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GENERAL SPECIFICATION
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR UREA PLANT
HIGH PRESSURE SECTION

SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev.03
September 2003

Form code : MDT.GG.QUA.0505 Sh. 01/Rev. 1.94

File code: spcgnrae.dot

Data file: spc_cr_ur_510_r03_e_f.doc

THE INFORMATION HEREIN AND IN THE FOLLOWING PAGES (N35 , COVER INCLUDING) CONTAINED IS SECRET, CONFIDENTIAL AND BELONGS TO SNAMPROGETTI WHICH HAS
PROVIDED IT SOLELY FOR AN EXPRESSLY RESTRICTED PRIVATE USE. ALL PERSONS, FIRMS OR CORPORATIONS WHO RECEIVE SUCH INFORMATION FROM SNAMPROGETTI SHALL
BE DEEMED BY THEIR ACT OF RECEIVING THE SAME TO HAVE AGREED TO BE OBLIGED TO KEEP IT SECRET AND CONFIDENTIAL, TO MAKE NO DUPLICATION OR OTHER DISCLOSURE
OR USE WHATSOEVER OF ANY OR ALL SUCH INFORMATION EXCEPT SUCH RESTRICTED USE AS IS EXPRESSLY AUTHORIZED IN WRITING BY SNAMPROGETTI AND SOLELY FOR THE
SCOPE AGREED THEREIN. IN CASE OF UNDUE DISCLOSURE AND/ OR ANY FAILURE TO OBSERVE THE ABOVE PROVISIONS, THE DEFAULTING PARTY SHALL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY
AND ALL DAMAGES, WITHOUT LIMITATIONS.

SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003
Sheet 2 (24)

CONTENTS
1

GENERAL

1.1

Scope and field of application

1.2

Definitions

1.3

Abbreviations

1.4

Referenced Codes (always latest revision)

MATERIALS

2.1

General

2.2

316L UG stainless steel (UNS S31603)

2.3

25Cr-22Ni-2Mo alloy (UNS S31050)

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

3.1

Chemical analysis

3.2

Mechanical properties

TESTING AND CERTIFICATION OF MATERIAL

4.1

General criteria for sampling

4.2

Test samples and specimens

4.3

Microstructure examination

11

4.4

Corrosion test procedure

12

4.5

Flaw assessment test

14

Note 1: It is the sum of all defects found on 7 tube welds at all levels

14

4.6

15

Certification

WELDING

16

ADDITIONAL TESTS ON MATERIALS

23

6.1

Workshop check of ferrite

23

6.2

Non Destructive Examinations

23

TESTS ON PRODUCTION WELDS AND CONSUMABLES

24

7.1

General

24

7.2

Tube to tubesheet weld production mock up

24

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003
Sheet 3 (24)

ATTACHMENT 1

ATTACHMENT 2

ATTACHMENT 3

ATTACHMENT 4

ATTACHMENT 5

ATTACHMENT 6

ATTACHMENT 7

ATTACHMENT 8

ATTACHMENT 9

ATTACHMENT 10

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003
Sheet 4 (24)

GENERAL

1.1

Scope and field of application

1.1.1

This specification covers the requirements for austenitic stainless steel materials and relevant
welds in contact with the process fluid in the high pressure section of urea plants. These
requirements shall be considered in addition to the ones of the codes and standards applicable
to the product in question (equipment, piping components, plates, materials, testing, etc.). In
case of conflict with any of the above standards, this document prevails.

1.1.2

This specification takes into consideration both the 316L UG stainless steel (UNS S31603) and
the 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo type stainless alloy (UNS S31050).

1.2

Definitions

1.3

Owner:

The company that has placed the order to suppliers as permitted under
the license granted by Snamprogetti.

Supplier:

Before placing the order it means each of the potential supplier(s)


contacted; after placing the order, it means the selected supplier(s).

Snamprogetti:

Snamprogetti S.p.A., the licensor of the urea process.

316L UG:

urea grade modified 316L type austenitic stainless steel that shall meet
all the requirements of the AISI 316L (UNS S31603) material specification
and all the additional requirements mentioned in this specification.

sample

the piece of semifinished/ finished product (tube, plate, W.O., etc.) from
which the specimens to be tested are taken out

specimen

a piece of material obtained from the sample and actually subjected to the
destructive tests described below (corrosion test, metallography, etc.).

Abbreviations
AISI
ASME
ASTM
AWS
DIN
IIW
UG
UNS
W.O.

