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SEV454- Advanced Structural Design Project 2

Project Title: Shear wall and footing design

Department of Civil Engineering


Student Name: Busiku Silenga
Student ID: 210037589
Supervisor Name: Dr Riyadh Al-Ameri
Submission Date: 28th May 2014

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Contents
Chapter 1 Group Work ............................................................................................................................ 4
1.0 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 4
2.0 - SCOPE .......................................................................................................................................... 4
3.0 DESIGN CONCEPT ....................................................................................................................... 5
4.0 ASSUMPTIONS............................................................................................................................ 7
5.0 MATERIAL PROPERTIES .............................................................................................................. 8
5.1 Shear walls ................................................................................................................................ 8
5.1.1 General requirements ............................................................................................................ 8
5.1.2 Hardened Concrete ............................................................................................................. 8
5.1.3 Reinforced steel .................................................................................................................. 9
5.2 Foundation ................................................................................................................................ 9
5.2.1 General requirements ............................................................................................................ 9
5.2.2 Hardened Concrete ........................................................................................................... 10
5.2.3 Reinforced steel ................................................................................................................ 10
6.0 Structural Layouts .................................................................................................................... 11
6.1 Allocation ................................................................................................................................. 17
7.0 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................ 18
7.1 Shear wall ............................................................................................................................. 18
7.1.2 Shear and bending moment diagrams. ................................................................................ 21
7.2 Foundation............................................................................................................................... 22
Chapter 2.0 Individual Work ................................................................................................................. 26
1.0

Shear Wall Design ................................................................................................................. 26

1.1 Axial load, Lateral load, Shear force, Bending Moment ............................................................. 26
1.1.1 Axial Loads ........................................................................................................................... 26
1.1.2 Lateral load for entire building and for shear wall AB ......................................................... 27
1.2 Check If Wall Is Subject To Compression over Entire Section..................................................... 29
1.2.1 Section properties of wall: ................................................................................................... 29
1.2.2 Stresses on shear Wall ......................................................................................................... 29
1.3 Check If Wall Is Subject To Compression over Entire Section (in-plane bending) ...................... 30
1.2.3 Axial Load from supports 21-24 ........................................................................................... 30
1.2.3 Stresses on shear Wall ......................................................................................................... 30
1.4 Effective Height of Wall (clause 11.4, AS3600-2009).................................................................. 32
1.5 Design Axial Compressive Capacity............................................................................................. 33
1.6 Design In-Plane Shear Capacity................................................................................................... 34
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1.6.1 Aspect ratio .......................................................................................................................... 34


1.6.2 The shear strength without shear reinforcement (Clause 11.6.3) ...................................... 34
1.6.3 The shear strength without shear reinforcement (Clause 11.6.3) ...................................... 34
1.6.4 Design Shear Strength of Wall ............................................................................................. 35
1.6.5 Final Check ........................................................................................................................... 35
1.7 Check reinforcement Requirement for Wall............................................................................... 35
1.7.1 Minimum reinforcement (Clause 11.7.1 AS3600-2009) ...................................................... 35
1.7.2 Horizontal Reinforcement for Crack control (Clause 11.7.2 AS3600-2009) ........................ 35
1.7.3 Reinforcement Spacing (Clause 11.7.3 AS3600-2009) ......................................................... 35
1.8 Design Summary Sketch .............................................................................................................. 36
2.0

Footing Design ...................................................................................................................... 37

2.1 Design axial load ..................................................................................................................... 37


2.2 Plan dimensions- ..................................................................................................................... 37
2.3 Clearance with other footing & property boundaries ............................................................ 37
2.4 Trial footing thickness, cover & calculate effective depth ...................................................... 39
2.5 Design for punching shear ...................................................................................................... 40
2.6 Design for bending moment ................................................................................................... 41
2.6.1 Calculate the design moment .............................................................................................. 41
2.6.2 Estimation of reinforcement area........................................................................................ 41
2.6.3 Minimum reinforcement (Clause 8.1.6.1-AS3600-2009) ..................................................... 41
2.6.3 Check bending capacity using N24@300) ............................................................................ 41
2.7 Design for flexural shear ......................................................................................................... 43
2.7 Development length, bar anchorage ...................................................................................... 43
2.8 Starter Bars ............................................................................................................................. 44
2.9 Design Summary Sketch .......................................................................................................... 44
2.9 Design reflection ......................................................................................................................... 45

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Chapter 1 Group Work


1.0 INTRODUCTION
A new reinforced concrete six storey building has been proposed in greater city of Geelong
area in Australia and therefore must adhere to Australian Design Standards. The building
consists of a car park in the ground floor, offices in the 1st 4th floors , and a fifth floor for
services. Group 10 has been engaged as the structural design team responsible for the
structural design and analysis of level 5 for the project. A full set of architectural and
structural drawings have been made available and will be the basis of the design.

