*For a more colorful and appealing Project Pack, it is suggested you print some
of the reproducible graphics on colorful, multi-purpose paper. We recommend
24# weight or cardstock.

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Adapting a Project Pack to Fit the Needs of Your Student


Adapting a Project or Research Pack is key to ensuring that you provide the best
lesson for your student. At first glance, some might just skip over an activity
because they feel it is too easy or too difficult for their student. We want you to
use all the activities we providethey are easily adaptable!
For example, if you have a PK-3 student the vocabulary activities might be
difficult for him or her to complete. Here are some tips to help you adapt the
activities that require your student to write:
1. Have your student dictate vocabulary words and their meanings as you
write them.
2. Have your child draw a picture instead of writing.
3. You write the word or sentence first so your student can see how it is
written (many of our Project Packs also include activities with dotted lines
for easy copy work).
4. Practice. Practice. Practice. In the car, on a walk, in the shopping cart!
Practice saying the vocabulary words and what they mean. Before you
know it your preschooler will be telling others what those words mean!
5. Contact us. We would be happy to give you ideas for adapting specific
units to a grade level.
On the other hand, some of the activities may seem too easy for your student.
Does your 5th grade level student want to learn about butterflies, but the Project
Pack seems too easy? Try it anyway; just change things up a bit to suit your
students grade level and skill. Here are some tips to help you adapt the
activities to make them a little more difficult:
1. In addition to writing down vocabulary words and their meanings, ask your
student to use the word in a sentence; either verbally or written.
2. Give your student one hour (or reasonable time frame) to research the
topic on his or her own either online or at the library. Give your student a
set of questions and see what he or she can find without your guidance.
3. Encourage your student to expand on the topic or choose a related
subject to learn about.
4. Take a look at some of our preschool unitsthere is a lot of clipart related
to each topic included. Have an older student cut these out and write a
story or play about the pictures.
5. Contact us. We would be happy to give you ideas for adapting specific
units to a grade level.
These are just few ways you can adapt a Project Pack to meet the needs of your
student. Let your student be the judge if something is too easy or too
difficultyou just might be surprised!

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fakharah rathore (order #3508941)

The Website links we have included in our guides are references we found that
contain relevant information. However, the sites are not owned or maintained by
In the Hands of a Child. The content may have changed or become a dead
link. If you find the site contains inappropriate material or is no longer a relevant
site, please let us know. Thank you.

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fakharah rathore (order #3508941)

Table of Contents
Planning Guide

Page 7

Related Reading

Page 9

Bibliography

Page 9

Activity Instructions

Page 10

Folder Instructions

Page 17

Sample Picture

Page 18

Research Guide

Page 20

Africa

Page20

People

Page 20

Major Ethnic Group

Page 21

Language

Page 22

Government

Page 23

Geography & Climate

Page 23

Religion

Page 31

Holidays & Traditions

Page 35

Economics

Page 36

Special Interests

Page 38

African Crafts

Page 38

Food

Page 41

Animals

Page 42

Vocabulary

Page 45

Reproducibles

Page 47

Answer Key

Page 118

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Vocabulary Words

Day
1

Day
2

Day
3

Day
4

birthrate
death rate
life expectancy
diverse
continent

Complete
Activities

Continue
Activities

Africa

2 Numbers of Africa
3 Mapping Africa
(Rivers and Landmarks)

1 - Vocabulary

People
Language

4 People Groups
5 African Languages

1 - Vocabulary

colonized
ethnic group
apartheid
ancestor

*Common Swahili Terms


*Afrikaans Language
Translations

6 Swahili Words
7 How Many
Languages?

1 - Vocabulary

plateau
metamorphic
continental shelf
safari
plain
savannah
rainforest

Maps of Africa
Geography and Climate
Geographic Region
Summaries

3 Mapping Africa
(Regions and
Countries)
9 African Regions
10 The Sahara Desert

1 - Vocabulary

Religion
Ritual Leaders

11 Main Religions
12 Ritual Leaders
13 Traditional
Religion

1 - Vocabulary

Holidays and Traditions


Foods

14 African Holiday
Celebrations
18 Holiday Meal Prep

1 - Vocabulary

demographic
nomads
indigenous
dialect

rituals
amulet
healer
heroes
diviner
medium

Day
5

Day
6

Guide
Reading

calabash
rain maker
rites
rites of passage

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Day
7

culture
artisan
mosaic
papyrus

Special Interests
African Crafts

16 Music
17 African Craft

15 Africas
Economy
19 Staple
Crops

1Vocabulary

Day
8

Gross Domestic Product


Per Capita Income

Economics
Food

Day
9

famine
biome

Economics
Food

20 African
Farming
21 Common
Food

1Vocabulary

Government
Southern African Region

8 Government
22 Cities of
South Africa

1Vocabulary

Day
10

republic
authoritarianism
coup
dictatorship
epidemic
democratic

1Vocabulary

Have student complete vocabulary words slotted for each day from activity 1, then read
the sections of the guide slotted for the day and any extra books you have on the topic.
Finish up each day by having them complete the activities scheduled for that day.
NOTE: Items marked with a * are in text-boxed areas in the guide

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Bibliography
Desanker, Paul V., Peri M. Klemm, Kenneth J. Perkins, Kwesi Kwaa Prah, and
Paul Tiyambe Zeleza. "Africa." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005.
World Book, Inc. 12 Oct. 2005
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/africa/explore/sahara/sahara_people_lo.html
http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/dictionaryhome.aspx
http://www.yale.edu/swahili/
http://members.tripod.com/meganjohnston/p2africa/Africanfoods.html
Exploring Your World: The Adventure of Geography, National Geographic, 1993
pp.136-137.
Lugira, Aloysius M. African Religion. New York:1999.
Oluonye, Mary N. A Ticket to South Africa. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc.,
1999.
Temko, Florence. Traditional Crafts from Africa. Minneapolis: Lerner
Publications Company, 1996.

Some great books about Africa to read:


A Day in the Life of Africa Photographed by the Worlds Top Photojournalists on
One Day. San Francisco: 2002.
Angelou, Maya. My Painted House, My Friendly Chicken, and Me. New York: C.
Potter, 1994.
Dinesen, Isak. Out of Africa. New York: Random House Inc., 1988.
Feelings, Muriel. Jambo Means Hello: Swahili Alphabet Book. New York: Dial
Books for Young Readers, 1974.
Haskins, Jim. Count Your Way Through Africa. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books,
1989
Hemingway, Ernest. Green Hills of Africa. New York: Simon and Schuster,
1935.
Onyefulu, Ifeoma. A is for Africa. New York: Cobblehill Books, 1993.
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Activities and Instructions


Vocabulary
1. Vocabulary: As you go through this unit, learn a few new vocabulary words
each day and add them to your Vocab Pocket.
Fold Instructions: Vocab Pocket Fold tabs back. Fold backing up behind
pocket face and glue tabs to it. Store cards in pocket. Ready to past definitions
have been provided for younger children.

Important Numbers of Africa


2. As you read about Africa on this study youll find many numbers from how
many countries, languages to different types of dances. Create a number fact
book and place them in numerical order.
Fold Instructions: Mini Matchbooks - Fold larger sections in half and fold small
section up to close each book like a matchbook. Inside write the item
represented by that number concerning Africa. For example, under the 54 youll
write countries. Practice memorizing these number facts and see how many you
can recall over the rest of the study. Younger children should dictate their
answers.

Africas Countries, Languages and People


3. Africa is made up of 54 different countries. Locate each of them on the map
provided as well as any major landmarks such as rivers and mountains.
Fold Instructions: Map Puzzle -- Paste the provided country outlines into the
correct position on the map and label the countries. Mark any major landmarks,
rivers, and mountains.
4. What are the different groups of people and what classifies them as such?
Fold Instructions: Tab Booklet Stack pages so that the tabs line up from top
to bottom creating a side tab booklet. Place the cover on top and the back cover
at the end and staple at the left edge. On each of the tabs write one of the
classifications of people; describe the characteristics of those people and what
makes them different and the same as the others. Do this for each of the
classifications of people found in Africa.
5. There are many different languages spoken in Africa, however, there are
some that are spoken more often and fluently then the others. What are they?
Fold Instructions: Shape Book Stack pages with cover on top and staple at
the top edge. Inside list the languages most often spoken as well as any other
important information about those languages. Use as many pages as necessary.

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6. What are the Swahili words for some of the common English words?
Fold Instructions: Flap Fan - Fold down the top section of each bubble and
write one Swahili word per bubble on the bubble covers. Write the English word
on the inside of the bubble. Stack the fan blades with cover on top and fasten
with a brad. Open fan downward so that inside flaps stay closed till you open
them. Close the blades by bringing them back around and down. Cut, paste and
trace labels are provided for younger children. Practice learning the words and
testing your friends and family.
7. Do a survey of the number of languages a person speaks. Do the people
in your survey reflect the same bilingual state of many African people?
Fold Instructions: Shutter Survey - Fill in the survey that follows with as many
contacts as you can. Fold both sides to the middle to close like a shutter when
completed.
If you need more people to participate in your survey please join our Yahoo
group and survey our members:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/HandsofaChildTalk

African Government
8. Give a brief overview of the government systems in Africa.
Fold Instructions: Folder Book Fold in half to close like a folder. Add extra
pages if needed by attaching with brads where indicated. Design a cover for
your book and title it African Governments. A cut, paste and trace folder book
is provided for younger children.

