Applied Electronics

UNIT-I
Transistor: Transistor as an amplifier: low frequency, single stage and
multistage amplifier.
Regulated Power Supply: Capacitor filters for single-phase rectifiers.
Application of 3-pinvoltage regulator Ics 78xx/79xx/317/337.
UNIT –II
OPAMP: Introduction to operational amplifiers. Applications of OPAMP: 1)
Summing
scaling, averaging, integrator and differentiator; 2) OPAMP as comparator 3)
Instrumentation Amplifier and its applications.
UNIT-III
Digital Electronics: 1) Combinational circuits: multiplexers, demultiplexers,
decoders,
encoders. 2) Flip-flops': S-R F/F, clocked S-R F/F, D F/F, J-K F/F, T F/F 3)
Counters:
Asynchronous (ripple) counter, Asynchronous UP/DOWN counter,
Synchronous counter,Synchronous UP/DOWN counter. 4) Registers: Serial-in,
serial-out; Parallel-in, serial-out; Serial-in, parallel out; Serial/parallel in,
Serial/parallel out.
UNIT-IV
D/A converters: R/ 2R register ladder. D/A converter. A/D converters:
successive approx. A/D converter
UNIT-V
Microprocessor: Concept of microprocessor, software architecture of 8086,
Addressing
modes, Data transfer arithmetic logical, Jump/Call, String instructions,
Writing simple
assembly language programmers, Technical details of serial and parallel
ports of IBM
compatible PC.
Text/Reference Books
1. Millman, Halkias, “Basic Electronics”, Tata McGraw-Hill.
2. Coughlin and Driscoll, “Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated
Circuits”,
Prentice Hall of India.

3. Bray B.B., “8086 – 486 Intel Microprocessor,” Prentice Hall of India.
4. Hall, D., “8086 Microprocessor”, Tata McGraw-Hill

Unit-1

Transistor and Regulated Power
Supply
Q.1 Define Regulator power supply with diagram?
Ans A regulated power supply is an embedded circuit; it converts
unregulated AC into a constant DC. With the help of a rectifier it converts
AC supply into DC. Its function is to supply a stable voltage (or less often
current), to a circuit or device
that must be operated within certain
power supply limits. The output from the regulated power supply may be
alternating or unidirectional, but is nearly
always DC (Direct Current).

Q.2 What is rectifier? How to work of single phase half wave
rectifiers with filter capacitor.
Ans Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase (three being the
most common number of phases). Most low power rectifiers for domestic
equipment are single-phase, but three-phase rectification is very important
for industrial
applications and for the transmission of energy as DC .

Single-phase Half-wave rectification
In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply, either the positive or
negative
half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked.
Because only one
half of the input waveform reaches the output, mean
voltage is lower. Half-wave
rectification requires a single diode in a singlephase supply, or three in a three- phase
supply.
Rectifiers
yield
a
unidirectional but pulsating direct current; half- wave rectifiers produce far
more ripple than full-wave rectifiers, and much more filtering is needed to
eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency from the output.

Q.2 Describe single phase full wave rectifier with diagram?
Ans A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of
constant
polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification
converts both
polarities of the input waveform to pulsating DC (direct
current), and yields a higher average output voltage. Two diodes and a
center tapped transformer, or
four diodes in a bridge configuration and
any AC source (including a
transformer without center tap), Single
semiconductor diodes, double diodes
with common cathode or common
anode, and four-diode bridges, are manufactured as single components.

Voltage regulators are found in almost every piece of electronic
equipment, and range from very low voltage types (e.g. 3.3V used for many
microprocessors) up
to hundreds of volts as used in some valve amplifiers
and other equipment that
relies on high voltages.
Not every voltage needs to be regulated. It is traditional to supply
opamps used
in audio with regulated supplies (typically ±15V), but this is
primarily done to ensure low ripple (100 or 120Hz) and noise. Opamps don't
care much if there's
noise on the supply, and they are perfectly happy
even if the supply voltages change a little while they are working. Provided
their maximum operating
voltage is not exceeded and the supplies
remain high enough to allow the signal through without distortion, supply
variations will not result in significant output
variations.
Q.4 What is voltage regulator? Show the block diagram of the IC
voltage regulator
Ans Voltage regulators are found in almost every piece of electronic
equipment, and range from very low voltage types (e.g. 3.3V used for many
microprocessors) up
to hundreds of volts as used in some valve amplifiers
and other equipment that
relies on high voltages.
Not every voltage needs to be regulated. It is traditional to supply
opamps used
in audio with regulated supplies (typically ±15V), but this is
primarily done to ensure low ripple (100 or 120Hz) and noise. Opamps don't
care much if there's
noise on the supply, and they are perfectly happy
even if the supply voltages change a little while they are working. Provided
their maximum operating
voltage is not exceeded and the supplies
remain high enough to allow the signal through without distortion, supply
variations will not result in significant output
variations.
However, this is generally considered unacceptable. The supplies to
opamps
should be regulated, because no opamp has an infinite PSRR,
and it degrades at
high frequencies as the open loop gain falls due to
internal (or external)
frequency compensation. In many cases, a simple

