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PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE

Toùm löôïc Present Participle vaø Past Participle.
PRESENT PARTICIPLE

I.

Present Participle coù theå ñöôïc tìm thaáy ôû nhöõng
chöùc vuï vaên phaïm sau:
1. Taïo neân thì Continuous: BE + PRESENT PARTICIPLE
Ex: She is writing a letter.
2. Phuï nghóa cho tieáng danh töø:
Ex : The singing boy is my brother.
The man sawing wood is very poor.
He, having finished his work, went home.

II.

Ngöôøi ta thöôøng duøng Present Participle trong caùc
tröôøng hôïp sau:
1. Hai haønh ñoäng coù cuøng chuû ngöõ xaõy ra ñoàng thôøi,

ngöôøi ta duøng Present Participle cho moät trong hai haønh
ñoäng.
Ex : He went away. He whistled as he went.
 He went away whistling (or Going away, he whistled)
She held his hand and led him through the crowd.
 Holding his hand, she led him through the crowd. (or She led him
through the crowd holding his hand.)
2. Tröôøng hôïp moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra ngay sau moät haønh

ñoäng khaùc cuûa cuøng moät chuû ngöõ, thì haønh ñoäng xaûy
ra tröôùc coù theå dieån taû baèng Present Participle.
Ex : She opened the drawer and took out a book.
 Opening the drawer, she took out a book.

3. Tröôøng hôïp haønh ñoäng ñi sau laø moät phaàn hoaëc keát

quaû cuûa haønh ñoäng ñi tröôùc, ngöôøi ta duøng Present
Participle ñeå dieãn taû haønh ñoäng sau.

Ex : I succeeded in the examination, this made my parents happy.
 I succeeded in the exam, making my parents happy.
He went out, slamming the door.
4. Present Participle duøng trong Participle Phrase, coù theå thay theá
cho meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ lí do (because = as = since), meänh ñeà
chæ söï nhöôïng boä hay traùi ngöôïc (although, while)
Ex : As he feared that he did not have enough money to support his family,
he worked overtime.
 Fearing that he did not have enough money to support his family, he
work overtime.
Although I admitted that he was right, I did not like his plans.
 Admitting he was right, I did not like his plans.
While I fully understand your problem, I can’t allow you to break the
rules
 While fully understanding your problem, I can’t allow you to break
the rules.
5. Present Participle duøng trong Participle Phrase (cuïm phaân

töø) ñeå thay cho meänh ñeà chæ ñieàu kieän:
Ex :

Taking morning exercise everyday, you will be in good health.

Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc
Trang 1

Catch expresses anger or displeasure. Sit + expression of place + -ing. As soon as I brushed my teeth. Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc Trang 2 . you will be in good health) 6. . Present Participle duøng trong Participle Phrase (cuïm phaân töø) ñeå thay theá cho moät meänh ñeà traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian. 2. feel. (h) When I went into my office. Find + (pro)noun + -ing. Didn’t you hear the clock striking.  The man standing in the yard is my brother. We had a good time (b) I had trouble I had difficulty finding house. I caught a thief looking through my desk drawer. -ing. Catch + (pro)noun + -ing * In (h) and (i) both find and catch mean discover. smell. (f) I stood there wondering what to do next. We saw a boy who was running out of the house. I saw an accident. Stand + expression of place + -ing. Change the following complete sentences into simple ones by using Present Participle. 3. I found John using my telephone. 9. (i) When I walked into my office. difficulty + -ing. Waste + expression of time or money + -ing. She smelt something burning I watch them rehearsing. . Present Participle duøng sau ñoäng töø chæ giaùc quan (see. 1. (e) She sat at her desk writing a letter. a hard time + -ing. Present Participle duøng trong moät soá thaønh ngöõ: (a) We had fun volleyball. (d) I waste a lot of time watching TV. I had a hard time I had a difficult time Have fun playing Have a good time Have Have his Have Have + -ing. watch. a difficult time + -ing. (Adverbial clause of time) Ex : While I was walking along the street I saw an accident. . I went to bed. + -ing. she was welcomed by her friends.PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE (If you take morning exercise everyday. 8. hear. Present Participle duøng trong Participle Phrase (cuïm phaân töø) ñeå thay cho moät meänh ñeà tính ngöõ (Adjective clause) Ex : The man who is standing in the yard is my brother. (c) Same spends most of his time Spend + expression of time or money + studying. ) Ex : I see him passing my house everyday. 7. trouble + -ing. Lie + expression of place + -ing.  Walking along the street. (g) He is lying in bed reading a novel. When she got there.

