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OCW Drilling Hydraulics Lecture

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Chapter 3 - Drilling Hydraulics

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail

Petroleum Engineering Dept.

Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Energy Eng.

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Contents

Drilling mud flow (circulating) system

Newtonian fluid flow calculations

Bingham plastic fluid flow calculations

p across bit nozzles

p calculation for typical system

Real fluid flow is much complex compare to perfect fluid flow.

Between fluid particles

Shear stress

fluid

Between fluid particles

and pipes wall

Energy equilibrium principles are used to solve the problems.

Partial differential equation (Eulers equation) has no general

solution to solve problems.

Results from experiment (analytical) and semi-empirical method

needs to be used to solve flow problems.

There are 2 types of steady flow of real fluid exists:

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

Dye

This one?

or

this one?

or

Transition flow

this one?

Turbulent flow

Laminar flow v

Turbulent flow v

The problem is: what is v and v .Why we need to know?

Reynolds in an experiment which has a classic in fluid mechanic.

Laminar flow

Transition flow

Turbulent flow

vd

of flow.

vd

2000

laminar flow

vd

2000

4000 transition flow

vd

4000

turbulent flow

Reynolds number, Re (or NRe ).

vd

Re

dimensionless

transition flow : 2000 Re 4000

turbulent flow : Re 4000

vd

where:

v

d

fluid density

fluid average velocity

pipe inside diameter

fluid absolute viscosity

vd

Re

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

vmaks

v vavg 12 vmaks

v vavg

v vavg

Qin

element ( mg )1 @ Station 1

HL

v1

Turbine

HE

z1

element ( mg )2 @ Station 2

Pump

v2

HA

Control volume

Qout

z2

2

Datum

The energy possessed by a flowing fluid consists of internal energy and energies due to

pressure, velocity, and position

energy at energy energy energy energy at

section 1 added

lost

extracted section 2

This equation, for steady flow of incompressible fluids in which the change in internal

energy is negligible, simplifies to

p1 v12

p2 v22

z

1

A

L

E

2

2g

2g

10

Def.: Any energy losses in closed conduits due to friction, HL.

This types of losses can be divided into 2 main categories:

Major losses, HL-major, and

Minor losses, HL-minor.

From Bernoullis equation:

p1 v12

p2 v22

2 g z1 H A H L H E 2 g z2

head, HP, energy extracted, HE, is frequently due to turbine fluid

head, HT, Bernoullis equation can be simplify as:

v12

p2 v22

z1 H P

z2 H T H L major H L minor

2g

2g

p1

11

Def.: The head loss due to friction in long, straight sections of pipe.

The losses do happen in pipe, either in laminar or turbulent flow.

a. Laminar flow

Problem solved analytically derived purely from mathematical

relationship

Hagen-Porseuille equation

32 vL

p f

d2

in the forms of head loss, HL

32 vL

HL

d2

Darcy-Weisbach equation

vd

by replacing Re

into Hagen-Porseuille equation

2

64

v

L

HL

Re d 2 g

12

b. Turbulent flow

From Darcy-Weisbach equation for laminar flow

2

64

v

L

HL

Re d 2 g

2

v

L

HL f

d 2g

64

a simple mathematical relationship.

Re

For turbulent flow, f has to be solved empirically experiment need to be done.

13

Friction Factor

a.

Laminar flow

Darcy-Weisbach equation

2

HL f L v

d 2g

b.

where f 64

Re

Turbulent flow

In the literature (from 1900s current date), there are many studies that have been

conceded by various researchers.

von Karmans equation modified by Prandtl

Nikuradses equation (for smooth and rough pipes)

Colebrook-White equation (1940s)

Moody

Barrs equation (1975)

14

Laminar

Transition

f 64

Re

Turbulent

Complete Turbulent

vd

Re vd

Moody Chart

15

1. Calculate Re to determine the types of

flow.

2.

equation.

2

L

v

HL f

d 2g

Re

4. For turbulent flow:

d

Where:

pipes absolute roughness

d pipe internal diameter

is given in tabular forms.