Regions of Africa
9. What are the 8 major regions of Africa?
Fold Instructions: Double Diamond Book Illustrated instructions have been
provided for Activity 9. Follow those instructions to complete this book. Write
one region per flap. Labels are provided for younger children.
10. Describe the Sahara Desert.
Fold Instructions: Mini Book Stack pages with cover on top and staple at left
edge. Inside describe the Sahara Desert. Younger children should dictate their
answers or draw pictures to represent what they know about it.

African Religions
11. What are the main beliefs of each of the 3 main religions?
Fold Instructions: Tag Booklet Fold back side-tabs on pockets and glue to
folder. On each of the tags write the main beliefs of one of the three main
religions. Then place the tags into the corresponding pocket. Trace tags and
ready to use tags have also been provided.

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12. What are the 6 types of ritual leaders?


Fold Instructions: Blooming Wedge Fold one page back, once page forward
until it looks like a single wedge. Open blooming wedge and write one animal
per section. Fold back tabs on pocket and glue to folder. Store folded blooming
wedge in pocket. Labeled wedges have been provided for younger children to
glue into the blooming edge.
13. What are the six things traditional African religion has in common
regardless of the region?
Fold Instructions: Double Trapezoid An illustrated instructions sheet has
been provided for Activity 13. Follow the sheet to complete the book. Write one
answer per section.
**This activity is probably too mature for younger children. A card-style coloring
page with trace words has been provided as an alternative activity. Fold in half
like a top-folding greeting card. Color the picture and trace the words inside.
Design an interesting cover for your book.
14. Choose one of the holiday celebrations in Africa and create a brochure for
the celebration of it.
Fold Instructions: Brochure Fold in thirds with lines on the outside to create a
brochure. Include as much information and detail as you can on the celebration
you chose. Using the internet, books, magazines or your own drawings add
photos or pictures to it as well.

African Industry
15. Agriculture, manufacturing, and mining; what is the role of each in Africas
economy?
Fold Instructions: Split Matchbooks Keeping picture on cover facing out, fold
large sections in half and cut top layer only on dotted lines. Fold small sections
up to close like a matchbook. Under each of the titles write the role it plays in
Africas economy. Do this for each of the three. Cut and paste blocks are
provided for younger children.

Music and Artwork


16. What is the role of music in Africa?
Fold Instructions: Card Book Fold in half like a greeting card. Inside describe
the role of music in African culture. Coloring pictures and trace words have been
provided for younger children to glue into the card book.

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17. Choose a traditional African craft and attempt to create one yourself. Did
your attempt resemble the original? After creating it do you understand why
the people use it as they do?
Fold Instructions: Mini Book - Create a mini book using the graphics that
follow. Glue a picture of your completed craft to the cover. Inside describe the
process of the craft and answer the above questions. Younger children have a
picture taken of them with their craft and glue into mini book. Have them write
their name under it and then dictate what they did to make the craft.

Food and Farming


18. What types of foods are staples or are common in many African homes?
What are some popular dishes that are prepared?
Fold Instructions: Double Flap Book Fold book in half and cut top layer only
on dotted line to create two flaps. List the items for each question under the
corresponding flap.
Younger Children may want to do the alternative activity that has been
provided; a mini book with trace words. Have the child trace the words then
stack the pages in the correct order of stuffing beginning with the camel. Put the
cover on top and the ending page at the back and staple at the left edge.
19. What are teff, injera and wat?
Fold Instructions: Side Flap Book- Fold book in half and cut top layer only on
dotted lines to create three flaps. Glue back of book and title section to folder.
Lift flaps and tell what each item is beneath its flap. Cut and paste labels are
provided for younger children.
20. Make Faux Injera.
Fold Instructions: Pocket Extension Book An illustrated instruction sheet
has been provided for this book. Follow those instructions to complete this book.
As you make the recipe have someone take pictures of you I the process and
with your finished recipe. Store the pictures in the pocket of the book.
Animals
21. Create a book of African animals.
Fold Instructions: Animal Book Stack pages with cover on top and staple at
top or left edge. Weve given you a start by mentioning a few animals here.
Investigate others on your own and add them to your book.
Older children should provide details about each animal they investigate. Lined
pages have been provided for this purpose. We suggest gluing a lined page to
the back of the picture page and then adding in as many lined pages as needed
also gluing those back to back.

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Just for Fun


Mapping it out
1. Trace the outline of Africa onto a piece of paper.
2. Mark an N for North, S for South, E for East, and W for West.
3. Find the Indian Ocean.
4. Find the Cape of Good Hope.
5. Find the 8 different regions of Africa and color each of them a different
color.
Mud Painting
You need:
c. dirt
c. nontoxic acrylic paint
Fabric (a cotton t-shirt or piece of muslin would work well)
Permanent black marker
Disposable container
Kitchen strainer to fit over container
Old toothbrush
Small paintbrush
Newspaper
1. Sketch out a design you want to paint on your t-shirt or fabric with a pencil
(or on a practice sheet of paper).
2. Put dirt in strainer and set it on top of the disposable container. Slowly run
water over the dirt and let the mud run through the strainer into the
container. Once all the dirt has been strained, let the container sit until the
mud sinks to the bottom (may take overnight to sink).
3. Pour off excess water and mix paint into the mud.
4. Cover your work area with newspaper. If you are painting on a t-shirt,
place newspaper or cardboard between the front and back of the shirt.
Smooth the fabric or shirt out flat.
5. With the permanent black marker, draw your design onto the fabric or
shirt. With a toothbrush, fill in the large areas with the mud paint. You can
paint patterns, lines and dots with the small paintbrush.
6. Let dry. Handwash the shirt in cool water and hang to dry before wearing.

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Story Pictures
You need:
Several pieces of felt (with adhesive backing, if possible) or construction paper in
bold colors such as red, blue, and black
Marker
Glue stick
Scissors
Pencil
1. Draw the characters or figures you want to be in your story on the felt or
construction paper. (For example, if you want to tell a story about riding
your bike, draw yourself, your bike, the road, a tree)
2. Cut the figures out of the felt or paper. Keep your leftover scraps for little
details like mouths, leaves, etc.
3. Glue the cutout figures to a large piece of black felt or paper. Cut 4 long
strips of a different color felt or paper and glue as a frame around the
sides of your story picture. If you want to make your story picture
stronger, glue to a piece of cardboard.
Kigogo Game
You need:
2 empty egg cartons, lids cut off
48 markers seeds, dried beans, peanuts, pebble, marbles, etc.
tape
scissors
1. Cut 2 egg cups from one of the egg cartons.
2. Attach 1 egg cup to each end of the other carton with tape.
3. To play the game, place the board between 2 players. Each player has
the 6 cups nearest his or her side. Players store any markers they win in
the cup on the end. Put 4 markers in each of the middle 12 cups.
4. Always move the markers counterclockwise. The first player picks up 4
markers from any one of her or his cups. The player then drops them, one
at a time, into the cups starting with the cup to the right of the emptied
cup.
5. The other player then does the same, taking markers from his or her side
of the board. Players take turns taking all of the markers from one cup
and then dropping them one at a time in a line of cups. The number of
markers in each cup will keep changing.
6. When a player drops the last marker in one of the other players cups and
that cup has either 2 or 3 markers in it, the player wins all of the markers
in that cup. Players keep their winnings in the end cups on their right.
The game is over when all the markers have been won. The winner is the
player with the most markers in her or his end cup.

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Animal Masks
You will need:
1 sheet poster board
Poster or acrylic paint
String
Ruler
Scissors
Pencil
Paper punch
1. Fold the poster board in half.
2. Draw half of an animals face using the folded edge as the center of the
face.
3. Cut along the outline, unfold.
4. Draw features or designs on the face and decorate with paint.
5. Cut out eyes.
6. Punch one hole on each side of face
7. Tie string through each of the holes
Taguella
The Tuareg people live in the Sahara Desert. Meat is rare in the Sahara, so milk
and milk products from camels and goats are usually what the Tuareg people
eat. One of the most popular foods is called Taguella. Taguella is a thick crepe
usually eaten with butter, dried tomatoes, and onions, and served with green tea.
Give it a try!
Ingredients
2.2 lbs. Millet flour, coarsely sifted
9 oz. Water
Large Pinch of salt
Large enamel bowl
1. Mix millet flour and water together in enamel bowl. Add large pinch of salt.
2. Knead the dough and roll flat.
3. Dig a low shallow hole in the desert and build a low fire from charcoal and
wood.
4. Place the dough directly on the fires ashes.
5. Use a large plant stalk to wipe the surface clean.
6. Cover the dough with hot sand and charcoal.
7. Let the dough bake for 20 minutes.
8. To check dough, poke it with a stick (If it is soft, it needs to cook more).
9. Turn the dough over. Cover with hot sand and charcoal and let bake 20
more minutes.
10. Take the bread out of the sand. To get rid of the sand, shake the bread or
sprinkle it with water.
11. Break into small pieces and serve.
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AFRICA
54 countries1,000 languages898
million peopleAFRICA! Africa is the
second largest continent in the world.
You could actually fit three of the United
States inside of the continent of Africa.
Africa has an area of 11,687,183 square
miles (30,250,000 sq km), measures
5,000 miles (8,000 km) from north to
south, and at its widest point measures
4,600 miles across. Who are the people
of Africa? What is the government like?
What kinds of holidays do they celebrate?
Lets find out!

