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FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BMM 3611 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES LABORATORY Lab 20 Perform moulding and casting operations

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BMM 3611 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES LABORATORY

Lab
Lab
20
20

Perform moulding and casting operations for sand casting based on the prepared pattern Analyze the quality of moulds and casting products produced by sand casting operation

METAL CASTING PROCESS

By the end of this semester, students should be able to:

FKM Manufacturing Process LAB

Ir. Mohd Rashidi bin Maarof

Lab Objectives

Lab Location

Prepared by,

Group Members

Student ID

Section

ABDUL HADI BIN SHAMSUL KAMAR

MA 12100

05

MOHAMAD SYARIFUDDIN BIN MAT DIN

MC 12004

05

MUHAMMAD SHAHREL BIN MD HASSAN

MC 12007

05

MOHAMAD SAIFULLAH BIN ADNAN

MC 12011

05

NURUL IZZATI BINTI MOHAMAD SOBRI

MC 12013

05

NORHABIBAH BINTI SANSUDIN

MC 12014

05

ABSTRACT

In performing manufacturing process laboratory on casting, the purpose is to perform molding and casting operation for sand casting based on prepared pattern. Beside that, is to analyze the quality of moulds and casting products, produced by sand casting operations. Based on a prepared pattern, sand casting is perfectly right because of it has advantages in production of complex shape, parts having hollow sections or internal cavities and also contain irregular curved surfaces. Casting process involved three basic steps which are mould making, melting and pouring of metals into the mould cavity and lastly removal and finishing of casting after complete solidification. The result and analysis of data on composition of moulding sand and core sand used, melting and pouring temperature of the used metal, list of allowances that generally provided on a pattern and also defects produced in casting is recorded. In the end of experiment, someone should be able to generate an intricate design by the method of sand casting throughout whole process. There are a few defects such as on the surface projection causes by a crack in the sand mold, therefore each step in that process was crucial to the final design and output. Lastly, it is substantial for students to be familiar with the concepts and procedures for projects that will have to be done in the future.

1.INTRODUCTION

Sand casting is used to make large parts (typically Iron, but also Bronze, Brass, Aluminium). Molten metal is poured into a mold cavity formed out of sand (natural or synthetic). The processes of sand casting are discussed in this section; include patterns, sprues and runners, design considerations, and casting allowance. Sand casting, the most widely used casting process, utilizes expendable sand molds to form complex metal parts that can be made of nearly any alloy. Because the sand mold must be destroyed in order to remove the part, called the casting, sand casting typically has a low production rate. The sand casting process involves the use of a furnace, metal, pattern, and sand mold. The metal is melted in the furnace and then ladled and poured into the cavity of the sand mold, which is formed by the pattern. Pouring of molten metal required a good discipline both from gating system design and risering system application. Several parameters are applied such as pouring time, gating element, gating ratios, and slag trag system, method of solidification behaviour, feeding distances and feeding aids. The sand mold separates along a parting line and the solidified casting can be removed. Sand casting is used to produce a wide variety of metal components with complex geometries. These parts can vary greatly in size and weight, ranging from a couple ounces to several tons. Some smaller sand cast parts include components as gears, pulleys, crankshafts, connecting rods, and propellers. Larger applications include housings for large equipment and heavy machine bases. Sand casting is also common in producing automobile components, such as engine blocks, engine manifolds, cylinder heads, and transmission cases.

2.OBJECTIVE  To get experience on metal casting through the process of sand casting.  To

2.OBJECTIVE

To get experience on metal casting through the process of sand casting.

To become accustomed with the language and procedure of metal casting in

general and sand casting in particular. To deploy the knowledge of metal casting into making useful products through

the process of sand casting.

3.PROBLEMS STATEMENT

To prepare the sand moulds use the prepared pattern and experience the metal

 
 

pouring to complete the casting process

 

Composition ofmolding sand and core sand used

 

Melting and pouring temperature of the used metal

 

Allowances that generally provided on a pattern

 

Defects produced in casting

 
FIGURE4.1: Procedure Diagram 1. The pattern is placed in flask with enough room for gating. Parting

FIGURE4.1: Procedure Diagram

  • 1. The pattern is placed in flask with enough room for gating. Parting dust is applied onto the pattern to keep it from sticking. Parting dust is a hydrophobic material, it repels moisture.

  • 2. Fine riddle is used to cover just the pattern, then fill up the flask with sand, level (flush) with the top. There is no need to riddle all the sand, just make sure there is no lumps. The riddle fluffs the sand up so it can be packed properly, the same way a flour sifter works.

