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Data Mining-Backpropagation

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A neural network: A set of connected input/output

units where each connection has a weight associated

with it

Computer Programs

Pattern detection and machine learning algorithms

Build predictive models from large databases

Modeled on human nervous system

Offshoot of AI

McCulloch and Pitt

Originally targeted

Image Understanding, Human Learning,

Computer Speech

Features

Highly accurate predictive models for a large number

of different types of problems

Ease of use and deployment poor

Connection between nodes

Number of units

Training level

Learning Capability

Model is built one record at a time

Structure and Working Neural Network model

Model

Specified by weights

Training modifies weights

Complex models

Fully interconnected

Or Gate Functionality

Input 1

Input 2

Weighted Sum

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

2

Output

0

1

1

1

Classification by Backpropagation

Backpropagation: A neural network learning

algorithm

Started by psychologists and neurobiologists to

develop and test computational analogues of neurons

During the learning phase, the network learns by

adjusting the weights so as to be able to predict the

correct class label of the input tuples

Also referred to as connectionist learning due to the

connections between units

Neural Network as a Classifier

Weakness

determined empirically, e.g., the network

topology or structure."

symbolic meaning behind the learned weights and

of hidden units" in the network

Strength

outputs

extraction of rules from trained neural networks

A Neuron

The n-dimensional input vector x is mapped into

variable y by means of the scalar product and a

nonlinear function mapping

&

Multi-Layer Neural Network

attributes measured for each training tuple

Inputs are fed simultaneously into the units making

up the input layer

They are then weighted and fed simultaneously to a

hidden layer

The number of hidden layers is arbitrary, although

usually only one

The weighted outputs of the last hidden layer are

input to units making up the output layer, which

emits the network's prediction

The network is feed-forward in that none of the

weights cycles back to an input unit or to an output

unit of a previous layer

First decide the network topology: # of units in the

each hidden layer, and # of units in the output layer

Normalizing the input values for each attribute

measured in the training tuples to [0.01.0]

One input unit per domain value, each initialized to

0

Output, if for classification and more than two

classes, one output unit per class is used

Once a network has been trained and its accuracy is

unacceptable, repeat the training process with a

different network topology or a different set of initial

weights

Backpropagation

Iteratively process a set of training tuples & compare

the network's prediction with the actual known target

value

For each training tuple, the weights are modified to

minimize the mean squared error between the

network's prediction and the actual target value

Modifications are made in the backwards

direction: from the output layer, through each hidden

layer down to the first hidden layer, hence

backpropagation

Steps

in the network

activation function)

biases)

etc.)

Backpropagation Algorithm

Input: Data set D, learning rate l, network

Output: Trained Neural Network

A Multi-Layer Feed-Forward Neural Network

Backpropagation Algorithm

Updation of weights and biases

Case Updating

Epoch Updating

Terminating condition

Weight changes are below threshold

Error rate / Misclassification rate is small

Number of epochs

Efficiency of Backpropagation

O(|D| x w) for each epoch

w number of weights

Backpropagation and Interpretability

Rule extraction from networks: network pruning

Simplify the network structure by removing

weighted links that have the least effect on the

trained network

Then perform link, unit, or activation value

clustering

The set of input and activation values are studied

to derive rules describing the relationship between

the input and hidden unit layers

Sensitivity analysis: assess the impact that a given

input variable has on a network output. The

knowledge gained from this analysis can be

represented in rules

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