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UNIT 7

CHHANA BASED SWEETS

Structure
7.0 Objectives
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Rasogulla
7.3 Definition and Method of Manufacture of Sandesh
7.4 Definition and Method of Manufacture of Rasmalai
7.4 Definition and Method of Manufacture of Chhana Murki
7.5 Let Us Sum Up
7.6 Key Words
7.7 Some Useful Books
7.8 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises

7.0

OBJECTIVES

After reading unit we should be able to:

Define Rasogulla, Sandesh, Rasmalai and Chhana murki.

Manufacture of chhana based sweets

Judge the quality of chhana based sweets

7.1

INTRODUCTION

Chhana is used as a base and filler for the preparation of a large number of Bengali
sweets such as rasogulla, sandesh, rasmalai, rajbhog, chhana murki, chamcham, etc. In chhana-based sweets, milk protein constitutes the basis of structure
and texture of the product. Depending on the texturization process adopted during
the production, the milk protein imparts different characteristics to the final product.
The end product may be fibrous and chewy with good water holding characteristics
such as rasogulla and rasmalai and on the other hand end product may be soft, hard
and grainy with low water binding properties such as chhana murki. The textural
characteristics of the end product can be manipulated by including small amounts of
additives such as starch, flour, amylase, CMC, etc. The milk fat also influences the
textural profile as well as the flavour of the end product.

7.2

RASOGULLA

Rasogulla is undoubtedly the most popular traditional Indian milk sweet prepared
from chhana. It is undisputed king not only of Bengali sweets, but also of all Indian
sweets. This soft, sweetest ball of chhana soaked in sugar syrup has delighted the
taste buds of millions of sweet loving clientele for more than hundred years. It is
difficult to trace the origin and history of this sweet, however, according to a report;
it was made for the first time in 1868 in Kolkata at a place known as Bag-Bazaar
by a sweet confectioner Mr. Nobin Chandra Das.
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There are various types of rasogulla sold in the market. These include ordinary type,
spongy variety, covered with syrup and diabetic rasogulla. Spongy rasogulla differs
in terms of taste, texture, body and succulence as compared to ordinary rasogulla.
Diabetic rasogulla is prepared by replacing sucrose with low caloric sweetness or
with alcoholic sugar such as sorbitol to cater the need of people suffering from
diabetes or health conscious consumers. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has
laid down the standards for rasogulla, which are presented in Table 7.1.

Chhana Based Sweets

Table 7.1 BIS standard for rasogulla


Characteristics

Specifications

Moisture

45-55%

Milk fat

5%

Sucrose

45%

Protein

5%

Requirements for syrup


Acidity of syrup (ml of N/10 NaOH
required to neutralize 100 ml of the syrup), max.

6.0

Concentration of syrup, max

55oBrix

Bacterial count, per gram, max

500

Coliform count, per gram, max

NIL

i.

Method of preparation

Rasogulla is prepared from soft and freshly made chhana. Cow milk is preferred for
the production of rasogulla because it gives soft, spongy and juicy product. Use of
chhana made from buffalo or mixed milk is avoided because of its somewhat hard
body and coarse and grainy texture.As such buffalo milk chhana is not suitable for
rasogulla making. Now attempt have been made to develop new method for
production of rasogulla from buffalo milk.
For rasogulla production, chhana is kneaded to a smooth paste and then small balls
of about 15-20 mm diameter and 10-12 grams in weight are made. The surface of
balls should be smooth and free from of any cracks. In case of buffalo milk chhana,
arrowroot, semolina, and baking powder are mixed and kneaded manually to a
smooth paste. One kg of chhana yields about 90-100 rasogullas. Rasogulla balls
are cooked in sugar syrup having 50-60 per cent sugar concentration for about 1520 minutes. Duringcooking, asmall amountof wateris continuouslyaddedto maintain
sugar concentration. This makes up for the loss of water due to evaporation.About
10 per cent of cooking solution is replaced by fresh one, every time it is reused to
cook another batch of rasogullas. After cooking rasogulla, balls are soaked in 4045 per cent sugar syrup for about 1-2 hours. The rasogulla balls are cooled to room
temperature and finally stored at refrigeration temperature. The flow diagram for
manufacture of rasogulla from cow milk and buffalo milk is presented in Figs. 7.1
and 7.2 respectively.
ii.