  • 3. Paddle side of rammer is used to tuck edges first. The sand is added to about 2 inches above flask.Drag section is stroke off with rammer. The first half mould or cope is finished and continued with process of creating the drag

  • 4. Step 1to 4 is repeated again in addition of pipe to assist the formation of sprue hole.

  • 5. The pipe is removed after the sand mould is compact enough. The pattern is removed from both half of moulds and then it were assembled together.

  • 6. The metal is melt inside the furnace. As it is fully melt, the metal is taken out of the furnace and poured into the mould through the sprue hole

8.

The gating

system

is

cut

out

to

let

only the

desired

pattern of solid metal

produced.

Safety Precaution During Casting Process

8. The gating system is cut out to let only the desired pattern of solid metal

FIGURE4.2:safety equipment during casting process

1) Wear the personal protective equipment as shown below in the image

2) Clear any hazards that are in the workspace

3) Do not spill any metal onto the floor, especially concrete explosion

floor

as

it

can cause an

4) Be cautious of your surroundings

5) Be wary of any surfaces that may be hot

6) As with any unfamiliar task be cautious and pay attention to your surroundings

7) USE COMMON SENSE, often forgotten but a very useful tool to always use

4.REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The factor to considered during selection of casting process

Casting Method

Advantages

Disadvantages

 

Recommended

 

Application

Sand Casting

Least Expensive in

Dimensional

Use

when

small quantities (less than 100)

accuracy inferior to other processes,

strength/weight ratio permits

requires

larger

Ferrous

and

non

-

tolerances

Tolerances,

surface

ferrous metals may

 

finish

and

low

be cast

Castings

usually

machining cost does

exceed

calculated

not warrant a more

weight

expensive process

Possible to very large parts.

cast

Surface finish

of

ferrous

castings

usually exceeds 125

RMS

Permanent

and

Less expensive than

Only non-ferrous

Use

when

process

Semi-permanent

Investment or Die

metals may be cast

recommended for

Mold Casting

Castings

by this process

parts

subjected

to

hydrostatic pressure

Dimensional

Less

competitive

Tolerances closer

with

Sand

Cast

Ideal

for

parts

than Sand Castings

process when three

are required

having

low profile,

or more sand cores

no quantities in excess

cores

and

Castings are dense and pressure tight

of 300

Higher tooling cost than Sand Cast

Plaster Cast

Smooth "As Cast"

Closer dimensional

More

costly than

Use when parts

finish (25 RMS)

Sand or Permanent Mold-Casting

require smooth "As Cast" surface finish and closer tolerances than possible with

tolerance than Sand

Limited

number

of

Cast

sources

Sand or Permanent Mold Processes

Intricate

shapes

Requires minimum

and

fine

details

of 1 deg. draft

including

thinner

"As Cast" walls are

possible

Large

parts

cost

less to cast than by

Investment process

Investment Cast

Close

dimensional

Costs

are higher

Use

when

tolerance

than

Sand,

Complexity

 

Permanent Mold or

precludes

use

of

Plaster

process

Sand

or

Permanent

Complex

shape,

Castings

Mold Castings

 

fine detail, intricate

 

core

sections

and

thin

walls

are

The

process cost is

possible

justified

through

savings

 

in

machining

or

Ferrous

and non-

brazing

 

ferrous metals may

 

be cast

Weight

savings

justifies

increased

As-Cast" finish (64 - 125 RMS)

cost

Die Casting

Good

dimensional

Economical only in

Use when quantity

tolerances

are

very large quantities

of parts justifies the

possible

due to high tool cost

high tooling cost

Excellent

part-part

Not

recommended

Parts

are

not

dimensional

for

hydrostatic

structural

and

are

consistency

pressure

subjected

to

applications

hydrostatic pressure

Parts

require

a

minimal

post

For Castings where

machining

penetrant (die) or radiographic inspection are not required.

Difficult

to

guarantee minimum

   

mechanical

 

properties

5.MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

i) materials

Type of base sand for mould

Name Of Sand

Descriptions

 

Silica (SiO2) sand is the sand found on a beach and is also the most commonly used sand. It is made by either crushing sandstone or taken from natural occurring locations, such as beaches and river beds. The fusion point of pure silica is 1,760 °C (3,200 °F), however the sands used have a lower melting point due to impurities. For high melting point casting, such as steels, a minimum of 98% pure silica sand must be used; however for lower melting point metals, such as cast iron and non-ferrous metals, a lower purity sand can be used (between 94 and 98% pure)