2.0 - SCOPE
Group 10 is required to perform a full reinforced concrete design and analysis for all the
columns, shear walls for the fifth floor and subsequent footings of this six storey building.
There are two projects overall, with this one being project 2. For design project 2 there will
be one submission to be made comprising of an initial group work were a full structural
analysis will be performed to determine the design load actions (axial loads, shear and
moments) on all shear walls at the base of the building and subsequent footings. The second
part of the project involves an individual part where each group member will perform a full
reinforced concrete design for one shear wall and footing. These two submissions comprise
of the following tasks:
Group work:

Signed cover sheet


Scope and assumptions
Material properties
Loads and combinations
Floor plans and sections
Structural analysis

Individual work:

Signed cover sheet


Update to group submission
Shear wall design
Footing design
Reflection on design project

Note: A full set of architectural drawings has been provided. Also provided are detailed engineering
drawings showing dimensions of the floor, beam and column and wall placement with details of spacings,
gridlines and selected elements for simplistic analysis. Placement of some of the structural members has
been relocated ensuring it has no carry on effect on the car parking, in order to simplify analysis.

Page | 4

3.0 DESIGN CONCEPT


This particular building will be designed according to the framing structural system which
consists of slab on beams, columns, shear wall and isolated footings. The framing will be
designed using reinforced concrete rather than steel. This particular frame is a moment
resisting frame which means that the connections between beams and columns are rigid.
Using beams will ensure longer spans between columns ensuring there are less columns
inside the building obstructing views and space. The framing system will consists of shear
walls such as the lift core. Such a design will ensure that relative sideways between the top
and bottom of the column is insignificant, making the columns braced and more stable.
Lateral loads (wind, earthquake) are also carried by combined shear core/wall and rigid
frame action. The concrete slab will behave as a horizontal diaphragm to distribute the
lateral loading to vertical structural elements (shear core/wall, columns). This type of action
can been seen in figure 3.1 and figure 3.2. It will be assumed that the resulting force from
the wind load will act along the centre line as shown in figure 3.2. This will result in in each
parallel wall talking half of the forces. Since the resulting force acts through the centre of
parallel shear walls, then the effects of torsion can be neglected.
All vertically loads will be transmitted through the beams, then the columns and finally
down to the footings. Depending on the make-up of the soil, different types of footings can
be used. If the soil is weak near the surface then piles will need to be used to transmit the
loads to a deeper stratum that is more firm and less compressible. In the case of this project
where the soil has a reasonable bearing capacity, then spread footings can be used. The
footings will be designed to carry an axial load and bi-axial moments. Due to bi-axial
moments, isolated spread footings will be used as this design caters for moments in both
directions. If the bi- axial moments are small and similar then square footings can be used,
however rectangular footings will be used if one moment in one direction is significantly
larger than the moment in the other direction. Due to these moments the footings will be
designed as an eccentrically loaded footing meaning that the bearing pressure isnt uniform,
resulting on there being a higher bearing pressure on one side than the other. It is
important that the eccentricity isnt too large as this can cause excessive rotation of the
footing. .

Figure 3.1 Braced columns


Page | 5

Figure 3.2 wind loads on shear wall

Figure 3.3 footing loads

Design procedure:
1. Outline design process which takes place in idealizing a reinforced concrete structure
2. Simplify standard reinforced concrete building into a number of manageable
idealized sub-structures and structural elements and to construct their load paths
3. Estimate primary design loads on structural elements using appropriate standards
and handbooks.
4. Combine primary design load cases as per design standards to find critical load
combinations that govern design
5. Model building structure and analyse structural elements for design actions such as
design bending moment, shear force and deflections, etc.
6. To design reinforced concrete structural elements for design actions to satisfy
strength limit state criteria and serviceability criteria.

Page | 6

4.0 ASSUMPTIONS

Building is located in the city of Geelong with a temperate climate condition.


Design life of buildings is assumed to be 50 years {Buildings and other common
structures}
The building is located where it is not in contact with sea water and is not subjected
to any sulphate.
No earthquake considerations were adopted for the loads and combinations as
required per the brief.
Structure members will be enclosed for its entire service life, except for a brief
period during construction.
Building was not factored for fire safety.
All dimensions not supplied on the floor plan have been scaled off the plans to gain
necessary information.
Torsion in our design we have deemed as negligible as it is assumed that wind loads
acts the centroid of parallel shear walls.
N40 concrete strength has been adopted for our initial shear wall analysis; however
this will be reviewed at the individual design stage to confirm its adequacy.
N32 concrete strength has been adopted for our initial foundation analysis; however
this will be reviewed at the individual design stage to confirm its adequacy.
D500N reinforcement steel was adopted for our shear and foundation analysis;
however this will be reviewed at the individual design stage to confirm adequacy.
Any columns that are shifted from their original positions will still have the same
design axial loads provided. It will also be assumed that shifting these columns wont
have any effect on the original design of the building.
Floor system is designed for gravity loads only
AS 3600 codes will be crossed checked in order to ensure that any specific
requirements are taken into account, after the regulations are verified other factors
such as safety, cost and aesthetics may then be taken into account.
Bi-axial moments calculated for each columns on level 5 will be assumed to be the
same moments acing on the footings.
Soil capacity is assumed to be 500 kPa.
Shear wall is assumed to have same cross section for the entire height of the building
as this is a relatively low building. Therefore the shear wall will be designed at the
base of the building.

