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Thank you, Dr. Hennessey, for that introduction. And thanks to all my many friends and
colleagues here at Stanford for the opportunity to be with you today. It’s a special privilege for
me to give the Sidney Drell Lecture, and I need to tell you why.
I began my career in elementary particle physics, and the classic textbook in relativistic
quantum field theory was Bjorken and Drell, entitled Relativistic Quantum Fields, which
described the first of what are known as gauge field theories, namely, quantum electrodynamics.
Here is my copy of Bjorken and Drell, with my hand markings in the margins.
For my doctorate in theoretical physics, I worked on quantum chromodynamics, a gauge
field theory of the force by which quarks are held together to make sub-nuclear particles. And at
Oxford University’s department of theoretical physics, the external thesis examiner for my
doctorate was none other than Sidney Drell.
When I visited the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in subsequent years as a post-doc,
I remember sitting on the porch of the rambling ranch house right here on the Stanford campus
that Sid and Harriet Drell lived in. As post-docs tend to do, I would hang around their house at
dinnertime hoping that Harriet would invite me in to dinner, which she usually did. Sometimes
their daughter Persis would be there, who is now, of course, the dean of engineering here at
Stanford University.
A few years later, Sid was assisting the assembly of a team of scientists for the U.S.
Congress on a topic that preoccupied Cold War Washington at the time: how to base the tenwarhead MX intercontinental ballistic missile so that it could not be destroyed in a first strike by
3,000 equivalent megatons of Soviet throw-weight atop their SS-18 missile. He recommended
that I join this team. Sid Drell was an inspiration to all those who worked in those years to
control the danger of nuclear weapons. This was the beginning of my involvement in national
security affairs.
At about that time, I got to meet the then-Under Secretary of Defense in charge of
technology and procurement for the Department of Defense. He impressed me with how lucid
and logical he was, and how well he applied technical thinking to national security problems.
That Under Secretary was of course William Perry, who is also present here today, and who later
became Deputy Secretary of Defense and finally Secretary of Defense in a progression that I
have followed some 20 years later. Bill has been a major figure in my life, including standing in
for my father at my wedding.
So I thank both Sid Drell and Bill Perry, and many, many other colleagues and friends
here at CISAC, at the Freeman Spogli Institute, at the Hoover Institution, and in the engineering
faculty. I especially thank everyone for their warm welcome for me as a visitor earlier this
academic year. Not quite two months into it, on a fateful Monday morning in November,
though, duty called. And I found myself nominated by President Obama to be Secretary of


to ensure they’re treated with dignity and respect. And it’s made many things easier. 2 . Indeed. And my third commitment is to the future – to stay ahead of a changing world. it’s done with the utmost care. and government sectors worked together as partners. academic. and safer to threaten them. health care. The same Internet that enables Wikipedia also allows terrorists to learn how to build a bomb. and individual people who rely on them every day…making it easier. to stay aware of new generations and attract them to our mission of serving the nation.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY When I became Secretary. And the same technologies we use to target cruise missiles and jam enemy air defenses can be used against our own forces – and they’re now available to the highest bidder. and above all to ensure that when they’re sent into harm’s way. The first is to the troops and to their families – to safeguard them. education. civil. and safer. battle networks. planes. by working together. industry. we’ve had a long history of partnership. This brings me to my question for today: how do we mitigate the risk that comes with such technology while simultaneously unleashing its promise and potential? How do we protect not just the freedom the Internet affords and the new opportunities to advance human welfare that technology enables. and private-sector experts paved the way to a future of precision-guided munitions. cheaper. MY QUESTION The Question Raised By Technology and Innovation Over the years. and finally that his decisions are carried out with DoD’s expected excellence. it’s become clear that these same advances and technologies also present a degree of risk to the businesses. to stay competitive. infrared cameras. and bombs that won the war. militaries. history shows us that we’ve succeeded in finding solutions to these kinds of tough questions when our commercial. transportation. I’ve seen products developed here in Silicon Valley and throughout the tech community enable boundless transformation. Another was during the Cold War. and the best of industry cranked out the ships. Looking out over the last 75 years. tanks. or the GPS signals that provide navigation not only for ridesharing apps like Uber and Lyft. cheaper. Sometimes the bonds between the academy. I made three commitments. progress. We find the alignment in open partnership. And how we achieve that alignment isn’t new. But in recent years. to ensure at the same time that he receives candid military advice. and to stay abreast of technology – the topic of this lecture. and defense were particularly close…like during World War II. Today. when the Manhattan Project and the MIT Radiation Lab brought together our brightest minds. but also our country? The Answer is Partnership The key is to ensure an alignment… between a defense that leverages our strengths – like our robust and independent business and academic communities – and that reflects our nation’s values and longstanding traditions…and a defense that is effective in a changing future. The second commitment is to President Obama – to offer him my best strategic advice as he faces a complex world. we must and can do the same. II. opportunity and prosperity…across all sectors of our economy and society – commerce. but also our aircraft carriers and our smart bombs – our reliance on technology has led to real vulnerabilities that our adversaries are eager to exploit. and national defense among many others. Whether it’s the cloud. governments. when a cross-section of military.