Material (new)

Riverted steel

Concrete

Wood stave

Cast iron

Galvanized iron

Asphalted cast iron

Commercial steel or wrought iron

Drawn tubing

Glass

Absolute roughness,

ft

mm

0.003 - 0.03

0.001- 0.01

0.0006 - 0.003

0.00085

0.0005

0.0004

0.00015

0.000005

0.0 (smooth)

0.9 - 9.0

0.3 - 3.0

0.18 - 0.9

0.26

0.15

0.12

0.045

0.0015

0.0 (smooth)

d

16

Attention

1. In this subject, SKM1043, the f that we are using, is the American friction factor, fAmerican.

2. The value of fAmerican is different to the one that used by the British

f American 4 f British

64

Re

16

Re

3. Sometimes:

f American 4 f British

17

Since the mud enters the drill string and leaves the annulus

at essentially the same elevation, the only pressure

required is to overcome the frictional losses in the system.

Hence, the discharge pressure at the pump is defined by:

pt p s p p p c pb p ac p ap

....... (3.1)

where:

pt =

ps =

pp =

pc =

pb =

pac =

pap =

pressure loss in surface piping, standpipe, and mud hose

pressure loss inside drill pipe

pressure loss inside drill collars

pressure loss across bit nozzles

pressure loss in annulus around drill collars

pressure loss in annulus around drill pipe

18

calculations are needed for each section

There are 4 different types of model used to calculate

frictional pressure losses in mud circulating system:

Newtonian

Bingham plastic

Power-law

API Power-law

Due to the limitation of the syllabus, Power-Law and API

Power-Law models will not be discussed in this subject.

All calculations will be focused on Newtonian and plastic

fluid models.

19

Similar to generalized flow system approach, calculation of p for

pipe flow requires a knowledge of which flow pattern pertains to the

specific case, since different equations apply for each situation.

Definition of the existing flow pattern is given by a dimensionless

quantity known as the Reynolds number (NRe ):

N Re

where:

928 vd

N Re = Reynoldss number

v = average velocity of flow, ft/sec

= fluid viscosity, cp

q = circulating volume, gal/min

.......... (3.2)

20

laminar flow : N Re 2000

transition flow : 2000 N Re 4000

turbulent flow : N Re 4000

The p in laminar flow is given by the Hagan-Poiseuille law; this,

in practical units, is

Lv

.......... (3.3)

p

2

1,500d

where:

p = laminar flow p, lb/in2

L = length of pipe, ft

turbulent flow

For turbulent flow, Fannings equation applies:

f Lv 2

.......... (3.4)

p

25.8 d

where:

p = turbulent flow p, lb/in2

f = Fanning friction factor

21

roughness, and has been evaluated experimentally

for numerous materials (see Fig. 7.1)

p calculation for Newtonian fluid flow systems in

the following manner:

a. Calculate NRe from Equation (3.2).

b. If NRe < 2000, use Equation (3.3) to calculate the

pressure drop.

c. If NRe > 2000, use Equation (3.4). In this case the

friction factor f is obtained from Figure 7.1 or its

equivalent.

22

23

Drilling fluids is non-Newtonian fluid

Newtonian fluid equations must be altered for application

to typical drilling mud systems

24

The surface equipment consist of standpipe, hose, swivel, kelly

joint, and the piping between the pump and standpipe.

In practice, there are only four types of surface equipment; each

type is characterized by the dimensions of standpipe, kelly,

rotary hose and swivel. Table 3.1 summarizes the four types of

surface equipment.

Table 3.1: Types of surface equipment & value of constant E

Standpipe

Type

Hose

Swivel, etc.

Kelly

Eq. length,

3.826 ID

ID

Length

ID

Length

ID

Length

ID

Length

40 ft.

2.5

45 ft.

20 ft.

2.25

40 ft.

2,600 ft.

2.5 x 10-4

3.5

40 ft.

2.5

55 ft.

2.5

25 ft.

3.25

40 ft.

946 ft.

9.6 x 10-5

45 ft.

55 ft.

2.5

25 ft.

3.25

40 ft.

610 ft.

5.3 x 10-5

45 ft.

55 ft.

30 ft.

40 ft.

424 ft.

4.2 x 10-5

25

Use the following formula:

ps E m0.8 q1.8 0.2

p

.......... (3.5)

where:

ps =

q =

m =

E =

p

flow rate, gpm

mud density, ppg

a constant depending on type of surface equipment used

mud plastic viscosity, cp

Shearing stress or pressure

4

144p Yt mv

3

(True laminar flow)

Yb, Bingham yield

Plug flow

Yt, True yield

Rate of shear or velocity

4

144p Yt mv

3

where:

144p = pressure drop, lb/ft2

4

3

Yt = Yb, lb/ft2

m = L/(1500d2), slope of linear portion (from Eq. (3.3))

26

27

expressed as:

p vL

LYb

p

300d 1500d 2

L

p

300d

where:

pv

Yb

5

d

laminar flow

.......... (3.6)

Yb = yield point, lb/100ft2.

