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Appendix A.

Design of Foundations for Vibrating Machinery

Abstract
This appendix discusses the design of block foundations and pile-supported foundations for vibrating machinery. Two attachments will guide the engineer in collecting
needed data for use in the design: Machinery Unbalances lists data needed from
vendors of the reciprocating or rotating machinery to be mounted on the foundation; and Soil Data lists data needed in order to calculate the dynamic properties
of the soil on site.
Contents

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Page

A1.0

Introduction

A-2

A2.0

Block Foundations

A-2

A2.1

Basic Design Information

A2.2

Modes of Vibration

A2.3

Dynamic Parameters

A2.4

Response Parameters

A2.5

Allowable Design Values

A2.6

Symbol Notation for Section A2.0

A3.0

Pile-Supported Foundations

A3.1

Introduction

A3.2

Equivalent Cantilever Lengths

A3.3

Coordinate System

A3.4

Spring Constants

A3.5

Symbol Notation For Section A3.0

A4.0

Attachments

A4.1

Machinery Unbalances

A4.2

Soil Data

A4.3

Design Aids

A5.0

References

A-11

A-17

A-21

A-1

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Appendix A

A1.0

Civil and Structural Manual

Introduction
This appendix has been formulated as a guide to the design of foundations for
vibrating machinery. Specifically, this method of analysis should be used as an aid
to the designer in determining the maximum amplitudes of vibration and comparing
them with acceptable values. This is accomplished by first obtaining the dynamic
parameters of the foundation-soil system. These parameters are then used to determine the natural frequencies of the system from which the amplitudes of vibration
are then calculated. This appendix assumes that the designer has some knowledge
of vibration theory, as well as a thorough description of the static and dynamic characteristics of the machinery, and data describing the dynamic properties of the soil
at the installation site. Section A4.0, Attachments, should be consulted as needed
during the analysis procedure.
Methods of analysis are developed herein for block foundations on grade and block
foundations on piles. The analysis for block foundations on grade is based on
Richart and Whitman [14], [21] and assumes only one engine is in operation on the
mat. This analysis is theoretically rigorous and produces accurate results. The analysis of pile-supported foundations is based on a procedure developed by N. C.
Donovan, et al, of Dames and Moore [23] and its accuracy has been confirmed by
field test data.

A2.0

Block Foundations
A2.1

Basic Design Information


Block foundations on grade are the most common support structures for reciprocating or rotating machinery in refinery operations. Figure A-1 shows a simplified
block foundation with the coordinate system and notation used throughout this
section.
Several fundamental considerations should be given to the foundation design which
will enhance its dynamic behavior. Detailed statements of these design considerations can be found in References [1], [8], [24]. The most important design factors
are:

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1.

Use as large a foundation-soil contact area as practical.

2.

Locate the centroid of the foundation-soil contact area on a vertical line with
the foundation plus machine center of mass; the eccentricity of these points
should not exceed .05B.

3.

Distribute the foundation mass for the smallest possible moment of inertia with
respect to the principal axis through the centroid of the foundation-soil contact
area (e.g., use minimum pedestal height H).

4.

Foundation mats should not be joined to surrounding structures.

5.

For natural soil bases, the foundation embedment depth should exceed the
depth of frost penetration.

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Appendix A

Fig. A-1

6.

A2.2

Block Foundation Coordinate System

For multiple engine foundations [3], [8], [17];


a.

Use a common mat.

b.

Design the mat to be rigid.

c.

Compute the dynamic parameters for each pedestal as if they were not
connected by a common mat.

Modes of Vibration
During the operation of moving machinery, the foundation-soil system may experience one of four possible modes of vibration depending on the direction of the
unbalanced forces:

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1.

Vertical translation in the Z-Z direction.

2.

Horizontal translation in either the X-X or Y-Y direction.

3.

Rocking () about either the X-X or Y-Y axis. These axes lie in the plane of
the mat-soil contact area and intersect at the centroid of this area.

4.

Twisting () about the vertical Z-Z axis. This axis passes through the center of
gravity of the combined foundation-machine mass.

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A2.3

Civil and Structural Manual

Dynamic Parameters
The design of a foundation for reciprocating or rotating machinery requires an estimation of the dynamic parameters of the foundation-soil system. The inertia,
elastic, and damping parameters can be calculated from the following formulae:
1.