zener diode regulator may be
sufficient, but these are inefficient and
are considered very 'low tech' by modern
standards.

Q.5 How to work 78xx IC in voltage regulator? Show the pin
diagram of 7805 IC.
Ans 78xx series ICs do not require additional components to provide a
constant, regulated source of power, making them easy to use, as well as
economical and efficient uses of space. Other voltage regulators may
require additional
components to set the output voltage level, or to
assist in the regulation process.
Some other designs (such as a switchedmode power supply) may need
substantial engineering expertise to
implement.
78xx series ICs have built-in protection against a circuit drawing too
much
current. They have protection against overheating and shortcircuits, making them quite robust in most applications. In some cases, the
current-limiting features of the 78xx devices can provide protection not
only for the 78xx itself, but also for other parts of the circuit.

7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 78xx
series of fixed
linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit
may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. The
voltage regulator IC maintains
the output voltage at a constant value.
The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide.
7805 provides +5V regulated power supply.
Capacitors of suitable values
can be connected at input and output pins
depending
upon
the
respective voltage levels.
Pin Diagram:
7805 Voltage Regulator IC pin diagram, PinOut...

..

Unit-II

OPAMP
Q.1 What is operation amplifier with inverting and non-inverting
terminal. Show the symbolic diagram?
Ans Operational amplifier (op-amp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic
voltage
amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended
output. In this
configuration, an op-amp produces an output potential
(relative to circuit
ground) that is typically hundreds of thousands of
times larger than the potential
difference between its input terminals.

Operational amplifiers had their origins in analog computers, where
they were used to do mathematical operations in many linear, non-linear
and frequency- dependent circuits. The popularity of the op-amp as a
building block in analog
circuits is due to its versatility. Due to negative
feedback, the characteristics of an op-amp circuit, its gain, input and output
impedance, bandwidth etc. are
determined by external components and
have little dependence on temperature coefficients
or
manufacturing
variations in the op-amp itself.
Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today,
being used in a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices.
Many standard IC
op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate
production volume; however some integrated
or
hybrid
operational
amplifiers with special performance
specifications may cost over $100
US in small quantities. Op-amps may be packaged as components, or used
as elements of more complex integrated circuits.

The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of
differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the opamp, but with
two outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built
from three op-amps), the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation
amplifier, but with
tolerance to common-mode voltages that would
destroy an ordinary op-amp), and negative feedback amplifier (usually built
from one or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network).
Q.2

Explain characteristics of operation amplifier?

Ans

Op-amp characteristics-:
1 Ideal op-amps

An equivalent circuit of an operational amplifier that models some
resistive nonideal parameters.
An ideal op-amp is usually considered to have the following properties:
Infinite open-loop gain G = vout / 'vin
Infinite input impedance Rin, and so zero input current
Zero input offset voltage
Infinite voltage range available at the output
Infinite bandwidth with zero phase shift and infinite slew rate
Zero output impedance Rout
Zero noise

Infinite Common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR)
Infinite Power supply rejection ratio.
These ideals can be summarized by the two "golden rules":
I.
voltage
II.

The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the
difference between the inputs zero.
The inputs draw no current.