People
The population of 898,000,000 is
unevenly distributed throughout the continent and is demographically divided
into two groups: the North Africans and the Sub-Saharan Africans. Large areas
in the Sahara Desert have no people at all, certain rainforests and grasslands
have a small population, and other areas, such as the Nile Valley in Egypt, are
overcrowded.
About 75% of the population lives south of the Sahara desert in a region called
Sub-Saharan Africa. For hundreds of years, some Africans who lived below the
Sahara Desert were known to be nomads; they followed the animals they hunted
or found areas to camp where their herds could graze. Other Africans were
farmers and lived off the land. Because the continent is so large, many people
lived far away from any neighbors. They developed their own languages,
cultures and religions. Around the mid-1900s more and more African people
started to move into the cities.
The population in Africa is always increasing. Africa has the highest birth rate of
any other continent; 38 babies born to every 1,000 people.
The death rate for Africa is also higher than other continents;
14 deaths for every 1,000 people.
The average life expectancy for Africans is 52 years old. In
comparison, the average life expectancy for Americans is 77
years old. The life expectancy is much less in the poorer
countries of Africa like Mozambique and Zambia, where the average expectancy
is 35-40 years old.
Because of overpopulation, ethnic and territorial rivalries, famine, and disease,
there are many disputes and even wars between the many countries in Africa.
This is a constant challenge for the leaders in Africa.
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Most Africans are referred to by the country they live in or one of several hundred
different ethnic groups to which they belong. Some of these groups include
Sub-Saharan Africans, Pygmies, Khoikhoi, San, Arabs, Berbers, Europeans, and
Asians.
Major Ethnic Groups
Sub-Saharan Africans are one of the oldest and most diverse groups of people
in the world. There are hundreds of ethnic groups included in this, including the
Igbo and the Yoruba of west and central Africa, the Kikuyu of eastern Africa, and
the Zulu of southern Africa. The members of these different ethnic groups are
linked by a shared history, culture, language, religion, artistic traditions, and way
of life.
Pygmies include the Aka, Mbuti, Efe, Twa, and other ethnic groups inhabiting the
tropical forests of the Congo River Basin in central Africa. Pygmy comes from an
ancient Greek word referring to the characteristic short stature of these people.
Today, many people consider the name pygmy insulting.
Two of the most ancient cultures in the world, the Khoikhoi and the San groups
once lived throughout the southern and eastern parts of Africa. The two groups
speak languages with clicking sounds.
The Arabs first settled in Africa in the 1600s. Most of the Arab population lives in
Egypt, northern Sudan, and along the Mediterranean coast.
People in the Berber group have lived in the northwestern part of Africa since
prehistoric times. Berber comes from a Greek word meaning foreigner. Berbers
today live mainly in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Mali,
and Niger.
Europeans first settled in Africa during the 1600s. Most of the people in Africa of
European ancestry are British, Dutch or French. The majority of European
descendants live along the Mediterranean coast, in the Republic of South Africa,
in Zimbabwe, and in parts of east Africa.
Many people of Asian ancestry live in southern and eastern Africa. Most are
descendants of people who came from India during the 1800s. Many people of
Asian ancestry live in Madagascar.

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Language
Most African ethnic groups have their own
language or dialect, so there are more than
1,000 languages spoken across the
continent. Communication can be difficult at
times even though a typical African speaks
more than one language. Arabic, Swahili,
and Hausa are the languages most often
spoken in Africa. Languages are split into
six groups. The first three families, known
as indigenous African languages, originated
in and are spoken only on the continent of
Africa.

Afrikaans Language Translations


English

Afrikaans

Afrikaans
Mother
Father
Sister
Brother

Afrikaans
moeder
fader
suster
broer

1. Niger-Kordofanian is the largest family of


languages and is spoken throughout SubSaharan Africa. It includes over 300 Bantu
languages including Swahili, Ganda
(Luganda), Kikuyu (Kikikuyu or Gigikuyu),
Kongo (Kikongo), Rundi (Kirundi),
Sesotho, and Zulu (isiZulu). It also
includes some non-Bantu languages like
Akan; Igbo, or Ibo; and Yoruba. These
languages are mainly spoken in western
and central Africa
2. Africans who live in parts of Chad, Kenya,
Mali, Niger, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda
speak Nilo-Saharan languages. Spoken
by 30 million people, it includes languages
like Bari, Dinka, Kalenjin, Kanuri, and
Maasai.
3. Khoisan languages, or click languages,
spoken by about 120,000 people are
different from any other African language
because many of the words are spoken
with unusual clicking sounds. The San
and Khoikhoi of southwestern Africa speak
these languages as well as two ethnic
groups in Tanzania.
4. Afro-Asian languages are spoken in the
northern half of Africa. Spoken by 285
million people, this family includes Arabic
and Berber. More Africans speak Arabic
than any other single language. Other
Afro-Asian languages are Amharic,
Orominga, Hausa, and Somali.

ah-free-KAHNS
MOH-der
FAH-der
SUS-ter
BREW-er

Common Swahili (Kiswahili) Terms


The Swahili language, also pronounced
Kiswahili (the ki prefix means language)
is spoken in Eastern Africa. The
Swahili language is based on the ancient
Bantu language, and also borrows from
the Arabic, English, German,
Portuguese, and many other languages.
mother- mzaa
father- abu
sister- dada
brother- ahi
tree- mti
sky- anga
friend- mtani
hello- jambo
good bye- alamsiki
Pronouncing vowels in Swahili
English
a
e
i
o
u

Swahili
ah!
say
be
ho!
too

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Government
Africa is divided into 54 different countries. The largest is Sudan, with an area of
967,500 square miles (2,505,813 sq km). Nigeria has the largest population with
more than 130 million people.
The majority of African countries are republics ruled by elected officials with a
president as the head, however, in contrast with many western
republics, many of these governments are unstable, violent,
and authoritarian. Military coups, dictatorships, and
territorial disputes are common in Africa. From the early 1960s
to the late 1980s there were over 70 coups in Africa and 13
presidents assassinated.
Due to weak governments and political structures, many countries experience
widespread famine and disease. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and
the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are two diseases that have
become a deadly epidemic in Africa. In addition, human rights abuses occur in
many countries. A greater recognition of the need for basic human rights for all
has begun, but several countries still abuse those rights.
Although some countries have tried to have a democratic government, few have
succeeded. That is beginning to change and the future is looking brighter for
democracy in Africa. In addition, African countries are beginning to help each
other out more and rely on assistance from each other rather than relying on
foreign countries.
How are some African governments different from a democracy? A democratic
government is a form of government where the people or the majority of the
people rule themselves. The people make policies, rules and laws, usually by
voting. Republics are similar to a democracy, except in a republican
government, a president, elected by the people, makes the policies, rules, and
laws. Authoritarian governments are based on oppression and dictatorship with
little or no input from the people.

Geography and Climate


Most of Africas land is a plateau. The land is low in the
north and west, higher in the south and east, and is made
of mostly metamorphic rock. The entire continent is
surrounded by a narrow continental shelf. The lowest
point is in Lake Assal in Djibouti, 509 feet (155 m) below
sea level. The highest point in is Mt. Uhuro in Tanzania at
19,340 feet (5895 m).
Africa is such a large continent that it has many different
climates. There are eight main regions in Africa, each with
its own unique climate depending on its distance from the
equator.
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Ethiopian Highlands
The Ethiopian Highlands Region is home to 80% of Africas tallest mountains.
These mountains have helped shelter Ethiopia from intruders and preserve its
very distinct culture.
Ethiopia
Population: 64,117,452
Government: Federal Republic
Capital: Addis Ababa
Size: 437,794 square miles
Ethnic Groups: Oromo, Amhara, and Tigre
Religion: 45-50% Muslim, 35-40% Ethiopian Orthodox, other
Official Language: Amharic
GDP: $33.3 billion (1999)
Currency: Birr
Climate: Tropical monsoon
Ethiopia, located in Ethiopian Highlands, is the only African country never to be
colonized. It is plagued by drought approximately every 10 years. This causes
great famine in the country and forces Ethiopia to rely on other countries for
support.
Great Lakes Region
The Great Lakes Region, with lakes located in nine countries in the eastern and
central parts of Africa, has the worlds largest freshwater system.
Kenya
Population: 30,339,770
Government: Republic
Capital: Nairobi
Size: 224,711 square miles
Ethnic Groups: 22% Kikuyu, 14% Luhya, 13% Luo, 12% Kalenjin, 11% Kamba,
6% Kisii, 6% Meru, 15% other
Religion: 38% Protestant, 28% Roman Catholic, 26% African Religions, 7%
Muslim, 1% other
Official Language: English and Kiswahili
GDP: $45.1 billion (1999)
Currency: Kenyan shilling
Climate: Tropical along coast, arid in center
Have you ever wanted to go on safari? Kenya, located on the eastern coast of
Africa in the Great Lakes Region, is the most famous safari destination in the
world with over 24 national parks. Much of northeastern Kenya is a flat, bushcovered plain, but there are also beautiful beaches, highlands, and lake regions.
The Great Rift Valley and Mount Kenya are also located in Kenya.
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Rainforest
The African Rainforest is home to more than half of the continents animal
population. Unfortunately, over 90% of the rainforest has been wiped out by road
construction and farming. Governments of countries located in the rainforest are
torn between protecting the rainforest and the need for money, roads, and jobs.
Ghana
Population: 19,533,560
Government: Constitutional Democracy
Capital: Accra
Size: 92,098 square miles
Ethnic Groups: 44% Akan, 16% Moshi-Dagomba, 13% Ewa,
Ga
Religion: 38% African Religion, 30% Muslim, 24% Christian, 8% other
Official Language: English
GDP: 35.5 billion (1999)
Currency: New Cedi
Climate: Tropical

8%

Ghana, also known as the Gold Coast, was the first African country to gain
independence. Rainforests cover the northern third of this country.
Sahara Desert Region
Have you ever heard of the Sahara Desert? The Sahara Desert is the worlds
largest hot desert and is found in Africa. You certainly wouldnt want to get lost in
this desert; it is 3.3 million square miles! The Sahara makes up 25% of the
continent of Africa.
Located at the northern tip of Africa, the Sahara acts as a border between the
Arab-influenced north and the southern African countries. Groups of people who
live in the Sahara include Tuaregs, Arabs, Berbers, Tubus, and Moroccans.
These people first came to the Sahara in search of gold, ivory and salt. Endless
trains of camel caravans hauled the resources across the desert. Camels are
still used today, but people in the salt trade now use trucks.