Determination of flow characteristic (laminar or turbulent) is

made by comparing the actual velocity with a calculated critical

velocity

28

q ft 3 /sec

v

A ft 2

Avg. velocity

inside the pipe

Avg. velocity

in the annulus

1 ft 3

1 min

q gal/min

7.48 gal

60 sec

( /4)(d /12)2

q

....... (3.7a)

v

2

2.45 d

OD

ID

Hole

q

....... (3.7b)

v

2

2

2.45 (d h - d p )

where :

v average velocity, ft/sec.

q = flow rate, gpm

d = diameter, in.

Drill pipe

Annulus

Annulus Area Ah Ap

(d h2 d p2(OD ) )

29

If Eqs. (3.3) and (3.6) are equated, an equivalent Newtonian

viscosity in terms of d , v , p and Yb is obtained:

5dYb

p

v

Substituting the above Eq. for in the Reynoldss number of Eq.

(3.2), equating the resulting equation to 2000, and solving for v

gives:

1.08 p 1.08 p2 9.3 d 2Yb

.......... (3.8)

vc

d

where:

vc = critical velocity, ft/sec, above which turbulent flow

exists and below which the flow is laminar.

Eq. (3.8) assumes that turbulence occurs at NRe = 2000. Therefore,

if:

v vc , flow is laminar

v vc , flow is turbulent

30

Before Fanning Eq. can be used, alteration to NRe expression have to

be done (after Beck, Nuss & Dunn)

p

.......... (3.9)

t

3.2

where:

t = turbulent viscosity of plastic fluids, cp

Substitution of t, for in the general NRe expression (Eq. (3.2)) gives:

NRe

NRe

928 vd

t

2,970vd

.......... (3.10)

This f may then be used in Eq. (3.4) for calculation of pressure

31

be done as follows:

(1) Calculate the average velocity, v , from Eq. (3.7a) or (3.7b)

(2) Calculate vc from Eq. (3.8)

(3) If v vc flow is laminar, Eq. (3.6) applies

(4) If v vc flow is turbulent, requiring:

a. Calculation of NRe from Eq. (3.10)

b. Determination of f from Fig. 7.1 at the calculated

for the conduit in question

c. Calculation of pressure drop from Eq. (3.4)

32

Example 3.1

Mud is flowing through 4 1/2 inch OD, internal flush drill pipe.

Calculate the frictional pressure drop per 1000 ft of pipe.

Mud properties

Mud density, m

Pipe ID

Bingham yield, Yb

Circulating rate, q

Plastic viscosity, p

=

=

=

=

=

10 lb/gal

3.640 in.

10 lb/100 ft2

400 gal/min

30 cp

33

Solution 3.1

Eq. (3.7a) : v

q

2.45d 2

Eq. (3.8) : v

c

400

12.3 ft/sec

2.45(3.64)2

(1)

(2)

vc

4.3 ft/sec

(10)(3.64)

(a) N Re

(2,970)(10)(12.3)(3.64)

44,300

30

(0.0062)(10)(1000)(12.3)2

(c) p p

100 psi/1000 ft

(25.8)(3.64)

34

For annular flow, it is necessary to use a hypothetical circular diameter,

da, which is the hydraulic equivalent of the actual annular system

The hydraulic radius is defined as:

hydraulic radius, rh =

wetted perimeter of conduit

Annulus

(r12 r22 ) r1 r2

for an annulus

rh =

2 (r1 r2 )

2

r2 r

2 r 2

r2

r

having the same hydraulic radius; hence, in general terms:

re = r1 r2

or

de = d1 d2

.......... (3.11)

r1

35

Consider the diagram below for incompressible fluid:

through a converging tube or nozzle.

v12 p2 v22

2g 2g

p1

where:

v1 , v2

= density, lb/ft3

= velocities at points 1 and 2, ft/sec

.......... ( a)

36

or

p1 v12 p2 v22

w 2g w 2g

.......... (a )

v22 v12

2g

Practically, v22 v12 v22 , therefore:

p

.......... (b)

v22 2 g

.......... (c)

q Cqi

where C is the flow or nozzle coefficient for particular design.

p

37

By substituting Eq. (c) into Eq. (b), and rearranging it, the equation

becomes:

q2

.......... (3.12)

p

2 2

2 gC A2

Altering Eq. (3.12) to practical units for mud flow, we:

q2

pb

7, 430 C 2 d e 4

.......... (3.13)

The value of C is around 0.8 0.98.

