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Abstract

This appendix discusses the design of block foundations and pile-supported foundations for vibrating machinery. Two attachments will guide the engineer in collecting

needed data for use in the design: Machinery Unbalances lists data needed from

vendors of the reciprocating or rotating machinery to be mounted on the foundation; and Soil Data lists data needed in order to calculate the dynamic properties

of the soil on site.

Contents

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Page

A1.0

Introduction

A-2

A2.0

Block Foundations

A-2

A2.1

A2.2

Modes of Vibration

A2.3

Dynamic Parameters

A2.4

Response Parameters

A2.5

A2.6

A3.0

Pile-Supported Foundations

A3.1

Introduction

A3.2

A3.3

Coordinate System

A3.4

Spring Constants

A3.5

A4.0

Attachments

A4.1

Machinery Unbalances

A4.2

Soil Data

A4.3

Design Aids

A5.0

References

A-11

A-17

A-21

A-1

December 1993

Appendix A

A1.0

Introduction

This appendix has been formulated as a guide to the design of foundations for

vibrating machinery. Specifically, this method of analysis should be used as an aid

to the designer in determining the maximum amplitudes of vibration and comparing

them with acceptable values. This is accomplished by first obtaining the dynamic

parameters of the foundation-soil system. These parameters are then used to determine the natural frequencies of the system from which the amplitudes of vibration

are then calculated. This appendix assumes that the designer has some knowledge

of vibration theory, as well as a thorough description of the static and dynamic characteristics of the machinery, and data describing the dynamic properties of the soil

at the installation site. Section A4.0, Attachments, should be consulted as needed

during the analysis procedure.

Methods of analysis are developed herein for block foundations on grade and block

foundations on piles. The analysis for block foundations on grade is based on

Richart and Whitman [14], [21] and assumes only one engine is in operation on the

mat. This analysis is theoretically rigorous and produces accurate results. The analysis of pile-supported foundations is based on a procedure developed by N. C.

Donovan, et al, of Dames and Moore [23] and its accuracy has been confirmed by

field test data.

A2.0

Block Foundations

A2.1

Block foundations on grade are the most common support structures for reciprocating or rotating machinery in refinery operations. Figure A-1 shows a simplified

block foundation with the coordinate system and notation used throughout this

section.

Several fundamental considerations should be given to the foundation design which

will enhance its dynamic behavior. Detailed statements of these design considerations can be found in References [1], [8], [24]. The most important design factors

are:

December 1993

1.

2.

Locate the centroid of the foundation-soil contact area on a vertical line with

the foundation plus machine center of mass; the eccentricity of these points

should not exceed .05B.

3.

Distribute the foundation mass for the smallest possible moment of inertia with

respect to the principal axis through the centroid of the foundation-soil contact

area (e.g., use minimum pedestal height H).

4.

5.

For natural soil bases, the foundation embedment depth should exceed the

depth of frost penetration.

A-2

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Appendix A

Fig. A-1

6.

A2.2

a.

b.

c.

Compute the dynamic parameters for each pedestal as if they were not

connected by a common mat.

Modes of Vibration

During the operation of moving machinery, the foundation-soil system may experience one of four possible modes of vibration depending on the direction of the

unbalanced forces:

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1.

2.

3.

Rocking () about either the X-X or Y-Y axis. These axes lie in the plane of

the mat-soil contact area and intersect at the centroid of this area.

4.

Twisting () about the vertical Z-Z axis. This axis passes through the center of

gravity of the combined foundation-machine mass.

A-3

December 1993

Appendix A

A2.3

Dynamic Parameters

The design of a foundation for reciprocating or rotating machinery requires an estimation of the dynamic parameters of the foundation-soil system. The inertia,

elastic, and damping parameters can be calculated from the following formulae:

1.

Inertia Parameters

a.

Mass, m

1

m = --- ( W M + W F + W A )

g

(Eq. A-1)

where:

m = Mass of the foundation-machine system, lb-sec2-in-1

g = Acceleration of gravity, in-sec-2

wM = Dead weight of machinery, lb

wF = Dead weight of foundation block, lb

wA = Dead weight of any appurtenances on foundation, lb

b.