Inertia Parameters
a.

Mass, m
1
m = --- ( W M + W F + W A )
g
(Eq. A-1)

where:
m = Mass of the foundation-machine system, lb-sec2-in-1
g = Acceleration of gravity, in-sec-2
wM = Dead weight of machinery, lb
wF = Dead weight of foundation block, lb
wA = Dead weight of any appurtenances on foundation, lb
b.

Mass Moments of Inertia, I, I


The mass moments of inertia about the vertical and horizontal axes of rotation can be computed by breaking the foundation into components and
using the parallel axis theorem:
Ij = I o + m c I 2
(Eq. A-2)

where:
Io = Mass moment of inertia of component about its own axis, lb-sec2in
mc = Mass of component, lb-sec2-in-1
l = Distance between axis of component and rotation axis, in
Ij = Mass moment of inertia of component about axis of rotation
( = ,), lb-sec2-in
The moment of inertia of the entire foundation/machine system about a
given rotation axis (I, I) is then the sum of the moments of inertia for
each component about that axis. Section A4.3 contains useful information
for determining Io.

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2.

Appendix A

Elastic Parameters
The spring constant for the six different modes of vibration (see Figure A-1)
can be found directly from the following formulae and the soil data of
Section A4.2.
Vertical, lb-in.-1
G
K z = ------------ z BL
1
(Eq. A-3)

Horizontal, lb-in-1
K x or y = 2 ( 1 + )G x BL
(Eq. A-4)

Rocking, lb-in
G
K = ------------ BL 2
1
(Eq. A-5)

Twisting, lb-in
3
16 BL ( B 2 + L 2 ) --4K = ------ G -------------------------------3
6

(Eq. A-6)

where:
x, z, and are coefficients from Figure A-2 and
B = Width of foundation measured along axis of rotation for rocking
or normal to direction of horizontal force for translation, in
L = Length of foundation measured in the plane of rotation for
rocking or in the direction of horizontal force for translation, in.
See example in Figure A-3
= Poissons Ratio of soil, dimensionless
3.

Damping Parameters
The equivalent damping of the foundation-soil system can be completed from:
= i + r
(Eq. A-7)

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Appendix A

Fig. A-2

Civil and Structural Manual

Rectangular Coefficients X, Z, and

Fig. A-3

Length of Foundation Measured in the Plane


of Rotation for Rocking

i, the internal soil damping, is given in Figure A-13, Section A4.2 for the
appropriate soil conditions; r, the radiation damping, can be found from
Figure A-4, where:
For Translation:
3
m BL --2b = ---- -------

(Eq. A-8)

For Rocking:
5
I BL 3 --4b = ---- --------- 3

(Eq. A-9)

For Twisting:
5
I BL ( B 2 + L 2 ) --4b = ---- -------------------------------
6

(Eq. A-10)

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Appendix A

Fig. A-4

A2.4

Radiation Damping r

Response Parameters
The response parameters, which characterize the motion of the foundation, can be
calculated from the dynamic parameters and the machinery data. The crucial parameters are:
1.

Natural Frequencies of Foundation-Soil System, fj, cycles per second


1 K
f j = ------ -----j
2 m
(Eq. A-11)

where:
j =. . . . . . . . . x, y For Horizontal Translation
=. . . . . . . . . z For Vertical Translation
=. . . . . . . . . For Rocking
=. . . . . . . . . For Twisting
(Note: For rocking and twisting, replace m with I and I, respectively.)
2.

Frequency Ratios, j

= -----j
fj
(Eq. A-12)

where:
j = Actual frequency of machinery unbalance during j mode of vibration, cycles per second

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Appendix A

Civil and Structural Manual

3.

Maximum Vibration Amplitudes, Aj


a.

Calculate the dimensionless dynamic magnification factor (M)

M = [(1

j2 ) 2

1
--2
2
4 j ] 2

(Eq. A-13)

b.

Calculate the static deflection (j) or rotation (, ) caused by the unbalanced forces (Fj) or unbalanced couples (Mo).
F
j = ----j
kj
Units: in . . for translation (j = x, y, z)
(Eq. A-14)

Fj d + Mo
= --------------------K
Units: radians . . for rocking
(Eq. A-15)

Fj d + Mo
= --------------------K
Units: radians . . for twisting
(Eq. A-16)

where:
Fj = The unbalanced forces, lb
Mo = The unbalanced couples, in-lb
d = The perpendicular distance from Fj to the axis of rotation, in
K = Spring constants defined in section A2.3, lb/in
c.

