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3, MARCH 2008

Mobile MIMO-OFDM Systems

Jie Gao and Huaping Liu, Member, IEEE

Abstract— This paper presents a reduced-complexity maxi- interval; the slow convergence rate makes it difficult to apply

mum a posteriori probability (MAP) channel estimator with the statistical approach in fast-fading channels, and the high

iterative data detection for orthogonal frequency division mul- computational complexity required to solve the maximization

tiplexing (OFDM) systems over mobile multiple-input multiple-

output channels. The optimal MAP estimator needs to invert an problem makes the deterministic approach appropriate only for

N NT × N NT data-dependent matrix each in OFDM symbol certain applications. In [10], algorithms based on comb-type

interval, where N is the number of subcarriers and NT is pilots with improvement using interpolation at data frequen-

the number of transmit antennas. We derive an expectation cies are studied. Performance bound of a pilot-assisted, least-

maximization (EM) algorithm with low-rank approximation to square (LS) channel estimator over a slowly fading channel is

avoid inverting large-size matrices, and thus drastically reduce

the receiver complexity. In the iterative process, channel para- derived in [11]. A Kalman filter based scheme to estimate the

meters are initially obtained by a least square (LS) estimator state-transition matrix of time-varying MIMO-OFDM chan-

for temporary symbol decisions. Then, inter-carrier interference nels and a scheme based on minimizing the mean-square error

(ICI) due to fast fading is approximated and canceled. Finally, the (MSE) of a cost function are developed in [12], [13] and [14],

temporary symbol decisions and the ICI-canceled received signals [15], respectively. To enhance the LS channel estimation for

are processed by the EM-based MAP estimator to refine the

channel state information for improved detection. The proposed MIMO-OFDM systems, optimal pilot sequences and optimal

scheme achieves about 2 dB gain over the LS scheme in channels placements of pilot tones are derived in [16]. Two expectation-

with medium to high normalized Doppler shifts. maximization (EM) algorithms, the classical EM and space-

Index Terms— Multiple-input multiple-output, orthogonal fre- alternating generalized EM (SAGE), are compared in terms of

quency division multiplexing, fast fading, inter-carrier inter- their convergence rates in [17], [18]. In fast-fading channels,

ference, maximum a posteriori probability estimation, low-rank inter-carrier interference (ICI) in OFDM systems could be

approximation. severe. In order to mitigate ICI, various detection structures

are proposed in [4] and an iterative channel estimator with ICI

I. I NTRODUCTION cancellation to maximize the signal-to-noise-plus-ICI ratio is

RTHOGONAL frequency division multiplexing derived in [5].

O (OFDM) is widely used for reliable data transmission

over frequency-selective channels without requiring a complex Maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) channel estima-

equalizer. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas tion algorithms generate optimal results. When applied to

and OFDM can be implemented to achieve a low error rate MIMO-OFDM systems, however, its complexity could be

and/or high data rate by flexibly exploiting the diversity gain prohibitively high for most applications. This paper develops

and/or the spatial multiplexing gain [1]–[3]. Realizing these an iterative channel estimation and data detection scheme for

gains requires the channel state information (CSI) at the mobile MIMO-OFDM systems for which ICI may not be

receiver, which is often obtained through channel estimation. neglected. The main contribution is on the derivation of a

There exist two main types of channel estimation schemes: reduced-complexity MAP channel estimator while maintaining

pilot-assisted schemes, in which a portion of the bandwidth is a high data-detection performance. In the proposed scheme,

allocated to training symbols [4], [5], and blind approaches, the LS algorithm that operates on pilot symbols only is

which can be implemented by exploiting the statistical prop- applied to obtain initial channel estimates for temporary sym-

erties [6] or the deterministic information of the transmitted bol decisions. Then, the ICI component is approximated and

symbol (e.g., finite alphabet, constant modulus, etc.) [7], [8]. canceled from the received signals. In fast-fading channels, LS

For pilot-assisted schemes, CSI can be estimated by exploiting estimates exploiting pilot symbols only might not be sufficient

the frequency correlation and/or the time correlation of the to provide a high detection performance. With the temporary

pilot and data symbols [9]. The estimates are in general data decisions and channel estimates, performance could be

reliable, but pilot symbols increase signaling overhead. On the significantly improved by applying a MAP estimator. The

other hand, blind estimation requires a long data observation major problem with the MAP estimator is that it requires

Manuscript received December 27, 2005; revised December 26, 2006 and inversion and multiplication of matrices of size N NT × N NT

July 11, 2007; accepted November 1, 2007. The associate editor coordinating for each OFDM symbol, where N is the number of subcarriers

the review of this paper and approving it for publication was J. Garcia-Frias. and NT is the number of transmit antennas. We derive an EM-

J. Gao was with the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer

Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. She is now with based MAP estimator, which, by exploiting the channel sta-

Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA 95052, USA (e-mail: jie.gao@intel.com). tistical information and employing a low-rank approximation,

H. Liu is with the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer practically eliminates the need of frequent matrix inversions.

Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA (e-mail:

hliu@eecs.oregonstate.edu). We show that the proposed scheme performs the same as the

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2008.051072. MAP estimator while its complexity is significantly lower.

1536-1276/08$25.00

c 2008 IEEE

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 3, MARCH 2008 775

II. S YSTEM M ODEL A. MAP channel estimation with low-rank approximation and

Consider a system with NT transmit antennas and NR EM implementation

receive antennas. Sub-channels are defined as the spatial 1) LS estimation: As mentioned in Section I, the LS

channels from the u-th (1 ≤ u ≤ NT ) transmit antenna to the scheme is a pilot-assisted approach to obtain the initial es-

v-th (1 ≤ v ≤ NR ) receive antenna. In the transmitter, data timates. Let ps and M denote the pilot subcarrier spacing

are serial-to-parallel (S/P) converted and sent to NT transmit and the number of subcarriers dedicated to pilot symbols,

antennas for simultaneous transmission. Each sub-channel respectively. The received pilot vector at receive antenna v,

consists of L + 1 paths, and each OFDM symbol consists Y v(p) , and the transmitted pilot matrix D u(p) from antenna u

of N subcarriers. Let hv,u (l) denote the tap gain of path l for are written as Y v(p) = [Yv (0), Yv (ps ), · · · , Yv ((M − 1)ps )]T ,

the sub-channel from transmit antenna u to receive antenna v. D u(p) = diag[du (0), du (ps ), · · · , du ((M − 1)ps )], where

The channel has an exponentially decaying multipath power- diag[·] denotes a diagonal matrix. Applying Eq. (3) to pilot

delay profile which determines the power distribution among signals, we obtain

the taps, and the maximum tap delay is assumed to be shorter

than the OFDM guard interval. The power-delay profile is also Y v(p) = Q(p) hv + W v(p) (4)

assumed identical for all independent sub-channels, which is

represented as [19] where Q(p) = [D 1(p) F (p) , D 2(p) F (p) , · · · , D NT (p) F (p) ],

hv = [hTv,1 , hTv,2 , · · · , hTv,NT ]T , and F (p) is an M × (L + 1)

E hv,u (l1 )h∗v,u (l2 ) = e−l1 /L δl1 l2 (1)

matrix with F (p) [k, l] = e−j2πkl/N , k = 0, ps , 2ps , · · · , (M −

−1/L

where = 1−e 1−e

−(L+1)/L is a normalization factor to ensure

1)ps , 0 ≤ l ≤ L, Wv (k) is the k-th element of M × 1 vector

−l/L W v(p) .

le = 1, δ denotes the Kronecker delta function, E{·}

denotes statistical expectation, and {·}∗ represents complex The LS estimate of hv is simply obtained as ĥv =

conjugate. Let H(l) denote the NR × NT spatial channel ma- (Q(p) )+ Y v(p) , where (·)+ denotes the pseudo-inverse. Since

u)-th element is hv,u (l).From Eq. (1), it is easy

trix whose (v, Q(p) is an M × NT (L + 1) matrix, a unique LS solution

to obtain E vec{H(l1 )}vecH {H(l2 )} = 0NT NR , ∀l1 = l2 , exists if the number of pilot subcarriers M is not less than NT

where (·)H denotes Hermitian transpose, vec{H(l)} is an times the number of channel delay taps (L + 1). Calculating

NR NT ×1 vector constructed by stacking the columns of H(l), the inverse of an NT (L + 1) × NT (L + 1) matrix could be

and 0NT NR represents the NT NR × NT NR zero matrix. We computationally extensive. Thus, it is favorable to ignore the

write the discrete-time multipath channel coefficients along the channel taps whose magnitudes are small, like the method

delay path as hv,u = [hv,u (0), hv,u (1), · · · , hv,u (L)]T , where of significant tap catching (STC) proposed in [14]. With Lr