American Iron and Steel Institute


The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Testing and Material
American Welding Society
Deutsches Institut fur Nrmung
International Institute of Welding
Urea Grade alloy
Unified Numbering System
Weld Overlay Deposit

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003
Sheet 5 (24)

1.4

Referenced Codes (always latest revision)


ASME Sect. VIII

Boiler and pressure vessel code - Pressure Vessel

ASME Sect. IX

Boiler and pressure vessel code qualifications

ASME Sect.V

Non Destructive Examination

ASME Sect. II Parts A & D

Materials

ASME Sect. II Part C

Specification for welding rods, electrodes and filler metals

EN 10204

Metallic materials Types of inspection documents

ASTM A262

Standard Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular


Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels

ASTM E562

Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by


Systematic Manual Point Count

AD MERKBLATTER

Complete Technical Rules for Pressure Vessels (English Edition)

Welding and brazing

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003
Sheet 6 (24)

MATERIALS

2.1

General

2.1.1

The list of suppliers and subvendors of plates, forgings, bars, piping and tubes for High
Pressure Urea equipment and piping to be operated in contact with the urea process fluid shall
be submitted to Snamprogetti for acceptance. For filler materials the provisions of chapter 5
shall be applied.

2.1.2

All semifinished products shall be supplied in the solution annealed condition. No heating over
400 C shall be allowed during machining or any other manufacturing activity, except welding.
If heating above 400 C cannot be avoided, a new solution annealing heat treatment shall then
be performed and new samples shall be taken and tested as described in chapter 4.

2.1.3

If, after solution annealing heat treatment, forgings or bars are submitted to machining and
more than 5 mm depth is removed from the side in contact with the process fluid, then a new
solution annealing heat treatment is required except for the 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo alloy provided that
the samples taken after machining satisfy the test requirements as per chapter 4.

2.1.4

All tubes and pipes shall be seamless type. Welded fittings are allowed provided that the
requirements of chapter 5 are met.

2.1.5

Cast parts and rod bars are not permitted unless approved by Snamprogetti.

2.1.6

When 316L UG material is required, the use of 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo material is allowed as an


alternative.

2.2

316L UG stainless steel (UNS S31603)

2.2.1

Stainless steel 316L UG type shall be in accordance with the ASME-(SA) specifications
applicable to the relevant semifinished products; it shall also meet the additional requirements
detailed in chapters 3 and 4.

2.3

25Cr-22Ni-2Mo alloy (UNS S31050)

2.3.1

Stainless steel 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo type shall be in accordance with the ASME-(SA) specifications
applicable to the relevant semifinished products; it shall also meet the additional requirements
detailed in chapters 3 and 4.

Form code : MDT.GG.QUA.0515 Sh. 01/Rev. 1.94


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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003
Sheet 7 (24)

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

3.1

Chemical analysis
In the following paragraphs the chemical or additional chemical requirements for 316 UG
stainless steel and 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo alloy are reported. Any deviation from these requirements
shall be subject to Snamprogettis acceptance.

3.1.1

316L UG stainless steel


The 316L UG stainless steel base material shall have the following additional chemical
requirements:
C = 0.020 % max.
P = 0.015 % max.
S = 0.010 % max.
Ni > 13 %
N = 0.10 % max.
The carbon content restriction above does not apply to forgings provided no welding is
performed after the solution annealing heat treatment, not even for installation purposes.

3.1.2

25Cr-22Ni-2Mo stainless steel


The 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo stainless steel base material shall have the following chemical
composition:
Cr = 24 26 %
Ni = 21 23.5 %
Mo = 2 2.6 %
Mn = 1.5 2.0 %
N = 0.10 0.15 %

3.1.3

C = 0.020 % max.
P = 0.020 % max.
S = 0.010 % max.
Si = 0.40 % max.
B = 0.0015 % max.

W.O. deposit shall meet the following requirements for a depth of at least 3 mm (see
Attachment 8) from the as welded or machined surface:
Material type 316L UG:
C = 0.030 % max. (SAW-ESW-GTAW)
C = 0.040 % max. (SMAW)
Cr = 16.5 % min.
Ni = 15 % min.
Mo = 2.2 % min.

Form code : MDT.GG.QUA.0515 Sh. 01/Rev. 1.94


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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003
Sheet 8 (24)

Material type 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo:


C = 0.030 % max. (SAW-ESW-GTAW)
C = 0.040 % max. (SMAW)
Cr = 24 % min.
Ni = 21 % min.
Mo = 1.9 % min.
and

Creq
Ni eq

%Cr + % Mo + 1,5% Si
1,20
% Ni + 30%C + 0,5% Mn

3.1.4

Chemical analysis at depth of 1 mm and 2 mm (see Attachment 8) shall also be performed


and reported for information.

3.2

Mechanical properties
The mechanical properties of 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo stainless steel, at room temperature, shall be as
follows:
Tensile strength

580 N/mm min.

Yield strength (0,2% offset)

270 N/mm min.

Elongation (l=5d)

30% min.

3.2.1

Short Time Tensile Test shall be performed/ certified at the design temperature (indicated on the
Snamprogetti process data sheet) for each heat of Urea Stripper heat exchanger tubes.

