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KALYAN SIR: TRANSPORTATION

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TRANSPORTATION

KALYANSIR.COM

ROADWAYS:
Sher Shah Suri Marg (GT Road) connects Amritsar to Calcutta.
The first serious attempt to develop roadways was made in 1943 with Nagpur Plan.
In 1961 Twenty Year Road Plan was drawn which increased the road length from
6.56 lakh km to 10.60 lakh km.
Classification of Roads

National Highways
The natural highways are constructed and maintained by CPWED (Central Public
Works Department)
These are for interstate and strategic movements and connect the state capitals.
They carry nearby 40 % of the road traffic in India.
Total length is 42,000 km.
STATE HIGHWAYS
The state highways are constructed and maintained by state governments.
They connect the state capital with district headquarters.
Total length is 1, 50,000 (approx) in India
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DISTRICT HIGHWAYS
The construction and maintenance is the responsibility of Zilla Parishad.
They connect district headquarters with Tehsils and Blocks
Total length is 6, 50,528 km.

VILLAGE ROADS

The construction and maintenance of village roads is the responsibility of village


Panchayats.

These roads connects the village with neighboring towns.


Total length is 14, 55,896 km.

NEW NATIONAL HIGHWAYS


N.H.

Len. km.

State

NH-81

100

Bihar, W.Bangal

NH-82

130

Bihar

NH-83

130

Bihar

NH -84

60

Bihar

NH-85

95

Bihar

NH-86
NH-87

360
83

U.P. , M.P.
U.P.

NH-88
NH-89

115
300

Himachal Pradesh
Rajasthan

NH-152

40

Assam

NH-212

250

Kerala, Karnataka

NH-213

130

Kerala

NH-214

270

Andhra Pradesh

NH-215

348

Orissa

Total

2411

IMPORTANT NATIONAL HIGHWAYS:


No. 1.

New Delhi - Ambala - Jalandhar - Amritsar.

No.2.

Delhi - Mathura - Agra - Kanpur - Allahabad - Varanasi - Calcutta.

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No.3.

Agra - Gwalior - Nasik - Bombay

No.4.

Thana and Madras Via Pune and Belgaum

No. 5.

Calcutta and Madras

No.6.

Calcutta - Dhule

No. 7

Varanasi - Kanyakumari

No.8.

Delhi - Bombay (Via Jaipur, Baroda and Ahmedabad)

No.9.

Bombay - Vijayawada

No. 10.

Delhi - Fazilka

No.11.

Jaipur - Bikaner

No.22.

Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Rampur - Chini (Indo - Tibet Border)

No.24.

Delhi - Bareilly - Lucknow

*The National highways No 7 is the longest high way


of India.

THE PLAN OF SUPER NATIONAL HIGHWAYS:

After the Natinal Highways, there is a plan under the consideration of Central Road
Transport Ministry to create Super National Highways.
These Super National Highways of about 14,000 km length.
Through this there is a plan to link big sea ports of the country with important cities.
In the construction of these Highways, the role of Private Sector will be important.
This will be done on the basis of BOT (Build Operate Transfer) by Private Sector.
The Government of India has received 22 feasibility reports for the building of Super
National Highways and the estimated cost is about Rs. 1,50,000 crore.
Out of these, 10 proposals have come from multinational companies.
After the amendment in clause 9 of National Highway ordinance 1956, the Rajya Sabha
passed the National Highway (Amendment) Act 1997 on March 11, 1997 through voice
vote.
This gave the right to the central government of enacting laws regarding the land
acquisition for the development of National Highways.
The National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) was constituted under the National
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Highway Authority of India Act 1988 and was made operational in February 1995.
Initially it was entrusted with the task of implementing five externally aided National
Highway improvement projects.
Subsequently it has been mandated to implement the National Highways Development
Project (NHDP) comprising 4/6 laning of 13252 km. of national highways having two
components.

The Golden Quadrilateral connecting four metropolitan cities of Delhi,Mumbai,


Chennai and Kolkata (5952 km) and

(b). North - South and East - West corridors (7300 km), connecting Srinagar to Kanya
Kumari and sileher to Saurashtra respectively and Salem to Cochin.
RAILWAYS:

Trains are the most important means of transport.


They account for nearly 3/5th of the passenger traffic in India.
This also accounts 4/5th of the freight traffic in India.
Indian railways system is the largest in Asia.
Indian railway system is fourth largest in the world.
This is the biggest departmental public undertaking in the country.
It is also the worlds second largest railway system under a single management.
The first train in India steamed off from Bombay to Thane, a stretch of 34 km. in 1853.
The network of railways has increased up to 62,809 km.
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The Indian railways operate in three different gauges.


Broad Gauge
Metre Gauge
Narrow Gauge

The broad gauge accounts for nearly 50 % of the traffic followed by meter gauge 43 %
of the total route length.
The total route - length of the Indian Railways is about 63,000 km.
Railways are divided into 16 zones, headed by a General Manager who is responsible to
the Railway Board for operation, maintenance and financial matters.
Out of the 16 zones Northern Railways is the longest with a length of 10,995 km.
CONTAINER SERVICE:
Indian Railways has introduced a new marketing strategy of Container services in 1980
with 7 container depots which in 1996 have expanded to 32 locations.
The Container Corporation of India (CONCOR), a public sector undertaking provide
door to door services for domestic users, transportation in bulk for small customers and
international transport in International standards organization (ISO) containers.

