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Underexcitatlon Limlter Models for Power System Stability Studies

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IEEE Task Force on Excitation Limiters

Energy Development and Power Generation Committee

Abstract - Underexcitation limiter models suitable for use

i n large scale power system stability studies are presented.

These models are compatible with current IEEE

recommended excitation system models.

Using these

models, it is expected that most underexcitation limiters in

use on large system-connected synchronous machines can be

represented.

Keywords: excitation systems, excitation limiters, excitation

models, voltage regulators. power system stability.

INTRODUCTION

Most modern voltage regulators employed on large

synchronou! machines have the capability to do much more

than just regulate machine terminal voltage to a preset level.

These voltage regulators typically employ various auxiliary

control, limiting, and protective devices which are designed

to enhance performance and reliability. The voltage

regulator limiting functions generally have no effect on

excitation output during most normal operating conditions.

It is only during severe conditions in which the excitation

system, synchronous machine, or power system have been

pushed near or beyond defined operating limits that these

limiters act to modify excitation output.

Simulation programs used to evaluate power system

performance and stability typically include the capability of

representing the excitation systems of synchronous

machines. Increasing the complexity of the excitation

system model used on each synchronous machine i n a

simulation study by representing one or more of these

limiters of course increases the complexity and data

requirements of the overall study.

Paper preparation was coordinated by J.D. Hurley with contributions from

J.C. Agee (Chairman). R.E. Beaulieu. G.R. BBNM, J.D. Hurley.

C.R. Mummert. A. Murdoch. J.R. Ribeiro. and R.C. Schaefer.

95 WM 050-5 EC

by the IEEE Energy Development and Power Generation

Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for

presentation at the 1995 IEEE/PES Winter Meeting,

January 29, to February 2, 1995, New York, NY.

Manuscript submitted July 26, 1994; made available

for printing December 6, 1994.

reach a limiter's characteristic. then the simulation results

will typically be the same whether or not the limiter is

represented. If the results show excursions beyond the

limiter's characteristic, then the limiter model should be

added if the excitation system output response is important

i n the study results. When limiter models are applied, it is

important that they be correctly represented with accurate

model constants for each particular synchronous machine.

limiter (UEL) models which can be applied to the excitation

system models of syiichronous machines. The task force

participants have attempted to obtain all available UEL

models from manufacturers and users. so that the resulting

models presented in this paper allow UEL representation for

excitation systems of various designs and manufacturers.

The excitation system models presented in IEEE Standard

42 1.5- 1992, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Excitation

System Models for Power System Stability Studies,"[ 13

incorporate inputs (labeled VUEL) to which the outputs of

the UEL models presented in this paper can be connected.

UEL APPLICATIONS

An underexcitation limiter (UEL) acts to boost excitation

whenever it senses a condition in which excitation level is

determined to be too low. Its output signal either adds to or

overrides the normal action of the voltage regulator to

control excitation level. A UEL is typically applied for one

or both of the following purposes:

0

To prevent operation which jeopardizes stability of the

synchronous machine or could lead to loss of

synchronism due to insufficient excitation. or

0

the stator end region of the synchronous machine,

typically defined by the lower portion of the machine

capability curve.

reductions in excitation of the synchronous machine can be

caused by a number of reasons, including the following:

0

The operator or plant computer may purposely or

inadvertently reduce the machine excitation by

lowering the voltage regulator control setpoint.

525

0

voltage, causing the voltage regulator to reduce

excitation in an attempt to keep the synchronous

machine terminal voltage at its preset level by

absorbing reactive power.

There may be a fault in the voltage regulator or its

sensing circuits which results in an inadvertent

reduction in excitation below its normal level.

excitation of an on-line synchronous machine will result in

the machine absorbing more and more reactive power, until

the stability limit or the machine stator end region heating

limit, or both, are exceeded.

If the concern is stability, insufficient excitation for a

particular loading condition may lead to the synchronous

machine field being so weak that the machine may pull out

of synchronism with the power system and have to be

tripped. Fig. 1 shows the case of a generator connected to an

infinite system through an external reactance Xe. In order

for the machine to stay in synchronism, certain relationships

between terminal voltage. real power, and reactive power,

must exist.

papers cover the derivation of the steady state stability limit.

Fig. 1 summarizes this stability limit which assumes

excitation is held constant as machine quantities vary.2

Consider a machine operating initially at point A, and the

operator is manually controlling excitation for constant

reactive power output. If the turbine power output is

gradually increased, the operating point of the machine will

tend to move along the line AB. After crossing the curve at

point B'. continued increase in turbine power output would

eventually cause the machine to pull out of synchronism.