Rasogulla Mix Powder

In order to meet the demand of rasogulla round the year and also to make the
product available at place of scarcity, R&D studies have been undertaken to develop

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Paneer and Chhana

a process for production of dried rasogulla mix. Skim milk is concentrated to desired
total solids level by using ultrafiltration process. The retentate is standardized for
desired level of fat using cream. This mixture is spray dried. Certain additives and
binders are dry blended in the standardized retentate powder to yield dried rasogulla
mix. Rasogulla prepared from mix powder is reported to yield good flavour and soft
and spongy body & texture.
iii. Yield
The yield of rasogulla is about 260 grams per 100 grams of cow milk chhana. In
case of buffalo milk, the yield of rasogulla is about 240 grams/100 grams of chhana.
Cow milk
Standardization (3.5 4.0% fat)
Boiling
Filtration
Cooling (80oC)
Coagulation (0.5 1.0% citric acid solution)
Draining
Cooling of coagulum
Draining
Chhana (55-58% moisture)
Kneading
Balls making (8-10g each)
Cooking of balls (50-60% syrup for 15-20 min)
Soaking in syrup
Cooling
Storage
Fig. 7.1 Flow chart for manufacture of rasogulla from cow milk

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Chhana Based Sweets

Buffalomilk
Standardization (5.0% fat)
Boiling
Addition of sodium alginate (0.50%)
Filtration
Cooling (40-45oC)
Addition of coagulation (1.0% citric acid solution)
Draining
Pressing (15-20 min)
Chhana
Incorporation of additives
Kneading

Arrowroot Semolina
Baking Powder

Balls making (8-10g each)


Cooking of balls (50-60% syrup for 15-20 min)
Soaking (40-45% sugar syrup 20-25 min)
Cooling
Storage
Fig. 7.2 Flow chart for manufacture of rasogulla from buffalo milk

Check your Progress I


1)

Describe rasogulla.
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Paneer and Chhana

2)

Write important steps for manufacture of rasogulla?


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3)

Describe preparation of rasogulla mix powder.


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4)

What is the yield of rasogulla?


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7.3

DEFINITIONS AND METHOD OF


MANUFACTURE OF SANDESH

Sandesh is the most popular chhana based sweet delicacy of the eastern parts of
India, especially West Bengal where there is a traditional custom to send some
Sandesh along with a good message to relatives and friends. Utilization of chhana
for sandeshproduction is greater than for all other Bengali sweets, including rasogulla.
It is reported that about 80 per cent of chhana produced in Kolkata is converted
into sandesh.
Sandesh is known for its taste, palatability, and aroma and as a rich source of milk
proteins, fat, sucrose, and fat-soluble vitamins. It has firm bodyand smooth texture.
Several varieties of sandesh are sold in the market and each variety differs in
appearance, flavour, body & texture, palatability and composition. Three distinct
varieties of sandesh are popular: soft grade (naram-pak), hard grade (kara-pak)
and raw grade (Kachagola). The most common variety is the soft grade sandesh,
which has a soft body and smooth texture with fine grains. It contains a relatively
smaller amount of sugar and has higher moisture content than the hard grade sandesh.
Kara-pak has a firm body and dry appearance. Kachagola possesses raw-chhana
like flavour, moist appearance, soft body and coarse, grainy texture. One more
variety, known as Nolan gur sandesh is prepared from Khajur gur (date jaggery).
It is considered a novel delicacy and fetches premium price.
i.

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Sandesh from cow milk

Cow milk is standardized to 4.0 per cent fat and thereafter chhana is prepared by
coagulation at 80oC using 2.0 per cent citric acid solution or pasteurized sour whey.
Chhana is kneaded or ground into smooth paste and divided into two equal lots.
Ground sugar, at the rate of 30 per cent of total weight of chhana is mixed with one
lot ofchhana.The mixture is thenslowlycookedwithcontinuous stirringand scrapping
in a shallow vessel and the temperature is raised upto 75oC.When patting stage has
reached the second lot of chhana is also mixed to it. Heating and scrapping of this
mixture is continued till a final temperature of 60oC is attained. Thereafter, the mix is
cooled to room temperature and moulded in desired shape and size. The production
process of soft grade sandesh is presented in Fig 7.3.

ii.