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5.0 MATERIAL PROPERTIES


5.1 Shear walls
5.1.1 General requirements
Exposure classification
Based on our location and building type we select a exposure class of A2, {Nonresidential, temperate climate [refer to table 4.3 AS3600-2009]}
Cover
Based on selected characteristic strength of our concrete (fc), which is selected as
40MPa, a exposure class of A2, the required minimum concrete cover will be 20mm {refer
to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.

Figure 5.1 Concrete cover

5.1.2 Hardened Concrete


Values are based on 28 Days of curing. All values are taken from AS3600-2009, unless stated
otherwise.
Property

value

Reference

Compressive strength fc (MPa)

40

Table 4.4

Minimum Compressive Strength -

25

Table 4.4

43

Table 3.1.2

32800

Table 3.1.2

Required for Exposure A2


Mean in-situ compressive strength fc.mi (Mpa)
Modulus of elasticity Ec *(MPa)
Uniaxial tensile strength fct (MPa)

2.27

Coefficient of thermal expansion /oc

10*10-6

Table 5.1.2- Properties of 40 MPa standard grade concrete

Page | 8

Section 3.1.1.3
Section 3.1.6

5.1.3 Reinforced steel


All values are taken from AS3600 2009, unless stated otherwise
Min Yield strength (MPa)

500

Table 3.2.1

Shear modulus (MPa)

77000

Youngs modulus (MPa)

200000

Section 3.2.2

Min Tensile Strength


(MPa)

675MPa

AS4671:2001

Elongation at maximum
force

5%

AS4671:2001

Coefficient of thermal
expansion

12*10^-6/oc

Poisons ratio

0.3

Ductility class

Table 3.2.1

Minimum cover

20mm

Table 4.10.3.2

Table 5.1.3- Properties of reinforced steel

5.2 Foundation
5.2.1 General requirements
Exposure classification
Based on our location and building type we select an exposure class of A2, {other
members in non-aggressive soils [refer to table 4.3 AS3600-2009]}
Cover
Based on selected characteristic strength of our concrete (fc), which is selected as
32MPa, a exposure class of A2, the required minimum concrete cover will be 25mm {refer
to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.

Figure 5.2 Concrete cover


Page | 9

5.2.2 Hardened Concrete


Values are based on 28 Days of curing. All values are taken from AS3600-2009, unless stated
otherwise.
Property

value

Reference

Compressive strength fc (MPa)

32

Table 4.4

Minimum Compressive Strength -

25

Table 4.4

35

Table 3.1.2

30,100

Table 3.1.2

Required for Exposure A2


Mean in-situ compressive strength fc.mi (Mpa)
Modulus of elasticity Ec *(MPa)
Uniaxial tensile strength fct (MPa)

2.04

Coefficient of thermal expansion /oc

10*10-6

Section 3.1.1.3
Section 3.1.6

Table 5.2.2- Properties of 32 MPa standard grade concrete

5.2.3 Reinforced steel


All values are taken from AS3600 2009, unless stated otherwise
Min Yield strength (Mpa)

500

Shear modulus (MPa)

77000

Youngs modulus (MPa)

200000

Section 3.2.2

Min Tensile Strength


(MPa)

675MPa

AS4671:2001

Elongation at maximum
force

5%

AS4671:2001

Coefficient of thermal
expansion

12*10^-6/oc

Poisons ratio

0.3

Ductility class

Table 3.2.1

Minimum cover

20mm

Table 4.10.3.2

Table 5.2.3- Properties of reinforced steel

Page | 10

Table 3.2.1

6.0 Structural Layouts


Notes on each drawing:

Shear wall layout:

The elevator shaft will act as a shear wall acting in both directions. The elevator shaft
consists of four shear walls with one of the walls having an opening. W2 was not considered
as a shear wall but instead as a column.

Footing layout:
The footing dimensions were calculated by dividing the design axial load by the allowable
bearing pressure. The footings were also assumed as square for initial analysis but will
however be very checked in individual part to account for moments. Both columns C2-1 and
C1-9 be on the same footing as their individual footings overlapped with each other. This is
also the case with c1-5 and the elevator core. It is assumed that the building boundary
extends further then the outside perimeter of the building. This allows for the footings on
the exterior to extend outside of the building perimeter.

