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## SKM 3413 - DRILLING ENGINEERING

Chapter 3 - Drilling Hydraulics
Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail
Petroleum Engineering Dept.
Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Energy Eng.
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Contents

## Review of flow in pipes (Fluid Mechanics)

Drilling mud flow (circulating) system
Newtonian fluid flow calculations
Bingham plastic fluid flow calculations
p across bit nozzles
p calculation for typical system

## Review of flow In Pipes

Real fluid flow is much complex compare to perfect fluid flow.
Between fluid particles
Shear stress
fluid
Between fluid particles
and pipes wall
Energy equilibrium principles are used to solve the problems.
Partial differential equation (Eulers equation) has no general
solution to solve problems.
Results from experiment (analytical) and semi-empirical method
needs to be used to solve flow problems.
There are 2 types of steady flow of real fluid exists:
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow

Dye

This one?

or

this one?

or

Transition flow

this one?
Turbulent flow

## All three types of flow actually do occurred in real fluid flow.

Laminar flow v
Turbulent flow v
The problem is: what is v and v .Why we need to know?

## This phenomenon was first investigated in 1883 by Osborne

Reynolds in an experiment which has a classic in fluid mechanic.

Laminar flow

Transition flow

Turbulent flow

vd

## This mathematical relationship can be used to determine the types

of flow.
vd

2000
laminar flow

vd
2000
4000 transition flow

vd

4000
turbulent flow

## Subsequently until now, this mathematical relationship is known as

Reynolds number, Re (or NRe ).

vd
Re
dimensionless

## laminar flow : Re 2000

transition flow : 2000 Re 4000
turbulent flow : Re 4000

vd

where:

v
d

fluid density
fluid average velocity
pipe inside diameter
fluid absolute viscosity

vd
Re

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

vmaks

v vavg 12 vmaks

v vavg

v vavg

## Consider the situation below:

Qin

element ( mg )1 @ Station 1
HL
v1
Turbine

HE

z1

element ( mg )2 @ Station 2

Pump

v2
HA
Control volume

Qout

z2
2

Datum

The energy possessed by a flowing fluid consists of internal energy and energies due to
pressure, velocity, and position
energy at energy energy energy energy at
lost
extracted section 2

This equation, for steady flow of incompressible fluids in which the change in internal
energy is negligible, simplifies to
p1 v12

p2 v22

z
1
A
L
E
2
2g

2g

10

## Energy Losses In Pipe

Def.: Any energy losses in closed conduits due to friction, HL.
This types of losses can be divided into 2 main categories:
Major losses, HL-major, and
Minor losses, HL-minor.
From Bernoullis equation:
p1 v12

p2 v22

2 g z1 H A H L H E 2 g z2

## Energy added to the system, HA, is frequently due to pump fluid

head, HP, energy extracted, HE, is frequently due to turbine fluid
head, HT, Bernoullis equation can be simplify as:
v12
p2 v22

z1 H P

z2 H T H L major H L minor
2g
2g

p1

11

## Major Losses In Pipe

Def.: The head loss due to friction in long, straight sections of pipe.
The losses do happen in pipe, either in laminar or turbulent flow.
a. Laminar flow
Problem solved analytically derived purely from mathematical
relationship
Hagen-Porseuille equation
32 vL
p f
d2
in the forms of head loss, HL
32 vL
HL
d2
Darcy-Weisbach equation
vd
by replacing Re
into Hagen-Porseuille equation

2
64
v
L
HL
Re d 2 g

12

b. Turbulent flow
From Darcy-Weisbach equation for laminar flow
2
64
v
L
HL
Re d 2 g
2
v
L
HL f
d 2g

64
a simple mathematical relationship.
Re
For turbulent flow, f has to be solved empirically experiment need to be done.

## Where, for laminar flow, f

13

Friction Factor
a.

Laminar flow

Darcy-Weisbach equation
2
HL f L v
d 2g

b.

where f 64
Re

Turbulent flow
In the literature (from 1900s current date), there are many studies that have been
conceded by various researchers.