3.2.2

If the design is carried out in accordance with ASME code BPVC section VIII, for forgings the
code itself shall be applicable with reference to CODE CASE 2038.

3.2.3

For other requirements the relevant material/ product SA (ASME) specification shall be applied.

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003
Sheet 9 (24)

TESTING AND CERTIFICATION OF MATERIAL

4.1

General criteria for sampling

Product

Sampling for corrosion test

Sampling for metallographic examination

PLATES

One sample for each heat


One sample from each lot of no more
than 50 pieces of each heat and
(1)
same heat treatment

One sample for each plate


One sample from each lot of no more
than 50 pieces of each heat and
(1)
same heat treatment
One sample from each lot even if of more
than 50 pieces of each heat and
(1)
same heat treatment for bolts, nuts, and
forgings of small size (Dia. 219,1 mm).
One sample from each lot of 200 pieces
(1)
of each heat and same heat treatment

PIPING, FORGING

BOLTS, NUTS,
One sample for each heat
SMALL-SIZE FORGING
EXCHANGER TUBES

One sample for each heat

NOTE (1): definition of same heat treatment:


- If final heat treatment is in a batch-type furnace = in the same furnace charge
- If final heat treatment is in a continuos furnace = in the same furnace at the same
temperature, time at heat, and furnace speed.

4.2

Test samples and specimens

4.2.1

Samples for corrosion tests and microstructural examination shall be taken as per the above
table (base material) and from each weld test during the welding procedure qualification.
Overheating shall be avoided when cutting the specimens (thermal-cutting is not allowed).
Each sample shall be marked, by stamping, with proper identification traceability number.

4.2.2

The area of each sample shall be of 180 cm as a minimum (if not otherwise specified in this
document) and shall permit to take out with sufficient allowance the following specimens:

1 for check (chemical) analysis


1 for corrosion test (see para. 4.4)
1 for corrosion re-testing (if required)
3 for microstructure examination (see para. 4.3)
1 for metallography re-testing (if required)
4.2.3

Each specimen shall include the side that will be in contact with the process fluid if known
(consequently liner plates shall then be installed by exposing to the process fluid the side that
has been actually tested with positive results). Specimens for the corrosion test shall have an
2
area of approximately 30 32 cm , weight of 40 g minimum (100 g maximum) and, when
feasible, an approximately rectangular shape with dimensions of about 50 x 25 x 5 mm.

4.2.4

In the case of plates with thickness over 7 mm, the specimen shall be reduced to 5 mm by
machining material in excess on the opposite side from that (those) in contact with the process
fluid (avoiding overheating).

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 10 (24)

4.2.5

In the case of tubes with outside diameter less than 30 mm, the sample shall have a cylindrical
shape. In the case of tubes or pipes with outside diameter 30 mm, the sample shall be taken
with length "a" approximately equal to arc "b" (see Attachment 5).

4.2.6

If the pipe or tube thickness is over 7 mm, the specimen thickness shall be reduced to 5 mm
by machining material in excess on the opposite side from that (those) in contact with the
process fluid (avoiding overheating).

4.2.7

In the case of forgings or bars, if it is not possible to take a sample with the surface to be in
contact with the process fluid, the sample shall be taken from the core of the forging bar. Test
specimens shall be taken from the forging extension or by a representative specimen with the
same heat and heat treatment having maximum treated thickness size of those forgings.

4.2.8

In the case of special pieces (valves, thermocouples, fittings, instrument separators, etc.) the
supplier shall submit to Snamprogetti for acceptance an overall drawing showing the location
of the sample(s).

4.2.9

In the case of welding procedure qualification tests for SAW/ ESW/ SMAW weld overlay (see
Attachment 1) three samples shall be taken:
-

4.2.10

sample S1 (Attachment 2) which shall include at least 2 bead overlap of adjacent beads
sample S2 (Attachment 3) which shall include stop and restart point of a bead
sample S3 (Attachment 4) which shall include beads deposited by manual welding with
SMAW and/ or GTAW on the automatic overlay, simulating repair if any.

The specimens obtained from each of the above samples shall be used as follows:
-

specimen(s) labeled A are to be used for metallographic analysis (one is for re-testing if
required)
specimen(s) labeled B are to be used for corrosion test
specimen labeled B1 is to be used for corrosion re-testing if required
specimen labeled C is to be used for macrographic examination
specimen labeled D is for chemical check analysis.

4.2.11

In the case of welding procedure qualification tests for additional automatic GTAW weld
overlay on liner plates or SAW/ ESW/ SMAW weld overlay, a sample of S1 type including at
least 2 bead overlap of adjacent beads (see Attachment 2) shall be taken out.

4.2.12

In the case of welding procedure qualification test for butt joints, the sample shall be as wide
as the face of weld in contact with the process fluid plus 12 mm (6 mm each side) and 5 mm
thick (see Attachment 6).