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Fifth Floor (service) Shear Wall Layout


Scale: 1:150

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Shear Wall Allocation


Scale: 1:150

Page | 13

Page | 14

Foundation Layout
Scale: 1:150

Page | 15

Foundation Allocation
Scale: 1:150

Page | 16

6.1 Allocation

Student

Shear Wall

Busiku Silenga [210037589]

Green Shear Wall 1

Adrian Saliba [211261419]

Red shear wall 3

Alexander Karl Schmid [210689597]

Green Shear wall 1

Thisara Indula Siriwardena [210057207]


Table
allocation
Table6.06.1-Shear
Shearwall
wall
allocation

Syed Adil Amzar Syed Amerrudin [211178813]

Yellow Shear wall 2

Qingyu Zhu [211178878]

Table 6.2- Foundation allocation

Student

Foundation

Busiku Silenga [210037589]

Green- F1-1

Adrian Saliba [211261419]

Red F1-2

Alexander Karl Schmid [210689597]

Yellow F1-3

Thisara Indula Siriwardena [210057207]


Syed Adil Amzar Syed Amerrudin [211178813]
Qingyu Zhu [211178878]

Page | 17

7.0 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS


7.1 Shear wall
Axial Loads

Page | 18

Shear wall 1,2,3,4


Summary
support
21

22
23
24

node
201
203
241
214
258
212
260
213
243
Total

Highest load
1128
910
382
1756
1186
1530
1241
1507
345
9985

Distributed load =
Page | 19

Distributed Load, N*

length
1.75
1.75
2.4
2.4

kN

8.3

Total axial load 9985 kN


=
= 1,203.01
8.3

total length

1203.01 kN/m

Shear force
RL (m)

Horizontal force (kN)

Shear force (kN)

21.9

50

50

18.3

100

150

14.7

100

250

11.1

100

350

7.5

100

450

3.9

100

550

Moment

RL (m)

= ( ) +
Distance (m)

Shear force (kN)

Moment (kNm)

21.3

50

18.3

150

150

14.7

3.6

250

690

11.1

3.6

350

1590

7.5

3.6

450

2850

3.9

3.6

550

4470

3.9

6450

There are two wall parallel in each direction.


Therefore each shear wall will have half the shear force and moment.
Shear force per wall, V* (kN)
300

Page | 20

Moment per wall, M* (kNm)


2700

7.1.2 Shear and bending moment diagrams.

Page | 21

7.2 Foundation
= 500
=

Footings are assumed square =


B is rounded up to the nearest 0.5
Table 7.2: Footing areas
Column ID
C1-1
C1-2
C1-3
C1-4
C1-5
C1-6
C1-7
C1-8
C1-9
C1-10
C1-11
C2-1
C2-2
C3-1
C3-2
C3-3
C3-4
C3-5
C4
w2
Shear Wall

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Column
Axial Load (kN)
2,954
3,509
3,412
2,645
2,915
3,313
2,768
1,877
3,090
2,338
2,183
3,643
4,094
3,080
3,216
3,366
3,249
3,039
4,557
5,964
9,985

Area (m )
5.91
7.02
6.82
5.29
5.83
6.63
5.54
3.75
6.18
4.68
4.37
7.29
8.19
6.16
6.43
6.73
6.50
6.08
9.11
11.93
19.97
2

Footing
B (m)
B (m) round up
2.43
2.50
2.65
3.00
2.61
3.00
2.30
2.50
2.41
2.50
2.57
3.00
2.35
2.50
1.94
2.00
2.49
2.50
2.16
2.50
2.09
2.50
2.70
3.00
2.86
3.00
2.48
2.50
2.54
3.00
2.59
3.00
2.55
3.00
2.47
2.50
3.02
3.50
3.45
3.50
4.47
4.50

Footing summary
F = Footing

F1

F2

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F3

F4

Page | 24

F5

F6

Page | 25

Chapter 2.0 Individual Work


1.0 Shear Wall Design
1.1 Axial load, Lateral load, Shear force, Bending Moment
Figure 1 shows the plane view of the shear walls with axial loads from supports 21-24 as given in the
table below:

1.1.1 Axial Loads


support
21

22
23
24

node
201
203
241
214
258
212
260
213
243
total

load
1128
910
382
1756
1186
1530
1241
1507
345
9985

kN

Figure 1.Plane view of shear wall (supports are labeled in red)


-Total axial load N* = 9985 KN
Page | 26

- Total length of the shear walls: L = 2*1.95 +2*2.20 =8.3m


-The axial load per unit length of the shear wall is
W* = N* / L = 9985 / 8.3 = 1203.3 KN/m

1.1.2 Lateral load for entire building and for shear wall AB
-Lateral load for the whole building:
* Roof level = 50KN
*other levels = 100 KN per floor

Figure 2: Lateral load applied on whole building


(Refer to section 7 of group work for shear and bending moment calculations)
-Lateral load for the selected wall (AB)
Wall to be designed is AB and is highlighted in figure 1 (highlighted in green)
Because the selected wall, AB is identical to the wall opposite it, CD, their stiffness will also
be equal. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the wall AB will carry half the lateral load
of the building.
Therefore: Lateral load applied on the wall AB
At roof level : (1/2) * 50 = 25 KN
At other levels : (1/2) * 100 = 50KN per floor

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Lateral load on shear wall AB (Shear and bending moment diagrams):

25KN

Roof

25KN

0KNm

50KN

5th Floor

3.0m

75KN

50KN

4th Floor

3.6m

125KN

75KNm
345KNm

3.6m
50KN

3rd Floor

50KN

2nd Floor

50KN

1st Floor

3.6m

175KN

795KNm

225KN
3.6m

1425KNm

275KN

2235KNm

3.9m
Ground

3307.5KNm

Shear Wall

Shear Force Diagram

Bending Moment Diagram

Figure 3.Lateral load applied on shear wall AB.