Another condition that might cause loss of synchronism

could be produced by a change in the reactive requirements

of the system, such as an increase in system voltage, causing

the machine to absorb more reactive power and move its

operating point along the line AC. In this case the machine

would begin pulling out of synchronism after the operating

point crossed point C'.

A third condition might involve the operator lowering

excitation and thus reducing machine terminal voltage and

causing more reactive power to be absorbed. In this case the

operating point would follow curve AC, with the machine

beginning to lose synchronism when crossing point C", since

the steady state stability limit is reduced because of the

reduced terminal voltage.

The constant excitation steady state stability limit curve in

Fig. 1 assumes no excitation feedback control such as exists

with the voltage regulator in service. The actual steady state

stability limit due to the steady state and dynamic regulating

action of the voltage regulator in service may actually be

beyond the constant excitation stability limit, depending

upon the excitation system and power system dynamic

characteristics. In this case, the stability limit will typically

be characterized by undamped or growing oscillatory

behavior which may lead to loss of synchronism.

Constant Excitation

Underexcitation Limiter Characteristics.

I

stability limit as a basis for a UEL setting if the UEL

operates with the voltage regulator in the automatic control

mode. Even though a voltage regulator may allow stable

machine operation beyond the steady state stability limit. this

limit is often used as a benchmark for stable underexcited

operation, because: (1) a certain degree of additional margin

can be desirable between the actual stability limit and the

UEL limit, (2) if the transmission system is weakened, the

actual stability limit may indeed be closer to the normal

constant excitation stability limit, and (3) the loss of field

relay setting may also be based on this steady state stability

limit. and it is important to properly coordinate the UEL

setting with the loss of field relay to assure that limiting

occurs before tripping.

526

While the UEL may be applied for the purpose of limiting

steady state excitation to prevent exceeding underexcited

operating limits. it also has dynamic characteristics which

are important in its operation.

For example, if there is a sudden reduction in generator

excitation which requires UEL action, there will likely be a

transient undershoot of reactive power beyond the UEL

limits before the effect of UEL boosting is seen at the

synchronous machine terminals. Also, if the synchronous

machine is driven into the UEL limit and remains there,

then damping of synchronous machine oscillations may be

quite dependent on the UEL dynamic characteristics.

These examples. among others. illustrate the importance of

proper UEL models in those simulations where UEL action

has a significant effect on system performance. UEL models

presented in this paper will allow representation of the UEL

dynamic characteristics, Just as with the excitation system

models to which they are applied, these UEL models

typically have a limited bandwidth up to about 3 Hz.

UEL MODEL IMPLEMENTATION

The UEL typically senses either a combination of voltage

and current of the synchronous machine or a combination of

real and reactive power. The limits are typically determined

by the combination of signals crossing a reference level or

characteristic. When the reference level or characteristic is

crossed. either a non-linear element. such as a diode, begins

to conduct and allows the UEL signal to become a part of the

control of the excitation system or the UEL output exceeds

some low-level limit of zero to begin to boost excitation.

Fig. 2 shows an example of how the output of the UEL

model can interface with an excitation systetn model. This

example shows two possible inputs for the UEL output

(VUEL) as applied to a Type DClA excitation system

model.[l] Where alternate UEL inputs are shown in an

excitation system model, only one of these inputs would be

used for each application.

=K

+ ST,

through a diode) in an auctioneering circuit, so called

becauqe the highest 'bidding' input wins control. In the

excitation system model for this type of equipment, the

auctioneering circuit is represented by a High Value (HV)

gate. When the UEL output exceeds the normal voltage

regulator output, the UEL takes over control, replacing the

normal voltage regulator signal.

an additional input signal to the voltage regulator error

summing junction, and thus the automatic voltage regulator

signal is not completely replaced. Under normal conditions

when the UEL is not limiting, VUEL would typically be

zero. When limiting occurs, VUEL will increase above zero

and provide a boost signal to the voltage regulator summing

junction. In this type of application, the UEL gain should be

sufficient to overcome the possible bucking effect. of the

voltage regulator.

Since most UEL applications operate as a control system

replacing or supplementing the automatic voltage regulator

control, the UEL may have an additional input from one of

the variables associated with the exciter to provide damping.