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Egypt
Population: 68,359,979
Government: Republic
Capital: Cairo
Size: 385,230 square miles
Ethnic Groups: Egyptians, Berbers, Bedouins, Greeks, Nubians, Armenians, and
Europeans
Religion: 94% Muslim, 6% Christian and other religions
Official Language: Arabic
GDP: $200 billion (1999)
Currency: Egyptian pound
Climate: Desert
Egypt is the worlds largest Arab country. The country is rich in crude oil and
petroleum products and also exports cotton, textiles, metal and chemicals. Egypt
is known for the Nile River stretching 750 miles through the country. As it is
located in the desert, Egypt experiences many droughts, sandstorms and hot
weather.
Morocco
Population: 30,122,350
Government: Constitutional Monarchy
Capital: Rabat
Size: 177,117 square miles
Ethnic Groups: Arab-Berber
Religion: Muslim
Official Language: Arabic
GDP: $108 billion (1999)
Currency: Dirham
Climate: Mediterranean
Morocco is located in the northwestern corner of Africa. The Sahara Desert and
the Atlas Mountains separate Morocco from other African countries. Morocco
has the highest mountains in Northern Africa, many of them unstable, causing
frequent earthquakes.
Sahel Region
The Sahel region is a narrow band of land just south of the Sahara Desert. The
Sahel first attracted Arabs looking for gold in the Sudan and Europeans looking
for slaves in West Africa. These two influences merged with the locals and
formed a very complex culture. The Sahel region is one of the poorest and most
environmentally damaged areas in the world; its people are constantly battling
famine, droughts and overpopulation.

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Sudan
Population: 35,079,814
Government: in transition
Capital: Khartoum
Size: 967,499 square miles
Ethnic Groups: 52% African, 39% Arab
Religion: 70% Sunni Muslim, 30% Christian
Official Language: Arabic
GDP: $32.6 billion (1999)
Currency: Sudanese dinar
Climate: Tropical in south, desert in north
Sudan is the largest country in Africa and has a lot of African and Arab
influences. For the past 20 years, the country of Sudan has been torn apart by
civil war between the Arabs in the north and the Christians and animists of the
south. This has caused over 1.5 million deaths and many refugees.

Savanna
The savanna is usually what you picture when you think of Africa. A Great
Plains region with rolling grasslands, the savanna is where zebras, wildebeests,
buffalo, and giraffes make their homes.
Tanzania
Population: 35,106,126
Government: Republic
Capital: Dar es Salaam
Size: 364,900 square miles
Ethnic Groups: 99% Native African, 1% other
Religion: 45% Christian, 35% Muslim, 20% African Religion
Official Language: Kiswahili and English
GDP: $23.3 billion (1999)
Currency: Tanzanian shilling
Climate: Tropical along coast
Tanzania is home to some of Africas largest wildlife populations. Surrounded by
three Great Lakes, Tanzania is also home to Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africas highest
mountain.

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Southern Africa Region


South Africa
Population: 43,421,021
Government: Republic
Capital: Pretoria administrative, Cape Town legislative, Bloemfontain
judicial
Size: 47,011 square miles
Ethnic Groups: 75% Black, 14% white, 11% other
Religion: 68% Christian, 2% Muslim, 1.5% Hindu, 28.5% African Religion
Official Languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga,
Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu
GDP: $296.1 billion (1999)
Currency: Rand
Climate: Semi-arid, tropical along coast
At the very southernmost tip of Africa is South Africa. South Africa touches the
Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Indian Ocean in the east. The northern side
of South Africa meets Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and
Swaziland.
The Kalahari Desert is located in the northern part of South Africa, but other
sections of South Africa have thick green forests and valleys. If you travel far
inland, you will find tall mountains and the flat grasslands, also called veld,
Dutch for field.
There are three main rivers in South Africa: the Orange, the Vall, and the
Limpopo. The rivers are short, shallow, and sometimes filled with sand instead
of water. The country is sunny and dry so water dries up quickly in South Africa.
For a very long time, people from an ethnic group called the
Khoisan were the only people living in South Africa. Hundreds of
years ago, Bantu-speaking people arrived to South Africa and
began pushing the Khoisan people to the south and the west.
Today, people from many ethnic groups live in South Africa.
Black South Africans make up the majority of the population. The
Zulu and the Xhosa are the two largest groups of Black South Africans. Some
white South Africans speak English because their ancestors came from Great
Britain. Others of European descent speak Afrikaans, a language based on
Dutch.
For almost 40 years, the South African people were under a set of laws called
apartheid. Apartheid separated South Africans by race. The white South
Africans (who were a very small minority) controlled the government and people
of different groups lived in separate areas and went to separate schools.

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Apartheid laws ended in 1990. Nelson Mandela, a black man, was elected
president of South Africa in 1994.
The big cities of South Africa are much like the big cities in any other country.
They have many high-rise buildings, shopping malls, restaurants and parks.
People get around the cities by taxi, bus, or a tuk tuk. A tuk tuk is a two or fourwheeled cart that is pulled by a person on foot. The largest city in South Africa
is Johannesburg (Joburg). People who live in or near to the big cities have large
new homes, usually occupied by a family of two parents and their children. The
oldest city in South Africa is called Cape Town, known as being one of the most
beautiful cities in the world.
The neighborhoods in the country are called townships. Most are crowded with
houses built close together. People who live in the townships do not have water
in their homes and must haul it from wells. South African families are close-knit.
That is a good thing, since most of them live all together. In the country, you will
find sisters, brothers, parents, grandparents as well as aunts, uncles and
cousins, all living together.
You will find some of the worlds largest animals in South Africa. Elephants,
lions, leopards, buffalo, and rhinoceroses are all found in South Africa, as well as
giraffes and springbok antelope. The springbok antelope is South Africas
national animal.
There are about 32 different languages and dialects spoken in South Africa.
South Africans speak the language Afrikaans more than any other language,
however, many South Africans speak two or three languages. Afrikaans, spoke
mostly in South Africa, is based on the Dutch language. It also has words from
English, German, French, Malay, Portuguese, and other South African
languages. Many South Africans also speak English because that is the
language they use in school. Some South Africans speak their own local
languages such as Zulu, Ndebele, Swati and Tonga.
South African children begin attending school when they are 7 years old. When
children first attend school in South Africa, they learn in their native language. As
they get older, they learn English and Afrikaans. A typical school day lasts from
8 a.m. to 2 p.m. and covers math, science, geography, religion, and home
economics.
The oldest religion practiced in South Africa is African religion, although some
South Africans practice Christianity. Most Christians belong to the Dutch
Reformed Church.

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Zimbabwe
Population: 11,342,521
Government: Parliamentary democracy
Capital: Harare
Size: 150,580 square miles
Ethnic Groups: 71% Shona, 16% Ndbele, 13% other
Religion: 50% Christian-indigenous beliefs, 25% Christian, 24%
African Religion,
1% Muslim and other
Official Language: English
GDP: $26.5 billion (1999)
Currency: Zimbabwean dollar
Climate: Tropical
Zimbabwe is located in the southern base of Africa. Victoria Falls, bordering both
Zimbabwe and Zambia, has a span of 5600 feet (1700 m) and a drop of 420 feet
(128 m) into the Zambezi Gorge. The falls create a huge cloud of mist and such
a roaring sound they can be heard from as far as 25 miles (40 km) away!
Unfortunately, Zimbabwe faces a national crisis. AIDS/HIV has devastated this
country. The average life expectancy in this country is 38 years old and more
than 25% of the adults in this country are infected with AIDS or HIV.
Swahili Coast
The Swahili Coast is located along the southeastern side
Africa on the Indian Ocean. In ancient times, Arabs,
Greeks, and Romans who came to East Africa in search of
slaves visited this coast.

of

Mozambique
Population: 19,104,696
Government: Republic
Capital: Maputo
Size: 309,496 square miles
Ethnic Groups: Tribal groups including Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, and Sena
Religion: 50% African Religion, 30% Christian, 20% Muslim
Official Language: Portuguese
GDP: $18.7 billion (1999)
Currency: Metical
Climate: Tropical to sub-tropical
Mozambique is known for its beautiful beaches, but also for a long history of
violence. By the 18th century, slavery was the main contributor to Mozambiques
economy. After a 10-year revolution in the 1960s, Mozambiques future began to
look more promising.