Note: Figure2 shows the lateral load applied on the shear wall AB and the resultant shear force
diagram and in-plane bending moment diagram of the wall AB. The wall AB is assumed to be a
vertical cantilever. It is also assumed that there is no lateral uniformly distributed load at the wall
face.
Note: The maximum in-plane shear force V* and in-plane bending moment M* of the wall AB at
ground level are:
V* = 25 + 5 * 50 = 275 KN

RL (m)

= ( ) +
Distance (m)

Shear force (kN)

Moment (kNm)

21.3

25

18.3

75

75

14.7

3.6

125

345

11.1

3.6

175

795

7.5

3.6

225

1425

3.9

3.6

275

2235

3.9

Page | 28

3307.5

1.2 Check If Wall Is Subject To Compression over Entire Section


1.2.1 Section properties of wall:
M*=3240KNm
-Thickness of wall = 200mm

W*=1203KN/m

-Moment of Inertia of wall section


IX = 200 * 24003 / 12 =230.4 *109mm4
-Distance from centroid to extreme fibre;
Y= 2400/2 =1200mm.

200mm
Wall AB

x
2400mm

1.2.2 Stresses on shear Wall


-The compressive strength due to the axial

(+) 6.015MPa

loading is:

N* =

6.02MPa

1203 * 103 / 1000 *200

Stress due to axial load

= 6.015 MPa (compression)

(+)17

-The stress due to in-plane bending moment is;


M* = (+/- ) (M* /IX)* Y
=(+/-) (3307.5 *106 / 230.4 *109) * 1200

(-)17

= (+/-) 17MPa (compression/tension)

Stress due to bending

(+)23MPa

-The total stresses are:

N* + M*

=6.015 + 17 = 23 MPa (Compression)


=6.015 17 = -10.87 MPa (Tension)

(-)10.87MPa
Figure 4.Axial load and in-plane bending moment

Therefore:
The wall is not in compression over entire section; we need to design for in-plane bending, in
addition to designing for compression and shear.

Page | 29

1.3 Check If Wall Is Subject To Compression over Entire Section (in-plane bending)
1.2.3 Axial Load from supports 21-24
Support

21

22

23

24

Sum

N* (KN)

1128

1756

1530

1507

5921

Therefore axial load


Therefore above process is repeated using in-plane bending moment.

Figure 4: Shear force and in-plane bending moment at level 1 of the selected shear wall.
Note: Slab depth is assumed to be 150mm.
-The shear force at level 1 of the selected shear wall is:
V* = 25 +50+50+50+50 =225KN
-The design in-plane bending moment at level 1 of the selected wall is
M* =225 * 3.45 = 776KNm
Total axial load N* = 5921 KN
- Total length of the shear walls: L = 2*1.95 +2*2.20 =8.3m
-The axial load per unit length of the shear wall is
W* = N* / L = 5921/ 8.3 = 713.4 KN/m

1.2.3 Stresses on shear Wall


Page | 30

-Due to axial load only:

N* = 713.4 *1000 / 1000*200 = 3.6MPa (Compression)


-Due to in-plane bending moment only:

M* = (+/-) (M*/Ix)*Y = (+/-) (776 *106 / 230.4 *109) * 1200 = (+/-) 4.04 MPa (compression/tension)
-Total stresses are:

N* + M*

= 3.6 + 4.04 = 7.64 MPa (Compression)


= 3.6 - 4.04 = -0.44 MPa (Tension)

Figure 5.Axial load and in-plane bending moment


Page | 31

Note: A very small portion of the wall has tension stress. This tension stress is very small and less
than the characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete (fct.f)
Therefore:

* = 0.44MPa < fct.f = 0.6 40 = 3.8 MPa.


The concrete itself can therefore carry this small tension stress and we would not need to design the
wall for in-plane bending.

1.4 Effective Height of Wall (clause 11.4, AS3600-2009)


-The floor to floor unsupported height of the wall is
HW = 3.6 -0.15 =3.45m.

Figure 6.

Assume that the selected wall AB (refer to figure 1) is restrained against rotation by the
floor, and wall AC provides support to wall AB. Wall BD (with the opening), the area of the
opening is greater than 1/10 of the area of the wall, so we can assume that the wall BD will
not provide lateral support to the wall CD.
Note: The selected wall CD is considered to be supported laterally on three sides.

Page | 32

-The effective height of the selected wall is


HWE = K*HW
For wall supported on 3 sides, we have
K= 1/ 1 + (Hw/3*L1)2 = 1 / 1 + (3.45 / 3* 2.30)2 = 0.80
-

K must be within the limits of 0.3 K 0.75. Since 0.8 >0.75, we take k =0.75.

Therefore;
HWE = 0.75 * 3.45 = 2.6m

1.5 Design Axial Compressive Capacity


-

Check effective height to thickness ratio:


Hwe / tw 30
= 2600 / 200 = 13 30; therefore OK.