4.2.13

In the case of procedure qualification tests for welds between tube and tube-sheet, no. 2
mock-up shall be prepared. From the first one the specimens for corrosion test and
metallographic examination shall be obtained and they shall include 3 tubes in central position.
One central tube shall be used for the corrosion test, one shall be used for the metallographic
examination, one is for re-testing, if required (see Attachment 7 for details). The second mock-

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 11 (24)

up shall be prepared following Attachment 9 and it will be subject only to the flaw assessment
test as detailed in para 4.5.
4.2.14

The metallographic examination of the first mock-up shall be performed on the central tube
assembly previously longitudinally sectioned following 4 perpendicular directions starting from
the second weld pass stop as follows:
a) on 4 of the 8 surfaces obtained from the sectioning a macrographic examination shall be
performed in order to determine the extension of weld fusion (which shall not exceed at any
point 75 % of wall tube thickness), weld throat thickness (minimum weld throats of all sections
shall be not less than the specified tube wall thickness) and penetration.
b) the 4 remaining surfaces shall be used for the microstructural examination (one surface for
each of the 3 required etchings plus one for re-testing if required).

4.2.15

The surface to be in contact with the process fluid and the opposite one if not machined shall
remain in the "as received" condition.

4.2.16

The specimens shall not be subjected to any heat treatment before the test.

4.2.17

The remaining part of each sample after taking out the specimens, with the identification
number, shall be made available for five years (ex work delivery) at Suppliers care for further
Samprogetti investigation.

4.2.18

All tests described below (macrographic and micrographic examination, corrosion test, flaw
assessment, etc.) shall be performed and certified by a laboratory approved by Snamprogetti.
Laboratory shall officially inform Snamprogetti about any inconvenience (e.g. deviations from
the material requirements etc.) encountered during the tests as well as in case of re-testing.

4.3

Microstructure examination

4.3.1

The material (base, welds and weld overlay) used in contact with the process fluid shall be
subject to metallographic analysis following the methods detailed below. 3 (three)
metallographic specimens, each for any required etching, shall be obtained from each of the
sample(s) as detailed in para. 4.2.2 and 4.2.10. A fourth specimen shall be retained for retesting (if required). The re-use of the same metallographic specimen for two or more different
etchings is not allowed.

4.3.2

The metallography shall be considered preliminary to the corrosion test.

4.3.3

Presence of ferrite shall be evaluated by means of a ferritometer on each of the 3 specimens


before etching. Ferrite content shall not be greater than 0.6 % in all specimens except for
SMAW welds for which 1% is allowed.

4.3.4

The material microstructure shall be determined following ASTM A262 Practice A. Only a fully
austenitic step structure as defined in the above standard shall be considered acceptable. The
presence of any structure other than the step structure (e.g. ditch structure, interdendritic
ditches, end-grain pitting type I or II) is not allowed.

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 12 (24)

4.3.5

Presence of sigma phase shall be checked at 100x and 500x after electrolitic etching with
2
NaOH 10N at 3 V and 0.5 to 1 A/cm for 2 to 5 sec. Sigma phase shall be absent.

4.3.6

An etching with oxalic acid (10%, 6 V DC, 0.5 1 A/cm , 15 sec.) shall be performed and the
specimen shall be examined at 100x and 500x. Presence of any intergranular or intragranular
compounds or phases other than the austenitic phase is not allowed whatever their
composition might be and irrespective of their quantity, with the exception of the ferrite phase
within the limits stated in para. 4.3.3.

4.3.7

The material not in compliance with the above requirements shall be rejected.

4.4

Corrosion test procedure

4.4.1

The corrosion test, Huey type, shall be performed on the sample material that already resulted
acceptable after the microstructure examination detailed in para 4.3.

4.4.2

AISI 316L UG specimens shall be subjected to 5 test periods and the acid shall be renewed
each time. Each period shall last 48 hours actual boiling. 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo alloy shall be
subjected to 10 test periods at the same conditions as above.

4.4.3

The corrosion test shall shall follow the ASTM A262 Practice C with the following additions:

4.4.4

Only one specimen shall be tested in each flask.

4.4.5

A finger type refrigerator shall be used and it is necessary to check, by litmus paper, that no
acid vapours are released during testing.

4.4.6

The ratio of the solution volume to the sample area shall be 20 ml/cm as a minimum.

4.4.7

The flasks for Huey test shall be used only for this purpose.

4.4.8

The flask, refrigerator and specimen shall be carefully rinsed after each test cycle to remove all
the corrosion products (by means of a nonmetallic brush).

4.4.9

Before corrosion testing, the specimens shall be first degreased in acetone (chlorinated agents
are not allowed), pickled in boiling nitric acid (65%) for thirty minutes, and then rinsed; the
corrosion products shall be removed by nonmetallic brush.

4.4.10

After each test cycle and after rinsing, the specimens shall be dipped in acetone, dried by hot
air, and weighed (when cold).