Chhana Based Sweets

Sandesh from buffalo milk

For making good quality sandesh from buffalo milk, the process for making chhana
is slightly modified. The buffalo milk is standardized to 4.0 per cent fat and heated to
boil. When boiling has attained, heating is discontinued and milk is diluted with water
(30 per cent the volume of milk). The diluted milk is then coagulated at 70oC using
0.5 per cent citric acid solution or with sour whey. Whey is drained completely and
chhana thus obtained is kneaded to smooth paste. The remaining steps are same as
to that of cow milk sandesh production.
Chhana

Grinding/ kneading to smooth paste

Dividing into two equal parts

Addition of sugar

Cooking (75oC)

Addition of remaining chhana

Heating (60oC)

Cooling (37oC)

Moulding/ hooping/ Slicing

Storage (5-6oC)
Fig.7.3 Flow chart for manufacture of sandesh

iii. Yield
The average yield of sandesh from cow and buffalo milk is about 16.50 and 20.50
per cent, respectively.
iv. Composition
The chemical composition of sandesh from cow and buffalo milk is given in table
7.2.

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Paneer and Chhana

Table 7.2. Chemical composition of sandesh from cow and buffalo milk
Constituents (%)

Sandesh
Cow milk

Buffalo milk

Moisture

25.50

27.14

Fat

19.90

18.50

Protein

18.50

19.75

Sugar

34.50

33.80

Ash

1.65

1.90

The chemical profile of market samples of three types of sandesh is presented in


table 7.3.
Table 7.3. Chemical profile of market sample of sandesh
Attributes (%)

Soft grade

Hard Grade

Kachagola

Moisture

24.10

13.40

33.90

Fat

18.70

20.50

15.50

Protein

16.10

16.70

12.80

Sucrose

38.60

46.40

35.80

Ash

1.70

1.70

1.40

Titratable acidity (LA)

0.88

0.82

0.70

FFA (OA)

0.41

0.34

0.46

Free fat (per cent of


total fat)

68.60

80.80

56.90

Check your Progress 2


1)

Describe Sandesh.
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2)

Write down the types of sandesh sold in the market.


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3)

What is the chemical composition of sandesh made from cow and buffalo milk?
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4)

Write the major steps involved in the manufacture of Sandesh.

Chhana Based Sweets

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7.4
i.

DEFINITION AND METHOD OF


MANUFACTURE OF RASMALAI
Definition

Rasmalai is a chhana based sweet prepared essentially by suspending flat circular


shaped rasogulla in sweetened condensed milk. Rasmalai is popular all over India,
particularly in eastern and northern parts. It is a very delicate, spongy and chewy
sweet that has a delectable taste. It is also flavoured with saffron and pista. The
product is refrigerated and served chilled.
ii.

Method of Manufacture

Milk is heated with continuous stirring in open pan to evaporate to about one-half of
its original volume.At this stage sugar is added at the rate of 4.0 per of original milk.
The heating and stirring is continued at slow fire till the content is reduced to about
one-third of its original volume. The addition of sugar during heating imparts pleasant
flavour and palatable taste to the end product. Subsequently, flat circular shape
rasogulla is added to this concentrated milk and content is further heated for few
minutes (2-5 min). Thereafter, the container is removed from the fire and content is
allowed to cool to room temperature, chilled and stored under refrigeration. The
product is served chilled. Rasmalai has limited shelf life of 3-5 days. The flow chart
for manufacture of Rasmalai is presented in Fig. 7.4.
Milk

Evaporation/ concentration (50% of its original volume)

Addition of sugar (4% of original milk)

Addition of flat rasogulla

Heating (2-5 min)

Cooling/chilling

Packaging

Storage
Fig. 7.4 Flow chart for manufacture of rasmalai

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Paneer and Chhana

7.5
i.

DEFINITION & METHOD OF MANUFACTURE


OF CHHANA MURKI
Definition

Chhana-murki is a sugar-coated chhana based sweet. This product is very popular


in the northern parts of the country. It is mainly served during weddings and feasts.
Chhana-murki has the shape of small cubes coated with sugar and has a firm body
and close-knit texture. Buffalo milk is preferred for the preparation of this sweet.
ii.

Method of Manufacture

Chhana or paneer is cut into small cubes of about 10 mm. The cubes are cooked in
boiling sugar syrup (of 3 strings consistency) in an open vessel (karahi) for about
five minutes with gentle stirring. The vessel is removed from the fire and stirring is
continued till the sugar is coated uniformlyaround the cubes. The cooked cubes are
then removed from syrup.After cooling, a few drops of Kewara flavour are sprinkled.
The product may be coloured using food grade colours in sugar syrup. The final
product contains moisture 13.3, fat 17.4, protein 11.6, sugar 56.1 and ash 1.6 per
cent. The flow chart for manufacture of chhana murki is presented in Fig. 7.5.
Chhana/ paneer
Cutting into cubes (0.75-1.0 cm3)
Cooking in sugar syrup (5 min)
Cooling & stirring
Addition of flavour
Packaging
Storage (4-6oC)
Fig. 7.5 Flow chart for manufacture of chhana murki

Check your Progress 3


1)

Define Rasmalai.
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2)

Write down the steps involved in the manufacture of Rasmalai.