## Blasiuss equation (1913)

von Karmans equation modified by Prandtl
Nikuradses equation (for smooth and rough pipes)
Colebrook-White equation (1940s)
Moody
Barrs equation (1975)

14

Laminar

## Friction Factor . (cont. 2)

Transition

f 64
Re

Turbulent

Complete Turbulent

vd
Re vd

Moody Chart

15

## Normal practice in determination of f

1. Calculate Re to determine the types of
flow.
2.

equation.
2
L
v
HL f
d 2g

## 3. For laminar flow: f 64

Re
4. For turbulent flow:

## a. Determine pipe relative roughness,

d
Where:
pipes absolute roughness
d pipe internal diameter

## e is depend on pipes material, normally

is given in tabular forms.
Material (new)
Riverted steel
Concrete
Wood stave
Cast iron
Galvanized iron
Asphalted cast iron
Commercial steel or wrought iron
Drawn tubing
Glass

Absolute roughness,
ft

mm

0.003 - 0.03
0.001- 0.01
0.0006 - 0.003
0.00085
0.0005
0.0004
0.00015
0.000005
0.0 (smooth)

0.9 - 9.0
0.3 - 3.0
0.18 - 0.9
0.26
0.15
0.12
0.045
0.0015
0.0 (smooth)

## b. Obtain f from Moody chart, @ Re,

d

16

Attention
1. In this subject, SKM1043, the f that we are using, is the American friction factor, fAmerican.
2. The value of fAmerican is different to the one that used by the British

f American 4 f British
64
Re

16
Re

## needs to refer different Moody Chart

3. Sometimes:

f American 4 f British

17

Since the mud enters the drill string and leaves the annulus
at essentially the same elevation, the only pressure
required is to overcome the frictional losses in the system.
Hence, the discharge pressure at the pump is defined by:

pt p s p p p c pb p ac p ap

....... (3.1)

where:
pt =
ps =
pp =
pc =
pb =
pac =
pap =

## pump discharge pressure

pressure loss in surface piping, standpipe, and mud hose
pressure loss inside drill pipe
pressure loss inside drill collars
pressure loss across bit nozzles
pressure loss in annulus around drill collars
pressure loss in annulus around drill pipe

18

## The solution of Eq. (3.1) is rather tedious; separate

calculations are needed for each section
There are 4 different types of model used to calculate
frictional pressure losses in mud circulating system:
Newtonian
Bingham plastic
Power-law
API Power-law
Due to the limitation of the syllabus, Power-Law and API
Power-Law models will not be discussed in this subject.
All calculations will be focused on Newtonian and plastic
fluid models.

19

## Newtonian Fluid Flow Calculations

Similar to generalized flow system approach, calculation of p for
pipe flow requires a knowledge of which flow pattern pertains to the
specific case, since different equations apply for each situation.
Definition of the existing flow pattern is given by a dimensionless
quantity known as the Reynolds number (NRe ):

N Re
where:

928 vd

N Re = Reynoldss number
v = average velocity of flow, ft/sec

## d = pipe inside diameter, in.

= fluid viscosity, cp
q = circulating volume, gal/min

.......... (3.2)

20

## Similar to generalized flow system approach, that if

laminar flow : N Re 2000
transition flow : 2000 N Re 4000
turbulent flow : N Re 4000
The p in laminar flow is given by the Hagan-Poiseuille law; this,
in practical units, is
Lv
.......... (3.3)
p
2
1,500d
where:
p = laminar flow p, lb/in2
L = length of pipe, ft
turbulent flow
For turbulent flow, Fannings equation applies:
f Lv 2
.......... (3.4)
p
25.8 d
where:
p = turbulent flow p, lb/in2
f = Fanning friction factor

21

## The friction factor f is a function of and pipe

roughness, and has been evaluated experimentally
for numerous materials (see Fig. 7.1)
p calculation for Newtonian fluid flow systems in
the following manner:
a. Calculate NRe from Equation (3.2).
b. If NRe < 2000, use Equation (3.3) to calculate the
pressure drop.
c. If NRe > 2000, use Equation (3.4). In this case the
friction factor f is obtained from Figure 7.1 or its
equivalent.