4.4.11

The time between two cycles shall be as short as possible.

4.4.12

Besides the determination of the corrosion rate (for each cycle and for the overall periods)
obtained by weighting, it is also required to determine the maximum depth of attack by
examining under a microscope the edges of a specimen section (for details see note 5 of table
in para. 4.4.13)

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 13 (24)

4.4.13

The following table shows both the maximum corrosion rate and depht of attack allowed in
each test cycle and for the average of the results of all cycles, calculated according to ASTM
A262 Practice C:

Semifinished
product

Type of
material

Corrosion
rate
(mm/month)

Depth of
attack
(micron)

Plates, sheets,
bars,
tubes, pipes,
forgings

316L UG

0.025 (1) (2)

90 (4) (5)

25Cr-22Ni-2Mo

0.015 (1) (2)

70 (4) (5)

316L UG

0.025 (1) (3) (4)

90 (3) (4) (5)

25Cr-22Ni-2Mo

0.015 (1) (3) (4)

70 (3) (4) (5)

Welds and
W.O. surfacing

NOTES

General: the above limits are valid for each test cycle and for the average
of the results of all cycles.
(1) If the corrosion rate exceeds the rate specified in the table or if the
corrosion rate in cycle 5 (cycle 10 for 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo alloy) exceeds
the one in cycle 4 (cycle 9 for 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo alloy) by more than 50%,
a second specimen taken from the same sample under examination
shall be re-tested with the same procedure. Only the result of re-testing
shall be taken into consideration. Further re-testings are not allowed.
(2) No deviations allowed.
(3) The heat affected zone and the bead overlap zone (for W.O.) shall also
be examined.
(4) Any deviation shall be subject to Snamprogettis acceptance.
(5) Depht of attack shall be determined after completion of the corrosion
test by taking a metallographic sample from the most corroded area, if
visible. The value shall be reffered to the deepest attack observed on
both the transverse and the longitudinal directions of the specimen.

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 14 (24)

4.5

Flaw assessment test

4.5.1

Samples to be tested shall be prepared in accordance with Attachment 9 (Procedure


Qualification Record) and Attachment 10 (production mock-up).

4.5.2

The tube protusion shall be machined down until the contact between tube face and the upper
weld toe. This surface shall be recorded as starting test level. The examination shall proceed
on repeated plane at 1 mm distance from each other till the tube gets lose.

4.5.3

Each level shall be prepared for etching and examined under a binocular microscope with
magnification from x15 to x25.

4.5.4

The following table gives the number and extension of the allowable defects:

Defect type
Cracks (2)
Pores
Wormholes
Slag inclusions
Fusion defects
Crater cracks
Burn through

Max. allowed number of


defects (1)
0
5
0
2
2
0
0

Max. dimensions allowed


0.6
0.6
2
-

Note 1: It is the sum of all defects found on 7 tube welds at all levels
Note 2: Any deviation shall be subject to Snamprogettis acceptance
4.5.5

The weld fusion depht shall have a regular profile and its extension shall never exceed the 75
% of the wall tube thickness at any point

4.5.6

No more than 1 defect per tube and per level is allowed. Any deviation shall be subject to
Snamprogettis acceptance.

4.5.7

Defects extended on different levels are not allowed.

4.5.8

A photograph shall be taken on each surface (scale 1:1) showing defects location, type and
extension.

4.5.9

Certification of the flaw assessment test shall be in accordance with para. 4.6.

Form code : MDT.GG.QUA.0515 Sh. 01/Rev. 1.94


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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 15 (24)

4.6

Certification

4.6.1

The laboratory shall certify that the test results are in compliance or not in compliance with the
requirements of the present specification. The certification shall be made available to
Snamprogetti as soon as the certificate is issued. Certification shall include the following:

4.6.2

A photograph(s) showing the samples as received; the identification stamping on the


sample(s) shall be clearly visibile and readable.

4.6.3

The photomicrographs showing the materials microstructure after each etching. The photos
shall be of high quality and fully readable (e.g. laser prints on photographic quality paper, prints
from photo negatives etc.). B/W or color photocopies are not acceptable.

4.6.4

The etching details, the magnifications employed and a short but comprehensive comment by
a metallurgy specialist shall be reported in each caption. The result of the ferrite check on each
specimen shall also be reported.

4.6.5

The corrosion rates after each testing cycle and the average corrosion rate values shall be
reported.

4.6.6

As an option the testing certificate can be supplied in electronic (PDF) format provided the
above requirements are fully met.

4.6.7

Snamprogetti reserves the right to require to the Supplier (or the Owner) further testing or
investigation whenever Snamprogettis acceptance is required or the laboratory results are
controversial.