The mass moments of inertia about the vertical and horizontal axes of rotation can be computed by breaking the foundation into components and

using the parallel axis theorem:

Ij = I o + m c I 2

(Eq. A-2)

where:

Io = Mass moment of inertia of component about its own axis, lb-sec2in

mc = Mass of component, lb-sec2-in-1

l = Distance between axis of component and rotation axis, in

Ij = Mass moment of inertia of component about axis of rotation

( = ,), lb-sec2-in

The moment of inertia of the entire foundation/machine system about a

given rotation axis (I, I) is then the sum of the moments of inertia for

each component about that axis. Section A4.3 contains useful information

for determining Io.

December 1993

A-4

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2.

Appendix A

Elastic Parameters

The spring constant for the six different modes of vibration (see Figure A-1)

can be found directly from the following formulae and the soil data of

Section A4.2.

Vertical, lb-in.-1

G

K z = ------------ z BL

1

(Eq. A-3)

Horizontal, lb-in-1

K x or y = 2 ( 1 + )G x BL

(Eq. A-4)

Rocking, lb-in

G

K = ------------ BL 2

1

(Eq. A-5)

Twisting, lb-in

3

16 BL ( B 2 + L 2 ) --4K = ------ G -------------------------------3

6

(Eq. A-6)

where:

x, z, and are coefficients from Figure A-2 and

B = Width of foundation measured along axis of rotation for rocking

or normal to direction of horizontal force for translation, in

L = Length of foundation measured in the plane of rotation for

rocking or in the direction of horizontal force for translation, in.

See example in Figure A-3

= Poissons Ratio of soil, dimensionless

3.

Damping Parameters

The equivalent damping of the foundation-soil system can be completed from:

= i + r

(Eq. A-7)

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A-5

December 1993

Appendix A

Fig. A-2

Fig. A-3

of Rotation for Rocking

i, the internal soil damping, is given in Figure A-13, Section A4.2 for the

appropriate soil conditions; r, the radiation damping, can be found from

Figure A-4, where:

For Translation:

3

m BL --2b = ---- -------

(Eq. A-8)

For Rocking:

5

I BL 3 --4b = ---- --------- 3

(Eq. A-9)

For Twisting:

5

I BL ( B 2 + L 2 ) --4b = ---- -------------------------------

6

(Eq. A-10)

December 1993

A-6

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Appendix A

Fig. A-4

A2.4

Radiation Damping r

Response Parameters

The response parameters, which characterize the motion of the foundation, can be

calculated from the dynamic parameters and the machinery data. The crucial parameters are:

1.

1 K

f j = ------ -----j

2 m

(Eq. A-11)

where:

j =. . . . . . . . . x, y For Horizontal Translation

=. . . . . . . . . z For Vertical Translation

=. . . . . . . . . For Rocking

=. . . . . . . . . For Twisting

(Note: For rocking and twisting, replace m with I and I, respectively.)

2.

Frequency Ratios, j

= -----j

fj

(Eq. A-12)

where:

j = Actual frequency of machinery unbalance during j mode of vibration, cycles per second

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A-7

December 1993

Appendix A

3.

a.

M = [(1

j2 ) 2

1

--2

2

4 j ] 2

(Eq. A-13)

b.

Calculate the static deflection (j) or rotation (, ) caused by the unbalanced forces (Fj) or unbalanced couples (Mo).

F

j = ----j

kj

Units: in . . for translation (j = x, y, z)

(Eq. A-14)

Fj d + Mo

= --------------------K

Units: radians . . for rocking

(Eq. A-15)

Fj d + Mo

= --------------------K

Units: radians . . for twisting

(Eq. A-16)

where:

Fj = The unbalanced forces, lb

Mo = The unbalanced couples, in-lb

d = The perpendicular distance from Fj to the axis of rotation, in

K = Spring constants defined in section A2.3, lb/in

c.

A x, y, or z = M

Units: in . . for translation

(Eq. A-17)

December 1993

A-8

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Appendix A

A = Md

Units: in . . for rocking

(Eq. A-18)

A = Md

Units: in . . for twisting

(Eq. A-19)

point where the deflection is desired.