(·)T denotes transpose. We also define significant taps (Lr < L + 1), the required computation is

L reduced to the inversion of an NT Lr ×NT Lr matrix. However,

Hv,u (k) = hv,u (l)e−j2πkl/N , 0 ≤ k ≤ N − 1 (2) an irreducible error floor is introduced since the power-delay

l=0 profile cannot be completely represented by the Lr taps [18],

which represents the frequency response of the channel for the [20].

k-th subcarrier. In a vector-matrix form, Hv,u (k) is the k-th An EM-based scheme that provides a more reliable chan-

element of the N ×1 vector F hv,u , where F is an N ×(L+1) nel estimate than the STC scheme while avoiding the in-

matrix with F [k, l] = e−j2πkl/N , 0 ≤ k ≤ N − 1, 0 ≤ l ≤ L. version of large-size matrices is introduced and compared

The discrete-time transmitted signal at the n-th sam- with the SAGE algorithm in terms of convergence rate in

pling

interval from antenna u is expressed as su (n) = [17], [18]. This algorithm transforms the estimation process

N −1 of multiple-input channels into the estimation of a series

k=0 du (k)e , where du (k) is the transmitted

Es j2πnk/N

N

of independent single-input single-output (SISO) channels.

symbol at the k-th subcarrier from the u-th antenna and Es is (κ) (κ) (κ)

the data symbol energy per subcarrier. Since the guard interval In the E-step, Ŷ v,u(p) = D u(p) F (p) ĥv,u and r̂ v,u(p) =

(κ)

NT (κ)

is not shorter than the maximum delay of the channel, there Ŷ v,u(p) + βu Y v(p) − u=1 Ŷ v,u(p) are computed for u =

is no intersymbol interference. For simplicity of notation, we

where superscript (κ) represents the κ-th sub-

1, 2, . . . , NT ,

let the symbol energy per subcarrier be normalized to 1. The NT

received signal on the k-th subcarrier of antenna v is given by

iteration and u=1 βu = 1. Typically, βu , u = 1, · · · , NT ,

are chosen as β1 = · · · = βNT . In the M-step, channel

NT

coefficients are estimated as ĥv,u

(κ+1)

= FH −1 (κ)

Yv (k) = du (k)Hv,u (k) + Wv (k) (3) (p) D u(p) r̂ v,u(p) .

−1

u=1 Since D u(p) is a diagonal matrix, D u(p) can be obtained via

N −1 division only. The channel estimates can be initially set as

where Wv (k) = √1N n=0 wv (n)e−j2πnk/N and wv (n) is (0)

the zero-mean additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with ĥv,u = 1L+1 , (1 ≤ v ≤ NR , 1 ≤ u ≤ NT ), where 1L+1 is an

variance N0 . (L + 1) × 1 vector whose elements are all 1’s.

With the channel coefficients ĥv,u estimated by the LS

III. L OW- COMPLEXITY MAP CHANNEL ESTIMATION WITH algorithm, the estimate of the channel frequency response for

ITERATIVE DATA DETECTION subcarrier k, Ĥv,u (k), is simply the k-th element of F ĥv,u ,

In this section, we first derive the proposed scheme assum- where F is an N × (L + 1) matrix given below (2).

ing a quasi-static channel. Then we extend the analysis to time- The received signals across all receive antennas on the

varying fading channels, where ICI needs to be considered. k-th subcarrier, Y (k), is expressed in a vector form as

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776 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 3, MARCH 2008

Y (k) = [Y1 (k), Y2 (k), · · · , YNR (k)]T . With Ĥv,u (k), data channel coefficients have a mean zero (i.e., μ = 0), it is

symbols d1 (k), · · · , dNT (k) can be detected after spatial de- straightforward to rewrite (8) as

multiplexing using a linear zero-forcing (ZF) filter or mini-

−1 −1 −1

mum mean square error (MMSE) scheme. Ĥ v,u = RH (RH + σ 2 (D H

u Du ) ) D u Y v,u . (9)

2) MAP estimation: Although the transmitted data could

be detected by employing the LS estimates of the channel Clearly, the inversion of the N ×N data-dependent correlation

coefficients, the performance will be significantly improved by matrix and the multiplication of two N × N matrices must be

employing a MAP channel estimator. The received signal vec- done for all sub-channels during each OFDM symbol interval.