Form code : MDT.GG.QUA.0515 Sh. 01/Rev. 1.94


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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 16 (24)

WELDING

5.1

Weldings and weld overlays shall be performed with special filler materials, low ferrite type,
approved by Snamprogetti. The approved filler materials for both 316L UG and 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo
alloys are listed below. Different filler materials or wire/stripflux combination shall not be used
unless approved by Snamprogetti.

316L UG

CLASS 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo
Electrodes

(Avesta) P6
(Thyssen) Thermanit 19/15 H
(Kobe Steel) NC 316 MF
(ESAB) 316 KCR
(Siderotermica) CITOXID B 316 LM

(VEW) FOX EASN 25 M


(Thyssen) Thermanit 25 / 22 H
(Soudometal) Soudinox LF
(Kobe Steel) NC 310 MF
(Esab) FILARC BM 310 Mo L
Wires

(Thyssen) Thermanit 19/15 H


(Kobe Steel) no. 4051
(Siderotermica) Siderfil 316 LM

(Thyssen) Thermanit 25/22 H


(Kobe Steel) TGS 310 MF
(Sandvik) 25-22-2 L Mn
(VEW) FOX EASN 25 MIG
Strips

(Sandvik) 20-16-3 L Mn with


(Soudometal) 12 b 316 LFT 2 flux
(Thyssen) 21.17.E with (Soudometal)
Rekord 13 BLFT flux

(Sandvik) 25-22-2 L Mn with


(Soudometal) Rekord 13 BLFT flux or
with (Sandvik) 31S flux
(Sandvik) 25-22-2 L Mn with
(Sandvik) 37 S flux (electroslag)
(Thyssen) 25-22 H with (Soudometal)
EST 122 flux (electroslag)

General note: the materials of class 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo can be used for welding of materials of
class 316L UG.

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

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Sheet 17 (24)

5.2

WPS/PQR applicable codes and additional required tests are summarized in the following
table:
Weld Overlay
Specimen

Applicable code (1)

Corrosion test
Chemical analysis
Microstructure
examination

B
D

Macroexamination

Flaw test

Sample S1

Sample
S2

Sample
S3

ASME IX
YES (para. 4.4)

ASME IX

ASME VIII Div. 2


Art. F3

YES (para. 4.4)

YES (para. 4.4)

NO

NO

YES (para. 4.3)

YES (para. 4.3)

YES (para. 4.3)

YES (3)

YES (para. 4.2.13)

NO

YES (para. 4.5)

YES (2)

NO

NO

Tube to
tubesheet
joints

YES (para. 3.1.3 and 3.1.4)

NO

Butt joints

NO

NO

NOTES: (1) Unless otherwise specified in the design code indicated in the purchase order.
(2)

For W.O. the macroexamination shall be performed only on sample S1. The purpose of
macroetching is to identify the sequence of the weld beads overlay and the location of the
heat affected region of each weld pass, due to the re-heating during the application of the
subsequent pass. Specimen B shall be taken out by the laboratory across the centerline
of the above mentioned area (see Attachment 2).

(3) Macroexamination to be performed to check weld structure, presence of slag porosity and
cracks in weld and heat affected zone.

5.3

PQR shall include the certification detailed in para. 4.6.

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

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Sheet 18 (24)

5.4

In addition to the provisions of the applicable codes the validity of the PQR is five years from
issue date and the following essential variables, if modified from what qualified during the
Procedure Qualification Record as indicated in the following tables, require the welding
qualification tests to be repeated:

PRESSURE/ NOT PRESSURE RETAINING WELDS


BUTT AND FILLET WELD
ACCEPTED WELDING PROCESSES
VARIABLES
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Heat input

Heat input or volume of the weld metal increased more than 10%

Interpass

An increase of interpass temperature

Welding position

A change in the welding position (a PQR done in 3G-5G-6G-vertical-uphill


progression qualify all other position except vertical-down progression)

Filler metal size

A change in filler metal size

Filler metals

A change in the type, manufacturer of filler metal and/or trade name

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

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Sheet 19 (24)
CORROSION RESISTANT WELD OVERLAY
ACCEPTED WELDING PROCESS
VARIABLES

Submerged Arc
Welding

Base Metal

Electroslag
welding

Gas
Tungsten Arc
Welding

A change in the P or Gr number


A change of 30 % in the base metal thickness

Base Metal thickness


current

A change of 10%

A change of
5%

A change of
10%

Current
density
2
(A/mm ) (strip welding)

A change of 10%

A change of
5%

Not required

Welding
intensity

Shielded metal arc


welding

Not required

Arc voltage

A change of 10%

Not required

Welding speed

A change of 5%

Not Required

An increase of heat input more than what qualified

Heat input or volume


of the weld metal
increase more than
5%

Heat input

Stick-out

Preheat and interpass

A change 2.5% of the strip/wire stickout with respect to PQR

A
change
2.5% of the
strip/wire
stick-out with
respect
to
PQR
(for
machine/
automatic
process)