Calculate the maximum amplitude of vibration (Aj)


A x, y, or z = M
Units: in . . for translation
(Eq. A-17)

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Appendix A

A = Md
Units: in . . for rocking
(Eq. A-18)

A = Md
Units: in . . for twisting
(Eq. A-19)

where: d is the perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to any


point where the deflection is desired.

A2.5

Allowable Design Values


In order to avoid excessive vibration, the foundation should be designed such that
1.4 j 0.7 for all j.
In addition, the designer should proportion the foundation such that the permissible
amplitudes of vibration furnished by the machine manufacturer are not exceeded. If
these values are not provided by the vendor, Figure A-5 may be used as a guide.
The amplitude of vibration for any point on the foundation should not exceed the
range marked Easily Noticeable to Persons. The equation of the upper bound on
this area is
1
A = --f
(Eq. A-20)

where:
A = Amplitude in inches, and
f = Machine frequency in cpm

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Appendix A

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. A-5

A2.6

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Vibration Limits [1]

Symbol Notation for Section A2.0


Aj

The minimum amplitude of vibration corresponding to the j mode of vibration, in.

Width of foundation base measured along axis of rotation for rocking or


normal to direction of horizontal force for translation, in.

Mass ratio of foundation, dimensionless

The perpendicular distance from an unbalanced force to an axis of rotation,


in.

The perpendicular distance from an axis of rotation to any point where the
deflection is desired, in.

Fj

Any unbalanced external force acting on the foundation causing a j mode of


vibration, lbs.

fj

The natural frequency of the foundation-soil system corresponding to the j


mode of vibration, cycles per second.

Modulus of elasticity in shear of the supporting soil, lbs-in-2

Acceleration of gravity, 386.4 in-sec-2

The mass moment of inertia of the entire foundation-machine system about


the horizontal X or Y axis, lbs-sec2-in

The mass moment of inertia of the entire foundation-machine system about


the vertical Z axis, lbs-sec2-in

Io

The mass moment of inertia of a body about its own axis, lbs-sec2-in

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A3.0

Appendix A

Ij

The mass moment of inertia of a component about an axis of rotation, lbssec2-in

Kj

The spring constant for the foundation-machine system corresponding to the


j mode of vibration, lbs-in-1 for translation, lb-in for rotation.

Length of foundation measured in the plane of rotation for rocking or in the


direction of horizontal force for translation, in.

In computing Ij; the distance between the axis of a component mass and a
rotation axis of the foundation, in.

Dynamic magnification factor, dimensionless

Mo

Unbalanced couple from machine acting on foundation, in-lb

The mass of the foundation, machine and appurtenances, lbs-sec2-in-1

mc

Component mass, lb-sec2-in-1

WA

Total dead weight of appurtenances, lbs

WF

Total dead weight of foundation, lbs

WM

Total dead weight of machine, lbs

Rectangular foundation coefficient for the j mode of vibration, dimensionless

Critical damping ratio, dimensionless

Internal soil damping ratio, dimensionless

Radiation soil damping ratio, dimensionless

Mass density of soil, lb-sec2-in-4

Frequency ratio of the unbalanced force frequency to the natural frequency


for the j mode of vibration, dimensionless

Poissons Ratio of soil, dimensionless

Actual frequency of machinery unbalance during j mode of vibration, cycles


per second

Static deflection during j mode of vibration, in.

Rotation of the foundation about a horizontal axis during rocking mode of


vibration, radians

Rotation of the foundation about the vertical Z axis during twisting mode of
vibration, radians

Pile-Supported Foundations
A3.1

Introduction
There are many methods by which dynamically loaded pile-supported foundations
may be analyzed. Nearly all methods prove to be quite tedious and laborious and
address the central problem of modeling the interaction between the soil and the
piles. This interaction is dependent on the behavior of the soil under a loaded condi-