The first rule only applies in the usual case where the op-amp is used
in a closed- loop design (negative feedback, where there is a signal path of
some sort feeding
back from the output to the inverting input). These
rules are commonly used as a
good first approximation for analyzing or
designing op-amp circuits.
None of these ideals can be perfectly realized. A real op-amp may be
modeled
with non-infinite or non-zero parameters using equivalent
resistors and
capacitors in the op-amp model. The designer can then
include these effects into
the overall performance of the final circuit.
Some parameters may turn out to have negligible effect on the final design
while others represent actual limitations of the final performance that must
be evaluated.
2) Real op-amps
Real op-amps differ from the ideal model in various aspects
Real operational amplifiers suffer from several non-ideal effects:
3) Finite gain
Open-loop gain is infinite in the ideal operational amplifier but finite in
real operational amplifiers. Typical devices exhibit open-loop DC gain
ranging from
100,000 to over 1 million. So long as the loop gain (i.e., the
product of open-loop
and feedback gains) is very large, the circuit gain will
be determined entirely by
the amount of negative feedback (i.e., it will be
independent of open-loop gain).
In cases where closed-loop gain must be
very high, the feedback gain will be
very low, and the low feedback
gain causes low loop gain; in these cases, the operational
amplifier
will
cease to behave ideally.

4) Finite input impedances
The differential input impedance of the operational amplifier is defined
as the
impedance between its two inputs; the common-mode input
impedance is the impedance from each input to ground. MOSFET-input
operational amplifiers often have protection circuits that effectively short
circuit any input differences greater than a small threshold, so the input
impedance can appear to be very low
in some tests. However, as long as
these operational amplifiers are used in a
typical high-gain negative
feedback application, these protection circuits will be
inactive.
The
input bias and leakage currents described below are a more
important
design parameter for typical operational amplifier applications.
5) Non-zero output impedance
Low output impedance is important for low-impedance loads; for these
loads,
the voltage drop across the output impedance effectively
reduces the open loop gain. In configurations with a voltage-sensing
negative feedback, the output
impedance of the amplifier is effectively
lowered; thus, in linear applications, op- amp circuits usually exhibit a very
low output impedance indeed.
Low-impedance outputs typically require high quiescent (i.e., idle)
current in the output stage and will dissipate more power, so low-power
designs may
purposely sacrifice low output impedance.
6) Input current
Due to biasing requirements or leakage, a small amount of current
(typically ~10
nanoamperes for bipolar op-amps, tens of picoamperes
(pA) for JFET input
stages, and only a few pA for MOSFET input stages)
flows into the inputs. When large resistors or sources with high output
impedances are used in the circuit, these small currents can produce large
unmodeled voltage drops. If the input
currents are matched, and the
impedance looking out of both inputs are matched,
then
the
voltages
produced at each input will be equal. Because the
operational
amplifier
operates on the difference between its inputs, these matched voltages will
have no effect. It is more common for the input currents to be
slightly
mismatched. The difference is called input offset current, and even
with
matched resistances a small offset voltage (different from the input offset
voltage below) can be produced. This offset voltage can create offsets
or drifting in the operational amplifier.

7) Input offset voltage

This voltage, which is what is required across the op-amp's input
terminals to
drive the output voltage to zero, In the perfect amplifier,
there would be no input
offset voltage. However, it exists in actual opamps because of imperfections in the differential amplifier that constitutes
the input stage of the vast majority of
these devices. Input offset voltage
creates two problems: First, due to the
amplifier's high voltage gain, it
virtually assures that the amplifier output will go
into saturation if it is
operated without negative feedback, even when the input terminals
are
wired together. Second, in a closed loop, negative feedback
configuration, the input offset voltage is amplified along with the signal
and this
may pose a problem if high precision DC amplification is required
or if the input
signal is very small.[nb 2]
8) Common-mode gain
A perfect operational amplifier amplifies only the voltage difference
between its
two inputs, completely rejecting all voltages that are
common to both. However, the differential input stage of an operational
amplifier is never perfect, leading to
the amplification of these common
voltages to some degree. The standard measure of this defect is called the
common-mode rejection ratio (denoted CMRR). Minimization of common
mode gain is usually important in noninverting
amplifiers
(described
below) that operate at high amplification.
9) Power-supply rejection
The output of a perfect operational amplifier will be completely
independent
from ripples that arrive on its power supply inputs. Every
real operational amplifier has a specified power supply rejection ratio
(PSRR) that reflects how
well the op-amp can reject changes in its
supply voltage. Copious use of bypass
capacitors can improve the PSRR of
many devices, including the operational amplifier.
10 Temperature effects
All parameters change with temperature. Temperature drift of the
input offset
voltage
Q.3

Write short note of summing scaling of operation amplifier?

Ans The Summing Amplifier is a very flexible circuit based upon the
standard
Inverting Operational Amplifier configuration. As its name
suggests, the
“summing amplifier” can be used for combining the
voltage present on multiple inputs into a single output voltage.