22

23

## Plastic Fluid Flow Calculations

Drilling fluids is non-Newtonian fluid
Newtonian fluid equations must be altered for application
to typical drilling mud systems

24

## Surface Equipment Losses ( ps)

The surface equipment consist of standpipe, hose, swivel, kelly
joint, and the piping between the pump and standpipe.
In practice, there are only four types of surface equipment; each
type is characterized by the dimensions of standpipe, kelly,
rotary hose and swivel. Table 3.1 summarizes the four types of
surface equipment.
Table 3.1: Types of surface equipment & value of constant E
Standpipe
Type

Hose

Swivel, etc.

Kelly

Eq. length,
3.826 ID

ID

Length

ID

Length

ID

Length

ID

Length

40 ft.

2.5

45 ft.

20 ft.

2.25

40 ft.

2,600 ft.

2.5 x 10-4

3.5

40 ft.

2.5

55 ft.

2.5

25 ft.

3.25

40 ft.

946 ft.

9.6 x 10-5

45 ft.

55 ft.

2.5

25 ft.

3.25

40 ft.

610 ft.

5.3 x 10-5

45 ft.

55 ft.

30 ft.

40 ft.

424 ft.

4.2 x 10-5

25

## To determine surface equipment losses ( ps):

Use the following formula:
ps E m0.8 q1.8 0.2
p

.......... (3.5)

where:
ps =
q =
m =
E =
p

## surface pressure losses, psi

flow rate, gpm
mud density, ppg
a constant depending on type of surface equipment used
mud plastic viscosity, cp

## Fluid Flow Inside the Pipe

Shearing stress or pressure

## A. Laminar Flow Region

4
144p Yt mv
3
(True laminar flow)
Yb, Bingham yield

## Transition from plug to laminar flow

Plug flow
Yt, True yield
Rate of shear or velocity

## Fig. 3.1: Flow behavior of plastic and Newtonian fluids.

4
144p Yt mv
3
where:
144p = pressure drop, lb/ft2
4
3

Yt = Yb, lb/ft2
m = L/(1500d2), slope of linear portion (from Eq. (3.3))
26

27

expressed as:

p vL
LYb
p

300d 1500d 2
L
p
300d

where:

pv

Yb

5
d

laminar flow
.......... (3.6)

## p = plastic viscosity, cp.

Yb = yield point, lb/100ft2.

## Eq. (3.6) may be used in cases where laminar flow exists

Determination of flow characteristic (laminar or turbulent) is
made by comparing the actual velocity with a calculated critical
velocity

28

## Average Velocity Calculation

q ft 3 /sec
v
A ft 2

Avg. velocity
inside the pipe

Avg. velocity
in the annulus

1 ft 3
1 min
q gal/min

7.48 gal
60 sec

( /4)(d /12)2
q
....... (3.7a)
v
2
2.45 d

OD
ID

Hole

q
....... (3.7b)
v
2
2
2.45 (d h - d p )
where :
v average velocity, ft/sec.
q = flow rate, gpm
d = diameter, in.

Drill pipe
Annulus
Annulus Area Ah Ap

(d h2 d p2(OD ) )

29

## Critical Velocity Calculation

If Eqs. (3.3) and (3.6) are equated, an equivalent Newtonian
viscosity in terms of d , v , p and Yb is obtained:
5dYb

p
v
Substituting the above Eq. for in the Reynoldss number of Eq.
(3.2), equating the resulting equation to 2000, and solving for v
gives:
1.08 p 1.08 p2 9.3 d 2Yb
.......... (3.8)
vc
d
where:
vc = critical velocity, ft/sec, above which turbulent flow
exists and below which the flow is laminar.
Eq. (3.8) assumes that turbulence occurs at NRe = 2000. Therefore,
if:
v vc , flow is laminar
v vc , flow is turbulent

30

## B. Turbulent Flow Region

Before Fanning Eq. can be used, alteration to NRe expression have to
be done (after Beck, Nuss & Dunn)
p
.......... (3.9)
t
3.2
where:
t = turbulent viscosity of plastic fluids, cp
Substitution of t, for in the general NRe expression (Eq. (3.2)) gives:

NRe
NRe

928 vd

t
2,970vd

.......... (3.10)