The design axial strength per unit length of the wall is determined using (Clause 11.5. AS3600-2009)
Nu = (tw 1.2*e 2ea )*0.6*fc
e is taken as the minimum eccentricity
e = 0.05 *tw = 0.05 * 200 =10mm.
The additional eccentricity of the load on the wall is calculated as:
ea = (Hwe)2 /2500 * tw = (2600)2 /2500*200 = 13.52mm,
= 0.6
Tw = 200mm
Fc = 40MPa

Therefore the design axial strength per unit length of the wall is:
Nu = (tw 1.2*e 2ea )*0.6*fc
Nu = 0.6 * (200 1.2*10 2* 13.52)*0.6*40
Nu = 2317.8 KN/m.
Check:
W* Nu
Therefore, for 2.4 m long wall, the total capacity = 2.4 * 2317.8 = 5562.72KN/m
713 KN/m < 5562.72 KN/m.therefore wall has adequate axial strength (acceptable)

Page | 33

1.6 Design In-Plane Shear Capacity


1.6.1 Aspect ratio
The aspect ratio of the wall is:
HW /LW = 3450 / 2400 = 1.44 > 1; therefore:

1.6.2 The shear strength without shear reinforcement (Clause 11.6.3)


The lesser of;
-Vuc = (0.66*fc 0.21 * (HW/LW)* fc)*0.8*LW * tW
-Vuc

=(0.05*fc + 0.1 * (fc/(Hw/Lw -1)))*0.8*LW * tW

Therefore:
-(0.66*40 0.21 * (3450/2400)* 40)*0.8*2400 * 200 *10-3 = 868.5KN.
-(0.05*40

+ 0.1 * (40/(3450/2400 -1)))*0.8*2400 * 200 *10-3 = 673.4KN

Therefore the lesser of {868.5, 673.4}


Vuc = 673.4KN
But Vuc is not less than;
0.17 fc (0.8*LW*tW) = 0.17 40 (0.8*2400*200) * 10-3 = 413KN.
Since 673.4 > 413 KN. Therefore OK.
Therefore we take; VUC = 673.4 KN.

1.6.3 The shear strength without shear reinforcement (Clause 11.6.3)


-

Assume N12@300 for both ways and both faces.


The ratio of reinforcement in either the vertical or horizontal directions is;
Pw = 2 * 370 / 200*1000 = 0.0037

The contribution to shear strength by shear reinforcement is determined (Clause 11.6.4)


VUS = PW * fsy * (0.8*Lw*tw) = 0.0037 *500 *0.8 *2400 *200 *10-3 =710.4KN

Page | 34

1.6.4 Design Shear Strength of Wall


-The ultimate shear strength of wall is
Vu = VUC + VUS = 673.4 + 710.4 = 1383.8 KN
VU.MAX = 0.2* fc * (0.8 *LW *tW) = 0.2 * 40 *0.8 *2400 *200 *10-3
= 3072KN
Since 1383.8KN < 3072KN
Therefore, we take VU = 1383.8KN
-Therefore the design shear capacity is therefore:
VU = 0.7 * 1383.8 = 967KN

1.6.5 Final Check


Since
V* *Vu = 225KN < 967KN the wall has adequate shear capacity (acceptable)

1.7 Check reinforcement Requirement for Wall


1.7.1 Minimum reinforcement (Clause 11.7.1 AS3600-2009)
PW = 0.0037 > PW,,min = 0.0015 in the vertical direction..OK
PW= 0.0037 > PW,min = 0.0025 in the horizontal direction..OK

1.7.2 Horizontal Reinforcement for Crack control (Clause 11.7.2 AS3600-2009)


PW = 0.0037 > 0.0035
Sufficient to provide a moderate degree of crack control for A2 exposure classification.

1.7.3 Reinforcement Spacing (Clause 11.7.3 AS3600-2009)


-Check clear distance between parallel bars:
126mm > 3 * db = 3*12 = 36mm..OK
288mm > 3 * db = 3 * 12 = 36mm............OK
102mm > 3 * db = 3*12 = 36mm..............OK

Page | 35

-Check centre-to-centre spacing of parallel bars:


S the lesser of {2.5*tW, 350} ={2.5 *200, 350} = {500, 350}
S 350mm.
Since Smax = 300mm < 350mmTherefore OK.

1.8 Design Summary Sketch


-Wall Thickness: 200mm
-Reinforcement: N12@300 (2 sides, 2ways)
*At intersections with other walls, use 4N16 (where the area of 1N16 is about 2 times the area of
1N12).

Figure 7.Wall cross section

Page | 36

2.0 Footing Design


2.1 Design axial load
-Same as for column C1-1 (refer to table 7.2 in group structural analysis section).
N* =2954 KN

2.2 Plan dimensionsThe ultimate bearing pressure is taken as q*allowable = 500KPa


-the required area of footing;
L = N* / q*allowable = 2954 / 500 = 5.91m2
Because there are no space restrictions (as will be checked in in section 3) and the footing is
eccentrically loaded, we can design a square footing.
Therefore required size: B=L = 5.91m = 2.43 2.5m

Therefore; lets try a square footing of 2.5m * 2.5m.