We saw previously in the Inverting Operational Amplifier that the
inverting
amplifier has a single input voltage, ( Vin ) applied to the
inverting input
terminal. If we add more input resistors to the input, each
equal in value to the
original input resistor, Rin we end up with another
operational amplifier circuit called a Summing Amplifier, “summing
inverter” or even a “voltage adder”
circuit as shown below.
summing amplifier formula
V

out=

RF
(V 1+V 2+V 3 … .etc)
R¿

However, if all the input impedances, ( Rin ) are equal in value, we can
simplify
the above equation to give an output voltage of:
Summing Amplifier ckt

Q.4

Write short notes of Differentiator operation amplifier?

Ans
The Op-amp Differentiator AmplifierThe basic Op-amp Differentiator circuit is the exact opposite to that of
the Integrator Amplifier circuit that we looked at in the previous tutorial.
Here, the position of the capacitor and resistor have been reversed and
now the reactance,
Xc is connected to the input terminal of the inverting
amplifier while the resistor, Rƒ forms the negative feedback element across
the operational amplifier as normal.

This Operational Amplifier circuit performs the mathematical operation
of
Differentiation, that is it “produces a voltage output which is directly
proportional to the input voltage’s rate-of-change with respect to
time“. In other
words the faster or larger the change to the input voltage
signal, the greater the input current, the greater will be the output voltage
change in response,
becoming more of a “spike” in shape.
As with the integrator circuit, we have a resistor and capacitor forming
an RC
Network across the operational amplifier and the reactance ( Xc )
of the capacitor plays a major role in the performance of a Op-amp
Differentiator.

Q.5

Write short note of integrating amplifier?

Ans The Op-amp Integrating Amplifier
Operational amplifier can be used as part of a positive or negative
feedback amplifier or as an adder or subtractor type circuit using just pure
resistances in
both the input and the feedback loop. But what if we were
to change the purely
resistive ( Rƒ ) feedback element of an inverting
amplifier to that of a frequency
dependant impedance, ( Z ) type
complex element, such as a Capacitor, C. What
would be the effect on
the op-amps output voltage over its frequency range.
By replacing this feedback resistance with a capacitor we now have an
RC
Network connected across the operational amplifiers feedback path
producing another type of operational amplifier circuit commonly called an
Op-amp
Integrator circuit as shown below.
Op-amp Integrator Circuit

Unit-3
Q.1 Describe the BCD to Decimal encoder?
Ans The BCD-Decimal decoder converts each BCD code to its decimal
equivalent.BCD to decimal decoders takes a 4 bit BCD as an input and
produces 10 outputs to the decimal digits. The technique employed is also
used in
developing the 3-line-to-8-line decoder. The logic diagram of a
BCD to decimal decoder using AND gates. When each output goes to HIGH
when its
corresponding BCD code is applied at its input.

Decimal to BCD encoder using OR gates

Q.2 Explain multiplexer and De-multiplexer with the help of truth
table and logic diagrams?
Ans Multiplexer-Multiplexer are also known as DATA SELECTORS. The term
'Multiplexer' means "many into one". MUX is a combinational logic
circuit
designed to switch one of several input lines through to a single
common output by the use of a control signal. Multiplexer operate like very
fast acting multiple
position rotary switches connecting or controlling
multiple input lines called
"channels" one at a time to the output.
Multiplexer is a method by which multiple analog signals or digitals
data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
Schematic symbol for multiplexer is

The Block diagrams of multiplexer with n input lines, m select signals
one output line. if the no. of n input lines is equal to 2m, the m select lines
are required to
select one of the n input lines.

DE-MULIPLEXER-De-multiplexer
are
also
known
as
DATA
DISTRIBUTORS. The term "de-multiplex" means one into many. A demultiplexer is a circuit that
has one input and more than one output. it is
used when a circuit to send a signal
to one of many devices, its similar
to decoder is used to select among many
devices
while
a
demultiplexer is used to send a signal among many devices.
Schematic Symbols

The block diagram of de-multiplexer has one input lines, m select signals and
n output signals. the select are used to determine to which output data input
is connected

, As the de-multiplexer take one signal input data line and then switches it to
any one of a no, of individual output lines one at a time. the de-multiplexer
convert a serial data signal at the input to a parallel data at its output lines.
its known as serial to parallel convertor.
BLOCK DIAGRAMS-

Q.3 What is distinguish between Encoder and Decoder.
Ans Encoder- An encoder performs the inverse operation of a decoder.
hence, the process perform by encoder is called encoding. so, an encoder is
a combinational logic circuit that converts an active input signal into a
coded output signal.
it has n input lines and m output lines, it encodes this active input to
an coded binary with m bits.