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Religion
A large variety of diverse religions are practiced in Africa. Approximately 40% of
all Africans are Christian (belief that there is one God and Jesus Christ is the
Messiah), 40% are Muslims, (belief that Allah is god and Mohammed is his
prophet) and 20% are followers of African religion.
There are more than 6,000 ethnic groups following the African religion with each
group practicing it the religion in their own way. Each religion sect is different not
only from each other, but from many other world religions as well. There is one
thing in common between all of these sects; each believes in certain passages of
life and guides its followers through those passages of life.
Traditional African religion, unlike other religions practice on the continent,
originated in Africa. It is the oldest of all African faiths. The other religions that
are practiced all originated in other parts of the world. African religion is different
from other religions such as Christianity and Judaism in many ways.
African religion does not have a single founder, but originates with the people
themselves (similar to Native American and Asian religions). People who
practice African religion base their religious beliefs on the answers they seek
about life: Why are we here? How do we live well? Why do we die?
There are no churches in African religion. Instead, there are shrines that are built
according to traditions of the particular region where that African religion is
practiced. People who practice African religion may also turn to a natural object
such as a tree or mountain to focus their worship on.
The African religion has been passed down through time by oral storytelling.
They do not have a Bible or book that tells the history of their religion. The moral
beliefs and rules are passed down from generation to generation by word of
mouth. Many of the people who practice African religion cannot read or write, but
are trained to act out or recite the history of their religion. Typically, a group of
villagers will gather and the elders will tell the children about the beginning of the
world. Children listen intently to the stories and myths of their culture and
people.
There are four different ways African religion is passed down:
Stories are told to educate about life and to entertain.
Myths are about religious subjects and try to answer questions such as
where do we come from?
Legends are bodies of stories about families, individuals, and heroes.
While they are based on facts, they tend to be retold so many times that
they become fictional
Proverbs are short statements expressing wisdom about our creation and
human experiences

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African religion teaches that people are made up of moral, social, spiritual, and
physical parts. The parts all function together; if any part is out of balance, a
person may become physically or spiritually ill. For example, someone who
commits a crime or moral misdeed may experience misfortune. Those who
practice African religion believe in community. People of this faith share their
property and expect others to share with them.
In addition, those who practice African religion do not set aside specific times or
days for prayer or worship. Their religion, culture and everyday life are so
intertwined that they view it all as one. Religion is simply a part of their everyday
living.
In the African religion, there are common rites and rituals. Rites of passage
and other rituals are the biggest examples of how religion is such a huge part of
daily life. Rites of Passage are practices, customs, and ceremonies that people
perform to move through the stages of life such as birth and childhood, puberty
and initiation, marriage, aging, and death. Africans use ritual, prayer, music,
dance, sacrifice, and ritual leaders to perform these rites.
African Rulers are political and religious leaders. There is no such thing as
separation of church and state in African religion. In African religion, instead of
priests or ministers, there are a variety of religious leaders performing different
duties. Some of the leaders have titles like priest, priestess, healer, diviner,
medium, seer, rainmaker, elder, and ruler. Each leader has a special role in the
religious community.

Kings, queens, or chiefs have power, authority, and influence and are
bound by both obligation and taboos. In many countries, the king is also
the high priest and is responsible for leading his people both spiritually
and politically.

Priests oversee religious matters in the community.

Mediums, usually women, believe they can communicate with the spirit
world. Mediums are attached either to a priest at temple or to a diviner.
Spirits are said to speak through mediums to humans.

Diviners unveil the unknown to try and solve problems in the community.

Healers help the health and well being of people in the community.
Healers have a vast knowledge of herbal medicine and are said to have
superhuman powers. They are often referred to as the person with the
bag because they always carry a bag. It is customary for healers to wear
amulets and other accessories believed to help in healing.

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Rainmakers are specialists in religious matters relating to rain. They


determine why the rain falls, why there is too much or not enough rain,
and they perform rites to make sure that rain will fall at proper times.

Traditional African religion varies depending on the region or the people. The
things they all have in common include:
All things in the universe are part of a whole; they do not distinguish
between sacred and nonsacred.
There is a Supreme Being who is creator, provider, and controller of all
creation.
There are lesser gods and guardian spirits serving with the Creator. The
lesser gods are always involved with people. People communicate with
the lesser gods through rituals, sacrifices and prayers.
Humans are imperfect and always will be. Sickness, suffering, and death
are all parts of life. Suffering is caused by sins or misdeeds that offend
the gods or society.
Certain rituals may relieve some problems or conflicts if they satisfy the
offended god.
Human society is communal. Relationships between the living, dead and
those not yet born are very important. The spirit world is all around and
humans need only to interact with it. They believe that whatever happens
to a single person affects everyone.
Ancient signs of religious life are still found in Africa today. For example, the
pyramids of Egypt are not just great wonders of the world, they are religious
structures showing religious beliefs in ancient times. Other ancient religions of
Africa include Judaism, which originated in the Middle East, but was also found in
ancient Africa (mainly Egypt). Another religion, called Falashas, was practiced in
Ethiopia. Also called Ethiopian Jewish, this religion was based on the Old
Testament of the Bible, but included elements from African religion as well. They
believed in using charms, amulets, and magic.
Islam first came to Africa when Muslims conquered North Africa in the early 8th
century. They began in Egypt and followed the eastern coast down to the center
of Africa. Many Asian people who settled in Africa also brought the Muslim
religion with them.
Islam, meaning submission to God, is the second largest religion in the world.
People who practice Islam believe that Muhammad is a messenger to whom God
revealed his plan for mankind. There are many subgroups in the Islam religion;
the two largest groups are Sunni and Shia.

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During the 15th and 19th centuries there was a huge wave of Portuguese,
Spanish, British, French and Dutch settlers who all staked claims to land in
Africa. With the European settlers were priests and missionaries who taught
Christianity. Historians believe Christianity was first practiced in Africa in 40 AD
in Alexandria. Around the same time, another Christian community began in
Egypt. Another way that Christianity spread to the African continent was around
44 BC through the Roman province of Carthage.
Christianity is the largest religion in the world with over 2 billion adherents.
Christians believe in Jesus Christ as the founder and central figure of their
religion. Different sects of Christianity are practiced depending on the culture
and place. Traditionally, Christianity is separated into three groups, 1)
Catholicism, 2) Eastern Christianity, and 3) Protestantism.

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Holidays and Traditions


Africans celebrate many different holidays and celebrations throughout the year.
Food is a very important part of many African holidays and celebrations. Certain
foods are eaten for certain celebrations. For example, before a baby is named,
the parents eat nuts to show proper respect to the gods. If nuts are not eaten, it
is said that the baby will have bad luck.
Every July, thousands of people go the biggest festival in South Africa, the
Grahamstown Festival. Festival-goers will find costumed performers strolling the
streets and artists selling their work from booths. Writers and poets read their
work out loud and there are dancers and musicians who also entertain the
people.
On Christmas Eve in South Africa, Christian children leave their pillows at the
foot of their beds. During the night, Father Christmas sneaks in and fills their
pillowcases with presents and goodies!
Twelve days after Christmas Ethiopian Christians celebrate Timkat, the baptism
of Jesus in the River Jordan. Ethiopian Christians believe this day is the holiest
of all days; priests form a procession through the city of Lalibela to the River
Jordan in memory of the baptism of Jesus.
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic year and is celebrated by Muslims.
One of the last ten nights of Ramadan is called the Night of Power (Laylat alQadr). According to Islamic beliefs, this night is better than a thousand months,
and some Muslims spend the entire night in prayer. At the end of Ramadan, Eid
ul-Fitr is celebrated. This celebration is a time for Muslim families and friends to
worship and celebrate together.
Swahili people celebrate the traditional Ramadan, but also observe Hajj, an
annual pilgrimage to the Mecca. Hajj brings together Muslims from all races and
languages to the birthplace of Islam. The journey is a detailed one with many
rituals performed along the way.
The Baka people of the rainforest have male initiation ceremonies. During these
ceremonies (closed to females, foreigners, and children), the elders use drums to
summon Jengi, the forest spirit.

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Economics
The countries in Africa vary in size, rates of economic development and growth,
and amounts of international trade. Because of this, there is a large difference in
political and economic systems and an uneven distribution of natural resources.
Africa has great mineral wealth. Huge deposits of copper,
diamonds, gold and petroleum can be found in Africa. There
are also valuable forests, water and waterfalls. Most of the
worlds cocoa beans, cassava, and yams come from Africa.
Even with these great assets, Africa is the least economically
developed continent (except Antarctica). The majority of
African countries must rely on aid from other countries in order
to survive.
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures economic development in
Africa. The GDP is the value of all goods and services produced by a country.
Africas total GDP in 2002 was $1.75 trillion (in contrast, the United States GDP
in 2002 was $10.4 trillion). South Africa has the largest economy in Africa.
Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, and Morocco also have large economies.
Per capita income is the average amount of money a person makes in one
year. To determine per capita income the GDP is divided by the population. In
the early 2000s, the average per capita income in Africa was $650.

Agriculture
Agriculture plays a leading role in Africas economics. Farm equipment and tools
are outdated and the soil is thin and poor so it is very difficult to make a living
from farming. Two-thirds of the African people live in rural areas; most of them
make a living from raising livestock and growing crops.
The countries with the greatest amount of
farming are Egypt, Ethiopia, Nigeria, South
Africa, and Sudan. Crops in Africa are divided
into two categories, staple food crops and
export crops. Staple food crops include grains
such as corn, millet, rice, sorghum, wheat,
various legumes (peas, peanuts, and beans),
fruits, and vegetables. Most staple crops are
for the farmers themselves to eat.
Africas leading export crops include cacao (cocoa), coffee, cotton, kola nuts,
palm oil, sugar, tea, and tobacco. Export crops are usually grown on farms,
called plantations, often owned by very wealthy people, large companies, or the
government.
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Different crops are grown in different areas of Africa depending on the climate of
that region. Yams and cassava are more common in the wet tropical areas of
western Africa, but corn is more common in the grasslands of eastern and
southern Africa. Wheat is the major staple crop in northern Africa, where
irrigation is also more commonly used. In the highlands of Ethiopia and other
parts of eastern Africa, a plant called khat (also spelled kat or qat) has been an
important crop for hundreds of years.
Manufacturing
In urban areas, there is a lack of money to build factories and a shortage of
skilled workers. That makes it hard for African industries to compete with
industries on other continents.
Mining
Africa has one of the worlds largest reserves of chromium, cobalt, gold,
manganese, phosphates, platinum, uranium, and vanadium. Substantial
quantities of other metals, including bauxite (aluminum ore), copper, iron, nickel,
and zinc, are also found throughout Africa. Africa is also a major producer of oil
and natural gas.
The Republic of South Africa has the most developed mining industry in Africa,
but other countries such as Angola, Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe also have
large mining industries. South Africa produces the worlds greatest amount of
gold and Botswana produces the worlds largest amount of diamonds.
Africa is full of valuable natural resources, but unfortunately, the profit that comes
from these resources does not benefit the African people. Foreign companies
own most of the mining companies and employment in the mines is limited and
the pay is low.