You may think some of this should just be left up to DoD. At times. and decisions on net neutrality. which is that the competition for talent has become more aggressive – and I’ll have more to say about that later. That’s driven a third trend. submarines. most technology of consequence originated in the United States. our ties have broadly endured…but I believe we must renew the bonds of trust and rebuild the bridge between the Pentagon and Silicon Valley. but these challenges should concern us all. cruise. Through successes and strains. during the controversy over the Clipper chip in the ‘90s. at what American military might had achieved. and in the cyber domain. more recently. Globalization and commercialization have led to more competition. and. because it leads to more innovative thinking. But we also need to work together because we’re living in the same world. Second. The first of these trends is the evolutions we’re seeing in technology – from mobility and the Internet of things to advanced materials and bioengineering. comprehensive military modernization programs to close the technology gap between them and the United States…particularly through capabilities designed to thwart our traditional advantages of power projection and freedom of movement. and strong supporters of protecting intellectual property rights. we also eyed each other warily – like when Bobby Inman faced off against Martin Hellman and Whit Diffie over public-key encryption and commercialization. we are strong proponents of a free and open Internet. WHY WE NEED TO REBUILD BRIDGES We Live in the Same World One reason to do so is that we share many of the same underlying objectives and values. These trends are contributing to a growing problem we think about every day in DoD: the fact that threats to our security and our military’s technological superiority are proliferating and diversifying. after the actions of Edward Snowden. as I noted. network-centric forces. with the same basic trends and threats. III. anti-ship. And they’ve been working on new counter-space. Now much more technology is commercial. electronic 3 . and the technology base is global. harnessed American technology to radically change warfare through precision-guided munitions. and ballistic. Let me briefly step back. and stealth aircraft. This is happening in terms of conventional weaponry and technologies. stunned. and anti-air missiles that are both longerrange and more accurate. During the Cold War. As our government has demonstrated in recent trade negotiations. because that matters a lot to me as Secretary of Defense. diplomacy.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY and stealth. which is good. and much more you all know about. When I began my career. They’re developing and fielding new and advanced aircraft. So now we’re seeing high-end military technologies long possessed by only the most advanced forces find their way into arsenals of both non-state actors and previously less-capable militaries. And nations like Russia and China have been pursuing long-term. It came to life during the 1991 Gulf War – when the world watched. Bill Perry drove a so-called “offset strategy” that. But the world has since had a quarter century to figure out how to counter these capabilities. and much of that was sponsored by the Department of Defense. cyber. there’s been an evolution of where technology comes from.