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3)

Describe Chhana-murki.

Chhana Based Sweets

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4)

Write down the method of manufacture of Chhana-murki.


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7.6

LET US SUM UP

Chhana is used as an intermediate base for preparation of a wide variety of milkbased Bengali sweets. Its preparation is mainly confined, largely in the eastern parts
of India, and more recently, in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. It is claimed that the
production of rasogulla in Bikaner is more than the Kolkata, where cow milk is
available in large quantity. However, chhana based sweets are quite popular in other
parts of India. Indias total production of chhana is estimated at 200,000 tonnes and
the value of chhana-based sweets, around Rs. 70,000 million. Chhana is used as a
base and filler for the preparation of a large number of Bengali sweets such as
rasogulla, sandesh, rasmalai, rajbhog, chhana murki, cham-cham, etc. In
chhana-based sweets, milk protein constitutes the basis of structure and texture of
the product.
Rasogulla which is a soft, sweetest ball of chhana soaked in sugar syrup has delighted
the taste buds of millions of sweet loving clientele for more than hundred years.
There are various types of rasogulla sold in the market. They include ordinary type,
spongy variety, covered with syrup and diabetic rasogulla. Spongy rasogulla differs
in terms of taste, texture, body and succulence as compared to ordinary rasogulla.
Diabetic rasogulla is prepared by replacing sucrose with low caloric sweetner or
with alcoholic sugar such as sorbitol to cater the people suffering from diabetes or
health conscious consumers.
Cow milk is preferred for the production of rasogulla because it gives soft, spongy
and juicyproduct. Use of chhana madefrom buffalo or mixed milk is avoided because
of its somewhat hard, coarse and grainybody& texture.As such buffalo milk chhana
is not suitable for rasogulla making. Now attempt have been made to develop new
method for production of rasogulla from buffalo milk. Rasogulla Mix Powder has
been developed from Skim milk concentrated to desire total solids level by using
ultrafiltration process. The retentate is standardized for desired level of fat using
cream. This mixture is spray dried. Certain additives and binders are dry blended in
the standardized retentate powder to yield dried rasogulla mix.
Sandesh is the most popular chhana based sweet delicacy of the eastern parts of
India, especiallyWest Bengal. Sandesh is known for its taste, palatability, and aroma
and as a rich source of milk proteins, fat, sucrose, and fat-soluble vitamins. It has
firm body and smooth texture. Several varieties of sandesh are sold in the market
and each variety differs in appearance, flavour, body & texture, palatability and
composition. Three distinct varieties of sandesh are popular: soft grade (narampak), hard grade (kara-pak) and raw grade (Kachagola). One more variety, known
as Nolan gur sandesh is prepared from Khajur gur (date jaggery). It is considered
a novel delicacy and fetches premium price.

41

Paneer and Chhana

Rasmalai is a chhana based sweet prepared essentially by suspending flat circular


shaped rasogulla in sweetened condensed milk.. It is a very delicate, spongy and
chewy sweet that has a delectable taste. It is also flavoured with saffron and pista.
The product is refrigerated and served chilled. Chhana-murki is a sugar-coated
chhana based sweet. It is mainlyserved during weddings and feasts. Chhana-murki
has the shape of small cubes coated with sugar and has a firm body and close-knit
texture. Buffalo milk is preferred for the preparation of this sweet.

3.7

42

KEY WORDS

Additives

: The ingredients/ processing aids such as


arrow root, semolina, baking powder, maida,
sodium alginate, sodium citrate, etc are used
in preparation of certain sweets are termed
as additives.

Canning

: Packaging of processed products in metal


cans with proper sealing, to avoid any
contamination afterpost processingand during
storage.

Chhana based sweets

: Various sweets, which are prepared from


chhana, are known as chhana based sweets,
such as rasogulla, sandesh, rasmalai, chhanamurki, rajbhog, cham-cham, etc.

Packaging

: Packaging means placing a commodity into a


protective wrappers and container for
transport and storage.

Retentate

: The concentrate, which is obtained by


ultrafiltration of milk or skim milk.

Standardization

: Standardization of milk refers to the


adjustment, i.e. raising or lowering, of the fat
and/or solids-not-fat of milk to a desired level,
so as to conform to the legal or other
requirements prescribed.

Brix

: It describes the % of suspended solids, 95


brix, for example, denotes a liquid which has
95% suspended solids, by weight.