38

Multiple Nozzles

by substituting the sum of the nozzle areas for A in Equation (3.12).

For single nozzle:

q2

p

2 gC 2 A2

For several nozzles, each of area A1:

q12

pm

2 gC 2 A12

39

q

For parallel flow, q1 , where n = number of nozzles.

n

therefore:

pm q12 A2

q12 A2

2 2 2 2 2

p q A1 n q1 A1

A2

1

2 2

n A1

A2 n2 A12

or

A nA1

.......... (3.14)

40

d e nd 2

.......... (3.15a)

where:

a = number of nozzles having diameter d1.

b = number of nozzles having diameter d2.

d e = hydraulically equivalent single nozzle diameter, in.

41

Example 3.2

A 10 lb/gal mud is being circulated at the rate of 500 gal/min.

through a tri-cone bit having three 3/8 in. diameter jets. What

is the pressure drop across the bit?

Solution 3.2

Drill string

p1

Hole

Nozzle

vn1

vn2 vn3

p2

Using Eq. (3.13):

(500) 2 (10)

( p1 p2 ) or p

2,100 psi

2

4

(7430)(0.95) (0.65)

42

Example 3.3

Operating Data

Depth = 6,000 ft (5,500 ft drill pipe, 500 ft drill collars)

Drill pipe = 4 -in. internal flush, 16.6 lb/ft (ID = 3.826 in.)

Drill collars = 6 in. (ID = 2.813 in.)

Mud density,

m = 10 lb/gal

Plastic viscosity, p = 30 cp

Bingham yield, Yb = 10 lb/100ft2

Bit = 7 7/8-in., 3 cone, jet rock bit

Nozzle velocity required = at least 250 ft/sec through each nozzle (this

value is obtained by a commonly applied rule of thumb). Assume C = 0.95

Surface equipment type = 2

What hydraulic (pump output) horsepower will be required for these conditions?

43

Solution 3.3

ubah

desired annular velocity necessary for

proper hole cleaning (cutting removal).

Assume that this is a fast drilling, soft rock

area and that 180 ft/min (3 ft/sec) upward

velocity based on a gauge hole is required

(i.e. annular velocity around the drill pipe).

5,500 ft.

q (annulus area) velocity

2.45(d h2 - d p2 )v

7 2

1 2

2.45 7 8 4 2 (3)

307 gpm

500 ft.

p

Surface equipment type 2

Table 3.1

E 9.6 10-5

The average velocity inside the drill pipe:

v

q

307

8.56 ft/sec

2

2

2.45d

2.45(3.826)

vc

m d

(10)(3.826)

4.25 ft/sec

45

NRe

2,970 vd

N Re 32, 400

Curve II

(2,970)(10)(8.58)(3.826)

30

Fig. 7.1 f 0.0066

f Lv 2 (0.0066)(10)(5,500)(8.56)2

pp

269 psi

25.8 d

(25.8)(3.826)

46

The average velocity inside the drill collar:

q

307

v

15.84 ft/sec

2

2

2.45d

2.45(2.813)

The critical velocity:

vc

m d

(10)(2.813)

4.64 ft/sec

47

NRe

2,970 vd

N Re 44,100

Curve II

(2,970)(10)(15.84)(2.813)

44,112 44,100

30

Fig. 7.1 f 0.0062

f Lv 2 (0.0062)(10)(500)(15.84)2

pc

107 psi

25.8 d

(25.8)(2.813)

48

Three nozzles (one for each cone) will be used, hence 1/3 q will flow

through each. For v = at least 250 ft/sec through each nozzle,

q

1

3

q

307 / 3

0.41 in.

2.45v

(2.45)(250)

Therefore, the nearest stock nozzle available is

13/32 in. (i.e. 0.40625 in.):

nozzle diameter of

13

32

in. is chosen

102

v

252 ft/sec

13 2

2.45( 32 )

1

3

1

3

1

3

49

Eq. (3.15a) d e nd 2

Eq. (3.15b) de ad12 bd 22 etc.

Using Eq. (3.15) or (3.15a), the actual nozzle diameter:

2

d 3 ( 13

)

0.704 in.