Not applicable

A change in the preheat25C (first layer) and/or an increase of interpass temperature


(all layers)

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

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Sheet 20 (24)

CORROSION RESISTANT WELD OVERLAY


ACCEPTED WELDING PROCESS
VARIABLES

PWHT (on first layer)

Submerged Arc
Welding

Electroslag
welding

Gas Tungsten
Arc Welding

Shielded metal
arc welding

A change in the temperature (15C)

Bead overlap

A change +20%/ -0% of the overlap of


adjacent beads with respect to that
measured on PQR (applicable to first
and last layers)

A change +20%/ 0% of the overlap


of adjacent beads
with respect to that
measured on PQR
(applicable to first
and last layers (for
machine/
automatic process)

N/A

Bead width

A change +20%/ -0% of the bead width


with respect to that measured on PQR
(applicable to first and last layers)

A change +20%/ 0% of the bead


width with respect
to that measured
on PQR
(applicable to first
and last layers (for
machine/
automatic process)

N/A

Welding position

A change in the welding position

Filler metal size and/


or thickness

A change in filler metal size and/or thickness

Layer thickness (to be


specified in WPS/
PQR)

An increase in layer thickness (applicable to each layer)

Number of weld layers

A decrease in the number of weld layers with respect to PQR

Filler metals
Flux

A change in the type, manufacturer and/or trade name


A change in the type, manufacturer
and/or trade name

Not applicable

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 21 (24)

TUBE TO TUBESHEET WELDING


ACCEPTED WELDING PROCESS
VARIABLES
Orbital Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Manufacturer, type/ model
of welding machine

A change of manufacturer, type/model of welding machine to another.

Welding
program
(supplementary document
to be attached to the
WPS)

A change in any data included in the supplementary document specifying all


applicable equipment settings (pre-gas/post-gas/welding parameter for each
sector/etc.) to assure a consistent performance.

Base Metal: Tubesheet


(solid, W.O. or clad), Tube
(internal or external)

A change in the base metal type, grade or product form

Tubesheet (solid pressure


containment parts)

A change of 30% in the tubesheet (solid pressure containment parts) metal


thickness

Tubesheet (W.O., clad)

A decrease in the layer number and/or increase of layer thickness.

Shielding/Backing(inside
tube gas)/Trailing gas

A change/deletion in the gas composition and flow rate used

Tubes
Tube holes
Clearance between tubes
and tube holes
Positioning system
Non fusible electrodes

A change in the manufacturer, wall thickness or diameter


A change in the pitch
The clearance between the outside surface of the tubes and the inside surfaces of
the tube holes shall not exceed clearance used in the welding qualification tests
A change in the positioning/centering system of the weld head on the tube sheet
A change in the type, size, tips shape/angle, protrusion from the torch

Welding position

A change in the welding position

Filler metal size

A change in filler metal size

Tubes protrusion

A change in the tube protrusion form tubesheet

Filler metals
Interpass

A change in the type, manufacturer and/or trade name


An increase of interpass temperature

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 22 (24)

5.5

The root pass on pipe butt joints shall be carried out by argon gas welding and with backing gas
inside the pipe.

5.6

Weld overlays shall be performed with at least two layers in the case of automatic process,
(except strip weld overlay on liner plates) and at least three layers in the case of manual welding:
in any case, at least two layers shall be performed with low ferrite filler in compliance with para.
5.1.

5.7

Stress relieving heat treatment shall be carried out after first barrier layer before to start with the
further corrosion resistant layer.

5.8

The weld face in contact with the process fluid shall be adequately smooth, free from undercuts or
defects.

5.9

No grinding will be allowed, except on tube sheets or for removing local defects or discontinuities.

5.10

Care shall be taken during fabrication to avoid iron contamination of the austenitic surfaces by
tools (grinding wheels, brushes, clamps, etc.).

5.11

The grinding wheels must not have been previously used on ferritic steels and the brushes must
have austenitic stainless steel wires.

5.12

Weld overlay deposit on 25Cr-22Ni-2Mo liner plates shall be performed by providing a forced
back water cooling circulation system during weld operations in order to keep interpass
temperatures lower than 50C. Automatic interpass temperature control shall be adopted.

5.13

Electrodes for manual welding or weld overlay shall have a diameter not greater than 4 mm
(preferably 3.25 mm max.) and, where possible, shall be used with stringer bead technique.

5.14

All the welds of internal parts to the lining shall be performed by full-penetration welding
procedure.

Form code : MDT.GG.QUA.0515 Sh. 01/Rev. 1.94


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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 23 (24)

ADDITIONAL TESTS ON MATERIALS

6.1

Workshop check of ferrite


In addition to the requirements of para 4.3.3 the ferrite content shall also be checked in the
workshop by magnetic permeability measurement by means of appropriate portable equipment
previously calibrated and certified per AWS A4.2. An annual calibration certification shall be
available to the Snamprogetti inspector. Prior to use in production, instrument calibration shall
be verified with IIW secondary weld metal standards (0 - 15 % ferrite range).
This check shall be carried out on each plate or forging and on at least one every 50 pipes or
tubes from the same heat and heat treatment and on one bolt and one nut for every lot and
every size from the same heat and heat treatment (for definition of same heat treatment see
Note 1 in para. 4.1).