Acidulant

: A substance added to food or beverages to


lower pH and to impart a tart, acid taste.
Phosphoric acid is an acidulant added to cola
drinks.

Sodium metabisulphite

: Sodium metabisulphite (MBS) is used as a


preservative in food and wine and frequently
triggers attack by microorganisms. It is used
as preservative in canned Rasogulla.

Glycemic Index

: The Glycemic Index is a dietary index thats


used to rank carbohydrate-based foods. The
Glycemic Index predicts the rate at which the
ingested food will increase blood sugar levels.

Diabetes

: Diabetes mellitus is a medical disorder


characterized by varying or persistent
hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels),
especially after eating.

SugarAlcohol

: Sugar alcohols, sometimes called polyols, are


a class of carbohydrates that are more slowly
or incompletely absorbed by the human
digestive system than sugars. Common sugar
alcohols include sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol,
and xylitol.

Artificial Sweeteners

: A sugar substitute is a food additive which


duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but often
with less food energy.

7.8

Chhana Based Sweets

SOME USEFUL BOOKS

Anantakrishnan, C.P. and Srinivasan, M.R. (1964). Milk Products of India, ICAR
Publications.
Aneja, R.P., Mathur, B.N., Chandan, R.C. and Banerjee,A.K. (2002). Technology
of Indian Milk Products.ADairy India Publication, Delhi.
De, S. (1980). Outlines of DairyTechnology. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Rangappa, K.S. andAcharya, K.T. (1974). Indian Dairy Products.Asia Publishing
House, New Delhi.

7.9

ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Check Your Progress 1


1)

2)

3)

4)

i.

Rasogulla is the most popular traditional Indian milk sweet prepared from
chhana.

ii.

Rasogulla is soft, succulent ball of chhana soaked in sugar syrup.

i.

Preparation of chhana.

ii.

Mixing of certain additives with chhana and making balls.

iii.

Boiling of balls in sugar syrup.

iv.

Cooling of balls, packaging and storage

i.

Concentration of skim milk to derive total solids level by ultra filtration


process

ii.

Standardization of retentate for desired level of fat with cream.

iii.

Spray drying the mixture.

i.

Yield of rasogulla is about 260 grams per 100 grams of cow milk chhana.

ii.

The yield of rasogulla is about 240 grams per 100 grams of chhana from
buffalo milk.

43

Paneer and Chhana

Check Your Progress 2


1)

2)

3)

4)

i.

Sandesh is the most popular chhana-based sweet delicacy of the eastern


parts of India, especially West Bengal.

ii.

To enhance its look and flavours, various sweeteners such as palm jaggery,
sugarcane jaggeryand sugar are used. It is flavoured with jackfruit, orange
peel and rose essence.

i.

Several varieties of sandesh are sold in the market and each variety differs
in appearance, flavour, body and texture, palatability and composition.

ii.

Three distinct varieties of Sandesh are popular: soft grade (naram-pak,


hard grade (kara-pak) and raw grade (kachagola).

i.

The chemical make-up of Sandesh from cow and buffalo milk is different.

ii.

Cow milk Sandesh contains moisture 25.5 per cent, fat 19.90 per
cent, protein 18.50 per cent, sugar 34.50 per cent and ash 1.65 per
cent.

iii.

The percent moisture, fat, protein, sugar and ash content in buffalo milk
Sandesh are 27.14, 18.50, 19.75, 33.80 and 1.90 respectively.

i.

Preparation of chhana.

ii.

Grinding/kneading to smooth paste and dividing into two equal parts.

iii.

Addition of sugar in the first part and cooling at 75oC.

iv.

Addition of remaining chhana and heating at 60oC.

v.

Cooling, moulding and packaging.

Check Your Progress 3


1)

2)

3)

4)

44

i.

Rasmalai is a flattened chhana patties floating in thickened sweet milk.

ii.

It is very delicate, chewy/ spongy sweet.

iii.

It is refrigerated and served chilled.

i.

Evaporation/ concentration of milk.

ii.

Addition of 4.0 per cent sugar.

iii.

Addition of flat rasogulla and heating for 2-5 min.

iv.

Chilling and packaging.

i.

Chhana-murki is a sweet prepared from chhana base or paneer.

ii.

It has the shape of small cubes, coated with sugar and has firm body and
close-knit texture.

i.

Preparation of chhana/ paneer.

ii.

Cutting of chhana/ paneer into small cubes and cooking in sugar syrup.

iii.

Addition of flavour and packaging.