11. 12. They were doing the washing up. 10. She looked furious. 7. She usually goes to bed at 9:30. 2. 6. now it is 10:30. He walked out into darkness. 9. Because he loved her so much. She came in. I had plenty of time to spare so I had a good look round the town. It was burning. 8. 15. John might have gone to the movies yesterday. 9. he met his old friend. He was wearing only a pair of shorts. Past Perfect.PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE 4. 1. The cause of death could have been bacteria. I had failed one of my exams so I couldn’t get into university. 8. he did it for many years. I left them. We watched the schoolchildren while they were singing. I went round to see her. B) Trong caùc thì Perfect nhö Present Perfect. 3. We had been friends for twenty years and suddenly we had a big argument and haven’t seen each other since. vaø Future Perfect Ex : I have already eaten dinner. I was hoping for reconciliation. We are sitting here and doing nothing. While he hated the job.  I smelt something burning. he went home. We’re wasting time. 14. The bedrooms that overlook the sea are the best ones in the hotel. When she was going along the street. I stood watching an old man who was playing with his grandchildren. 7. PAST PARTICIPLE Past participle ñöôïc duøng A) Trong theå thuï ñoäng vaø ñöùng sau ñoäng töø TO BE: Ex : That boy was purnished by the teacher. She had got home before I rained yesterday. C) Laø thaønh phaàn cuûa Perfect Infinitive ( To have + Past Participle) vaø Perfect Participle (Having + Past Participle): Ex :  I am sorry to have bothered you. I smelt something. 13. she saw a pickpocket. 10. he might have gone to bed. While he was going to the office. I shall have done my exercise before noon tomorrow. It may have rained last night. 5. I need to discuss it with my partner. She took a picture of a lady who was sleeping. Change the following complete sentence into simple ones by using Present Participle. You should not kiss a baby that is sleeping. 4. Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc Trang 3 . Having finished his work. I had been out all day so I was quite happy to stay in for the evening. Laø thaønh phaàn trong MODAL PERFECT  Could/May/Might + have + Past Participle duøng ñeå chæ khaû naêng moät vieäc coù theå xaûy ra ôû quaù khöù hoaëc hieän taïi. but I’m not sure. he forgave her for everything. She found a drunkard who was lying by the roadside. I have changed my job since I last wrote to you. 6. 5. Before I make a decision.

She (be)___________ sick. (I would / I will) ride it every day. She (not. (He did not go to the post office) Maria shouldn’t have phoned John last night. John should have gone to the post office this morning. It must have rained last night. Sharon was supposed to be here at nine o’clock. Henry’s car stopped on the highway. She (must have forgotten / must forget) about our meeting. roài) duøng trong caâu ñieàu kieän loaïi III. John didn’t do his homework. He (might have had / might had had) an accident. (She did phone him) The policeman should have made a report about th burglary. John was supposed to go to the post office this morning. Jane did very well on the exam. 1. (He did not make a report)  NOTES: Thaønh ngöõ was / were supposed to + infinitive coù nghóa töông töï nhö should have + past participle. park)______________ in a reserved spot. He (should have slept / may have slept) late. Choose between “must + have + Past participle” and “should + have + Past participle” 1. He (have)____________ his visa renewed. (He should have driven / shouldn’t have driven) so fast. 8. Robert arrived without his notebook. 10. I would have bought that Honda.  Would + have + past participle (ñaõ . 3. 7. Where do you think Juan is today? I have no idea. Thomas received a warning for speeding. She must have studied. 4. It (may run / may have run) out of gas. Sandra failed the test. George (would have gone / would go) on a trip to Chicago if he had had time. 2. Julietta was absent for the first time yesterday. He must have gone to bed. The policeman was supposed to make a report on the burglary. The X rays at the airport (damage)___________ it. 9. Hendry was deported for having an expired visa.  Must + have + past participle duøng ñeå chæ moät söï suy luaän hôïp lyù cho vieäc ôû quaù khöù The grass is wet. George missed class today. since she had no permit. DRILL Choose the correct answer in each of the following sentences according to meaning and tense. If I had had enough money. Marcela didn’t come to class yesterday. The photos are black. John (must have done / should have done) his homework. If I had a bicycle. so the teacher became very angry. . Tony’s light is out. . Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc Trang 4 . She must not have studied. 2. He (could have lost / would have lost) it. 3.PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE  Should + have + past participle duøng ñeå noùi moät vieäc gì ñoù ñaùng ra ñaõ xaûy ra ôû quaù khöù nhöng vì moät lí do naøo ñoù maø khoâng thöïc hieän ñöôïc. 4. She (will have had / may have had) an accident. Blanca got parking ticket. 6. 5.