6.2

Non Destructive Examinations

6.2.1

The tubes for heat exchangers shall be 100% tested with ultrasonics and eddy currents in
accordance with ASTM A 450.

6.2.2

For eddy current test the calibration tube shall contain all the following discontinuities to
establish the minimum degree of sensitivity for rejection of tubes:

6.2.3

a longitudinal notch on a radial plane parallel to the tube axis on the outside surface,
having a length of 6.35 mm, maximum width 0.8 mm, and depth 10% of the tube
thickness but not less than 0.1 mm.

a circumferential notch on a transverse plane to the longitudinal axis of the tube, having a
depth of 10% of the tube thickness but not less than 0.1 mm.

Three or more through holes, equally spaced circumferentially around the tube and
longitudinally separated by a sufficient distance to allow distinct identification of the signal
from each hole. The diameter of hole shall not be larger than 0.8 mm.

For ultrasonic examination, the calibration tube shall contain all the following discontinuities to
establish the minimum degree of sensitivity for rejection of tubes:
-

a longitudinal notch on a radial plane parallel to the tube centre line, having a depth 5% of
the tube thickness but not less than 0.1 mm; on both the outside and inside surface

a transverse notch, tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal centre line
of the tube, having a depth 5% of the tube thickness but not less than 0.1 mm., on both
the outside and inside surface

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 24 (24)

TESTS ON PRODUCTION WELDS AND CONSUMABLES

7.1

General

7.1.1

Welding consumables (electrodes, wires, rods, strips and fluxes) shall be certified for the
different heats/lots according to EN 10204 type 3.1.B. Snamprogetti and the owner reserves
the right to request a chemical check analysis on production welds.

7.1.2

Butt welds shall be fully radiographed (if physically feasible).

7.1.3

All welds and weld overlay deposit top layer shall be examined by dye penetrants, if possible
on the side in contact with the process fluid or, if this is impracticable, on the outside.

7.1.4

After final machining (if any) the last tubesheet W.O. layer deposited shall have a minimum
thickness of 3 mm. Along this thickness the chemical composition shall be in compliance with
the requirements of para. 3.1.3. Supplier shall maintain full traceability of fulfiment of this
requirement. Traceability data sheet shall be submitted to Snamprogetti inspector for review.

7.1.5

If the above requirement cannot be warranted by the supplier an additional weld overlay layer,
other than that qualified on PQR, shall be deposited.

7.1.6

After machining of tubesheet weld overlay and before drilling operations a chemical sample
shall be taken as per Attachment 8.

7.1.7

All the welds of internal parts to the lining shall be examined by dye penetrants after each
welding pass.

7.2

Tube to tubesheet weld production mock up

7.2.1

Supplier shall provide no. 3 representatives production mock-up to verify the tube to tubesheet
weld as per Attachment 9 and 10.

7.2.2

Mock-up shall be realised applying the same production tube sheet configuration, materials
and welding parameters except for the carbon steel plate material on which the thickness
should be reduced to a value equal at least the 30% of the original.

7.2.3

The frequency welding cycle verification shall be as follows:


a) No. 1 mock-up before starting any production welds
b) No. 1 mock-up around middle production
c) No. 1 mock-up before completion of the last 100 welds

7.2.4

On the mock-up 7.2.3 (a) an additional impediment shall be located in order to simulate the
peripheral tubesheet configuration (see Attachment 10).

7.2.5

Each tube samples shall have a minimum lenght of 100 mm.

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

Date

Sep. 2003

Sheet 25 (24)

7.2.6

Each tube weld sample shall be examined as per para 4.5.

Revision memorandum
Novembre 1984
August 1993
September 1995

September 2003

Issue
Rev. 01.
Rev. 02.
Modified para 2.3.2 specifying the yeld strenght at 0,2% offset. Updated the list of approved filler
materials of table 3.5.1.a . Conversion in Word of the whole document.
Rev. 03.
General revision

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SPC.CR.UR.510
Rev. 03

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Sheet 1 (1)

ATTACHMENT 1

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ATTACHMENT 2

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ATTACHMENT 3

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Rev. 03

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ATTACHMENT 4

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Rev. 03

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ATTACHMENT 5

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ATTACHMENT 6

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Rev. 03

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ATTACHMENT 7

The arrows indicate the sectioning planes

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ATTACHMENT 8

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Rev. 03

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ATTACHMENT 9

Tubes To Tube Sheet Welds Qualification Procedure Test

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ATTACHMENT 10

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