## By using Fig. 7.1, determine f

This f may then be used in Eq. (3.4) for calculation of pressure

31

## In summary, p calculation for plastic fluid flow systems can

be done as follows:
(1) Calculate the average velocity, v , from Eq. (3.7a) or (3.7b)
(2) Calculate vc from Eq. (3.8)
(3) If v vc flow is laminar, Eq. (3.6) applies
(4) If v vc flow is turbulent, requiring:
a. Calculation of NRe from Eq. (3.10)
b. Determination of f from Fig. 7.1 at the calculated
for the conduit in question
c. Calculation of pressure drop from Eq. (3.4)

32

Example 3.1
Mud is flowing through 4 1/2 inch OD, internal flush drill pipe.
Calculate the frictional pressure drop per 1000 ft of pipe.
Mud properties
Mud density, m
Pipe ID
Bingham yield, Yb
Circulating rate, q
Plastic viscosity, p

=
=
=
=
=

10 lb/gal
3.640 in.
10 lb/100 ft2
400 gal/min
30 cp

33

Solution 3.1

Eq. (3.7a) : v

q
2.45d 2

Eq. (3.8) : v
c

400
12.3 ft/sec
2.45(3.64)2

(1)

(2)

vc
4.3 ft/sec
(10)(3.64)

## (3) Since v vc , flow is turbulent.

(a) N Re

(2,970)(10)(12.3)(3.64)
44,300
30

## (b) f 0.0062 from Curve II, Fig. 3.1

(0.0062)(10)(1000)(12.3)2
(c) p p
100 psi/1000 ft
(25.8)(3.64)

34

## Hydraulically Equivalent Annulus Diameter

For annular flow, it is necessary to use a hypothetical circular diameter,
da, which is the hydraulic equivalent of the actual annular system
The hydraulic radius is defined as:

## cross-sectional area of flow system

wetted perimeter of conduit
Annulus

(r12 r22 ) r1 r2
for an annulus
rh =

2 (r1 r2 )
2
r2 r

2 r 2

r2
r

## The frictional loss in an annulus is equal to the loss in a circular pipe

having the same hydraulic radius; hence, in general terms:

re = r1 r2

or

de = d1 d2

.......... (3.11)

r1

35

## Pressure Drop Across Bit Nozzles

Consider the diagram below for incompressible fluid:

## Fig. 3.2: Schematic sketch of incompressible fluid flowing

through a converging tube or nozzle.

v12 p2 v22

2g 2g

p1
where:

## p1 , p2 = turbulent flow pressure drop, lb/ft2

v1 , v2

= density, lb/ft3
= velocities at points 1 and 2, ft/sec

.......... ( a)

36

or

p1 v12 p2 v22

w 2g w 2g

.......... (a )

v22 v12

2g
Practically, v22 v12 v22 , therefore:
p
.......... (b)
v22 2 g

## The ideal rate of flow, qi A2 v2 . The actual flow rate q is:

.......... (c)
q Cqi
where C is the flow or nozzle coefficient for particular design.
p

37

By substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (b), and rearranging it, the equation
becomes:
q2
.......... (3.12)
p
2 2
2 gC A2
Altering Eq. (3.12) to practical units for mud flow, we:

q2
pb
7, 430 C 2 d e 4

.......... (3.13)

## where de = hydraulically equivalent nozzle diameter, in.

The value of C is around 0.8 0.98.

38

Multiple Nozzles

## The calculation of p across a multiple nozzle bit may be simplified

by substituting the sum of the nozzle areas for A in Equation (3.12).
For single nozzle:
q2
p
2 gC 2 A2
For several nozzles, each of area A1:
q12
pm
2 gC 2 A12

39

q
For parallel flow, q1 , where n = number of nozzles.
n
therefore:
pm q12 A2
q12 A2
2 2 2 2 2
p q A1 n q1 A1

## Cross sectional area of flow, A, is defined as

A2
1
2 2
n A1
A2 n2 A12
or

A nA1

.......... (3.14)

40

## Similarly, for use in Eq. (3.13)

d e nd 2

.......... (3.15a)

where:

## de ad12 bd 22 etc. .......... (3.15b)

a = number of nozzles having diameter d1.
b = number of nozzles having diameter d2.
d e = hydraulically equivalent single nozzle diameter, in.

41

Example 3.2
A 10 lb/gal mud is being circulated at the rate of 500 gal/min.
through a tri-cone bit having three 3/8 in. diameter jets. What
is the pressure drop across the bit?