The number of outputs is less than the number of inputs.
The block diagrams of an encoder is as fellow:

DECODER-A decoder is a combinational circuit that changes a code
into a set of signals. it is a called a decoder because it does the
reverse of encoding. decoders are simple to design. A decoder is

similar to de-multiplexer but without any data input. A common
decoder is line decoder which takes an n-digit binary no. and decodes
it into 2nd output data lines, such that each output lines will be
activated for only one of the possible combinational of inputs.
In digital electronics, a decoder can take the form of a multiple-input,
multiple-output logic circuit that converts coded input into coded
outputs, where the input and output codes are different. if the no. of
inputs and outputs are equal is greater than the no. of inputs.

Q.4
Ans

What is FLIP-FLOP? Name of all type of flip-flop. Explain R-S
flip-flop?
FLIP-FLOP- Flip-flop are the electronics device used in the digital
world for a variety of fields. These are used to store data temporarily.
to multiply or divide, to count operation, or to receive and transfer
information when used properly. its bi-stable multi-vibrators.
Types of flip-flop-:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

R-S flip flop
J-K flip flop
D flip flop
T flip flop
Master flip flop
R-S flip flop-

Q.5
Ans

What is D flip flop. Explain with diagram?

Unit-IV

Q.1 What is R\2R ladder?
Ans
An R-2R Ladder is a simple and inexpensive way to perform digital-toanalog
conversion, using repetitive arrangements of
precision resistor networks in a
ladder-like configuration. A string resistor
ladder implements the non-repetitive
reference network. R-2R resistor
ladder network (digital to analog conversion, or
DAC). A basic R-2R
resistor ladder network is shown in Figure 1. Bit4 MSB (most
significant
bit) to Bit0 LSB (least significant bit) are driven from digital logic gates.
Ideally, the bits are switched between 0 volts (digital 0) and Vref (digital
1).
The R-2R network causes the digital bits to be weighted in their
contribution to
the output voltage Vout. In this circuit 5 bits are shown,
giving 32 possible
outputs. Depending on which bits are set to 1 and
which to 0 the output voltage
(out) will be a stepped value between 0
volts and (Vref minus the value of the
minimum step, Bit0). For a digital
value VAL, of a R-2R DAC of N bits of 0
V/Vref, the output voltage Vout is:
Vout = Vref × VAL / 2N
In the example shown, N = 5 and hence 2N = 32. With Vref = 3.3 V
(typical
CMOS logic 1 voltage), Vout will vary between 00000, VAL = 0
and 11111, VAL =
31.
Minimum (single step) VAL = 1, we have
Vout = 3.3 × 1 / 32 = 0.1 volts
Maximum output (11111 VAL = 31, we have
Vout = 3.3 × 31 / 25 = 3.2 volts
The R-2R ladder is inexpensive and relatively easy to manufacture
since only two
resistor values are required (or 1, if R is made by placing a
pair of 2R in parallel,
or if 2R is made by placing a pair of R in series). It is
fast and has fixed output
impedance R.

The R-2R ladder operates as a string of current dividers whose output
accuracy is solely dependent on how well each resistor is matched to the
others. Small
inaccuracies in the higher significant bit resistors can
entirely overwhelm the contribution of the less significant bits.
Q.2

Write the short notes on digital to analog conversion.

Ans

Figure 1: n-bit R-2R resistor ladder
A basic R-2R resistor ladder network is shown in Figure 1. Bit a n-1 MSB
(most
significant bit) to Bit a0 LSB (least significant bit) are driven from
digital logic
gates. Ideally, the bits are switched between 0 volts (logic
0) and Vref (logic 1).
The R-2R network causes the digital bits to be
weighted in their contribution to
the output voltage Vout. In this circuit 5
bits are shown (bits 4-0), giving (25) or 32
possible
analog
voltage
levels at the output. Depending on which bits are set to 1 and which to 0,
the output voltage (Vout) will be a corresponding stepped value
between 0
volts and ( Vref minus the value of the minimum step, Bit0). The actual value
of Vref (and 0 volts) will depend on the type of technology used to generate
the digital signals.
For a digital value VAL, of a R-2R DAC of N bits of 0 V/Vref, the output
voltage
Vout is:
Vout = Vref × VAL / 2N
In the example shown, N = 5 and hence 2N = 32. With Vref = 3.3 V
(typical CMOS
logic 1 voltage), Vout will vary between 00000, VAL = 0 and
11111, VAL = 31.
Minimum (single step) VAL = 1, we have
Vout = 3.3 × 1 / 32 = 0.1 volts
Maximum output (11111) VAL = 31, we have