A2.5

In order to avoid excessive vibration, the foundation should be designed such that

1.4 j 0.7 for all j.

In addition, the designer should proportion the foundation such that the permissible

amplitudes of vibration furnished by the machine manufacturer are not exceeded. If

these values are not provided by the vendor, Figure A-5 may be used as a guide.

The amplitude of vibration for any point on the foundation should not exceed the

range marked Easily Noticeable to Persons. The equation of the upper bound on

this area is

1

A = --f

(Eq. A-20)

where:

A = Amplitude in inches, and

f = Machine frequency in cpm

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A-9

December 1993

Appendix A

Fig. A-5

A2.6

December 1993

Aj

normal to direction of horizontal force for translation, in.

in.

The perpendicular distance from an axis of rotation to any point where the

deflection is desired, in.

Fj

vibration, lbs.

fj

mode of vibration, cycles per second.

the horizontal X or Y axis, lbs-sec2-in

the vertical Z axis, lbs-sec2-in

Io

The mass moment of inertia of a body about its own axis, lbs-sec2-in

A-10

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A3.0

Appendix A

Ij

Kj

j mode of vibration, lbs-in-1 for translation, lb-in for rotation.

direction of horizontal force for translation, in.

In computing Ij; the distance between the axis of a component mass and a

rotation axis of the foundation, in.

Mo

mc

WA

WF

WM

for the j mode of vibration, dimensionless

per second

vibration, radians

Rotation of the foundation about the vertical Z axis during twisting mode of

vibration, radians

Pile-Supported Foundations

A3.1

Introduction

There are many methods by which dynamically loaded pile-supported foundations

may be analyzed. Nearly all methods prove to be quite tedious and laborious and

address the central problem of modeling the interaction between the soil and the

piles. This interaction is dependent on the behavior of the soil under a loaded condi-

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A-11

December 1993

Appendix A

tion. Therefore, no method of analysis is exact due to the high redundant condition

existing and only a close approximation can be achieved.

The method used herein was developed by N. C. Donovan, et al, of Dames and

Moore [23]. It is a straightforward method by which the spring constants for a pilesupported foundation may be computed. This approach attempts to simplify the soilpile interaction by modeling the piled foundation as an equivalent cantilever

system. The equivalent cantilever lengths in the model are calculated such that their

behavior is equal to the actual pile under the same external loads. Figure A-6 shows

a schematic model of a piled foundation.

Fig. A-6

A3.2

Two equivalent cantilever lengths for each pile in the foundation must be computed:

an equivalent axial length, Lc, to resist the axial loads and an equivalent bending

length, Lb, to resist the lateral loads and moments at the pilehead.

Values for equivalent axial length are as follows:

Lc =. . . . . . . . . L/2, for friction piles having no end bearing.

L/2 Lc L, . for friction piles having partial end bearing.

Lc =. . . . . . . . . L, for complete bearing piles.

where:

L = the driven length of the pile

The equivalent cantilever length, Lb, for bending is dependent on whether the soil is

granular or cohesive. For sandy soil, Lb can be computed from the following equation:

December 1993

A-12

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Appendix A

1

EI --5L b = 1.86 ------ , in

N

(Eq. A-21)

where:

E = Modulus of elasticity of the pile, lb-in-2

I = Moment of inertia of the pile in the direction of bending, in4

N = The constant of horizontal subgrade reaction, lb-in-3

(Note: For tapered piles, an average value of I should be used.)

For a clayey soil, Lb can be computed from the following equation:

1

EI --4L b = 1.73 -----k

(Eq. A-22)

where:

k = the coefficient of vertical subgrade reaction, lb-in-3

In the absence of a reliable soils report of the surrounding soil, values for N

and k may be taken from Figures A-7 and A-8, respectively.