Silica Sand

Silica sand is the most commonly used sand because of its great abundance, and, thus, low cost (therein being its greatest advantage). Its disadvantages are high thermal expansion, which can cause casting

defects with high melting point metals, and low thermal conductivity,

 

which can lead to unsound casting. It also cannot be used with certain basic metal because it will chemically interact with the metal forming surface defect. Finally, it causes silicosis in foundry workers

Olivine Sand

Olivine is a mixture of orthosilicates of iron and magnesium from silica, therefore it can be used with basic metals, such as manganese steels. Other advantages include a low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, and high fusion point. Finally, it is safer to use than silica, therefore it is popular in Europefrom the mineral dunite. Its main advantage is that it is free

Chromite

Chromite sand is a solid solution of spinels. Its advantages are a low

Sand

percentage of silica, a very high fusion point (1,850 °C (3,360 °F)), and a very high thermal conductivity. Its disadvantage is its costliness, therefore its only used with expensive alloy steel casting and to make cores.

Zircon Sand

Zircon sand is a compound of approximately two-thirds zircon oxide (Zr2O) and one-third silica. It has the highest fusion point of all the base sands at 2,600 °C (4,710 °F), a very low thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. Because of these good properties it is commonly used when casting alloy steels and other expensive alloys. It is also used as a mold wash (a coating applied to the molding cavity) to improve surface finish. However, it is expensive and not readily available.

Chamotte

Chamotte is made by calcining fire clay (Al2O3-SiO2) above 1,100 °C

Sand

(2,010 °F). Its fusion point is 1,750 °C (3,180 °F) and has low thermal expansion. It is the second cheapest sand, however it is still twice as expensive as silica. Its disadvantages are very coarse grains, which result in a poor surface finish, and it is limited to dry sand molding. Mold washes are used to overcome the surface finish problem. This sand is usually used when casting large steel workpieces

(ii)Equipment and machine

(ii)Equipment and machine Non-ferrous melting furnace Furnaces are refractory lined vessels that contain the material to

Non-ferrous melting furnace

Furnaces are refractory lined vessels that contain the material to be melted and provide the energy to melt it. Modern furnace types include electric arc furnaces (EAF), induction furnaces, cupolas, reverberatory, and crucible furnaces. Furnace choice is dependent on the alloy system quantities produced. For ferrous materials EAFs, cupolas, and induction furnaces are commonly used. Reverberatory and crucible furnaces are common for producing aluminium, bronze, and brass castings.Furnace design is a complex process, and the design can be optimized based on multiple factors. Furnaces in foundries can be any size, ranging from small ones used to melt precious metals to furnaces weighing several tons, designed to melt hundreds of pounds of scrap at one time. They are designed

according to the type of metals that are to be melted. Furnaces must also be designed based on the fuel being used to produce the desired temperature. For low temperature melting point alloys, such as zinc or tin, melting furnaces may reach around 500° C. Electricity, propane, or natural gas are usually used to achieve these temperatures. For high melting point alloys such as steel or nickel based alloys, the furnace must be designed for temperatures over 1600° C. The fuel used to reach these high temperatures can be electricity (as employed in electric arc furnaces) or coke.

The majorities of foundries specializes in a particular metal and have furnaces dedicated to these metals. For example, an iron foundry (for cast iron) may use a cupola, induction furnace, or EAF, while a steel foundry will use an EAF or induction furnace. Bronze or brass foundries use crucible furnaces or induction furnaces. Most aluminium foundries use either electric resistance or gas heated crucible furnaces or reverberatory furnaces.

according to the type of metals that are to be melted. Furnaces must also be designed

Hand-held ladle

In a foundry a ladle is a container used to transport and pour out molten metals. It needs to be

Strong enough to contain a heavy load of metal.

Heat-resistant

Heat-insulated as much as can be managed, to avoid losing heat and overheating its surroundings.

For foundries making small castings, a hand-held ladle somewhat resembling a kitchen ladle with a long handle to keep the heat of the metal away from the person holding it. Better quality ladles have a pouring lip to aid accurate pouring.

6.DISCUSSIONS AND RESULT

Generally sand casting proses need high individual skill and technique to make sure the part that produces are perfectly follow the specification needed or less defect produce. As the sand casting lab section is done we can see the problem comes, there is many causes that make the problem appear and we will discuss about defect and causes, paten of the mold and consideration must be taken to design the mold and product so that sand casting process can be done smoothly and less defect form.

First, after we filled the pattern with sand we have to remove the pattern out of the mold during this time had make mistake by took it out too fast and carelessly as a result part of the mold not being molded properly and if the worst case, the mold cannot be used at all because the sand is not compact. After we proceed to next step which is pouring the molten metal into the pattern and remove the pattern after cooling process, the product form is our finished product had rough, irregular, surfaces of casting at the bottom of the part. This is probably the result from the erosion of the sand mold.

