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Original Title: Impact of Jet

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Aim: The aim of this experiment is to demonstrate the impulse momentum theorem as it applies to

the impact of a water jet on vanes with different geometrical shapes. This impulse Momentum

theorem is the underlying physics behind the operation of the Pelton wheel.

Apparatus: The experimental setup primarily consists of a Brass nozzle through which a water jet

emerges vertically in such a way that it may be conveniently observed through a MS enclosure with

glass view ports on one side for visibility. The water jet strikes the target vane positioned above it.

The force applied on the vane by the jet can be measured directly from weighing Scale provided on

the top of the enclosure to counteract as a reaction force for the impact of jet. Interchangeable circular

flat plate and a hemispherical cup are provided for the study. Arrangement is made for the movement

of the plate and cup under the action of the jet. A water pump is operated for circulating water to the

whole assembly. The water is stored in a tank kept on the ground.

Theory:

The jet of water is directed to hit the vanes of a particular shape a force is exerted on the vane by the

jet. The amount of force depends on the diameter of the jet shape and the fluid flow rate it also

depends on whether the vane is moving or stationary. In this experiment we are concerned about the

stationary vane. The force on vane is given by the following formulas:

Flat Plate, Ft = a V

Hemi Spherical, Ft =2 a V

Where,

a = Area of jet in m

= density of water = 1000 kg/ m

V = velocity of jet in m/s

Ft= Force acting parallel to the direction of jet

Impulse-Momentum theorem: The force exerted by the jet on the flat plate (Hemispherical vane) in

the direction of jet must be equal to the rate of change of momentum of the jet flow in the same

direction.

Procedure:

1. Sump tank is cleaned and filled with water. (ensure water to be free from foreign bodies)

2. Drain valves are closed and desired vane is placed.

3. Switch on the Main power supply.

4. Switch on the Water Pump and set the desired flow rate using Gate Valve.

5. Note down the reading from weighing Scale.

6. Flow rate is measured using the measuring tank and stop watch for 10 cm rise of water.

7. Set the flow rate for different combinations of readings by adjusting Gate Valve.

8. All readings are noted.

9. Vane is changed and experiment is repeated.

10. Pump and main supply of power are switched off when experiment is completed.

11. Water is drained from all tanks.

12. Compute the results using formula.

2

Result: The vane coefficient is calculated for flat vane and cup vane.

Model Calculations

Discharge: The time taken to collect some x cm of water in the collecting tank in m/sec.

Q= AxR

t

Where,

A = area of the collecting tank in m (0.3m X 0.3m)

R = rise of water level taken in meters (say 0.1m or 10cm)

t = time taken for rise of water level to rise r int seconds.

Calculate the velocity of the jet by following formula

V=

Discharge (Q)

Co.eff. Of contraction (CC) X Area of the jet (a)

= m/sec

Where,

a = cross sectional area of the jet = d /4

Cc =coefficient of contraction=0.67

d =diameter of the nozzle =10mm= 0.01m

Calculate the theoretical force by the momentum equation

Fth =aV

= Density of water =1000 kg/m

= angle made by the velocity of the jet with outlet tangent of the vane which is zero in our case.

For flat vane

For hemispherical vane

Fh =aV.

Fth =2aV.

Repeat the steps from 2 to 5 for various heads by regulating the delivery valve.

Observations:

S.No.

Fact

Newton

Time taken

for 10cm

rise of water

Velocity=

Q/Cc x A

Fth=

aVNewton

Vane coeff.

Fact/Fth

m/sec

Question Bank:

1. Define impact of jet on vanes?

2. The force exerted by the jet on the plate (stationary/moving) is obtained from which equation?

3. Give the formulae for the theoretical force exerted by jet on stationary hemispherical plate?

4. Define coefficient of impact of jet on vane?

5. How do you measure the actual force developed in this experiment?

6. On what factors does the amount of force exerted by the jet on vane depend?

7. What is the angle made by the inclined plate with the horizontal?

8. Out of the two cases, in which case is the coefficient of impact of jet higher?

9. What are the applications of impact of jet on vanes?

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