On specific installations, the exciter may have characteristics

which do not require a separate damping signal. but in

general the damping is required. The damping and gain of

the UEL are often set to slow the action of the limiting so

that the transfer from the automatic voltage regulator control

to the UEL control is stable and does not cause oscillations

in the synchronous machine output. These effects often

delay the limiting action of the UEL during the first transient

voltage swings following a disturbance. In some transient

situations. the automatic voltage regulator may remain in

control of the voltage for the first second of response before

the UEL begins to control. especially if the automatic voltage

regulator is attempting to boost voltage.

RECOMMENDED UEL MODELS

In an attempt to encompass a wide range of UEL

applications. three UEL models have been developed.

Although UEL designs utilize various types of input sensing

and signal processing, their limiting characteristics are

usually plotted in terms of real and reactive power on MVar

vs. MW axes, although in many cases the specified limit in

terms of MW and MVar is terminal voltage dependent.

These models represent the following types of UEL limiting

characteristics as displayed on MVar vs. MW axes:

0

527

The type UELl model has a circular limit boundary when

plotted in terms of machine reactive power vs. real power

output, similar to the limiter setting shown in Fig. 1. The

type UELl model is shown in Fig. 3. The phasor inputs of

IT and VT are synchronow machine terminal output current

and voltage with both magnitude and phase angle of these ac

quantities sensed.

Fig. 4 illustrates how the limiting characteristic can be

derived from the model parameters. Limiting occurs

whenever V u c exceeds V m . KUR determines the radius of

the UEL limit such that VUR has a pre-determined

magnitude and is also proportional to the magnitude of

machine terminal voltage VT. KUC determines the center of

the UEL limit. When KUC multiplied by the phasor of

quantity of VT is summed with the phasor quantity -jIT. the

resulting magnitude V u c determines whether or not the

machine operating point has reached the UEL limit.

Absorbing more reactive power (0) or sending more real

power (P) increaqes VUC and results in the machine

operating point moving toward the circular UEL limit.

Since the type UELl model derives the operating point using

IT and compares it with a radius and center proportional to

VT, this model essentially represents a UEL which utilizes a

circular apparent impedance characteristic as its limit. Since

machine loss of field relays often utilize a similar circular

impedance characteristic, this type of UEL generally allows

close coordination with a loss of field relay. Also, the UEL

limit boundaries in terms of P and Q vary with V.r2. just as

the steady state stability limit varies with V T ~ so

, the UEL

limit changes as terminal voltage variations alter the steady

state stability limit.

UEL NOT

'

the UEL feeding the voltage regulator summing junction).

When conditions are such that the UEL limit is exceeded,

VUC > V m and the UEL error signal Vuerr becomes

positive. This will drive the UEL output in the positive

direction, and if the gain is sufficient, the UEL output will

take over control of the voltage regulator to boost excitation

to move the operating point back toward the UEL limit.

The VF input to the type UELl model allows provision for

an excitation system stabilizer signal from the voltage

regulator which can be used for damping of oscillations.

for one manufacturer's brushless or static excitation system.

as applied to the HV gate input of a type AClA or STlA

excitation system modell. The limiter setting is based upon

the steady state stability limit for a generator synchronous

reactance x d = 1.76 p.u. and an external reactance Xe =

Under normal conditions when the UEL is not limiting, 0.30 p.u.:

KUC = 1.38 p.u. Km = 1.95 p.u. Tu2 = 0.05 sec.

VUC < V m and the UEL error signal Vuerr shown i n Fig.

KUF = 3.3 P.U.

KUL = 100 P.U. K u = 0

3 is negative. When amplified by the proportional ( K n )

and integral ( K u ) functions, the UEL output will either be

VUR"

= Vucmax = 5.8 P.U.

TUl= Tu3 = Tu4 = 0

VULM~=-~~~.U.

VULMAX = 18 P.U.

negative (in the case of the UEL output feeding a HV gate)

528

TYPE UEL2 MODEL

Fig. 5 shows the type UEL2 model. It has a linear limit

boundary when plotted in terms of machine reactive power

output (QT) vs. real power output (PT). The model inputs of

PT and QT can be left as is (unaffected by terminal voltage

VT) by setting the exponential constant kl= 0. If instead the

UEL senses the real and reactive components of machine

current IT, the model input values PT and QT can be divided

by VT using kl= 1. Similarly, PT and QT can be divided by

V T using

~

kl=2 in the model.

Under normal conditions when the UEL is not limiting. the

UEL error signal Vuerr shown in Fig. 5 is negative. When

amplified by the proportional ( K n ) and integral ( K u )

functions, the UEL output will either be negative (in the case

of the UEL output feeding a HV gate) or limited to zero by

the UEL output limiter (in the case of the UEL feeding the

voltage regulator summing junction).