32

q 2 m

Eq. (3.13) pb

7, 430C 2 d 4

Pressure drop across the bit, pb :

(307)2 (10)

pb

573 psi

2

4

7, 430(0.95) (0.704)

50

The average velocity around the drill collar:

307

v

7.62 ft/sec

7 2

3 2

(2.45) (7 8 ) (6 4 )

The hydraulically equivalent diameter of the annulus:

d a d1 d 2

d 7 78 6 34 1 18 in.

vc

1

8

(10)(1 )

7.26 ft/sec

51

NRe

2,970 vd

(2,970)(7.62)(1 18 )

8, 487 8,500

30

N Re 8, 400

Curve IV (for annuli

in uncased hole)

f Lv 2 (0.0098)(10)(500)(7.62)2

pac

98 psi

1

25.8 d

(25.8)(1 8 )

52

The average velocity around the drill collar (as assume/given earlier):

v 3 ft/sec

d a d1 d 2

d 7 78 4 12 3 83 in.

The critical velocity:

vc

v vc

3

8

(10)(3 )

4.39 ft/sec

300d

5,500

pap

300 (3 83 )

30 (3)

83 psi

10

3

5(3 8 )

pv

Yb

5

d

53

pt 36 269 107 573 98 83 1,166 psi

q p

HP

1,714 v m

.......... (3.17)

where :

q = flow rate, gpm

v = volumetric efficiency

m = mechanical efficiency

Assuming volumetric and mechanical efficiencies of the pump are 90% and 85%

respectively:

HP

307 (1,166)

273 horsepower

1,714(0.90)(0.85)

54

Summary

Bingham Plastic Model: Calculation Steps

pt p s p p p c pb p ac p ap

p

vc

Eq. (3.8)

E q . (3 .1 6 ) o r F ig . 3 .3

v

Eq. (3.7a ) or (3.7b)

de

Eq. (3.15a) or (3.15b)

pb

No

(lam in ar)

p p , pc , pac , pap

Eq. (3.6)

if

v vc

(Eqn. 3.13)

Yes

(tu rb u len t)

N Re

Eq. (3.2)

f

(Fig. 7.1)

p p , pc , pac , pap

Eq. (3.4)

55

p

p pu

9.5 3.2(3)

Example 3.4

Solution 3.4

From Example 3.3: q = 307 gpm, bit = 3 13/32 in. nozzles

(a) Surface equipment losses ( ps)

q = 307 gpm

Curve type 2

Fig. 7.3

pu 27 psi

0.14

10 30

ps 27

33 psi

9.5 3.2(3)

(b) Pressure losses inside drill pipe ( pp)

q = 307 gpm

Fig. 7.5 (for 4.5 d/p)

Curve 7

(assume ID = 3 )

10 30

p p 176

9.5 3.2(3)

32

pu

5,500 176 psi

1,000

0.14

217 psi

0.14

56

p

p pu

9.5 3.2(3)

q = 307 gpm

Curve 2 bore

Fig. 7.7

(assume ID = 2 )

10 30

pc 75

9.5 3.2(3)

13 "

32

93 psi

Fig. 7.9

nozzle

pb 550

15

500 75 psi

100

0.14

q = 307 gpm

pu

10

579 psi

9.5

p pu

pu 550 psi

m

9.5

0.14

57

p

p pu

9.5 3.2(3)

q = 307 gpm

6 drill collar

Fig. 7.10

(bit size = 7 7/8)

10 30

pac 125

9.5 3.2(3)

25

500 125 psi

100

pu

0.14

154 psi

q = 307 gpm

4 drill pipe

Fig. 7.10

(bit size = 7 7/8)

10 30

pap 77

9.5 3.2(3)

pu

1.4

5,500 77 psi

100

0.14

95 psi

0.14

58

System

component

(psi)

(psi)

Surface connections, ps

36

33

269

217

107

107

Bit nozzles, pb

573

579

98

154

83

95

1,166

1,185

Total circulating

pressure, pt

59

Additional Information

Besides Newtonian and Bingham Plastic Models, there are

several other model used to predict pressure losses in mud

circulating systems.

Generally, each model is based on a set of assumptions which

cannot be completely fulfilled in any drilling situation.

Power law, Herschel-Bulkley (Yield Power Law @ API Power

Law) models are the most widely used in the oil industry.

Table 3.3 shows a summary of pressure loss equations

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