I mention this because it speaks to a partnership that has long existed between America’s technology sector and its government and defense institutions…a relationship that can continue in a way that benefits us both. Just as Russia and China have advanced cyber capabilities and strategies ranging from stealthy network penetration to intellectual property theft. jet engines and communications satellites. We shouldn’t diminish that. And Google’s self-driving cars grew out of the DARPA Grand Challenge. there are also really great opportunities to be seized through a new level of partnership between the Pentagon and Silicon Valley – opportunities that we can only realize together. We’re also seeing a blended state-and-non-state threat in the cyber domain…which complicates potential responses for DoD and others. hard work.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY warfare. As I’ll explain more in a moment. While the North Korean cyberattack on Sony was the most destructive on a U. and it requires our collaboration. Boston. The developers of multi-touch worked together through a fellowship funded by the National Science Foundation and the CIA. Consider the historic role that DoD and government investments have played in helping spur ground-up technological innovation – both in this Valley. undersea. Stanford continues to be among the top university recipients of federal R&D funding. Work on Google’s search algorithm was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. and elsewhere. it won’t always be easy. Some examples are well known.S. DoD is of course innovating to stay ahead of these threats…but they are still real. Vint Cerf ‘fathered’ the Internet while a Stanford assistant professor and a researcher at DARPA. in an earlier era. and air attack capabilities that challenge our own. Those who work in the tech community are no strangers to intense grappling with ideas. as tech companies see every day. entity so far. and sacrifices by innovators here at Stanford. But other examples we hear less about. GPS likewise began as a defense-driven project. We’ve had tensions before. And even today. and likely will again. Low-cost and global proliferation of malware have lowered barriers to entry and made it easier for smaller malicious actors to strike in cyberspace. but also a specific project DARPA funded through SRI to help develop a virtual assistant for military personnel. The same is true for those who work with me at the Pentagon. but it was this place that nurtured the flame and created incredible applications we never could’ve imagined. as did. this threat affects us all. And it comes from state and non-state actors alike. or in Mountain View. the cyber threat against U. Now. Together we helped ignite the spark. Meanwhile. interests is increasing in severity and sophistication. But in addition to dangers. And We Face the Same Opportunities This is serious business.S. criminal and terrorist networks are also increasing their cyber operations. And most technologies used throughout Silicon Valley – including many that Apple brilliantly integrated into the iPhone – can be traced back to government or DoD research and expenditures. And. in part because we have different missions and different perspectives. sometimes we’re going to disagree. obviously none of this diminishes the genius. The Bottom Line All these facts – both challenges and opportunities – lead to a clear conclusion. Now. Renewing our partnership is the only way we can do this right. iOS’s Siri grew out of not only decades of DARPA-driven research on artificial intelligence and voice recognition. 4 . and on this campus.

and think. Now. In the past three years DARPA has partnered with nearly 50 different public. missiles. These are the resources that help build the world’s most advanced fighters and bombers. And I want to be open with you about our plans for each of them. Because being able to address tensions through our partnership is much better than not speaking to each other at all. I believe that we at the Pentagon must be open. or MRAPs. And there can even be great ideas that come out of candid conversations. For example. with one group of researchers creating a company we work with. These relationships are really valuable to us. Let me start with innovation. Stanford has been a tremendous force in this area. It’s no secret that DoD is coming out of fighting two wars for over 10 years. This event will showcase how work on smaller sensors. Come June. our advanced technology research agency. AOSense. 5 . we also need to find alternatives for military use that are more resilient and less vulnerable. big data analysis. this isn’t to say that DoD has completely ceded R&D funding and innovative thinking to everyone else – we still make up half of federal research and development. While we were focused on solving the problems we faced during those wars. could combine into a rescue robot that navigates a disaster-stricken area with the same speed and efficiency that you or I would…but without putting anyone else at risk. we lost sight. in some ways. HOW TO BETTER WORK TOGETHER This of course leads us to a new question – what would this renewed partnership look like? And what’s the best way to re-wire the Pentagon for better partnership? As Secretary of Defense. and ships that let us strike terrorists in the Middle East and underwrite stability in the Asia-Pacific. Some of these R&D funds – $12 billion dollars’ worth – support the breakthrough science and technology research done at universities and companies and DoD labs across the tech community. when the finals for the DARPA Robotics Challenge take place in Southern California. and produce the satellites. to make practical cold-atom systems. pattern recognition technology. Today this technology is in our smartphones – that’s how they know they’re being rotated – and we’re pushing it to be far more precise. a number of folks here at Stanford have worked with DARPA. And unlike our R&D investments during the past 14 years of war – like when we needed thousands of Mine Resistant. of the bigger picture about the impact and proliferation of technology around the world. outside our five-sided box. IV. and we must nurture and continue them.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY But I think that’s okay. We’ll also push the performance envelope in timing and navigation technology by harnessing the Nobel Prize-winning physics research that uses lasers to cool atoms. Another example is how we’re looking beyond GPS. So I want to spend the rest of these remarks talking about two areas where I believe our partnership is most vital – innovation broadly and cybersecurity particularly. we’ll start to see this in action. about $72 billion dollars in our current budget request.and private-sector research entities in Silicon Valley. While DoD will of course continue to support GPS because of all the commercial applications it sparked. as I like to say. to protect our troops from roadside bombs – the investments we’re making today are preparing us to face the types of high-end threats I described earlier. develop new phased arrays for radar. We’ll do that in part by advancing microelectromechanical systems technology for small inertial navigation units. and autonomous systems with human decision support. Ambush Protected vehicles.