tor on all subcarriers at antenna v, Y v = [Yv (0), · · · , Yv (N − 3) Complexity reduction via low-rank approximation: It

−1

1)]T , can be expressed as was shown in [24] that matrix (D H u Du ) could be replaced

−1

by E{(D u D u ) } at the expense of a slight performance

H

equally probable constellation points and independent data

where D = [D 1 , · · · , D NT ], D u = diag[du (0), · · · , du (N − symbols, we can easily show that E{(D H u Du )

−1

} = αI N ,

1)], W v = [Wv (0), · · · , Wv (N − 1)]T , and H v = where α equals 1, 1.8889, and 2.6854 for QPSK, 16-QAM,

[(H v,1 )T , · · · , (H v,NT )T ]T , whose u-th block is expressed and 64-QAM, respectively. Thus, Eq. (9) can be approximated

as H v,u = F hv,u . as

As mentioned in Section I, the major problem with the Ĥ v,u ≈ RH (RH + σ 2 αI N )−1 D −1

u Y v,u . (10)

MAP estimator is that it needs to invert an N NT × N NT

data-dependent correlation matrix and an N × (N NT ) data The approximation in (10) effectively avoids the frequent

matrix D, where the data-dependency requires the inversion inversion and multiplication of N × N matrices for every

be carried out for each OFDM symbol. The computational OFDM symbol (note again that D −1 u is a diagonal matrix).

load becomes prohibitively high when N NT is large. This The complexity can be further reduced by exploiting low-

partly motivates us to apply the EM algorithm to be described rank approximation to the matrices involved in the MAP

at the end of Section III to decompose the MIMO channel estimation process. Let Γ = RH (RH + σ 2 αI N )−1 . It was

into NT SISO channels. After the decomposition, the data shown in [25] that Γ can be optimally approximated by

matrix reduces to an N × N diagonal matrix whose inversion an N × N matrix Γm with low rank. The optimal rank

is trivial. The data-dependent correlation matrix also reduces reduction can be achieved by minimizing the trace of the extra

to size N × N , and we derive a low-rank approximation to covariance as min tr[(Γ − Γm )(RH + σ 2 αI N )(Γ − Γm )T ].

practically avoid matrix inversion. It is more convenient

NT to Γm

write the received vector at antenna v as: Y v = u=1 Y v,u The solution will make Γm (RH + σ 2 αI N )1/2 the best low-

and Y v,u = D u H v,u + Wv,u . Since the EM algorithm can rank approximation for Γ(RH + σ 2 αI N )1/2 .

decompose the NT spatialy multiplexed channels given in Y v , Since the correlation matrix RH is Hermitian and positive

we develop the MAP estimator based on above expression. semidefinite, we can write RH = U ΛU H , where U is a

With the received signal at antenna v, the optimal MAP unitary matrix and Λ is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal el-

estimator maximizes the probability density function (pdf) of ements λm , m = 0, 1, · · · , N−1, are the eigen values of RH .

H v,u conditioned on the received signal and the transmitted The MAP channel estimate given in (10) can be expressed as

data matrix as [21] Ĥ v,u = U Λ(Λ + σ 2 αI N )−1 U H D −1 u Y v,u . We also have

Γ(RH + σ 2 αI N )1/2 = U ΛU H (U (Λ + σ 2 αI N )U H )−1/2 =

Ĥ v,u = arg max f H v,u |Y v,u , D u

−1/2 H

H v,u U Λ Λ + σ 2 αI N U , where we have applied the prop-

erty (U (Λ + σ 2 αI N )U H )1/2 = U (Λ + σ 2 αI N )1/2 U H in

= arg max f Y v,u |H v,u , D u f (H v,u |D u ) (6)

H v,u obtaining the second equality.

Let Δ = Λ(Λ + σ 2 αI N )−1 . The optimal low-rank approx-

where imation for Δ would then be

f (Y v,u |H v,u , D u ) = π −1 |RN |−1 · λ0 λL

Δm = diag · · · 0 · · · 0 . (11)

exp(−(Y v,u − D u H v,u )H R−1

N (Y v,u − D u H v,u )) (7a) λ0 + σ 2 α λL + σ 2 α

−1 −1 −1

f (H v,u |D u ) = π |RH | exp(−H H

v,u RH H v,u ). (7b) Therefore, the low-rank approximated channel estimate based

on (10) is expressed as

It was shown in [21], [22] that the MAP estimate of H v,u

can be expressed as Ĥ v,u ≈ U Δm U H D −1

u Y v,u . (12)

−1

Ĥ v,u = μ+RH D H u D u R H D H

u + R N Y v,u − D u μ As shown in the Appendix, given the channel length L, the

(8) (m, n)-th element of the correlation matrix RH can be derived

to be [RH ]m,n = l=0 e−l/L e−j2π(m−n)l/N .