Vout = 3.3 × 31 / 25 = 3.2 volts
The R-2R ladder is inexpensive and relatively easy to manufacture
since only two
resistor values are required (or 1, if R is made by placing a
pair of 2R in parallel,
or if 2R is made by placing a pair of R in series). It is
fast and has fixed output
impedance R. The R-2R ladder operates as a
string of current whose output
accuracy is solely dependent on how well
each resistor is matched to the others.
Small inaccuracies in the higher
significant bit resistors can entirely overwhelm the contribution of the less
significant bits. This may result in non-monotonic
behavior
at
major
crossings, such as from 01111 to 10000. Depending on the type of
logic
gates used and design of the logic circuits, there may be transitional
voltage spikes at such major crossings even with perfect resistor
values. These
can be filtered, with capacitance at the output node for
instance (the consequent
reduction in bandwidth may be significant in
some applications). Finally, the 2R resistance is in series with the digital
output impedance. High output impedance
gates (e.g., LVDS) may be
unsuitable in some cases. For all of the above reasons
(and
doubtless
others), this type of DAC tends to be restricted to a relatively
small
number of bits, although integrated circuits may push the number of bits to
14 or even more, 8 bits or fewer is more typical.
Q.3

Explain Successive approximation ADC with block diagram?

Ans A successive approximation ADC is a type of analog-to-digital
converter that
converts a continuous analog waveform into a discrete
digital representation via
a binary search through all possible
quantization levels before finally converging
upon a digital output for each
conversion.
Block diagram

Successive Approximation ADC Block Diagram
Key

DAC = Digital-to-Analog converter

EOC = end of conversion

SAR = successive approximation register

S/H = sample and hold circuit

Vin = input voltage

Vref = reference voltage

Q.3

Show the algorithm of Successive approximation ADC ?

Ans The successive approximation Analog to digital converter circuit
typically
consists of four chief sub circuits:
1. A sample and hold circuit to acquire the input voltage (Vin).
2. An analog voltage comparator that compares Vin to the output of
the internal DAC and outputs the result of the comparison to the
successive approximation register (SAR).
3. A successive approximation register sub circuit designed to
supply an approximate digital code of Vin to the internal DAC.
4. An internal reference DAC that, for comparison with VREF, supplies
the comparator with an analog voltage equal to the digital code
output of the SARin.
The successive approximation register is initialized so that the most
significant bit (MSB) is equal to a digital 1. This code is fed into the DAC,
which then supplies the analog equivalent of this digital code (V ref/2) into the
comparator
circuit for comparison with the sampled input voltage. If
this analog voltage
exceeds Vin the comparator causes the SAR to reset
this bit; otherwise, the bit is left a 1. Then the next bit is set to 1 and the
same test is done, continuing this binary search until every bit in the SAR
has been tested. The resulting code is the
digital approximation of the

sampled input voltage and is finally output by the
conversion (EOC).

SAR at the end of the

Mathematically, let Vin = xVref, so x in [-1, 1] is the normalized input
voltage. The
objective is to approximately digitize x to an accuracy of
n
1/2 . The algorithm
proceeds as follows:
1. Initial approximation x0 = 0.
2. ith approximation xi = xi-1 - s(xi-1 - x)/2i.

where, s(x) is the sign-function(sign(x)) (+1 for x ≥ 0, -1 for x < 0). It
follows using
mathematical induction that |xn - x| ≤ 1/2n.
As shown in the above algorithm, a SAR ADC requires:
1. An input voltage source Vin.
2. A reference voltage source V

ref

to normalize the input.

3. A DAC to convert the it approximation xi to a voltage.
4. A Comparator to perform the function s(xi - x) by comparing the
DAC's voltage with the input voltage.
5. A Register to store the output of the comparator and apply xi-1 s(xi-1 - x)/2i.

Q.4

What is Charge-redistribution successive approximation ADC ?