So we’re going to expand that fellows program into a two-year gig – one year in a company.S. it’s the exception. and FedEx. has made this entire region a nexus for innovation. but also helps spread new ideas. So today I’m directing that we establish a new DoD ‘point of partnership’ located here in Silicon Valley. it’s indisputable that there’s great talent in America’s technology sector. which will help solve some of our most intractable IT and data problems. who are our most important asset – both in Silicon Valley and in the military. which not only helps forge relationships. plus key people from the Reserves. That’s one reason why we’re establishing a DoD branch of the U. DoD must do more. and where they are. even if just for a to find out more. This first-ofits-kind unit will be staffed by an elite team of active-duty and civilian personnel. we’re going to improve what we already do. we currently have a Secretary of Defense Corporate Fellows Program that sends about 15 of our people a year to commercial companies like Oracle. Third. you can – just go to whitehouse. they could potentially help startups find new ways to work with DoD…either through technology insertion in modular platforms or open systems. Down the road. where some our best technical talent resides. or through matching them with businesses we already work with. In fact. and one year in a part of DoD with comparable business practices. Cisco. Second.S. They will strengthen existing relationships and build new ones. Digital Service. Let me assure 6 . and then reveal proprietary information to the public and competitors. it’s important that we at the Pentagon find new ways to help bring in new people with the talent and expertise we need. but the reason places like Silicon Valley work so well is that they are true innovation ecosystems. Everyone’s in the same general area. We need to better harness the commercial sector’s vibrancy and innovation – in DoD research and development. coupled with strong links between academia and industry. And that’s the rationale behind three initiatives I’m announcing today. For example.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY But to stay competitive and stay ahead of threats. One concern I’ve heard is the worry that the government will insist on taking intellectual property. Right now we don’t effectively harness what they’ve learned when they come back – when we do. And if you want to be a part of the U. not the rule. That way we have a better chance to bring the private-sector’s best practices back into the department. First of all. Digital Service. the outgrowth of the tech team that helped rescue healthcare. help scout for breakthrough and emerging technologies. While DoD has sought to continuously improve our acquisition processes over the past five years – and I’m proud to have helped begin that effort at the beginning of the Obama Administration – there are still areas where we can and must do better. matters tremendously in affecting our ability to innovate. and other aspects of our work. Innovation: People and Presence That starts with our people. And that geographic proximity. too. called Defense Innovation Unit X – the X stands for we have a small ‘sprint team’ of experts already in the Pentagon working on more seamlessly transferring our troops’ electronic health records from DoD to the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. Who they are. and who want to contribute to our mission as part of our force of the future. Innovation: Investing in the Most Promising Technologies We must also think more about investing in the most promising emerging technologies. and function as a local interface node for the rest of the department.