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Appendix A

Civil and Structural Manual

tion. Therefore, no method of analysis is exact due to the high redundant condition
existing and only a close approximation can be achieved.
The method used herein was developed by N. C. Donovan, et al, of Dames and
Moore [23]. It is a straightforward method by which the spring constants for a pilesupported foundation may be computed. This approach attempts to simplify the soilpile interaction by modeling the piled foundation as an equivalent cantilever
system. The equivalent cantilever lengths in the model are calculated such that their
behavior is equal to the actual pile under the same external loads. Figure A-6 shows
a schematic model of a piled foundation.
Fig. A-6

Modeling of the Piled Foundation

A3.2

Equivalent Cantilever Lengths


Two equivalent cantilever lengths for each pile in the foundation must be computed:
an equivalent axial length, Lc, to resist the axial loads and an equivalent bending
length, Lb, to resist the lateral loads and moments at the pilehead.
Values for equivalent axial length are as follows:
Lc =. . . . . . . . . L/2, for friction piles having no end bearing.
L/2 Lc L, . for friction piles having partial end bearing.
Lc =. . . . . . . . . L, for complete bearing piles.
where:
L = the driven length of the pile
The equivalent cantilever length, Lb, for bending is dependent on whether the soil is
granular or cohesive. For sandy soil, Lb can be computed from the following equation:

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Appendix A

1
EI --5L b = 1.86 ------ , in
N

(Eq. A-21)

where:
E = Modulus of elasticity of the pile, lb-in-2
I = Moment of inertia of the pile in the direction of bending, in4
N = The constant of horizontal subgrade reaction, lb-in-3
(Note: For tapered piles, an average value of I should be used.)
For a clayey soil, Lb can be computed from the following equation:
1
EI --4L b = 1.73 -----k

(Eq. A-22)

where:
k = the coefficient of vertical subgrade reaction, lb-in-3
In the absence of a reliable soils report of the surrounding soil, values for N
and k may be taken from Figures A-7 and A-8, respectively.
Fig. A-7

Values of N [20]
N for Dry or Moist Sand,
lb/in3

N for Submerged Sand,


lb/in3

Loose

Medium

25

16

Dense

65

40

Consistency of Clay

qu
Unconfined Compressive
Strength, lb/in2

k, lb/in3

Stiff

13-28

90

Very Stiff

28-56

175

Relative Density of Sand

Fig. A-8

A3.3

Values of k [20]

Coordinate System
As indicated in Figure A-9, the origin for the rectangular coordinate system is
located at the center of gravity of the pile group and each pile is located by the X
and Y coordinates. The pile is further defined by the horizontal angle, , to the
direction of batter and by the angle of batter, , measured in a vertical plane. The
ranges for and are:

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Appendix A

Civil and Structural Manual

0 360
0 90
However, the practical upper limitation on is much lower than 90 degrees since 90
degrees represents a horizontal pile. Also, note that is always measured in a
clockwise direction from the positive X axis.
Fig. A-9

A3.4

Orientation of Pile with Respect to Origin

Spring Constants
The equations used in calculating the spring constants for all six modes of vibration
are given in Figures A-10 and A-11 depending on whether the pileheads are considered fixed or pinned at the pile cap. These spring constants are used in the equa-

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Appendix A

tions given in Section A2.4 to determine the natural frequencies of vibration for the
pile-supported foundation.
Fig. A-10 Equivalent Spring Constants, Fixed Head Condition
Vertical
i=n

KZ =

i=1

Ei li
E i Ai 3

sin2 i cos3 i
----------- cos i + 12 -------3
L
L ci

bi

(Eq. A-23)
Horizontal
i=n

Ei Ai

Ei li

- sin2 i cos2 i + 12 -------- ( cos4 i cos2 i + cos2 i sin2 i )


cos i ---------L ci
L3

KX =

bi

i=1

(Eq. A-24)
For horizontal spring constant (Ky) in y direction, values for i should be changed to
( i 90)
Rocking about y-axis
i=n

K =

Ei Ai

Ei li

Ei li

Ei li

- x 2 cos3 i + 12 --------x i2 sin2 i + 4 -------- cos i + 6 -------- sin i cos2 i cos i


---------L ci i
L bi
L3
L2

bi

i=1

bi

(Eq. A-25)
Rocking about x-axis
K = Replace xi with yi in the above expression and replace i with ( i 90)
Torsion about z-axis
i=n

K =

Ei Ai

Ei li

- sin2 i cos2 i + 12 -------- ( cos4 i cos2 i + cos2 i sin2 i )


ri2 cos i ---------L ci
L3
ik

i=1

(Eq. A-26)
where:
n = the total number of piles supporting the foundation
A = the cross-sectional area of the pile, in2

The equivalent mass and mass moment of inertia used in the equations for both
fixed and free head conditions are calculated for the foundation block, machinery,
and significant appurtenances. Furthermore, the equivalent damping, , of the foundation-soil system can conservatively be assumed to be 0.10.

