SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SEV454  ADVANCED STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Design Project 1
Student Name: Busiku Silenga
Student ID: 210037589
Supervisor Name: Dr Riyadh AlAmeri
Submission Date: 28th April 2014
Page 1 of 98
Contents
Chapter 1.Group Work .......................................................................................................................... 5
1.0
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 5
2.0  SCOPE.......................................................................................................................................... 5
3.0 DESIGN CONCEPT ...................................................................................................................... 6
4.0 ASSUMPTIONS ........................................................................................................................... 7
5.0 MATERIAL PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................. 8
5.1 General Requirements ............................................................................................................ 8
5.2  Hardened Concrete ................................................................................................................ 8
5.3 Concrete Mix.......................................................................................................................... 9
5.4 Reinforced steel ..................................................................................................................... 9
6.0 Structural Layouts ................................................................................................................... 10
7.0 LOADS & COMBINATION LOAD CASES ................................................................................... 16
7.1 live loads .............................................................................................................................. 17
7.2 Dead loads ........................................................................................................................... 17
7.3 Area Calculations ................................................................................................................. 18
7.4 Uniformly Distributed loading ............................................................................................ 18
7.5 Combination Loading .......................................................................................................... 20
8.0 BEAM ANALYSIS....................................................................................................................... 22
8.1 Bending moment calculations ............................................................................................ 22
9.0 COLUMN ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................. 24
9.1 Column sizes ........................................................................................................................ 24
9.2 Axial loads ............................................................................................................................ 25
9.3 Bending moment calculations ............................................................................................ 25
APPENDIXES...................................................................................................................................... 26
Appendix A Slab Areas .............................................................................................................. 26
Appendix B Trial sections .......................................................................................................... 27
Appendix C Combination Load values ...................................................................................... 29
Appendix D Beam moment values............................................................................................ 31
Appendix E Column Moments .................................................................................................. 33
Appendix F Beam Load summary sketches + Moment Diagrams ............................................ 34
Appendix F column moment diagrams ......................................................................................... 42
Page 2 of 98
Chapter 2.Individual Work.............................................................................................................. 49
1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 49
2.0 Updates to Group Work .......................................................................................................... 50
2.1 General Requirements ........................................................................................................... 50
2.2 Loading.................................................................................................................................... 51
3.0 Column Design ......................................................................................................................... 52
3.1 Column C11......................................................................................................................... 52
3.1.1 General Requirements ................................................................................................... 52
3.1.2 Design Loads ........................................................................................................................ 53
3.1.3 Column Reinforcement Requirements ............................................................................... 54
3.1.4 Check If Column Is Short ..................................................................................................... 55
3.1.5 Moment Magnifier .............................................................................................................. 55
3.1.6 ColumnInteraction diagram............................................................................................... 56
3.1.7 Summary.............................................................................................................................. 60
3.2 Column C12......................................................................................................................... 61
3.2.1 General Requirements ................................................................................................... 61
3.2.2 Design Loads ........................................................................................................................ 62
3.2.3 Column Reinforcement Requirements ............................................................................... 63
3.2.4 Check If Column Is Short ..................................................................................................... 64
3.2.5 ColumnInteraction diagram............................................................................................... 65
3.2.6 Summary.............................................................................................................................. 69
3.3 Column C13......................................................................................................................... 70
3.3.1 General Requirements ................................................................................................... 70
3.3.2 Design Loads ........................................................................................................................ 71
3.3.3 Column Reinforcement Requirements ............................................................................... 72
3.3.4 Check If Column Is Short ..................................................................................................... 73
3.3.5 ColumnInteraction diagram............................................................................................... 74
3.2.6 Summary.............................................................................................................................. 78
3.4 Column C4 ............................................................................................................................ 79
3.4.1 General Requirements ................................................................................................... 79
3.4.2 Design Loads ........................................................................................................................ 80
3.4.3 Column Reinforcement Requirements ............................................................................... 81
+3.4.4 Check If Column Is Short ................................................................................................... 83
3.4.5 ColumnInteraction diagram............................................................................................... 83
Page 3 of 98
3.2.6 Summary.............................................................................................................................. 88
3.5 Column C15......................................................................................................................... 89
3.5.1 General Requirements ................................................................................................... 89
3.5.2 Design Loads ........................................................................................................................ 90
3.5.3 Column Reinforcement Requirements ............................................................................... 91
3.5.4 Check If Column Is Short ..................................................................................................... 92
3.5.5 Moment Magnifier .............................................................................................................. 92
3.5.6 ColumnInteraction diagram............................................................................................... 93
3.1.7 Summary.............................................................................................................................. 96
4.0 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 97
Page 4 of 98
Chapter 1.Group Work
1.0 INTRODUCTION
A new reinforced concrete six storey building has been proposed in greater city of Geelong area in
Australia and therefore must adhere to Australian Design Standards. The building consists of a car
park in the ground floor, offices in the 1st 4th floors , and a fifth floor for services. Group 10 has
been engaged as the structural design team responsible for the structural design and analysis of
level 5 for the project. A full set of architectural drawings have been made available and will be the
basis of the design.