Ans One of the most common implementations of the successive
approximation
ADC, the charge-redistribution successive approximation

ADC, uses a charge
scaling DAC. The charge scaling DAC simply consists
of an array of individually
switched binary-weighted capacitors. The
amount of charge upon each capacitor
in the array is used to perform the
aforementioned binary search in conjunction
with a comparator internal to
the DAC and the successive approximation
register.
1. First, the capacitor array is completely discharged to the offset
voltage of the comparator, VOS. This step provides automatic
offset cancellation(i.e. The offset voltage represents nothing but
dead charge which can't be juggled by the capacitors).
2. Next, all of the capacitors within the array are switched to the
input signal, vIN. The capacitors now have a charge equal to their
respective capacitance times the input voltage minus the offset
voltage upon each of them.
3. In the third step, the capacitors are then switched so that this
charge is applied across the comparator's input, creating a
comparator input voltage equal to -vIN.
4. Finally, the actual conversion process proceeds. First, the MSB
capacitor is switched to VREF, which corresponds to the full-scale
range of the ADC. Due to the binary-weighting of the array the
MSB capacitor forms a 1:1 charge divider with the rest of the
array. Thus, the input voltage to the comparator is now -vIN plus
VREF/2. Subsequently, if vIN is greater than VREF/2 then the
comparator outputs a digital 1 as the MSB, otherwise it outputs a
digital 0 as the MSB. Each capacitor is tested in the same
manner until the comparator input voltage converges to the
offset voltage, or at least as close as possible given the
resolution of the DAC.
Q.5 Use with non-ideal analog circuits?
Ans When implemented as an analog circuit - where the value of each
successive bit
is not perfectly 2^N (e.g. 1.1, 2.12, 4.05, 8.01, etc.) - a
successive approximation
approach might not output the ideal value
because the binary search algorithm
incorrectly
removes
what
it
believes to be half of the values the unknown input cannot be. Depending
on the difference between actual and ideal performance, the
maximum
error can easily exceed several LSBs, especially as the error
between
the actual and ideal 2^N becomes large for one or more bits. Since we don't
know the actual unknown input, it is therefore very important that
accuracy of the analog circuit used to implement a SAR A

Since we know that binary count sequences follow a pattern of octave
(factor of 2) frequency division, and that J-K flip-flop multivibrators set up
for the "toggle" mode are capable of performing this type of frequency
division, we can envision
a circuit made up of several J-K flip-flops,
cascaded to produce four bits of
output. The main problem facing us is to
determine how to connect these flipflops together so that they toggle
at the right times to produce the proper binary sequence.
Examine
the
following binary count sequence, paying attention to patterns preceding the
"toggling" of a bit between 0 and 1:

UNIT-V

Q.1

What is microprocessor ?

Ans Microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the
functions of a
computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single
integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits. [2] The
microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital
data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory,
and provides results as output. It is an
example of sequential digital logic,
as it has internal memory. Microprocessors
operate on numbers and
symbols represented in the binary numeral system.
The integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip or on a few chips
greatly
reduced the cost of processing power. The integrated circuit
processor was
produced in large numbers by highly automated processes,
so unit cost was low.
Single-chip processors increase reliability as there
are many fewer electrical
connections to fail. As microprocessor designs
get faster, the cost of manufacturing a chip (with smaller components built
on a semiconductor chip
the same size) generally stays the same.
Before microprocessors, small computers had been implemented using
racks of
circuit boards with many medium- and small-scale integrated
circuits.
Microprocessors integrated this into one or a few large-scale ICs.
Continued increases in microprocessor capacity have since rendered other
forms of
computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing
hardware), with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the
smallest embedded
systems and handheld devices to the largest
mainframes and supercomputers.
Q.2) Show pin diagram of 8086 microprocessor?

1

9

1

Intel 8086 registers
(bit position)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Main registers
AH
BH
CH
DH
Index registers
0000
0000
0000
0000
Program counter
0000
Segment registers
CS
DS
ES
SS
Status register
- - - - OD I

Q.3

AL
BL
CL
DL

AX (primary accumulator)
BX (base, accumulator)
CX (counter, accumulator)
DX (accumulator, other functions)

SI
DI
BP
SP

Source Index
Destination Index
Base Pointer
Stack Pointer

IP

Instruction Pointer
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

Code Segment
Data Segment
ExtraSegment
Stack Segment

T S Z - A - P - C Flags

Explain addressing modes of 8086?