Secondly, from our observation the edges of our casted part we notice that some indentations in the part. Those indentation is hot tears. Hot tears, also known as hot

cracking, are failures in the casting that occur during the cooling proses. This happens because the metal is weak when it is hot and the residual stresses in the material can cause the casting to fail as it cools. The hot tears can appear on the surface or through cracks that initiate during the cooling of casting.

The other point is, non-flat surface on our product. This is defect is named inclusion. Inclusions are any foreign materials present in the cast metal. Inclusion can be found in many form such as oxides, slag, dirt, sand or nails. Inclusions commonly causes by impurities with the molten metal, sand and dirt from the mould not properly cleaned, break away sand from mould, core or gating system, gas from the metal and foreign items picked on the mould cavity while handling. Inclusions are reduced by using correct grade of moulding sand and proper skimming to remove impurities.

Defect

Causes

Bubbles

Injection temperature too high

Non-uniform cooling rate

Ejector marks

Cooling time too short

Ejection force too high

Hot tearing

Non-uniform cooling rate

Flash

Injection pressure too high

Clamp force too low

Unfilled sections

Insufficient shot volume

Slow injection

Low pouring temperature

Table 1:Defect that may occur during the casting proses

There are general considerations that must be take care by us in order to form the best casting product during the laboratory session. There are include:-

The Design Of Cast Parts

Selecting The Casting Process

Locating The Parting Line

Locating And Designing Gates

Runner Design

Designing Other Mold Features

Establishing Good Practices

Finishing, Draft And The Section Changes.

1) The Design Of Cast Parts:

Corners , angle and section thickness, this must be avoid as much as possible because they act as stress raisers and may cause cracking and tearing of the metal during solidification. Fillet radii should be selected to reduce stress concentrations and to ensure proper liquid metal flow during pouring. Fillet radii usually range from 3 to 25 mm.

2) Selecting The Casting Process:

Casting process selection cannot be separated from a discussions of economic. From figure 1 it show some of the advantages and limitations of casting processes that have an impact on casting design.

Figure 1: Summary of casting processes. 3) Locating The Parting Line: A part should be oriented

Figure 1: Summary of casting processes.

3) Locating The Parting Line:

A part should be oriented in a mold so that the large portion of the casting is relatively low and the height of casting is minimized. Part orientation also determines the distribution of porosity. A properly oriented part then can have the parting line specified. The parting line is the line or plane separating the upper and lower halves of molds.

4) Locating And Designing Gates:

Gates are the connection between the runners and the part to be cast the consideration in designing gating systems such as gates should feed into thick section of casting, a fillet should be used where a gate meets a casting- this will produce less turbulence

than abrupt junctions, curved gates should be avoided and the minimum gates length should be 3 to 5 times the gates diameter.

5) Runner Design:

The runner is a horizontal distribution channel that accepts molten metal from the sprue and delivers it to the gates. One runner is used for simple parts, but 2 runner system can be specified for more complicated casting. Runner are used to trap dross and keep it from entering the gates and mold cavity.

6) Designing other mold features.

The main gold in designing a sprue is to achieve the required metal flow rates while preventing aspiration or excessive dross formation. Flow rates are determined such that turbulence is avoided but the mold is filled quickly compared to the solidification time required.

7) Establishing good practices

It has been observed widely that a given mold design can produce acceptable part as well as defective ones and rarely will produce good or only defective part. To check for defective casting, quality control procedures are necessary. Start with high-quality molten metal is essential for producing superior casting. Next , the pouring of metal should not be interrupted, since this can lead to dross entrainment and turbulence. Lastly, the different cooling rates within the body of a casting cause residual stresses, stress relieving thus may be necessary to avoid distortions of casting in critical application.

7. CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, we have to follow the steps of sand casting to make sure that there are lacks of defects. For example, we had hot tear on our project as a defect. We identified that maybe there is non- uniform cooling rate. Then, it was maybe because of the improper pattern design and metal compositions. For unfilled section defect, the causes are low pouring temperature and insufficient material.

We should have improvement to make sure that the design is lack or no defect. Firstly, the sand should be separate from the foreigner objects, then, the sand should be compact properly to make the design is not getting crack. Next, the moulding pattern should be practice. We also have to follow the steps in sand casting properly.

In this experiment or laboratory, we had learned some knowledge beside we have through the experience so that we can applied when in job field.

8.REFERENCES

(i)

(ii)

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Fifth Edition in SI Units, by SeropeKalpakjian and Steven Schmid, Pearson Prentice Hall

(iii)

(iv)