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Special Interests
Africa has many overlapping cultures reflected in the various art forms.
The Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt and the Ethiopian churches at Lalibela
demonstrate the engineering and architectural accomplishments of this large
continent.
From ancient dance rhythms to modern African hip-hop, music is one of Africas
greatest art forms. Music plays a big part in African religion, healing, and
celebrations. Africa is a diverse continent with many different kinds of people,
languages, religion and even music. African Pop Music is similar to popular
music in many other countries. There are popular teen idols, boy and girl groups
and bands. In addition to indigenous pop, African people listen to rock and roll,
hip-hop and other types of music imported from other countries. Music is not
only important to the African people for entertainment; it plays an important role
in religious rituals and healing ceremonies.
There are many other types of music that are popular in Africa:

Benga originated in Kenya and is popular throughout the continent.


Gnawa is Moroccan music played at healing ceremonies.
Highlife is dance music popular in Ghana and Nigeria.
Wassoulou is a musical style with a strong Arabic feel along with the
sound of the scraping karinyang, women play the fle, a calabash strung
with cowrie shells, which they spin and throw into the air in time to the
music.
Were is a Muslim style music played to wake people up early for breakfast
during Ramadan celebrations.

African Crafts
African crafts are passed down from generation to generation. Year after year
parents teach their children how to do the crafts that their parents taught them.
African people like to make many different things by hand, especially practical
things. For example, they make bowls and baskets to carry food, weave their
own clothing and handcraft many tools.

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Crafts made in different areas of Africa are influenced by materials and resources
found in those areas. For example, paper was first crafted in Egypt where
papyrus plants grow along the Nile River. In areas of Africa where there are
rainforests, crafters carve masks and figurines from wood. In East Africa,
carvings are made from soapstone. The Ndbele people are known for their
colorful handcrafted jewelry as well as for the geometric patterns they paint on
their houses.
Some examples of African Crafts are:
Senufo Mud Painting: The Senufo live in the northern part of Cote dlvoire.
Senufo artisans use dark, slushy river mud to paint fabric. Some of the
fabric is used to make clothing. Hunters wear clothing with mud paintings
of animals. The black and white of the paintings helps to camouflage
them during the hunt. They believe the animal spirits will keep them safe
and give them a successful hunt.
First, they weave the fabric into several strips, then sew the strips together
to make clothing. Next the fabric is stretched and nailed to a wooden
board and is ready to paint. Senufo artisans collect mud from nearby
swamps. Next they draw outlines of their designs with a knife blade
dipped in dye made from boiled leaves. When the outline has dried, they
use the knife blade or a toothbrush to color in the outline with the mud
paint.
Mud painters often draw crocodiles, turtles, monkeys and chameleons.
These animals are commonly seen in the Cote dlvoire region and are also
believed by the Senufo to be the first animals on earth.
Asante Adinkra Stamping: The Asante live in Western Africa. They like to
decorate and print fabric with stamping, then make the fabric into clothes.
At one time, Adinkra (which means good-bye) stamped clothing was only
worn for funerals, but today it is worn on everyday clothing as well as used
for curtains and pillows.
Artisans cut patterned blocks from dried calabashes and then put dye on
the blocks and place on the fabric they are decorating. The dye is made
from boiled tree bark and sometimes egg whites are added to make it
glossy.
The designs are usually stamped inside squares drawn on the fabric with
a small amount of dye. Each square is stamped with one pattern repeated
several times. The shapes of the designs have special meaning and tell
about the person wearing them. For example, a spider web design means
wisdom and creativity, while a fence design means security and love.

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Fon Story Pictures: The Fon of Benin use story cloths to tell their history
and legends. Benin used to be called Dahomey and was once one of the
richest and most powerful kingdoms in West Africa. The kings asked
artisans to make colorful story banners and umbrellas to tell about their
history. These banners would hang behind the kings throne and the
umbrellas were used to shade him from the sun. Today, these banners
hang in many homes and can be bought in the African markets.
Story pictures are made with cotton cloth. Figures and objects are cut
from bold colors such as blue and red and then sewn on a background
that is usually black. The method used for sewing the figures on is called
appliqu. A popular design used on story cloths made for Dahomey kings
was the pineapple. Dahomey legend said that pineapples were never
struck by lightning.
Ndbele Bead Bracelets: The Nbdele live in Zimbabwe and the Republic of
South Africa. Southern Ndbele women are known for their handcrafted
beaded bracelets and other jewelry. They make threads from grasses and
string tiny glass beads together in rows. Women and children wear these
bracelets on their wrists and ankles everyday. In the past, young Nbdele
girls would begin wearing beaded necklaces and bracelets and would
never take them off. They would add more beaded jewelry as they got
older. On some special occasions, Nbdele women would wear up to 50
pounds of jewelry! Women do not wear as much jewelry today, but the
craft of making beaded jewelry is still popular.
Tutsi Basket: A common craft among the Tutsi is weaving coiled baskets.
Artisans collect long strands of dried grass and coil it around and around
and bind it together with thinner strands of grass.
Tutsi girls learn the art of basket weaving from their mother, grandmothers
and aunts. They weave many different kinds of baskets for different tasks.
Large storage baskets are woven to hold grain. The lids of these are
pointed to help keep insects out. Some baskets are made very small and
woven tightly together so children can drink milk from them.
To weave the baskets, artisans use flat strands of grass and weave them
over and under each other to form the bottom and sides of the basket.
Some grass strands are dyed with bark or fruit juices to add color. By
changing the color, amount and size of the strands, the weaver can
change the size and pattern of the basket.

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A popular game played by both adults and children in Kenya is called


Kigogo. The game is played by moving seeds or other markers on a
board that has 14 cups. Sometimes they make the game board by
digging small holes in the dirt or sand at the beach. Some Kigogo boards
are carved with intricate figurines on them. The game is played all over
Africa and is called other names such as mankala or mancala and oware.
The names mean transferring.
Islamic Art Boxes: When Arab armies conquered parts of Africa in the
17th century, they brought the Islamic religion with them. People who
practice this faith are called Muslims. Muslim artists do not show animals
or people in their art, so they use a lot of geometric shapes and mosaics.
Woodworkers carve designs on doors, walls, furniture and boxes. Islamic
art also shows flowers, leaves and Arabic writing.
Guro Animal Masks: The Guro live in wooded grasslands called savannas.
They create masks and costumes to wear for ceremonies and festivals
depicting elephants, antelope, water buffalo and hippos like those found in
their region. These masks are made for both
Some Ethiopian Foods
entertainment and spiritual reasons.

Foods
What did you have to eat for your last Thanksgiving
dinner? Did you have a turkey stuffed with dressing?
Bedouin Tribes in Africa make a certain stuffed meal
for special occasions too. To make this special dish,
you stuff a fish with egg. Sound easy enough? Wait!
You must then take the fish and stuff a chicken with
it. The chicken is then put into a sheep. Finally, the
sheep is stuffed into a camel and the whole thing is
roasted. That is quite a stuffing!
Africans raise cattle, pigs, chickens, and goats for
their food. Staple crops are food most commonly
used in Africa. These staples include corn, millet,
rice, peanuts, coffee, cocoa, and grains. In parts of
the savanna that are wet, farmers grow grains,
beans, sweet potatoes, soybeans, and more. Some
of these crops are sold for money, but the majority of
African farmers grow just enough crops to feed their
families.

Alecha

stew

Berbere

red paste with lots of


spices

Doro Wat

chicken Stew

Injera

pancake

Niter Kebbeh spicy butter


Shiro Wat

vegetable stew

Sik Sik Wat

beef stew

Teff

ancient grain of
Europe

Wat

stew

Tej

honey-based wine

Iab

lemon flavored cottage


cheese and yogurt

Talla

beer
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Another common food in Africa is fish. Africans use large nets and catch large
quantities of fish to both feed their families and ssell.
ell. In areas where meat and
staples are scarce, African people rely on herbs, roots, and berries as food.
Some popular African dishes include Cow Peas in Coconut, Vegetable Stew,
Cabbage and Eggs, Barbecue Chicken, Fruit Salad (with papaya, mango,
pineapple,
neapple, and banana), Chicken Stew, and Sweet Potato Fritters.
Like many large continents, the foods vary from country to country just like the
people, the land, and the climate.
For example, Ethiopia is known for spicy, simple dishes. Many of the foods
fo
in
Ethiopia are based on a grain called teff. Teff is made into dough used to make
breads eaten with stews and flatbread-like pancakes called injera.
njera. Sometimes
the bread made from teff is used in place of utensils stew is scooped up into a
piece of bread like it was a spoon! A typical Ethiopian meal would include wat, a
popular spicy dish similar to stew; butter flavored with onions, garlic, and ginger;
bread; and vegetable fritters. Common beverages with this meal are tej, a
honey-based wine, or talla, beer. Coffee sweetened with honey is usually drunk
at the end of the meal. Lab,
ab, similar to cottage cheese and yogurt blend flavored
with lemon and herbs, might be served for dessert.