2.3 Clearance with other footing & property boundaries


Column
Column ID

Axial Load (kN)

C1-1
2,954
C1-2
3,509
C1-3
3,412
C1-4
2,645
C1-5
2,915
C1-6
3,313
C1-7
2,768
C1-8
1,877
C1-9
3,090
C1-10
2,338
C1-11
2,183
C2-1
3,643
C2-2
4,094
C3-1
3,080
C3-2
3,216
C3-3
3,366
C3-4
3,249
C3-5
3,039
C4
4,557
w2
5,964
Shear Wall
9,985
Table 2.1-Footing areas
Page | 37

Footing
Area (m )
5.91
7.02
6.82
5.29
5.83
6.63
5.54
3.75
6.18
4.68
4.37
7.29
8.19
6.16
6.43
6.73
6.50
6.08
9.11
11.93
19.97
2

B (m)
2.43
2.65
2.61
2.30
2.41
2.57
2.35
1.94
2.49
2.16
2.09
2.70
2.86
2.48
2.54
2.59
2.55
2.47
3.02
3.45
4.47

B (m) round up
2.50
3.00
3.00
2.50
2.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
2.50
2.50
2.50
3.00
3.00
2.50
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.50
3.50
3.50
4.50

Check B*L
N*/q*
OK
OK
OK
Ok
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
OK
OK
Ok
OK
OK
Ok
OK

Figure 1. Footing layout (Selected footing for design)


-The figures above show the selected footing for design in this assignment and the footings adjacent
to the selected footings are also shown. The preliminary sizes of these footings are calculated in
table 2.1.

The footing layout shows that using spread footings is reasonable regarding the required
clearance between any two footings and the clearance between a footing and the property
boundaries.
The plan dimensions of the selected footing can therefore be finalised as 2.5m * 2.5m, and
bearing pressure will not need to be rechecked.
Note: For footing design we use concrete with fc =32MPa.

Page | 38

2.4 Trial footing thickness, cover & calculate effective depth


- assume 800mm thick footing
-The cover to the nearest bar is taken as;
C = 30 (minimum cover for A2 exposure classification [table 4.10.3.2-AS3600-2009]) + 20 (additional
cover where concrete is cast against ground (additional cover where concrete is cast against ground
[Clause 4.10.3.5-As3600-2009])
C = 30+20 =50mm (therefore adopt cover)
-Assuming we use N24 bars in two layers as the reinforcement of the footing;
-the effective depth for the TOP layer of reinforcement is.
800- (50 + 24 + 24/2) = 714mm
-the effective depth for the bottom layer of reinforcement is
800-(50 + 24/2) = 738mm
Therefore the average effective depth can be taken as;
D= 714mm + 738mm/2 = 726mm, therefore use d= 725mm.
Note: The footing is square, and we
intend to use to use the same
reinforcement in both directions.

Note: column dimensions are 350mm*350mm as designed in individual project 1.

Page | 39

2.5 Design for punching shear

Note: column dimensions are 350mm*350mm as designed in individual project 1.

At distance dOM/2 from the face of the column, the design punching shear force is :

V*punch = q*net * Ap = 500 * (2.52 1.0162) = 2608.9KN


Where;
dOM = 800 50 -24 =726, say 725mm.
Punching shear perimeter= (350 +dOM)2 = (350+725)2 =1016 mm

VUO = * U * dOM * fCV = 0.7 * 4064 * 725 * 1.92 = 3960KN


Where;
Take fCV = 0.34 32 = 1.92 N/mm2
U = 2 (1016+1016) = 4064mm

Therefore;
Since V* < VUO ; 2608.9 < 3960KNTherefore the design is OK
Therefore d is acceptable and no fitments are needed. The footing thickness of 800mm is adequate.

Page | 40

2.6 Design for bending moment


-Column dimensions are 350mm*350mm as designed in individual project 1;
bc =350mm and dc =350mm.
-The footing outstand in the direction of bc is
Lx = (B bc / 2) = 2500 -350 /2 = 1075mm.
-The footing outstand in the direction of dc is
Lx = (B bc / 2) = 2500 -350 /2 = 1075mm.
-Because lx=ly, it is reasonable to design bending in the lx direction and adopting the obtained
results in the ly direction.

2.6.1 Calculate the design moment


At face of the column (lx direction)
M* =W* B * lx2 / 2 = 500 *2.5 * (1.0752 / 2) = 722 KNm (for full width)
Or M* = 722/ 2.5 = 288.8 KNm/m width.

2.6.2 Estimation of reinforcement area


The required reinforcement area is approximately calculated as
M* Muo (0.8)*Ast * fsy*(0.9 *d)
Ast = M* / 0.8 * fSY *(0.9*d) = 288.8 *106 / 0.8 * 500 *(0.9*725) = 1107 mm2/m width.