So. we must expand our ways of investing in identifying and implementing new technologies and capabilities – and this new approach may yield a long-term advantage. and that businesses cannot be forced to sell their IP to the government. This is particularly important because start-ups are the leading edge of commercial innovation. Stealth is one example: we need aircraft to look as tiny as sparrows to radar. and we respect the fact that IP is often the most important and valuable asset a company holds. CYBERSECURITY The same is true with cybersecurity – we’re going to have to work together on this one. and apply their approach to DoD. While we in DoD are an attractive target. And as we’ve seen cyber attackers bombard the public websites of banks. and continues to provide the U. try to access critical infrastructure networks. We have to work with those on the outside who have expertise. V. Indeed. but the commercial world doesn’t. and propulsion to distributed systems. and we know that part of doing business with you requires protecting your intellectual property. But there are many areas where the potential in leveraging commercially-driven technology is so huge. the Mach 5-plus hypersonic scramjet we tested with the X-51 a couple years ago is technology we need for a new dimension in warfighting – it’s not something the commercial sector can provide. energy. nonprofit startup-backer In-Q-Tel. from power. and steal research and intellectual property from universities and businesses alike…so too have individual citizens been compelled to guard against identity theft. In-Q-Tel has been working with Silicon Valley for over 15 years. The first is defending our own 7 . which is why the Department of Defense has three missions in the cyber domain. and we need many special technologies for our own special missions. and right now DoD doesn’t have many effective ways to harness promising technologies they come up with. or we weren’t amenable to working with as many startups as we could be. We will make a small investment with In-Q-Tel in order to leverage their existing proven relationships. I can announce that we’re proposing a pilot project with In-Q-Tel to provide innovative solutions to our most challenging problems. In order to regain our competiveness. we have to embrace it going forward. DoD has a long history of successfully protecting companies’ proprietary information. the Department of Defense cannot do everything in all these areas alone.S. and it never will be…we can’t get everything from outside. Now. Similarly. We need the creativity and innovation that comes from start-ups and small businesses. We need to fix that. As some in this audience know. borrowing on the success of the Intelligence Community’s partnership with the independent. I don’t want us to lose out on an innovative idea or capability we need because the Pentagon bureaucracy was too slow to fund something. this is one of the world’s most complex challenges today. Networks nationwide are scanned millions of times a day.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY you that we understand and appreciate industry’s right to intellectual property. government with access to the start-up world. and the Internet of things. data science. make off with customer data from retailers. the cyber threat is one we all face…as institutions. commercial technology is not a panacea. Because if we’re going to leverage these technologies to defend our country and help make a better world. We want to partner with businesses on everything from autonomy and robotics to biomedical engineering and 3D printing. and individuals.

we quickly identified the compromise. While it’s worrisome they achieved some unauthorized access to our unclassified network. We’ve gotten better at that because of stronger partnerships across the government. I want to share an example we just declassified that will help illustrate the cyber threat we face and what we do about it. and protect. This approach reflects two goals. and had a crack team of incident responders hunting the intruders within 24 hours. Because this was only one attack. or significant foreign policy and economic consequences. In some ways. assuring that we continue to respect – and protect – the freedoms of expression. And when we do take action – defensive or otherwise. Indeed. adversaries should know that our preference for deterrence and our defensive posture don’t diminish our willingness to use cyber options if necessary. we help defend the nation against cyberattacks from abroad – especially if they would cause loss of life. the freedoms of expression. Crowdstrike. And as a military. Like a lot of CEOs across the country. we have to work together. associated it with Russia. Still. the sensors that guard DoD’s unclassified networks detected Russian hackers accessing one of our networks. shining a bright light on such intrusions can eventually benefit us all – governments and businesses alike – by spurring us to better work together. my primary goal in cyber is defending our networks because we’re a network-centric organization.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY networks and weapons. We like to deter malicious action before it happens. They’d discovered an old vulnerability in one of our legacy networks that hadn’t been patched. secure. After learning valuable information about their tactics. and prosperous. if directed by the President. conventionally or in cyberspace – we operate under rules of engagement that comply with domestic and international law. So today. Earlier this year. This episode illustrates a step in the right direction. keeping the Internet open. we analyzed their network activity. property destruction. One way we’re responding is by being more transparent. and we need to be able to defend against incoming attacks – as well as pinpoint where and whom an attack came from. And our third mission is to provide offensive cyber options that. Second. and privacy that reflect who we are as a nation. and it shows how rapidly DoD can detect. can augment our other defense systems. Let me repeat that second goal: We must continue to respect. but DoD remains far from perfect. we have to embrace openness. to raise awareness in both the public and private sector. what we’re doing about this threat is similar to what we do about more conventional threats. association. in a way that minimized their chances of returning. And second. and expel an intruder from our unclassified military networks. and because of private-sector security researchers like FireEye. we take notice. First. and because stability depends on avoiding miscalculation that could lead to escalation. To do this right. and then quickly kicked them off the network. and HP – when they out a group of malicious cyber attackers. 8 . And DoD must do its part to shed more light on cyber capabilities that have previously been developed in the shadows. Today dozens of militaries are developing cyber forces. It’s never been publically reported. association. and privacy that reflect who we are as a nation. because they’re critical to what we do every day…and they’re no good if they’ve been hacked. but still I worry about what we don’t know. attribute. militaries must talk to each other and understand each other’s abilities.