The type UEL2 model also allows provision for a separate When conditions are such that the UEL limit is exceeded,

input from machine terminal voltage VT with k2=1 or V T ~ Vuerr becomes positive. This will drive the UEL output in

with k2=2. If k2=0. then F2 = 1 and this path simply the positive direction, and if the gain is sufficient, the UEL

becomes a constant reference input via K w . similar to output will take over control of the voltage regulator to boost

excitation to move the operating point back toward the UEL

constant Vuoref. which can be used to bias the UEL limit.

limit.

Fig. 6 illustrates how the type UEL2 limiting characteristic

can be derived from the model parameters. Limiting occurs The type UEL2 model allows provision for input from

whenever specified proportions of the real and leading machine field voltage (EFD) through a rate-sensing function

reactive components of machine terminal conditions (which which can be used for damping of oscillations. Similarly,

may be modified by VT) exceed a reference value which may the lag and lead functions represented by TU1 through Tu4

may be appropriately adjusted in certain applications to

or may not also be modified by VT. The values of KUQ.

K u p and K w determine the distance from the origin and provide damping.

40

VARS

OUT(+)

(GARS)

F2using

= IAlternatively. PT can be dividcd by VT or VT (by

k=l or k=2. respectively) and then multiplied by the same

factor after the appropriatc limit segment is established for

the machine operating point. Switch SWI determines which

segment is uscd as the limit at any particular time. based on

the value of V u p dcrivcd from thc machine real power

output (PT).

4=

type UEL2 model. but instead of having one linear limit linc.

the type UEL3 model allows up to four linear segments to

make up the limit boundary when plotted in terms of

machine reactive power output (QT) vs. real power output

(PT). UELs represented by the type UEL3 modcl attcmpt to

follow the underexcited portion of thc machine capability

curve or the steady state stability limit more closely than can

the type UEL2 model.

In determining the UEL limit boundary. thc modcl input PT

can be left as is (unaffected by terminal voltage VT) by

can be dcrived from thc model paramcters. This illustration

shows an cxample of a two-segment UEL characteristic, but

the concepts are the same for UELs with different number of

segments. Limiting occurs whenever specified proportions

40

[ Nofe:Assumes VT = 1 P.u., VUOref= 01

(VARS)

VARS

OUT(+)

vlJPl

QCT

-PT-aOP.

(WATTS)

I

I

I

PT.

I I

IJEL 1

dPIdQ = KU P2

KtiQ

,

c

*e

Fig. 8. Examplc of Typc UEL3 Multi-Scgment Limiting Charactcristic Using Two Segments

530

of the real (which may be modified by VT) and leading

reactive components of machine terminal conditions exceed

the reference value (VUref) for the appropriate limiting

segment. The limiting segment which applies for any

particular operating point depends upon the real power level,

optionally modified by terminal voltage. The values of

KUQ, along with K u p and VUref for each limit segment.

determine the placement and slopes of the UEL limit

boundary. Absorbing more reactive power (QT) or sending

more real power (PT) results in the machine operating point

moving toward the UEL limit.

Under normal conditions when the UEL is not limiting, the

UEL error signal Vuerr shown in Fig. 7 is negative. When

amplified by the proportional ( K n ) and integral (KuI)

functions, the UEL output will either be negative (in the case

of the UEL output feeding a HV gate) or limited to zero by

the UEL output limiter (in the case of the UEL feeding the

voltage regulator summing junction).

When conditions are such that the UEL limit is exceeded.

Vuerr becomes positive. This will drive the UEL output i n

the positive direction, and if the gain is sufficient. the UEL

output will take over control of the voltage regulator to boost

excitation to move the operating point back toward the limit.

If appropriate, the lag and lead functions represented by Tu1

through Tu4 may be applied to provide damping.

during conditions of the study.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

[ 11 IEEE Std. 42 1.5- 1992. IEEE Recommended Practice.for

Studies.

[2] Carleton J.T., Bobo P.O.. and Burt D.A.. "Minimum

Excitation Limit For Magnetic Amplifier Regulating

System", AIEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and

Svstenls. Vol. PAS-73. Aug. 1954. pp. 869-874.

[3] Rubenstein A.S. and Temoshok, M., "Underexcited

Reactive Ampere Limit of Modern Amplidyne Voltage

Regulator", AIEE Transaction 011 Power Apparatus arid

Systems, Vol. PAS-13. Dec. 1954. pp. 1433-1438.