Fig. A-7

Values of N [20]

N for Dry or Moist Sand,

lb/in3

lb/in3

Loose

Medium

25

16

Dense

65

40

Consistency of Clay

qu

Unconfined Compressive

Strength, lb/in2

k, lb/in3

Stiff

13-28

90

Very Stiff

28-56

175

Fig. A-8

A3.3

Values of k [20]

Coordinate System

As indicated in Figure A-9, the origin for the rectangular coordinate system is

located at the center of gravity of the pile group and each pile is located by the X

and Y coordinates. The pile is further defined by the horizontal angle, , to the

direction of batter and by the angle of batter, , measured in a vertical plane. The

ranges for and are:

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A-13

December 1993

Appendix A

0 360

0 90

However, the practical upper limitation on is much lower than 90 degrees since 90

degrees represents a horizontal pile. Also, note that is always measured in a

clockwise direction from the positive X axis.

Fig. A-9

A3.4

Spring Constants

The equations used in calculating the spring constants for all six modes of vibration

are given in Figures A-10 and A-11 depending on whether the pileheads are considered fixed or pinned at the pile cap. These spring constants are used in the equa-

December 1993

A-14

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Appendix A

tions given in Section A2.4 to determine the natural frequencies of vibration for the

pile-supported foundation.

Fig. A-10 Equivalent Spring Constants, Fixed Head Condition

Vertical

i=n

KZ =

i=1

Ei li

E i Ai 3

sin2 i cos3 i

----------- cos i + 12 -------3

L

L ci

bi

(Eq. A-23)

Horizontal

i=n

Ei Ai

Ei li

cos i ---------L ci

L3

KX =

bi

i=1

(Eq. A-24)

For horizontal spring constant (Ky) in y direction, values for i should be changed to

( i 90)

Rocking about y-axis

i=n

K =

Ei Ai

Ei li

Ei li

Ei li

---------L ci i

L bi

L3

L2

bi

i=1

bi

(Eq. A-25)

Rocking about x-axis

K = Replace xi with yi in the above expression and replace i with ( i 90)

Torsion about z-axis

i=n

K =

Ei Ai

Ei li

ri2 cos i ---------L ci

L3

ik

i=1

(Eq. A-26)

where:

n = the total number of piles supporting the foundation

A = the cross-sectional area of the pile, in2

The equivalent mass and mass moment of inertia used in the equations for both

fixed and free head conditions are calculated for the foundation block, machinery,

and significant appurtenances. Furthermore, the equivalent damping, , of the foundation-soil system can conservatively be assumed to be 0.10.

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A-15

December 1993

Appendix A

Vertical

i=n

KZ =

Ei Ai

Ei li

---------L ci

L3

bi

i=1

(Eq. A-27)

Horizontal

i=n

KX =

i=1

Ei Ai

Ei li

cos i ----------- sin2 i cos2 i + 3 -------- ( cos4 i cos2 i + cos2 i sin2 i )

L ci

L3

bi

(Eq. A-28)

For horizontal spring constant (Ky) in y direction, values for i should be changed to

( i 90)

Rocking about y-axis

i=n

K =

Ei Ai

Ei li

Ei li

Ei li

- x 2 cos3 i + 3 --------x i2 sin2 i + -------- cos i + 1.5 -------- sin i cos2 i cos i

---------L ci i

L bi

L3

L2

bi

i=1

bi

(Eq. A-29)

Rocking about x-axis

K = Replace xi with yi in the above expression and replace i with ( i 90)

Torsion about z-axis

i=n

K =

i=1

Ei Ai

Ei li

ri2 cos i ----------- sin2 i cos2 i + 3 -------- ( cos4 i cos2 i + cos2 i sin2 i )

L ci

L3

bi

(Eq. A-30)

where:

n = the total number of piles supporting the foundation

A = the cross-sectional area of the pile, in2

A3.5

December 1993

A

bending in question, in4

A-16

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A4.0

Appendix A

KX

in X direction, lb-in-1

KY

in Y direction, lb-in-1

KZ

Spring constant for the foundation undergoing vertical mode of vibration, lbin-1

about either the X or Y axis, in-lb

about the vertical Z axis, in-lb

Lb

Lc

The radial distance from the center of gravity of the pile group to a pile, in

xi

yi

The angle between the pile batter projection on the horizontal plane and the

normal to ri

The horizontal clockwise angle from the positive X-axis to the direction of

pile batter

Attachments

A4.1

Machinery Unbalances

The design of foundations for vibrating machinery requires certain information

which describes the dynamic characteristics of the machinery and the dynamic properties of the soil. This data, together with the normal static design data, is essential

in the design of an economical foundation which will not experience excessive

vibrations. The characteristics of the unbalanced machinery forces and the dynamic

properties of the soil define the design case; the objective of the designer is to

couple these systems through a foundation in such a manner that excessive vibrations will not occur.