Animals
Grassland biomes are divided into two groups, the sav
savanna
anna and temperate
grasslands. Savannas are warm, tropical grasslands scattered with individual
trees covering almost half of Africa. There are a wide range of
animals on the savannas of Africa.

Zebras are part of the same family as the horse and are
identified by their pattern of black or brown stripes.
Zebras have large heads, stiff manes, and stout bodies.
They are smaller than a large horse. The Plains Zebra,
found south of the Sahara, stands about 4 feet (120 cm)
tall at the shoulder, has small ears
ears, and very broad
stripes. Grevys Zebra weighs up to 600 pounds (270 kg) and stands as
tall as 5 feet (150 cm). Grevys Zebra has large, rounded ears and lots of
narrow stripes. Another zebra found in Africa is the Mountain Zebra.
Mountain Zebras resemble donkeys with their stout bodies and long ears.
Herds of as many as 200,000 zebras can be found on the Serengeti of
eastern Africa. Each herd is organized into family groups led by a stallion.
Zebras living on the plains mingle with other grazing animal
animals
s such as
antelopes and wildebeests. Zebras are fast runners, able to run up to 40
mph. Zebras have been hunted for their skins, but the Grevys and Plains
zebras are still found in large numbers across Africa.

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The rhinoceros is a huge animal with a large snout and one or two horns.
The skin on a rhino is very thick, hairless, and
sometimes very wrinkly. Rhinos have stout
legs and short feet with three toes each. Most
rhinos live near water and like to wallow in the
mud. They do not travel in herds, but tend
t
to
live alone, except for the small birds that feed
on parasites that living on the rhinoceross
skin. Now on the endangered species list, rhinos are not as numerous in
Africa as they used to be.

The African elephant is found south of the Sahara Deser


Desert.
Male African elephants, called bulls, can weigh six to eight
tons (5,400 to 7,200 kg). Their tusks are more than 10 feet
(3 m) long, weigh up to 200 pounds (90 kg), and are very
valuable, as they are ivory. Female African elephants,
called cows, are smaller
maller than males and their tusks are
more slender than the bulls. African elephants are known
for their enormous ears measuring up to 42 inches (107
cm) in diameter. Their long, wrinkly trunks separate into two fingerlike
ends, used as appendages to pic
pick
k up things. Elephants also use their
trunks to pick up food, pick food out of trees, draw water to drink and to
spray themselves, and to make loud, trumpeting sounds. Elephants eat
fruits, leaves, and tall grasses. They eat hundreds of pounds of food a day
da
and drink as much as 50 gallons (190 liters) of water! Elephants travel in
herds of as many as 100 bulls, cows, and calves. One strong, young bull
elephant leads elephant herds. Elephants walk at about 4 mph (6.4 km),
and can charge at about 30 mph (48 km).
Lions are large cats found on the open
plains, in African grasslands, and in the semi
desert. Their coats are of short brown hair and
their tails have short tufts of hair on the ends.
Most male lions have manes growing from their
head and necks. Male
le lions grow to 9 feet (2.7
m) long (including a 3 foot tail) and stand about 3
feet (90 cm) high. A grown male lion can weigh
as much as 400 pounds (180 kg). Female lions
do not have manes and are smaller in size. Lions are social cats and live
in groupss called prides of as many as 30 lions. Lions are meat eaters and
hunt zebras, antelope, and even domestic animals such as cows.

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Baboons are large monkeys that live in the grasslands and bush of Africa.
They have thick fur and some males have manes. B
Baboons
aboons are also
identified by their brightly colored buttocks! Baboons
eat fruit, seeds, roots, and small animals. They travel
in groups of 30 to 40, made up mostly of females.
They gather in large groups, called troops, of up to
350 baboons for protection
n and to sleep. Baboons are
fierce animals and tend to show no fear, even when
fighting off their fiercest enemy, the leopard.

The giraffe lives in the open savanna south of the


Sahara Desert. Giraffes are the tallest animals in the
world, measuring ab
about 18 feet (5.5 m) tall from his
head to his hoof. Their necks, which can be up to 7 feet
(2.1 m) long, help them to eat the leaves in the highest
branches. Giraffes also have long legs and can outrun
most of their enemies. Giraffes have been known to ki
killll a lion with just
one kick. The fur of a giraffe is light colored with large, dark, angular
spots. They have short horns on their heads covered in hair. Giraffes have
very long tongues that they use to grab food, mainly acacia and mimosa
leaves. Giraffes
es like to travel in small herds led by a male. They are one
of very few animals that cannot swim.

Conclusion
Africa is the land of diversity. With so many different and interesting people,
strange and fascinating animals and a geography that contains ev
everything
erything from
deserts to rainforests to snow
snow-capped
capped mountains there is definitely something of
interest there for everyone!

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Vocabulary
Amulet: an object or piece of jewelry supposed to provide protection against bad
luck or negative forces
Ancestor: a person from whom others are descended
Apartheid: laws designed to separate racial groups in South Africa and give
special privileges to whites
Artisan: a person skilled in making crafts
Authoritarian: an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes
oppressive measures against the population
Biomes: a division of the world's vegetation that corresponds to a defined
climate and is characterized by specific types of plants and animals
Calabash: a kind of fruit that grows on a vine, has a hard shell and looks like a
cucumber or squash
Colonized: to have settlers live in or form a colony in a foreign country
Continent: any one of seven large areas of land; Africa, Asia, North America,
Antarctica, Australia, Europe, and South America
Continental shelf: the ocean floor around a continent
Culture: the customs, ideas and traditions of a certain group of people
Democratic: characterized by free and equal participation in government or in
the decision-making processes of an organization or group
Demographic: characteristics and statistics of human population, especially its
size, growth, density, distribution, and statistics regarding birth, marriage,
disease, and death
Dialect: a type of language set apart from other varieties of the same language
by vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation
Dictatorship: a country or government ruled by a dictator
Diviner: a ritual leader qualified to conduct the art of divination
Diverse: very different or distinct from one another
Epidemic: an outbreak of a disease that spreads more quickly and more
extensively among a group of people than would normally be expected
Ethnic Group: a group of people with many things in common, such as
language, religion, and customs
Famine: a severe shortage of food resulting in widespread hunger
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the total value of all goods and services
produced within a country in a year, minus net income from investments in other
countries
Healer: a ritual leader endowed with the knowledge of herbal medicine by
inheritance and training
Indigenous: originating in and naturally living, growing, or occurring in a region or
country
Life Expectancy: the number of years one can be expected to live, according to
statistics
Medium: a person who claims to be endowed with the capability of being
possessed by a spirit
Metamorphic: relating to or involving a change in physical form, appearance, or
character
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Military Coup: A sudden overthrowing and seizure of a government by the


military
Mosaic: a picture or design made from small pieces of tile, wood or other
material
Muslim: a person who follows the Islamic religion
Nomads: people who move seasonally from place to place to search for food
and water or pasture for their livestock
Papyrus: a water plant with tall stems
Per Capita Income: average amount of money a person makes in one year
Plain: a large expanse of fairly flat dry land, usually with few trees
Plateau: an area of high ground with a fairly level surface
Rainforest: a large woody land receiving at least 100 inches of rain every year
Rainmaker: a person who claims to be endowed with the capability of effectively
praying for rain to fall and praying for it to stop
Republic: a political system or form of government in which people elect
representatives to exercise power for them
Rites: ceremonial, customary, and prescribed practices punctuating all aspects
of life in African religion
Rites of Passage: in African religion, the ceremonies, customs, and practices
performed in order to religiously enable people to move smoothly through the
turning points in their life
Rituals: the system of set procedures and actions of a group
Safari: a journey across a stretch of land, especially in Africa, for the purpose of
hunting or observing wild animals
Savanna: vast, grassland area

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Answer Key
Activity 1: Vocabulary
Vocabulary: As you go through this unit, learn a few new vocabulary words
each day and add them to your Line Up Books.
Answer:
See Page 45
Activity 2: Numbers of Africa
As you read about Africa on this study youll find many numbers from how
many countries, languages to different types of dances. Create a number fact
book and place them in numerical order.
Answer:
898 million people
1000 Languages spoken
54 Countries in Africa
11,687,183 total square miles
4600 miles from east to west
5000 miles from north to south

Activity 3: Mapping Africa


Africa is made up of 54 different countries. Locate each of them on the map
provided as well as any major landmarks such as rivers and mountains.
Answer:
There is a completed country map in between pages 8 and 9 in the guide
that shows how to put together and label the country map. Rivers and
landmarks to locate may include the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts, the
Nile, Niger and Congo Rivers, Lake Victoria, and Mt. Kilimanjaro.

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Activity 4: People Groups


What are the different groups of people and what classifies them as such?
Answer:
Sub-Saharan Africans One of the oldest and most diverse people
groups in Africa. This group contains many ethnic groups, including Igbo
and Yoruba, the Kikuyu, and the Zulu.
Pygmies This ethnic group includes the Aka, Mbuti, Efe, Twa, and other
groups. It is characterized by a very short stature.
Khoikho This group, like the San, used to live throughout south and east
Africa. They spoke with clicking sounds.
San The San lived in the same region as the Khoikho and also spoke
with clicking sounds.
Arabs This group of people settled in northern Africa in the late 1600s
and still lives in Egypt, Sudan and along the Mediterranean coast.
Berbers The Berbers have lived in north and west Africa for thousands
of years. Today they live in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Western
Sahara, Mali, and Niger.
Europeans Europeans from Britain, Holland and France settled in
various parts of Africa during the 1600s. Many Europeans today live
along the Mediterranean coast, in the Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe,
and east Africa.
Asians Many Asians from India settled in southern Africa during the
1800s. Today many of them live in Madagascar.
Activity 5: African Languages
There are many different languages spoken in Africa, however, there are
some that are spoken more often and fluently then the others. What are they?
Answer:
Arabic This is a native language to the Middle East and was brought to
northern Africa with Arabic settlers over 400 years ago. Arabic is the most
widely-spoken language in Africa.
Swahili This native language is based on the Bantu language but also
borrows from Arabic, English, German and Portuguese. It is spoken
mostly by people in west and central Africa.
Hausa Like Arabic, this is an Afro-Asian language and is spoken by
many people in northern Africa.