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Appendix A

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. A-11 Equivalent Spring Constants, Free Head Condition


Vertical
i=n

KZ =

Ei Ai

Ei li

- cos3 i + 3 -------- sin2 i cos3 i


---------L ci
L3

bi

i=1

(Eq. A-27)
Horizontal
i=n

KX =

i=1

Ei Ai
Ei li
cos i ----------- sin2 i cos2 i + 3 -------- ( cos4 i cos2 i + cos2 i sin2 i )
L ci
L3
bi

(Eq. A-28)
For horizontal spring constant (Ky) in y direction, values for i should be changed to
( i 90)
Rocking about y-axis
i=n

K =

Ei Ai

Ei li

Ei li

Ei li

- x 2 cos3 i + 3 --------x i2 sin2 i + -------- cos i + 1.5 -------- sin i cos2 i cos i
---------L ci i
L bi
L3
L2

bi

i=1

bi

(Eq. A-29)
Rocking about x-axis
K = Replace xi with yi in the above expression and replace i with ( i 90)
Torsion about z-axis
i=n

K =

i=1

Ei Ai
Ei li
ri2 cos i ----------- sin2 i cos2 i + 3 -------- ( cos4 i cos2 i + cos2 i sin2 i )
L ci
L3
bi

(Eq. A-30)
where:
n = the total number of piles supporting the foundation
A = the cross-sectional area of the pile, in2

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December 1993

Symbol Notation For Section A3.0


A

Cross-sectional area of pile, in2

Modulus of elasticity of the pile, lb-in-2

Moment of inertia of the pile cross-section corresponding to the direction of


bending in question, in4

Coefficient of vertical subgrade reaction, lb-in-3

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A4.0

Appendix A

KX

Spring constant for the foundation undergoing horizontal mode of vibration


in X direction, lb-in-1

KY

Spring constant for the foundation undergoing horizontal mode of vibration


in Y direction, lb-in-1

KZ

Spring constant for the foundation undergoing vertical mode of vibration, lbin-1

Spring constant for the foundation undergoing rocking mode of vibration


about either the X or Y axis, in-lb

Spring constant for the foundation undergoing torsion mode of vibration


about the vertical Z axis, in-lb

Driven length of pile, in

Lb

Equivalent cantilever length of pile for bending, in

Lc

Equivalent cantilever length of pile for axial compression, in

Constant of horizontal subgrade reaction, lb-in-3

The radial distance from the center of gravity of the pile group to a pile, in

xi

The X-coordinate of a particular pile i, in

yi

The Y-coordinate of a particular pile i, in

The angle between the pile batter projection on the horizontal plane and the
normal to ri

The angle a battered pile makes with the vertical

The horizontal clockwise angle from the positive X-axis to the direction of
pile batter

Poissons Ratio, dimensionless

Attachments
A4.1

Machinery Unbalances
The design of foundations for vibrating machinery requires certain information
which describes the dynamic characteristics of the machinery and the dynamic properties of the soil. This data, together with the normal static design data, is essential
in the design of an economical foundation which will not experience excessive
vibrations. The characteristics of the unbalanced machinery forces and the dynamic
properties of the soil define the design case; the objective of the designer is to
couple these systems through a foundation in such a manner that excessive vibrations will not occur.
Reciprocating and rotating machinery develop inertial forces or moments during
normal operation from the motion of unbalanced rods, cranks, blades, etc. The characteristics of these forces are different for these two basic types of machinery, and
the foundation design will reflect this difference. Reciprocating machines can
develop forces at frequencies corresponding to integer multiples of the operating