9. He (be)____ very proud. Alex failed the exam. Jean did very badly on the exam. Mary did very well on the exam. He (not. John isn’t here yet. 7. 6. She (study)_____________ harder. Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc Trang 5 .PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE 5. study)_____________ enough. He (forget)______________ about our meeting. 8. She (study)_____________ very hard. German called us as soon as his wife had her baby.

 The message got across to people by being repeated over and over again. Although it was intended to be a nice surprise.  Although intended to be a nice surprise. he devoted his life to others.  If accepted for the job. he suddently burst into tears.  Ex : Trong caùc caáu truùc bò ñoäng mang yù nghóa truyeàn khieán hay nhöõng ñoäng töø giaùc quan. the manuscript suddently turned up again. I want this work finished by 6 o’clock. the party was not what I wanted at all. A fallen tree. before. stay = remain) The vase is broken.  Being + past participle ñöôïc duøng sau after. it looked as good as new. Sau ñoäng töø TO BE vaø caùc Linking verb (seem = appear = look.PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE  Ex :  Ex : Tröôùc danh töø vaø phuï nghóa bò ñoäng cho danh töø ñoù. it has had one crisis after another.  Loved by all who knew her.  When being questioned. while. since. A written report. when. he suddently burst into tears. I’ll have to start at the beginning of next month.  Since being elected. She was surrounded by her admirers. The manuscript had been lost for many years when it suddently turned up again. You must make yourself respected.  Thay theá cho Subject + Passive verb gioáng nhö Present Participle thay theá cho Subject + Active verb. become = turn = grow = get.  After being cleaned. Ex : After the bike was cleaned. The worker looks tired. Since the government was elected. He was loved by all who knew her. surrounded by her admirers. I got my hair cut yesterday. by. it looks magnificent. When he was being questioned. I want my fish fried. the bike looked as good as new. I’ll have to start at the beginning of next month. the government has had one crisis after another. He devoted his life to others.  I often saw her at the disco. When the town is seen from the hill. Stolen cars. Have you ever seen a man hanged? I heard my name called.  When being seen from the hill. The message got across to people because it was repeated over and over again.  (Having) lost for many years. A tired worker. on. The broken bottle. the town looks magnificent. The work remains undone. the party was not what I wanted at all. Ex : I often saw her at the disco. If I am accepted for the job. Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc Trang 6 .

 2. Joseph wants to save his money (travel) next year. 5. It was not discovered for many years. I ask the man if he would mind (turn) off the radio. A) B) 1. he confessed everything. but it is lovely inside. He was frequently criticized for his self-centered attitude but was nonetheless very popular. but they do not allow (swim) in this lake. 4.PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE I shall have the door painted green. 1. When it is seen from the outside. 12. After he was released from prison. I was exhausted through lack of sleep and fell asleep at my desk. When he was caught. (On . We are very glad (be) here. 5. 8. 1. the book is still relevant today. Exhausted through lack of sleep. “Romeo and Juliet” which was written by Shakespear is the best tragedy I have ever seen. 4. 10. 2. I should get my coat (clean). I want to swim. 3. Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc Trang 7 . Unless it is destroyed.  “Romeo and Juliet” written by Shakespear is the best tragedy I have ever seen She is talking with the student who was praised by the teaching staf yesterday. 7. EXERCISE 1: Rewrite the sentences below using a Past Participle Phrase or Being + Past Participle. this material could have damaging consequences. 9. 6. 10. Jennifer had been shoplifting for many years before she was found out. 6. That boy earns his living by (sell) papers. 9. Although he was ridiculed by everybody.) 11. were slow-moving and ineffectual. (Full infinitive. They hope (build) a house at the beach next week. . he continued to persuit his bizarre projects. If we are elected. The money was hidden in the cellar. EXERCISE 2: Give appropriate verbal forms of the verbs in parentheses. Peter was abandoned by his parents at an early age and took to stealing. 15. I have to leave the house at seven o’clock (get) to work on time. Did you plan on (finish) this letter before the mailman came? 3. Andy could not find a job anywhere.  She is talking with the student praised by the teaching staf yesterday. The farmer risks (lose) his crop if there is a drought. we will increase the value of pensions.  Ex : Thay cho moät Adjective Clause. 2. present participle. past participle). Although it was written many years ago. I’ve had no time to go out. 7. She tried (see) the manager in order to discuss the matter. They will get you put in prison. He had a very difficult life. 14. 8. The boy was taken from his parents at an early age. I fell asleep at my desk. which were always dominated by the same people. 3. . Since I was promoted. The policeman made us (stop) our car. The committee meetings. bare infinitive. 13. gerund. the building looks a mess. We avoided (drive) over unpaved road by taking the new highway.