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Activity 6: Swahili Words


What are the Swahili words for some of the common English words?
Answer:
My mother- mzaa
Father- abu
Sister- dada
Brother- ahi
Tree- mti
Sky- anga
Friend- mtani
Hello- jambo
Good bye- alamsiki
Activity 7: How Many Languages?
Do a survey of the number of languages a person speaks. Do the people in
your survey reflect the same bilingual state of many African people?
Answer:
Answers will vary based on your results.

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Activity 8: Government
Give an overview of the government and compare it to your countrys
government.
Answer:
African Government:
Most are republics
Some are dictatorships
Many are unstable
Taken over by military coups
Human rights often abused
Few are democracies
Your Government:
Answers may vary based on your government. Below are some answers
for a democracy:
Policies, rules and laws made by the people
Citizens can vote
Citizens can speak out
Both:
Answers may vary based on your government. For a democracy:
Headed by a president or leader
(Some African countries) Elections take place

African Government Synopsis:


Many of Africas countries have had very unstable governments for
several years. Most governments are republics and are headed by a
president with the power to make laws. Many governments are
authoritarian and fairly violent. Because of weak leaders, epidemics and
famine are widespread throughout Africa. Some countries have attempted
democracy, but few have succeeded. Today, African countries are
starting to become stronger and to lean on each other rather than
depending on European aid.

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Activity 9: African Regions


Create a fact book on the 8 major regions.
Answer:
Ethiopian Highlands home to 80% of Africas tallest mountains, which have
sheltered the area from enemy attack. Ethiopia is the only African country
that has never been colonized. Its government is a federal republic and its
population is over 64,000,000. This region is plagued by drought about
every 10 years which causes great famine.
Great Lakes Region located in the central and eastern part of Africa and
home to the worlds largest freshwater lakes. Kenya is located in this
region and is the most famous safari destination. The Great Rift Valley
and Mt. Kenya are also located here.
Rainforest home to more than half of Africas wildlife. Over 90% of the
rainforest has been wiped out by road construction, farming and
deforestation. It is located in the west central area of Africa.
Governments in this area are torn between protecting the rainforest and
providing jobs and income for their people.
Sahara Desert Region the worlds largest hot desert at 3.3 million
square miles. This desert makes up 25% of the continent of Africa. It acts
as a barrier between the Arab majority north and the black south African
countries. It stretches from Egypt to Morocco, which is cut off from the
rest of Africa by the Atlas Mountains.
Sahel Region a narrow band just south of the Sahara. It includes
Sudan, which is the largest country in Africa. It has a violent mix of
Muslim Arabs and animist or Christian blacks, and has been an area of
civil war and unstable government for many years. It is one of the poorest
and most environmentally damaged areas in the world.
Savanna this is a Great Plains region with grasslands that are home to
animals like zebras, wildebeests, buffalo and giraffes. It is home to some
of Africas largest wildlife populations. Mt. Kilimanjaro is also found here.
South African Region The climate here ranges from the Kalahari Desert
to tropical areas along the coast. The flat grasslands are called velds,
which is the Dutch word for field. Many groups of people live here,
including Zulu, Bantu and Xhosa tribes as well as people of Dutch and
British descent. Some of the worlds largest animals live in southern
Africa including elephants, lions, leopards, buffalos and rhinos.
Swahili Coast this area is located on the southeastern side of Africa
along the Indian Ocean. In ancient times this coast was by Arabs, Greeks
and Romans who came in search of slaves. It is known both for beautiful
beaches and for a violent history.

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Activity 10: Sahara Desert


Describe the Sahara Desert.
Answer:
The Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world and covers about 3.3
million square miles. It is located in the northern section of Africa and
covers about 25% of the continent. Although most people in Africa do not
live in the desert, the groups that do live there include the Tuaregs, Arabs,
Berbers, Tubus and Moroccans. Most of the people that live there are
descendants of the caravan merchants that came looking for gold.
Camels are used to travel through the desert most of the time, but now
people are using trucks as well.
Activity 11: Main Religions
What are the main beliefs of each of the 3 main religions?
Answer:
Christian about 40% of Africa is Christian. Christianity teaches that God
created the world and that he sent his son Jesus to die for us on the cross
when we disobeyed Him. The holy scripture of Christianity is the Bible,
which is Gods Word.
Muslim about 40% of Africa is Muslim, which means follower of Islam
(submission to Allah). Muslims follow Allah and the holy scripture of
Christianity is the Koran or Quran. The main teaching is that Muhammad
is a messenger that Allah revealed his plan for mankind to.
African about 20% of Africans practice traditional religions. They do not
worship at a church and no one person is looked to as the founder. Their
beliefs center around nature myths and parables to explain why things are
the way they are. The stories are passed down from older people to the
younger people of the village and ceremonies are led by leaders like
priests and healers.

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Activity 12: Ritual Leaders


What are the names and responsibilities of the 6 types of ritual leaders?
Answer:
Rulers political and religious leaders. In African religions, the village or
kingdom ruler is also the religious leader. They are bound by obligation
and taboos.
Priests ritual leaders who are in charge of religious matters.
Mediums people who communicate with the spirit world. They are
usually women and are attached to a priest at temple or to a diviner.
Diviner people who unveil the unknown to try to solve problems.
Healers people who have a great knowledge of herbal medicines and
help the health and well-being of the people in the community.
Rainmakers specialists in religious matters related to rain. They
determine why the rain falls, why there is too much or not enough of it,
and perform rituals to make sure rain will fall at the right time.
Activity 13: Traditional Religion
What are the six things traditional African religion has in common regardless
of the region?
Answer:
All things are part of a whole
There is a Supreme Being
There are lesser gods and guardian spirits
Humans are imperfect and always will be
Rituals to satisfy an offended god may solve problems
Human society is communal
Activity 14: African Holiday Celebration
Choose one of the holiday celebrations in Africa and create a brochure for the
celebration of it.
Answer:
Answers will vary based on what holiday celebration is chosen and what
research is completed.

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Activity 15: Africas Economy


Agriculture, manufacturing, and mining: What is the role of each in Africas
economy?
Answer:
Agriculture plays the leading role in African economy. Farm equipment
is outdated and much of the soil is thin and poor so it is very difficult to
make a living this way.
Manufacturing there is a lack of money to build factories and a lack of
skilled workers. African manufacturing has a hard time competing with
that of other countries.
Mining there are many resources and huge mines in Africa, but the
mines are owned by foreign companies and the profits do not benefit the
African people.
Activity 16: Music
What is the role of music in Africa?
Answer:
Music plays an important part in African religion, healing, and celebrations.
It is also used for entertainment, much like music in America or other
countries. Music has been used in various rituals for hundreds or even
thousands of years.
Activity 17: African Craft
Choose a traditional craft African and attempt it to create one yourself. Did
your attempt resemble the original? After creating it do you understand why
the people use it as they do?
Answer:
Answers will vary based on craft chosen. Instructions are given in the
guide for the following projects:
Senufo Mud Painting
Asante Adinkra Stamping
Fon Story Pictures
Ndbele Bead Bracelets
Tutsi Basket
Kigogo Game
Islamic Art Boxes
Guro Animal Masks

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Activity 18: Holiday Meal Prep


Compare the preparation of your average Thanksgiving dinner to the
preparation of different African holiday meals.
Answer:
Thanksgiving: list your familys preparation for Thanksgiving (or another
celebration meal if outside America)
African holiday meals: a Bedouin holiday dish includes stuffing a fish with
egg, stuffing a chicken with the fish, stuffing a sheep with the chicken,
stuffing a camel with the sheep, and roasting the entire meal.
Activity 19: Staple Crops
What are the staple crops for many African farmers?
Answer:
Coffee grown for export
Cocoa grown for export
Millet grown mainly to feed their family, some export
Peanuts - grown mainly to feed their family, some export
Soybeans grown in the wet parts of savanna, mainly to feed their family
Sweet Potatoes - grown in the wet parts of savanna, mainly to feed their
family
Corn grown mainly to feed their family
Rice grown mainly to feed their family
Activity 20: African Farming
How does farming differ for African farmers then for farmers in your country?
How many people are they providing for?
Answer:
African farming differs from many other parts of the world because they
are often using outdated tools on poor soil. Many times the farmer can
only grow enough food to feed his family, although sometimes enough can
be grown to export.

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Activity 21: Common Food


Learn the words for common food items.
Answer:
Alecha
stew
Berbere
red paste with lots of spices
Doro Wat
Chicken Stew
Injera
pancake
Niter Kebbeh Spicy butter
Shiro Wat
Vegetable stew
Sik Sik Wat Beef stew
Teff
Ancient grain of Europe
Wat
stew
Tej
honey-based wine
Iab
lemon flavored cottage
cheese and yogurt
Talla
Beer

Activity 22: Cities of South Africa


Compare the large cities of South Africa to the large cities of your country.
Answer:
South Africa: They have high-rise buildings, shopping malls, restaurants
and parks. People get around by taxi, bus or tuk tuk, which is a cart that is
pulled by another person. The homes are often new and large and are
lived in by one family.
Your Country: Answers will vary based on where you live.

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