Reciprocating and rotating machinery develop inertial forces or moments during

normal operation from the motion of unbalanced rods, cranks, blades, etc. The characteristics of these forces are different for these two basic types of machinery, and

the foundation design will reflect this difference. Reciprocating machines can

develop forces at frequencies corresponding to integer multiples of the operating

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A-17

December 1993

Appendix A

speed (e.g., secondary moments), but rotating machines can only develop primary

forces or moments [3]. Rotating machines produce forces whose magnitude

depends on the speed of the machine; these forces are specified by a mass mo, at an

eccentricity e from the shaft centerline, and the speed at which the mass rotates

[14], [21]. The manufacturer or vendor of the machinery should supply the designer

with the data contained in Figure A-12.

Fig. A-12 Vendor-supplied Data, Reciprocating and Rotating Machinery

Reciprocating Machinery

Range of Operating Speed =

Maximum horizontal primary forces

to

RPM

Fx1

lbs

Fy1

lbs

Fx2

lbs

Fy2

lbs

Fz1

lbs

Fz2

lbs

F1

in-lbs

F2

in-lbs

F1

in-lbs

F2

in-lbs

A reference system for forces and moments as shown in Figure A-1.

Rotating Machinery

Range of Operating Speed =

to

RPM

Eccentric Mass

mo

lbs-sec2-in-1

Eccentricity

in

the machine. The necessary drawings of the machinery and mountings should also be

supplied.

A4.2

Soil Data

The foundation designer should have sufficient soil data such that the dynamic properties of the soil on site can be calculated. Soil data is in general difficult to obtain,

and its validity is often questionable. However, the designer must produce several

soil parameters, if the methods of this appendix are to be employed. Data from on-

December 1993

A-18

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Appendix A

site borings and tests should be used, when it is available; general summaries of soil

properties are of limited value and should be used only where on-site data is

unavailable.

It is essential that the designer have a thorough qualitative description of the soil

and subgrade structure. With this information, the designer can at least approximate

the soil properties of the installation site with the information listed below, when

quantitative test data is unavailable.

The quantitative soil properties required in this appendix are:

E

G = --------------------2(1 + )

(Eq. A-31)

Figure A-13 is a summary of values for these properties compiled by Dames and

Moore. Their values are based on their records of dynamic testing which they have

performed on a wide variety of soils over the last decade.

Fig. A-13 Soil Properties

Density (lbs/ft3)

Dry

Saturated

G kip/in2

Dense w/Gravel

116-135

135-145

15-30

.25-.35

.02-.04

Dense

116-130

135-145

10-20

.25-.35

.02-.00

Med. Dense

109-116

130-135

6-10

90-99

113-124

3-6

.35-.5

.02-0.04

Sand

Loose

Clay

Note

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Hard

110

15-30

Stiff

~ 100

6-15

Soft

~ 90

3-6

The classification for clays should be based on shear strength approximately as follows:

soft < 3 psi

stiff 10 psi

hard > 20 psi

A-19

December 1993

Appendix A

A4.3

Design Aids

Figure A-14 shows mass moment of inertia for various bodies. The mass of the

body is indicated by m.