seeing) the dentist. There is now scent in the (fade) rose this morning. there is much pleasure in (seeing. Why do they object to (smoke) here? 7. the students denied (play) the practical joke. rushing) outside. attending). running). It is really (surprise) news and we are (surprise). to wonder) about how the people there might have acted during the earthquake. leaving) their machines and (to rush. They found the house (burn) down. EXERCISE 3: Choose the correct verbal form in parentheses: (1) (2) (3) While walking down the street toward my dentist’s office. 8. He is a (bore) lecturer. (Hear. The tennis champion has been asked (to play. I avoided (to face. working) in factories and could see them (leave. In addition. Now. But yesterday. losing) a tooth. They would want (to get. 10. getting) home. frighten) children. I must start soon (get) there before dark. We aren’t accustomed to (get) up so early. They would be worrying about whether or not their families were safe. I imagined men (to work. when a molar started to ache. to comfort) their (frightening.PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE 4. 10. I met a friend. If I postponed (to keep. keeping) my appointment again. That (escape) prisoner will be arrested again. exciting) teachers (to tell. 2. keeping) up my courage. telling) the school children (to march. That man was a famous teacher. EXERCISE 4: Use Present Participle or Past Participle for the verb in parentheses. I could hear (excited. play). I am certainly looking forward to (watching. Smith. facing) the dentist’s drill and endeavored (to postpone. and the audience is usually (bore). When questioned. I decided it was time (to see. I still think that you make a mistake. postponing) the (feared. I could see mothers (to try. trying) (comforting. I heard the “Moonlight Sonata” (play) by Mr. He is a (retire) teacher. Hearing) that made me (wonder. I heard him (play) the “Moonlight Sonata” 8. 4. I often dream of (go) on a trip to Spain. On a noon broadcast today I heard the news of a (damaged. playing) an exhibition game at the Tennis Club next Sunday. 2. watch) the champion (to play. encouraging) words to myself (to keep. 6. Use Present Participle or Past Participle for the verb in parentheses . but they would find the buses not (to run. Hall? 9. He found the fire (burn) brightly. I muttered (encouraged. marching) outside calmly. Like most people. 5. interesting) in this sport should certainly plan on (to attend. 9. 1. I would risk (to lose. fearing) ordeal as long as possible. 5. 1. Gold is a metal (dig) out of the earth. he does not teach anymore. 6. see) someone do something expertly. (Walk) along the street. Everyone (interested. 3. (Admit) what you say. Do you see the man (talk) to Mr. 7. Watching a fine player is a good way of (improving. Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc Trang 8 . The manager let us (leave) work early the day before the holiday. improve) one’s own game. damaging) earthquake in Greece.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE – PAST PARTICIPLE 3. he sat down to rest. It is a picture of (fall) angels. That much-(praise) man proved to be a scoundrel. He is a good-(look) man. 6. Giaùo vieân: Laâm Höõu Ñöùc Trang 9 . The Labor candidate was not elected. We were (excite) when we read it. 4. The (return) soldier seemed to be sad. 10. (Be) tired with the toil. He was a (fail) candidate. It is an (excite) story. 9. 8. 7. Our (depart) guest has just said good-bye to us. 5.