L

where RN is the correlation matrix of the zero-mean noise

vector, and μ and RH denote, respectively, the mean and 4) Decomposition using EM algorithm: To estimate the

corrrelation matrix of H v,u . In a quasi-static channel, RN coefficients for the channel vectors from all transmit antennas,

is expressed as RN = σ 2 I N , where I N is the N × N the EM algorithm to decompose the MIMO channel into SISO

identity matrix and σ 2 = σAWGN

2

/NT . Considering that the channels can be efficiently implemented as

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 3, MARCH 2008 777

(g) (g)

N −1

Ŷ v,u = D u U Δ+ H

2 1

m U F ĥv,u (13a) σICI = 2 N+

N

(g) (g)

NT

(g) m=0, m=k

r̂ v,u = Ŷ v,u + βu Y v − Ŷ v,u (13b)

n

N −1

u=1 2 (N −n)J0 (2πfd Ts n) cos 2π(m−k) . (16)

n=1

N

where, as the EM-LS scheme, superscript (g) represents

NT the g-

th sub-iteration and βu , u = 1, · · · , NT , satisfy u=1 βu = 1 Therefore, with the modification of the noise variance in

and are typically chosen as β1 = · · · = βNT . Note that the (9)−(11) as σ 2 = σICI

2 2

+ σAWGN /NT , the proposed scheme

L + 1 non-zero diagonal elements of Δ+ m is easily obtained

can be readily applied for time-varying channels.

2

to be λmλ+σm

α

, m = 0, 1, 2, · · · , L. When ICI is severe, it is necessary to cancel it in the

M-step: in order to minimize the detection error, the esti- detection process. The channel transfer function can be ap-

mated channel coefficients are updated as proximated using the first-order Taylor series expansion as

[5] Hv,u (k, n) = Hv,u (k, n0 ) + Hv,u (k, n0 )(n − n0 ). The ICI

(g+1) (g) component ζv,u (k), k = 0, 1, · · · , N − 1, defined in (15) can

ĥv,u = F H U Δm U H D −1

u r̂ v,u . (14)

be rewritten as

Since D u is a diagonal matrix, D −1 u can be obtained by

N −1

division only; thus practically no matrix inversion is required ζv,u (k) = Hv,u (m, n0 ) Ξk (m)d(m) (17)

for the proposed EM-based MAP channel estimator. Also, m=0

N −1

for practical scenarios, the SVD of RH can be calculated where Ξk (m) = N1 n=0 (n − n0 )ej2πn(m−k)/N . Let Ξ be

in advance and updated infrequently. Increasing the number an N × N matrix whose (k, m)-th element is Ξk (m), k, m =

of sub-iterations G will result in better quality of the channel 0, 1, · · · , N − 1. With the initial estimate of the channel and

estimates. However, as will be shown in Section IV, for most the temporary symbol decisions for all the subcarriers, the ICI

common MIMO-OFDM configurations and fading rates, the component is approximated as

performance saturates quickly as G increases; thus, a large G

is typically unnecessary. ζ̂ v,u = ΞH v,u d̂u (18)

B. Implementation in time-varying fading channels d̂u = [dˆu (0), dˆu (1), · · · , dˆu (N − 1)]T , and H v,u =

diag[Hv,u (0, n0 ), Hv,u (1, n0 ), · · · , Hv,u (N − 1, n0 )]. The

The proposed scheme can be easily extended and ap-

plied to the time-varying channels. In this case the chan- first-order derivative of the channel response, Hv,u (k, n0 ),

nel coefficients at time nTs , hv,u (n, l), are assumed to can be estimated by calculating the difference of H̄v,u (k)

be constant in one sampling interval Ts , which is related between two consecutive OFDM symbols [5]. The ICI

to the OFDM symbol duration T as Ts = T /N , and component is then canceled Nbefore the next iteration of data

change over different sampling intervals according to the detection as Ŷ v = Y v − u=1 T