Body

Axis

Moment of Inertia

and b

a2

m -----12

(Eq. A-32)

and b

to the sheet

a2 + b2

m ----------------12

(Eq. A-33)

a, b, and c

face ab (parallel to edge c)

a2 + b2

m ----------------12

(Eq. A-34)

Sphere, radius r

Any diameter

2

m --- r 2

5

(Eq. A-35)

internal radius, r2

Any diameter

5

5

2 ( r1 r2 )

m --- -------------------5 (r 3 r3)

1

2

(Eq. A-36)

Right circular cylinder of radius r,

length l

r2

m ---2

(Eq. A-37)

length l

Transverse diameter

r2 l2

m ---- + ------

4 12

(Eq. A-38)

radii r1 and r2

( r 12 + r 22 )

m --------------------2

(Eq. A-39)

radii r1 and r2

Transverse diameter

( r 12 + r 22 ) l 2

m -------------------- + ------

4

12

(Eq. A-40)

base r

3

m ------ r 2

10

(Eq. A-41)

December 1993

A-20

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A5.0

Appendix A

References

1.

Vibrating Machines, Hydrocarbon Processing, November 1975.

2.

ASCHENBRENNER, Rudolf, Three-Dimensional Analysis of Pile Foundations, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. ST1, February

1967, pp. 201-219.

3.

Company, Inc., New York, 1962.

4.

Loaded Pile Foundations, ASCE Annual and National Environmental Engineering Meeting, Houston, Texas, 1972, Meeting Preprint 1833.

5.

Engineering, ed. G. A. Leonards, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New

York, 1962, pp. 769-825.

6.

GRAY, H., Discussion to Francis, (1964) Analysis of Pile Groups with Flexural Resistance, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE,

November 1964.

7.

Engineer, December 1976.

8.

Machines and Turbines, Collets Holding Limited, London, 1962.

9.

Behavior, ASTM Special Technical Publication, No. 444, 1969.

10. POULOS, Harry G., Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles: I - Single Piles,

Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM5,

May 1971, pp. 711-731.

11. POULOS, Harry G., Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles: II - Pile Groups,

Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM5,

May 1971, pp. 733-751.

12. REESE, Lymon C. and Hudson MATLOCK, Non-dimensional Solutions for

Laterally Loaded Piles with Soil Modulus Assumed Proportional to Depth,

Proceedings Eighth Texas Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Special Publication No. 29, Bureau of Engineering Research, University of Texas, 1956.

13. RICHART, F. E., Jr., J. R. HALL, Jr. and R. D. WOODS, Vibration of Soils

and Foundations, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1970.

14. RICHART, F. E., Jr. and R. V. WHITMAN, Comparison of Footing Vibration

Tests with Theory, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division,

ASCE, Vol. 93, No. SM6, 1967, pp. 143-193.

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December 1993

Appendix A

15. RODGERS, Grover L., Dynamics of Framed Structures, John Wiley and Sons,

Inc., New York, 1959.

16. SAUL, William E., Static and Dynamic Analysis of Pile Foundations,

Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 94, No. ST5, Proceedings paper

5936, May 1968, pp. 1077-1100.

17. Shock and Vibration Handbook, Vol. I, II, III, ed. by Cyril M. Harris and

Charles E. Crede, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1961.

18. SINGHAL, A. C., J. C. WACHEL and F. R. SZENASI, Computation of

Natural Frequencies of Compressor Foundations Supported on Different

Soils, Pipeline Compressor and Research Council, Southern Gas Association,

Report No. 132, Southwest Research Institute, July 15, 1969.

19. TERZAGHI, Karl and Ralph E. PECK, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1964.

20. TERZAGHI, K., Evaluation of Coefficients of Subgrade Reaction, Geotechnique, Vol. 5, No. 4.

21. WHITMAN, R. V. and F. E. RICHART, Jr., Design Procedures for Dynamically Loaded Foundations, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, Proceedings ASCE, Vol. 93, No. SM6, November 1967, pp. 169-193.

22. Design Manual, Soil Mechanics, Foundations, and Earth Structures,

NAVFAC DM-7, Department of the Navy, March 1971.

23. SINGH, J. P., N. C. DONOVAN, and A. C. JOBSIS, Design Procedures for

Dynamically Loaded Pile-supported Foundations, Journal of Geotechnical

Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No. GT8, August 1977, pp. 863-877.

24. Final Report on Machinery Foundation Design Standards, Report No. AER

1800 EPI 71-51, prepared by ARAMCO Services Company.

December 1993

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