in line with today’s best-in-class cybersecurity practices – building a single security architecture that’s both more easily defendable. but also save millions of dollars we can better spend elsewhere. Another goal is to be better prepared to defend DoD information networks. and at the back of the room. Cyber: New Strategy. And as we ensure our people have the right tools to execute their missions. deploy. we know that working together in the cyber domain is essential. We are just beginning to imagine this force. We’ll do this in part through deterrence by denial. DoD cyber experts did a rehearsal with their FBI counterparts on how exactly this would work – and we’re going to be exercising together much more going forward. marketplace. and sea. and it’s also a reflection of DoD being more open than before. We’re also going to work more closely with our law enforcement partners at the FBI. as I’ve said. We’ll also strengthen our network defense command and control to synchronize across thousands of disparate DoD networks. secure DoD data. our country’s collective cybersecurity posture is weakened. and around the world.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY DoD has spent a lot of time figuring out how to help do so while also holding true to our nation’s enduring interests. We want to help where we can. And I’d like to tell you a little bit about it. and mitigate risks to military missions. as we continue to build our vital cyber force.S. networks. And their skill and knowledge makes them much more valuable than the technology they use. we need our coordination with law enforcement to work seamlessly. and perform the forensics that help keep our systems secure. And we’re already taking action – just this week I directed that we consolidate DoD’s IT services in the Pentagon and throughout the government has a unique suite of cyber tools and capabilities. red-team our networks. but we need the private sector to take its own steps to protect data and networks. Homeland Security. and operate our forces in all other domains – air.C. but if companies themselves don’t invest. the private sector must be a key partner. we’ll be working on leap-ahead technologies through research and development with both established and emerging private-sector partners…so that together. For example. and see approximately 90 percent of our national networks. and conduct exercises in resiliency…so that if a cyberattack degrades our usual capabilities. operate. And we’ve developed a new cyber strategy that details what our cyber missions are and when we will take certain actions and why. we can still mobilize. Of course. which will not only help improve our overall cybersecurity. These are the talented individuals who hunt down intruders. land.S. because American businesses own. our cyber strategy starts with our people – its first strategic goal is building and training our Cyber Mission Forces. We’ve already started practicing – less than two weeks ago. Today we’re making it available to the public – both online. and values. we can create cyber capabilities that not only help DoD. 9 . The U. across our government. so as adversaries jump from foreign to U. Indeed. traditions. we’re looking at new ways to attract talent through new private-sector exchange programs that let people contribute to something a lot bigger than themselves. but can also spin off into the wider U. and able to adapt and evolve to mitigate both current and future cyber threats. There are clear lines of authority about who can work where. and How We Can Work Together This strategy – our first since 2011 – is to help guide development of DoD’s cyber forces. Like everything we do. and elsewhere. at defense.S. That’s why one of the primary aspects of our strategy is working with partners – in the private sector. region.

### 10 . Knowing how we’ve worked together in the past. my job is to make sure our military can defend the country and its interests – and we’re at our best when we have the best partners. and meeting with a roundtable of tech leaders tomorrow morning. That’s why I’m going to Facebook this afternoon. We have a unique opportunity to rebuild bridges and renew trust. So I want to ask. as Secretary of Defense. asking “what if” is the first step toward the next big idea. a future Reservist working there on cybersecurity could help stop an intrusion of DoD networks. That’s what’s possible through our partnership. working together more for the greater good is bigger than who we are as individuals. what if we work together more? What can we achieve together? The answer is real results. then apply skills she learned there in her civilian job when a cyberattack uses similar techniques against the tech company she works for.AS PREPARED – EMBARGOED UNTIL DELIVERY VI. a future infectious disease outbreak could be cut short by leapfrog technology advances that collapse the time it takes for diagnosis. If we stay the course with collaborative investments we’re making in areas like biomedical engineering. Because I’m confident that in the years to come. It’s an imperative we face…an opportunity we share…and it’s the only way to make a better world – together. and how critical your work is to our country. If we stay the course with our experimental innovation unit. and developing and distributing vaccines. CONCLUSION Now. a new level of partnership will lead to great things. And whether it’s helping safeguard the Internet or helping save lives. treatment. But in the academic and tech communities. strengthening this partnership is very important to me. Thank you. Rule number one back in Washington is never answer a hypothetical question.