Solution 3.2
Drill string

p1

Hole
Nozzle

vn1

vn2 vn3

p2

## de or d 3( 83 )2 0.65 in. (equivalent single nozzle diameter)

Using Eq. (3.13):
(500) 2 (10)
( p1 p2 ) or p
2,100 psi
2
4
(7430)(0.95) (0.65)

42

## Pressure Drop Calculations for a Typical Systems

Example 3.3
Operating Data
Depth = 6,000 ft (5,500 ft drill pipe, 500 ft drill collars)
Drill pipe = 4 -in. internal flush, 16.6 lb/ft (ID = 3.826 in.)
Drill collars = 6 in. (ID = 2.813 in.)
Mud density,
m = 10 lb/gal
Plastic viscosity, p = 30 cp
Bingham yield, Yb = 10 lb/100ft2
Bit = 7 7/8-in., 3 cone, jet rock bit
Nozzle velocity required = at least 250 ft/sec through each nozzle (this
value is obtained by a commonly applied rule of thumb). Assume C = 0.95
Surface equipment type = 2
What hydraulic (pump output) horsepower will be required for these conditions?

43

Solution 3.3

ubah

## Circulation rate: This is obtained from the

desired annular velocity necessary for
proper hole cleaning (cutting removal).
Assume that this is a fast drilling, soft rock
area and that 180 ft/min (3 ft/sec) upward
velocity based on a gauge hole is required
(i.e. annular velocity around the drill pipe).

5,500 ft.

## The flow rate , q is:

q (annulus area) velocity
2.45(d h2 - d p2 )v
7 2
1 2

2.45 7 8 4 2 (3)

307 gpm

500 ft.

p

## (a) Surface equipment losses ( ps)

Surface equipment type 2

Table 3.1

E 9.6 10-5

## (b) Pressure losses inside drill pipe ( pp)

The average velocity inside the drill pipe:
v

q
307

8.56 ft/sec
2
2
2.45d
2.45(3.826)

vc

m d

(10)(3.826)
4.25 ft/sec

45

## v vc turbulent flow (use Eq. 3.4)

NRe

2,970 vd

N Re 32, 400

Curve II

(2,970)(10)(8.58)(3.826)

## 32, 423 32, 400

30
Fig. 7.1 f 0.0066

## Applying Eq. (3.4):

f Lv 2 (0.0066)(10)(5,500)(8.56)2
pp

269 psi
25.8 d
(25.8)(3.826)

46

## (c) Pressure losses inside drill collar ( pc)

The average velocity inside the drill collar:
q
307
v

15.84 ft/sec
2
2
2.45d
2.45(2.813)
The critical velocity:
vc

m d

(10)(2.813)
4.64 ft/sec

47

## v vc turbulent flow (use Eq. 3.4)

NRe

2,970 vd

N Re 44,100
Curve II

(2,970)(10)(15.84)(2.813)

44,112 44,100
30
Fig. 7.1 f 0.0062

## Applying Eqn. (3.4):

f Lv 2 (0.0062)(10)(500)(15.84)2
pc

107 psi
25.8 d
(25.8)(2.813)

48

## (d) Pressure losses through bit ( pb)

Three nozzles (one for each cone) will be used, hence 1/3 q will flow
through each. For v = at least 250 ft/sec through each nozzle,
q

1
3

q
307 / 3

0.41 in.
2.45v
(2.45)(250)

## Nozzle sizes are sell in multiples of 1/32 in.

Therefore, the nearest stock nozzle available is
13/32 in. (i.e. 0.40625 in.):

nozzle diameter of

13
32

in. is chosen

## This nozzle allows an actual velocity of:

102
v
252 ft/sec
13 2
2.45( 32 )

1
3

1
3

1
3

49

Eq. (3.15a) d e nd 2
Eq. (3.15b) de ad12 bd 22 etc.
Using Eq. (3.15) or (3.15a), the actual nozzle diameter:
2
d 3 ( 13
)
0.704 in.
32

q 2 m
Eq. (3.13) pb
7, 430C 2 d 4
Pressure drop across the bit, pb :

(307)2 (10)
pb
573 psi
2
4
7, 430(0.95) (0.704)