ζ̂ v,u , where Y v was given in

channel correlation property E hv,u (n1 , l1 )h∗v,u (n2 , l2 ) = (5). Once the ICI component is canceled from the received

signal, both channel estimation and data detection should be

J0 (2πfd Ts (n2 − n1 )) e−l1 /L δl1 l2 , where J0 (·) is the zeroth

significantly improved.

order Bessel function of the first kind, fd is the maximum

The block diagram of the proposed MAP channel estimator

Doppler shift of the channel.

with iterative data detection for MIMO-OFDM systems is

Time-varying fading causes ICI; thus (3) must be modified

shown in Fig. 1. The receiver employs an LS channel estimator

as

to obtain the initial estimate of the channel coefficients for all

NT the sub-channels by exploiting only the pilot signals, followed

Yv (k) = du (k)H̄v,u (k) + ζv (k) + Wv (k) (15) by an MMSE data detector. Once the temporary data decisions

u=1 (D u ) are available, the ICI component can be approximated

N −1 and canceled from the received signal. The received signals

where H̄v,u (k) = N1 n=0 Hv,u (k, n) denotes the mean after ICI cancellation, the temporary symbol decisions, and

value of the channel response for the k-th subcarrier, the statistical information of the channel are then processed by

L

NT

the proposed MAP estimator to obtain more accurate channel

Hv,u (k, n) = hv,u (n, l)e−j2πkl/N , ζv (k) = ζv,u (k),

l=0 u=1

parameters (Ĥ v,u ). In the next iteration, the temporary data

N −1

N −1 decisions are used to estimate the ICI component given by

1

and ζv,u (k) = du (m) Hv,u (m, n)ej2πn(m−k)/N (18), which is subsequently canceled from the received signal.

N m=0

m=k

n=0 The channel parameters are then updated following (13) and

represents the ICI component. For most common OFDM (14).

systems, the number of subcarrier is a large number (e.g., The MAP estimator can be derived using (5). Its com-

128 or greater). Therefore, the ICI component ζv,u (k) can plexity is approximately as follows. For each OFDM symbol,

be approximated as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable the pseudo-inverse of a data matrix of size N × N NT :

by invoking the central limit theorem [23]. The variance of O(N 3 )); inversion of a data-dependent correlation matrix of

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778 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 3, MARCH 2008

1 1

. .

. . LS

MMSE

MIMO

Processing

OFDM

Modulation

. . OFDM

Demodulation

Channel

Detection

Estimation

NT NR

EM-based MAP

Channel Estimation

ICI Cancellation

Fig. 1. Block diagram of the iterative channel estimation and data detection scheme.

−1

10

G=3 cyclic prefix of 16 samples is inserted at the beginning of

G=6

G=9 each OFDM symbol. The pilot subcarrier spacing ps is 4;

G=12

thus the absolute pilot spacing in the frequency domain equals

4/(N Ts ). Note that data symbol energy Es for all simulation

−2

results is the energy spent in information-bearing symbols

10

only and is not adjusted by the energy spent in pilots. Since

the multipath spread of the channel is assumed to be LTs ,

BER

1/(LTs ). Let R be the ratio of the absolute pilot spacing

−3

10 to the channel coherence bandwidth, i.e., R = 4L N . Since

the grid density of the pilot symbols must satisfy the 2-D

sampling theorem in order to recover channel parameters [26],

the pilot spacing must be less than or equal to half of the

coherence bandwidth of the channel, which results in R ≤ 0.5.

−4

10

5 10 15 20

The channel is assumed to have 15 multipath components

E /N (dB)

s 0 (L = 14).

We use the normalized Doppler shift fd T to measure fading

Fig. 2. The effect of the number of sub-iterations in the EM process (NT =

2, NR = 3). rates. In terrestrial digital video broadcasting 2k mode (DVB-

T) systems, if the vehicle speed is v = 134.8 km/h, the

normalized Doppler shift is obtained to be fd T = 0.02 [5]

(the maximum absolute Doppler shift fd = fc v/c is applied),

size N NT × N NT : O((N NT )3 ); and multiplication of two which is considered to be a fairly fast-fading scenario for

N NT ×N NT matrices: O((N NT )3 ). The significance of (12) mobile environments.

as a result of the approximation in (10) and the low-rank

Fading processes are piecewise-constant approximated, al-

approximation and the EM algorithm is that the inversion

lowing the channel coefficients to be constant in one sampling

and multiplication of matrices mentioned above are practically

interval and change over different sampling intervals within

eliminated (note that D u and Δm are diagonal matrices).

one OFDM symbol period according to the correlation func-

Additionally, as mentioned at the end of Section III-A.3, even

tion described in Section III-B. There are many methods to

if fd changes, an SVD to re-calculate U is not needed, as long

generate the fading coefficients [27]–[30], and we adopt the

as fd T is not unrealistically large. The only change needed

one described in [28] since it gives a better autocorrelation

to reflect the change in fd is to re-calculate Δm given in

property of the fading process than the one in [27].