Ans In computer programming, addressing modes are primarily of interest
to
compiler writers and to those who write code directly in assembly
language.
Immediate Mode

The immediate mode is the simplest form of addressing. The operand
is part of the instruction and therefore no memory reference, other
than the instruction, is required to retrieve the operand. This fast mode
is used to define constants or set initial variable values. Immediate
mode has a limited range because it is restricted to the size of the
address field, which for most instruction sets is small compared to
word length.

Direct Mode

In direct mode, the address field contains the address of the operand.
It requires a single memory reference to read the operand from the
given location. However, direct mode provides only limited address
space.

Indirect Mode

Indirect mode address fields contain the operand's address pointer,
which in turn contains the full-length address of the operand. Unlike
direct and immediate addressing, indirect mode has a large address
space but is slower because multiple memory access is required to find
the operand.

Register Mode

Register mode is similar to direct mode. The key difference between
the two modes is that the address field of the instruction refers to a
register rather than a memory location. Register addressing does not
have an effective address -- three or four bits are used as the address
field to reference registers.

Register Indirect Mode

Similar to indirect addressing, in this mode the operand is inside a
memory cell pointed to by contents of a register. The register contains
the effective address of the operand. This mode has a large address

space, but it's limited to the width of the registers available to store
the effective address.
Displacement Mode

Displacement mode consists of three variations: relative addressing;
base register addressing; and indexing addressing. This mode can be
considered a combination of direct and register indirect addressing.
The address holds two values -- base value and a register that contains
an integer displacement that is added or subtracted from the base to
form the effective address in memory.

Stack Mode

Q.4

Stack mode, also known as implicit addressing, consists of a linear
array of locations referred to as last-in first-out queue. The operand is
on the top of the stack. The stack pointer is a register that stores the
address of top of stack location.
Distinguish between the serial port and parallel port of IBM?

Ans A serial port is a serial communication physical interface through
which
information transfers in or out one bit at a time. Throughout most
of the history
of personal computers, data was transferred through serial
ports to devices such as modems, terminals and various peripherals.
While such interfaces as Ethernet, FireWire, and USB all send data as a
serial
stream, the term "serial port" usually identifies hardware more or
less compliant
to the RS-232 standard, intended to interface with a
modem or with a similar
communication device.
Modern computers without serial ports may require serial-to-USB
converters to
allow compatibility with RS 232 serial devices. Serial ports
are still used in applications such as industrial automation systems,
scientific instruments, point of sale systems and some industrial and
consumer products. Server computers
may use a serial port as a control
console for diagnostics. Network equipment
(such
as
routers
and
switches) often use serial console for configuration. Serial ports
are
still
used in these areas as they are simple, cheap and their console functions
are highly standardized and widespread. A serial port requires very
little
supporting software from the host system. a serial port is a serial
communication physical interface through which information transfers
in or out
one bit at a time. Throughout most of the history of personal

computers, data was transferred through serial ports to devices such as
modems, terminals and
various peripherals.

A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers (personal
and otherwise) for connecting peripherals. In computing, a parallel port is a
parallel
communication physical interface. It is also known as a printer
port or Getronics
port. It was an industry de facto standard for many
years, and was finally standardized as IEEE 1284 in the late 1990s, which
defined a bi-directional version of the port. Today, the parallel port interface
is seeing decreasing use
because of the rise of Universal Serial Bus
(USB) devices, along with network printing using Ethernet.
The parallel port interface was originally known as the Parallel
Printer Adapter
on IBM PC-compatible computers. It was primarily
designed to operate a line
printer that used IBM's 8-bit extended ASCII
character set to print text, but could
also be used to adapt other
peripherals. Graphical printers, along with a host of other devices, have
been designed to communicate with the system.
Q.5

Show the architecture of the 8086 microprocessor.

Ans

8086 employ parallel processing.

8086 contain two processing unit-the bus interface unit and
execution unit.

The bus interface unit is the path that 8086 connects to external
devices.

The system bus includes an 8-bit bidirectional data bus for 8086(16
bits for the 8088), a 20-bit address bus, and the signal needed to
control transfers over the bus.

Components in BIU

Segment register

The instruction pointer

Address generation adder bus control logic instruction queue

Components in EU

Arithmetic logic unit, ALU

Status and control flags

General-purpose registers

Temporary-operand registers

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