KONKAN RAILWAY PLAN:

In March 1990, the Konkan Railway Plan was started to provide a link by the shortest rail
route between the states of Goa, Maharashtra, and Karnataka.
This includes, the 760 km distance between Apta and Mangalore.
The Registration of Konkan Rail Corporation was made on 26 July, 1990 under the
company act.
51 % share equity of the corporation belongs to Indian Railways.
The Konkan Railway Project has been completed on January 26, 1998.

The rail traffic has been started between Roha (Maharashtra) and Mangalore
(Karnataka). Konkan Railways ensures maximum speed of 160 km per hour.

RAILWAY
ZONE
HEADQUARTERS

Central Mumbai, Victoria terminus


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Eastern Calcutta
Northern New Delhi
North Estern

Gorakhpur

North East-Frontier
Maligaon - Guwahati

Southern Chennai
South Central

Secunderabad

South Eastern

Calcutta

Western Mumbai - Churchgate


East Cost

- Bhubaneswar

East Central - Hajipur


North Cental -

Allahabad

North Western

Jaipur

South Western

Bangalore

(Hubli)
West Central

Jabalpur

Bilaspur - Bilaspur

AIR TRANSPORT:

The international airports in India.


Indira Gandhi International Air port

New Delhi

Amritsar International Air port

Amritsar

Lokpriya Gopinath Bordolio International Air Port -

Guwahati

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Air port

Ahmadabad

Netaji Subash Chandra Bose International Air port -

Kolkata

Chatrapati Shivaji International Air port

Mumbai

Goa Air port

Vasco da Gama

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

Hyderabad

Chennai International Airport

Chennai

Bangalore International Airport

Bangalore

Cochin international Airport

Cochin

Trivendram International Airport

Tiruvanantapuram

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Previous names of some of the international


Airports:
v New Delhi

Palam

v Kolkata

- Dum Dum

v Mumbai

- Santa Cruz

v Chennai

- Meenambakam

AIR INDIA:

Air India was established in the year 1953.


Air India has bilateral air services agreement with more than 100 countries in the World.
INDIAN AIRLINES:
The Indian Air line was established in 1953.
PAWAN HANS LIMITED:

This is basically meant for providing helicopter support services to oil sector, hill station
and remote areas.
It also provides air support services to several customers which includes ONGC, Punjab,
M.P., Lakshadweep Administration, GAIL, BSF and also caters to private sector.
PRIVATE AIR TAXI:
The liberalization process in civil aviation took wing in April 1990 with the cargo open
skies policies.
The Air Corporation Act, 1953 was repealed on March 1, 1994.
This put an end to the monopoly of Indian Airlines, Air India and Vayudoot over
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scheduled air transport services.


WATER TRANSPORT:
This is the most efficient, least costly and environment friendly means of transportation.
The total length of navigable water ways in India comprising rivers, canals, backwaters,
crecks, etc. is 14,500 km.
Out of the total navigable water ways 3700 km is navigable by mechanized boats.
India has a net of 4300 navigable canals out of which only 900 km is navigable by
mechanized boats.
PORTS:
India has a long coastline in the Indian Ocean.
India has 11 major and 139 medium and small ports.
There are 12 major ports handling 90 % of the cargo
MUMBAI:

This is a natural harbour.


This is located on the western coast of India.
Mineral oil that is imported from South West Asia is received here.
Most of the foreign trade with Western countries and East African countries takes place
on the west coast.
This is the biggest port in India
Another port Nhava Sheva is developed to relieve the pressure on Mumbai port.
KANDLA:
This is a tidal port.
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This is the first free port in India.


This is located on the eastern end of Rann of Kutch
From here the export of Crude oil, fertilizer, salt, foodgrain, cotton, cement takes place.
It was created out of compulsion since Karachi port went to Pakistan after partition.
MARMUGAO:
This is on the coast of Goa.
This is also a natural port.
Iron ore is exported from Goa.
It occupies fifth position in handling the traffic.
NEW MANGALORE
This is on the coast of Karnataka.
From here the export of iron ore from Kudramukh mines takes place.
It handles the import of fertilizer edible oil, petroleum products.
KOCHI:
This is also a natural harbour.
This forms at the backwaters of Kerala coast.
From here the export of tea, coffee, spices, cashew, etc takes place.
Sheltered backwater bay
The import of petroleum for Kochi refinery also takes place here.
TUTICORIN:
This is located at the coast of Tamil Nadu.
This handles coal, food grains, edible oil, sugar and petro products.
This is developed in the recent times.
CHENNAI
This is an artificial harbour.
This is located on the east coast in the state of Tamil Nadu.
It handles petroleum products, mineral oil and iron ore.
This is the oldest port in India.
The lesser depth of water and tropical cyclones makes it impossible sometime.
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VISAKHAPATNAM:
This is located on the eastern coast along Andhra Pradesh.
This is naturally deep water and protected.
The export of Crude oil, petroleum product, iron ore takes place.
It is the deepest land locked and protected port.
PARADEEP:
This is located on the Odisha coast.
It has capacity of handling 6.05 million tonnes.
KOLKATA
This is a riverine port.
This is an Inland location on Hoogli River.
Goods from South east, Australia and New Zealand are imported here.
This is a Tidal port.
The Kolkata port suffers from problem of silting.
HALDIA:

This is located on Hooghli.


This is meant for releasing congestion at Kolkata port.

KALYANSIR.COM

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