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Appendix A

Civil and Structural Manual

speed (e.g., secondary moments), but rotating machines can only develop primary
forces or moments [3]. Rotating machines produce forces whose magnitude
depends on the speed of the machine; these forces are specified by a mass mo, at an
eccentricity e from the shaft centerline, and the speed at which the mass rotates
[14], [21]. The manufacturer or vendor of the machinery should supply the designer
with the data contained in Figure A-12.
Fig. A-12 Vendor-supplied Data, Reciprocating and Rotating Machinery
Reciprocating Machinery
Range of Operating Speed =
Maximum horizontal primary forces

to

RPM

Fx1

lbs

Fy1

lbs

Fx2

lbs

Fy2

lbs

Maximum vertical primary force

Fz1

lbs

Maximum vertical secondary force

Fz2

lbs

Maximum horizontal primary moment

F1

in-lbs

Maximum horizontal secondary moment

F2

in-lbs

Maximum vertical primary moment

F1

in-lbs

Maximum vertical secondary moment

F2

in-lbs

Maximum horizontal secondary forces

Any higher order forces or moments


A reference system for forces and moments as shown in Figure A-1.

Rotating Machinery
Range of Operating Speed =

to

RPM

Eccentric Mass

mo

lbs-sec2-in-1

Eccentricity

in

Additional information should be supplied which describes the static characteristics of


the machine. The necessary drawings of the machinery and mountings should also be
supplied.

A4.2

Soil Data
The foundation designer should have sufficient soil data such that the dynamic properties of the soil on site can be calculated. Soil data is in general difficult to obtain,
and its validity is often questionable. However, the designer must produce several
soil parameters, if the methods of this appendix are to be employed. Data from on-

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Appendix A

site borings and tests should be used, when it is available; general summaries of soil
properties are of limited value and should be used only where on-site data is
unavailable.
It is essential that the designer have a thorough qualitative description of the soil
and subgrade structure. With this information, the designer can at least approximate
the soil properties of the installation site with the information listed below, when
quantitative test data is unavailable.
The quantitative soil properties required in this appendix are:

Mass density of soil, lbs-sec2-in-4

Elastic shear modulus, lbs-in-2

Poissons Ratio, nondimensional

Internal soil damping ratio, nondimensional

Since G, E, and are interrelated for isotropic materials through


E
G = --------------------2(1 + )
(Eq. A-31)

E and can be used to approximate G, when it is unknown.


Figure A-13 is a summary of values for these properties compiled by Dames and
Moore. Their values are based on their records of dynamic testing which they have
performed on a wide variety of soils over the last decade.
Fig. A-13 Soil Properties
Density (lbs/ft3)
Dry

Saturated

G kip/in2

Dense w/Gravel

116-135

135-145

15-30

.25-.35

.02-.04

Dense

116-130

135-145

10-20

.25-.35

.02-.00

Med. Dense

109-116

130-135

6-10

90-99

113-124

3-6

.35-.5

.02-0.04

Sand

Loose
Clay

Note

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Hard

110

15-30

Stiff

~ 100

6-15

Soft

~ 90

3-6

The classification for clays should be based on shear strength approximately as follows:
soft < 3 psi
stiff 10 psi
hard > 20 psi

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Appendix A

A4.3

Civil and Structural Manual

Design Aids
Figure A-14 shows mass moment of inertia for various bodies. The mass of the
body is indicated by m.

Fig. A-14 Mass Moment of Inertia, Various Bodies


Body

Axis

Moment of Inertia

Thin rectangular sheet, sides a


and b

Through the center parallel to b

a2
m -----12
(Eq. A-32)

Thin rectangular sheet, sides a


and b

Through the center perpendicular


to the sheet

a2 + b2
m ----------------12
(Eq. A-33)

Rectangular parallelepiped, edges


a, b, and c

Through center perpendicular to


face ab (parallel to edge c)

a2 + b2
m ----------------12
(Eq. A-34)

Sphere, radius r

Any diameter

2
m --- r 2
5
(Eq. A-35)

Spherical shell, external radius, r1,


internal radius, r2

Any diameter

5
5
2 ( r1 r2 )
m --- -------------------5 (r 3 r3)
1
2

(Eq. A-36)
Right circular cylinder of radius r,
length l

The longitudinal axis of the solid

r2
m ---2
(Eq. A-37)

Right circular cylinder of radius r,


length l

Transverse diameter

r2 l2
m ---- + ------
4 12
(Eq. A-38)

Hollow circular cylinder, length l,


radii r1 and r2

The longitudinal axis of the figure

( r 12 + r 22 )
m --------------------2
(Eq. A-39)

Hollow circular cylinder, length l,


radii r1 and r2

Transverse diameter

( r 12 + r 22 ) l 2
m -------------------- + ------

4
12
(Eq. A-40)

Right cone, altitude h, radius of


base r

Axis of the figure

3
m ------ r 2
10
(Eq. A-41)

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A5.0

Appendix A

References
1.