[4] Landgren G.L.. "Extended Use of Generator Reactive

Capability By a Dual Underexcitation Limiter", IEEE

Transactioiis on Power Apparatus and Systems. Vol.

PAS-99, JuVAU~.1980, pp. 1381-1385.

[5] Cawson W.F. and Brown H.E.. "Digital Computation of

Synchronous Generator Pullout Characteristics", AIEE

T~ansactioris011 Power Apparatus aiid Systems, Vol.

PAS-78. Feb. 1959,pp.. 1315-1318.

for one manufacturer's bus-fed static excitation system, as [ 6 ]

applied to the voltage error summing junction of a type

STlA excitation system modell:

Vup1 = 0.3 p.u.

VUlref= 0.31 P.U. KUpl = 0

[7]

Vuzref= 0.34 P.U. Kup2 = 0.10 P.U. Vup2 = 0.6 P.U.

V ~ 3 ~ 0.42

f = P.U. Kup3 = 0.233 P.U. Vup3 = 0.9 P.U.

V ~ 4 ~ 1.86

~ f P.U.

= Kup4 = 1.833 P.U. k = 2

KUQ = 1 P.U.

KUI = 0.5 P.U.

KUL = 0.8 P.U.

TUV = 5.0 sec.

[8]

TUP = 5.0 sec.

T U ~ ~ = T U P ~ = T U ~ ~ = T U P ~ = T U ~ = u4=

T U ~0 = T U ~ =

V U L =~Vulmax

~ ~ = 0.25 P.U.

V&ref= 0

Vu~max'2.0 P.U Vusmin=-2.0 P.U. V ~ ~ m i l 1 = V ~ l I n 0i n =

"' Qr=

CONCLUSION

This paper presents three different UEL models. which

should allow the representation of a wide variation in UEL

designs.

These models are compatible for use with

excitation system models presented in Reference 1.

The UEL models presented i n this paper are limited i n

nature and do not necessarily represent all the functional

detail of the actual electronic equipment. These limiter

models are not normally included i n stability study models

and widespread usage is not anticipated. However, the

models will be usefbl on specific excitation installations in

Machines". IEEE Transaction on Power Apparatus and

Sy.stenis. Vol. PAS-94, Sep/Oct. 1975. pp. 1457-1463.

Nagy I.. "Analysis of Minimum Excitation Limits of

Synchronous Machines". IEEE Transactions on PAS,

Vol. PAS-89. JulIAug. 1970. pp. 1001-1008.

Anderson H.C.. Simmons H.O., and Woodrow C.A.,

"Systems Stability Limitations and Generator Loading",

AIEE Transactions on Power Apparatus aiid Systems,

Vol. PAS-72, June 1953. pp. 406-423.

Amplidyne Voltage Regulator on Underexcited

Operalion of Large Turbine Generators", AIEE Transactioiis 011 PAS, Vol. PAS-71, Aug. 1952. pp. 692-691.

[ 101 Estcourt. Holley, Johnson. and Light. "Underexcited

Vol. PAS-72, No. 4, Feb. 1953. pp. 16-22.

[ 1 I ] Ribeiro J.R.. "Minimum Excitation Limiter Effects on

Traiisactions 011 Eiiergy Conversion, Vol. 6 , No. 1.

March 1991, pp. 29-38.

531

APPENDIX

NOMENCLATURE

IT - Synchronous machine terminal current

K u ~- UEL center setting

KUF - UEL excitation system stabilizer gain

K u - UEL integrator gain

KUL - UEL proportional gain

KUQ - UEL reactive power multiplier

KUR - UEL radius setting

PT

SWl - UEL linear segment selector switch

Tu2. Tu4 - UEL lag time constants

TUF - UEL excitation system stabilizer time constant

TUP - UEL real power filter time constant

TUQ - UEL reactive power filter time constant

TUV - UEL voltage filter time constant

VF - Excitation system stabilizer output

VT - Synchronous machine terminal voltage

VT' - Filtered synchronous machine terminal voltage

V u c - UEL center plus operating point phasor magnitude

VUEL - UELoutpUt

Vuerr - UEL error signal

VUOref - UEL linear offset reference

~ f segment reference

V u 1ref. V ~ 2 ~Vf ~. 3 ~ f . V u 4- UEL

VUImax. Vulmin - UEL integrator output limits

V U L ~ VULmin

~ ~ . - UEL output limits

Vupl , Vup2. Vup3 - UEL segment transition levels

VUR - UEL radius phasor magnitude

Vusmax. Vusmin - UEL switch output limits

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