2.6.3 Minimum reinforcement (Clause 8.1.6.1-AS3600-2009)


AST> AST,MIN
AST,MIN = 0.2* (D/d)2 * (fct.f/fsy) *b*d = 0.2* (800/725)2 * (0.632/500) *1000*725 =1198mm2/m width

Therefore try N24@300 with AST =1500mm2/m width > A ST,MIN..therefore OK.

2.6.3 Check bending capacity using N24@300)


-assuming steel has yielded, the tensile force in the steel is
T = AST * fsy =1500 * 500 = 750000 KN
=1.05 0.007*fc

(Clause 8.1.3-AS-3600-2009)

=1.05 -0.007 * 32 =0.826.


2= 1 0.003 *fc = 1-0.003 *32 =0.9 >0.85
Therefore take 2 =0.85.
-the depth of the compressive stress block is
X = T/ 2*fc*b = 750000 / 0.85 * 32 *1000 = 28mm
Page | 41

-Ductility of section
Ku = X/ *d = 28 / 0.826 * 725 = 0.05 < 0.36.Therefore OK.
-Design bending capacity
Mu = *T*(d-X/2) = 0.8*750000*(725-(28/2)) * 10-6 = 427KNm/m width
-Check
M* Mu ; 288.8 427 KNm/m width.
The bending strength is satisfactory and we adopt N24@300 reinforcement bars for both lx and ly
directions of the footing.

M*

Page | 42

2.7 Design for flexural shear


-At distance d=725mm from the face of the column is:
V*max = W*B*(lx-d) = 500*2.5*(1.075-0.725) = 437.5KN
-the nominal shear capacity without shear reinforcement (clause 8.2.7.1 AS3600-2009):
Vuc = 1*2*3*b*d*fcv (3Ast/bd)
1 = 1.1 * (1.6 d/1000) = 1.1 * (1.6 725/1000) =0.963
2=1.0
3 =1.0
b=2500mm, d=725mm, fcv = 3fc = 332 = 3.17MPa
For the width 2500mm, the number of N24 bars is 2500/300 = 9, and the area of reinforcement is
Ast = 450*9 = 4050mm2 (Where 450 is the area of 1N24 bar)
Therefore:
Vuc = 0.963*1*1*2500*725*3.17 (34050/2500*725) * 10-3 = 723 KN.
The design flexural shear strength
vuc = 0.7* 723 =506KN
Therefore:
V* = 437.5 KN < 506KN.Therefore the design is adequate. OK

2.7 Development length, bar anchorage


- The minimum required development length for a straight bar is determined as;
LSY.T = 0.5 * K1 *K3*fsy*db / K2 fc 29*K1*db

(Clause 13.1.2.1-AS3600-2009)

Db=24mm
K1 =1.0
K2 = 132-db/100 = 132-24 /100 = 1.08
K3 = 1 0.15 (Cd-db /db) = 1-0.15 (50-24/24) =0.84
Cd= min {bottom cover, side cover, face-to-face bar spacing/2} = min { 50, 50, (300-24/2)=138} =
50mm.
LSY.T = 0.5 * 1 *0.84*500*24 / 1.08 32 = 825mm > 29*1*24 = 696mm.
Therefore, the required minimum anchorage length is Lsy.t = 612mm.
-The available anchorage length for a straight bar is
*In lx direction:
Page | 43

Lx end cover = 1075-50 =1025 mm >

LSY.T

*In lx direction:
Lx end cover = 1075-50 =1025 mm >

LSY.T

*In ly direction:
Ly end cover = 1075-50 =1025 mm >

LSY.T

Hence the available anchorage length is greater than the required LSY.T & straight bars are
sufficientDesign is acceptable.

2.8 Starter Bars


-We need 8N24 Starter bars (As for the column)
-Splice (Overlap) with vertical column rebar:
40db = 40 *24 = 960mm..use 1000mm.
-Anchorage length within footing
LSY.C =20 * db = 20 * 24 = 480mm
The actual anchorage within the footing of the starter bars is:
800-50-24-24-24/2 =690 > LSY.C = 480mm.therefore (Acceptable)

2.9 Design Summary Sketch


350mm

1000mm
(<40*db = 40 *24=960)

8N24 starter bars


800mm
50 clear
cover
N24@300
Page | 44

9N24@300

2.9 Design reflection


Taking all aspects of our design into consideration we have been able to design fully reinforced
concrete elements that comply with the Australian standards and also are adequate for all critical
actions but despite this we still identified limitations to the design. Limitations include not
considering environmental loads and site conditions. Site concrete is exposed to a multitude of
influences that were not taken into consideration, therefore design and construction data is not
as reliable. Taking a more analytical laboratory approach is a potential improvement as the
design and construction data will be more reliable

Page | 45

References

AS3600 - 2009 Concrete Structure


AS1170.1 2002 Structural design Action Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions
Foster S.J., Kilpatrick A.E. & Warner R.F (2010) Beams. In Reinforced Concrete Basics, 2nd
ed., pp.77-188. Sydney: Pearson Education Australia
Mamlouk M. & Zaniewski J. (2002) Portland Cement Concrete. In Materials for Civil and
Construction Engineers, 3rd ed., pp. 246-314. USA: Pearson Education

Page | 46