(11), which is trivial due to the special form of Δm , once

the variance of ICI as a result of fast fading is estimated. The number of sub-iterations in the EM process, G, affects

However, in the EM process, steps given in (13) and (14) need the receiver bit error rate (BER). Fig. 2 shows that, for

to be executed g times (e.g., g = 9) for each OFDM symbol. the common set of system parameters chosen, BER does

Although the exact complexity of these steps are difficult to not further improve after G = 9 sub-iterations. Hence, in

quantify, it is far lower than O((N NT )3 )) since all matrices obtaining the rest of the simulation results, G = 9 with

involved are either fixed (e.g., U and F , which do not need to step sizes of β1 = β2 = . . . = βNT = 1/NT will be

be updated on a per OFDM symbol basis) or diagonal (e.g., adopted. Fig. 3 compares the error performance of receivers

Δm and D u ). that employ the LS, the MAP, and the proposed scheme for

(2, 2) (i.e., NT = 2, NR = 2) and (2, 3) MIMO-OFDM

systems. Performance of the ideal case that assumes perfect

IV. S IMULATION R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION CSI is used as the baseline performance. The proposed EM-

Simulation results are obtained for MIMO-OFDM systems MAP scheme performs almost the same as the normal MAP

with N = 128 subcarriers employing QPSK modulation. A scheme; the performance degradation as a result of reducing

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 3, MARCH 2008 779

0

10

which works well in fast-fading channels. The estimator does

not need to invert large-size matrices, resulting in a much

10

-1 ( NT = 2, N R = 2 ) lower complexity than existing schemes, while achieving

the optimal performance of MAP channel estimation. The

iterative process also enables one to incorporate approximation

10

-2 and cancellation of the ICI component for high-performance

detection. Simulation results demonstrate the great robustness

BER

10

-3 ( NT = 2, N R = 3) fading rate as high as fd T = 0.02, the proposed scheme

achieves an error performance that is 2 dB better than the

LS estimator and is about 2 dB worse than the ideal case that

-4 LS channel estimation

10

EM-based MAP channel estimation

assumes perfect channel estimates.

MAP channel estimation

Perfect channel estimation

-5 A PPENDIX : A PPROXIMATION OF THE C HANNEL

10

5 10 15 20 C ORRELATION M ATRIX

Es /N0(dB)

1

N −1

Recall that H̄v,u (k) = n=0 Hv,u (k, n) and

L N

−j2πkl/N

Fig. 3. Performance comparison of various channel estimation schemes Hv,u (k, n) = l=0 h v,u (n, l)e . Applying Eq.

(fd T = 0.02, pilot subcarrier spacing ps = 4). (1), we obtain the (m, n)-th element of the correlation matrix

RH as

−1

10 ∗

R=0.4375 [RH ]m,n = E H̄v,u (m)H̄v,u (n)

R=0.25

L N −1

−j2πml1

R=0.0625

Perfect channel estimation 1

= 2

E e N hv,u (n1 , l1 )·

−2 N

10 l1 =0 n1 =0

−1

L N j2πnl2

hv,u (n2 , l2 )e N

l2 =0 n2 =0

BER

−3

10

L

−j2π(m−n)l 1

= e−l/L e N ·

N2

l=0

−4

10

N −1 N

−1

J0 (2πfd Ts (n2 − n1 )) . (19)

n1 =0 n2 =0

−5

For most application scenarios, the normalized Doppler shift

10

5 10

Es/N0(dB)

15 20 fd T is smaller than 0.05. In such a case, and noting that Ts =

T /N , J0 (2πfd Ts (n2 − n1 )) ≈ 1. Thus

Fig. 4. The effect of the ratio of pilot spacing to channel coherence bandwidth

(NT = 2, NR = 3).

L

−j2π(m−n)l

[RH ]m,n ≈ e−l/L e N . (20)

l=0

is negligible. Compared with the LS estimator, the proposed

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