ARYA, S. C., R. P. DREWYER and G. PINCUS, Foundation Design for


Vibrating Machines, Hydrocarbon Processing, November 1975.

2.

ASCHENBRENNER, Rudolf, Three-Dimensional Analysis of Pile Foundations, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. ST1, February
1967, pp. 201-219.

3.

BARKAN, D. D., Dynamics of Bases and Foundations, McGraw-Hill Book


Company, Inc., New York, 1962.

4.

BOUTWELL, G. P., Jr. and D. S. SAXENA, Design Method: Dynamically


Loaded Pile Foundations, ASCE Annual and National Environmental Engineering Meeting, Houston, Texas, 1972, Meeting Preprint 1833.

5.

CONVERS, F. J., Foundations Subjected To Dynamic Forces, Foundation


Engineering, ed. G. A. Leonards, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New
York, 1962, pp. 769-825.

6.

GRAY, H., Discussion to Francis, (1964) Analysis of Pile Groups with Flexural Resistance, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE,
November 1964.

7.

KOCSIS, Peter, The Equivalent Length of a Pile or Caisson in Soil, Civil


Engineer, December 1976.

8.

MAJOR, Alexander, Vibration Analysis and Design of Foundations for


Machines and Turbines, Collets Holding Limited, London, 1962.

9.

NAIR, K., H. GRAY, and N. C. DONOVAN, Analysis of Pile Group


Behavior, ASTM Special Technical Publication, No. 444, 1969.

10. POULOS, Harry G., Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles: I - Single Piles,
Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM5,
May 1971, pp. 711-731.
11. POULOS, Harry G., Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles: II - Pile Groups,
Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM5,
May 1971, pp. 733-751.
12. REESE, Lymon C. and Hudson MATLOCK, Non-dimensional Solutions for
Laterally Loaded Piles with Soil Modulus Assumed Proportional to Depth,
Proceedings Eighth Texas Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Special Publication No. 29, Bureau of Engineering Research, University of Texas, 1956.
13. RICHART, F. E., Jr., J. R. HALL, Jr. and R. D. WOODS, Vibration of Soils
and Foundations, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1970.
14. RICHART, F. E., Jr. and R. V. WHITMAN, Comparison of Footing Vibration
Tests with Theory, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division,
ASCE, Vol. 93, No. SM6, 1967, pp. 143-193.

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Appendix A

Civil and Structural Manual

15. RODGERS, Grover L., Dynamics of Framed Structures, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., New York, 1959.
16. SAUL, William E., Static and Dynamic Analysis of Pile Foundations,
Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 94, No. ST5, Proceedings paper
5936, May 1968, pp. 1077-1100.
17. Shock and Vibration Handbook, Vol. I, II, III, ed. by Cyril M. Harris and
Charles E. Crede, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1961.
18. SINGHAL, A. C., J. C. WACHEL and F. R. SZENASI, Computation of
Natural Frequencies of Compressor Foundations Supported on Different
Soils, Pipeline Compressor and Research Council, Southern Gas Association,
Report No. 132, Southwest Research Institute, July 15, 1969.
19. TERZAGHI, Karl and Ralph E. PECK, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1964.
20. TERZAGHI, K., Evaluation of Coefficients of Subgrade Reaction, Geotechnique, Vol. 5, No. 4.
21. WHITMAN, R. V. and F. E. RICHART, Jr., Design Procedures for Dynamically Loaded Foundations, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, Proceedings ASCE, Vol. 93, No. SM6, November 1967, pp. 169-193.
22. Design Manual, Soil Mechanics, Foundations, and Earth Structures,
NAVFAC DM-7, Department of the Navy, March 1971.
23. SINGH, J. P., N. C. DONOVAN, and A. C. JOBSIS, Design Procedures for
Dynamically Loaded Pile-supported Foundations, Journal of Geotechnical
Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No. GT8, August 1977, pp. 863-877.
24. Final Report on Machinery Foundation Design Standards, Report No. AER
1800 EPI 71-51, prepared by ARAMCO Services Company.

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