50

## (e) Pressure losses around drill collar ( pac)

The average velocity around the drill collar:
307
v
7.62 ft/sec
7 2
3 2
(2.45) (7 8 ) (6 4 )
The hydraulically equivalent diameter of the annulus:
d a d1 d 2
d 7 78 6 34 1 18 in.

vc

1
8

(10)(1 )

7.26 ft/sec

51

## v vc turbulent flow (use Eq. 3.4)

NRe

2,970 vd

(2,970)(7.62)(1 18 )

8, 487 8,500
30

N Re 8, 400
Curve IV (for annuli
in uncased hole)

## Applying Eqn. (3.4):

f Lv 2 (0.0098)(10)(500)(7.62)2
pac

98 psi
1
25.8 d
(25.8)(1 8 )

52

## (f) Pressure losses around drill pipe ( pap)

The average velocity around the drill collar (as assume/given earlier):

v 3 ft/sec

## The hydraulically equivalent diameter of the annulus:

d a d1 d 2
d 7 78 4 12 3 83 in.
The critical velocity:

vc

v vc

3
8

(10)(3 )

4.39 ft/sec

300d

5,500
pap
300 (3 83 )

30 (3)
83 psi
10
3
5(3 8 )

pv

Yb

5
d

53

## (g) The total pressure drop in the system ( pt)

pt 36 269 107 573 98 83 1,166 psi

## (h) Horsepower output at the pump

q p
HP
1,714 v m

.......... (3.17)

where :
q = flow rate, gpm

v = volumetric efficiency
m = mechanical efficiency

Assuming volumetric and mechanical efficiencies of the pump are 90% and 85%
respectively:

HP

307 (1,166)
273 horsepower
1,714(0.90)(0.85)

54

Summary
Bingham Plastic Model: Calculation Steps
pt p s p p p c pb p ac p ap
p

vc

Eq. (3.8)

E q . (3 .1 6 ) o r F ig . 3 .3

v
Eq. (3.7a ) or (3.7b)

de
Eq. (3.15a) or (3.15b)

pb
No

(lam in ar)

p p , pc , pac , pap
Eq. (3.6)

if
v vc

(Eqn. 3.13)

Yes

(tu rb u len t)

N Re
Eq. (3.2)

f
(Fig. 7.1)

p p , pc , pac , pap
Eq. (3.4)

55

p
p pu

9.5 3.2(3)

Example 3.4

## Using a data as in Example 3.3, calculate the circulating pressure required.

Solution 3.4
From Example 3.3: q = 307 gpm, bit = 3 13/32 in. nozzles
(a) Surface equipment losses ( ps)
q = 307 gpm
Curve type 2

Fig. 7.3

pu 27 psi
0.14

10 30
ps 27

33 psi
9.5 3.2(3)
(b) Pressure losses inside drill pipe ( pp)
q = 307 gpm
Fig. 7.5 (for 4.5 d/p)

Curve 7

(assume ID = 3 )

10 30
p p 176

9.5 3.2(3)

32
pu
5,500 176 psi
1,000

0.14

217 psi

0.14

56

p
p pu

9.5 3.2(3)

q = 307 gpm
Curve 2 bore

Fig. 7.7
(assume ID = 2 )

10 30
pc 75

9.5 3.2(3)

13 "
32

93 psi

Fig. 7.9

nozzle

pb 550

15
500 75 psi
100

0.14

q = 307 gpm

pu

10
579 psi
9.5

p pu

pu 550 psi

m
9.5

0.14

57

p
p pu

9.5 3.2(3)

## (e) Pressure losses around drill collar ( pac)

q = 307 gpm
6 drill collar

Fig. 7.10
(bit size = 7 7/8)

10 30
pac 125

9.5 3.2(3)

25
500 125 psi
100

pu

0.14

154 psi

## (f) Pressure losses around drill pipe ( pap)

q = 307 gpm
4 drill pipe

Fig. 7.10
(bit size = 7 7/8)

10 30
pap 77

9.5 3.2(3)

pu

1.4
5,500 77 psi
100

0.14

95 psi

0.14

58

System
component

(psi)

## Hughes Tools Co. charts

(psi)

Surface connections, ps

36

33

269

217

107

107

Bit nozzles, pb

573

579

98

154

## Outside drill pipe, pap

83

95

1,166

1,185

Total circulating
pressure, pt

59