2.0  SCOPE
Group 10 is required to perform a full reinforced concrete design and analysis for all the columns,
shear walls for the fifth floor and subsequent footings of this six storey building. There are two
projects overall, with this one being project 1. For design project 1 there will be two submissions to
be made comprising of the initial group submission were a full structural analysis will be performed
to determine the design load actions (axial loads and moments) on all the columns and the second
being an individual submission where each group member will perform a full reinforced concrete
design for five columns on floor 5. It should be noted that the moment for the bottom and top of the
column needs to be calculated, therefore a structural analysis will also be performed for the top
floor to determine moment on the top end of the columns. These two submissions comprise of the
following tasks:
Submission 1 group
Signed cover sheet
Scope and assumptions
Material properties
Loads and combinations
Floor plans and sections
Structural analysis
Submission 2 Individual
Signed cover sheet
Update to group submission
Column design
Reflection on design project
Note: A full set of architectural drawings has been provided. Also provided are detailed
engineering drawings showing dimensions of the floor, beam and column and wall placement
with details of spacings, gridlines and selected elements for simplistic analysis. Placement of
some of the structural members has been relocated ensuring it has no carry on effect on the car
parking, in order to simplify analysis.
Page 5 of 98
3.0 DESIGN CONCEPT
This particular building will be designed according to the framing structural system which consists of
slab on beams, columns, shear wall and isolated footings. The framing will be designed using
reinforced concrete rather than steel. This particular frame is a moment resisting frame which
means that the connections between beams and columns are rigid. Using beams will ensure longer
spans between columns ensuring there are less columns inside the building obstructing views and
space. The framing system will consists of shear walls such as the lift core. Such a design will ensure
that relative sideways between the top and bottom of the column is insignificant, making the
columns braced and more stable. Lateral loads (wind, earthquake) are also carried by combined
shear core/wall and rigid frame action. The concrete slab will behave as a horizontal diaphragm to
distribute the lateral loading to vertical structural elements (shear core/wall, columns). This type of
action can been seen in figure 1.
Figure 1.0 Braced columns
Design procedure:
1. Outline design process which takes place in idealizing a reinforced concrete structure
2. Simplify standard reinforced concrete building into a number of manageable idealized substructures and structural elements and to construct their load paths
3. Estimate primary design loads on structural elements using appropriate standards and
handbooks.
4. Combine primary design load cases as per design standards to find critical load combinations
that govern design
5. Model building structure and analyse structural elements for design actions such as design
bending moment, shear force and deflections, etc.
6. To design reinforced concrete structural elements for design actions to satisfy strength limit
state criteria and serviceability criteria.
Page 6 of 98
4.0 ASSUMPTIONS
Building is located in the city of Geelong with a temperate climate condition.
Design life of buildings is assumed to be 50 years{Buildings and other common structures}
The building is located where it is not in contact with sea water and is not subjected to any
sulphate.
No environmental considerations were adopted for the loads and combinations as required
per the brief.
Structure members will be enclosed for its entire service life, except for a brief period during
construction.
Structure members will be waterproofed in wet areas, such as steam rooms, sauna,
bathrooms, etc.
Building was not factored for fire safety.
All dimensions not supplied on the floor plan have been scaled off the plans to gain
necessary information.
Our trial design has considered that the slab thickness will be equal to the top flange
thickness of the beam.
Constant cross sectional dimensions for the continuous beams and slabs have been adopted
for the entire floor, since it will make construction of form work easier.
Constant cross section dimensions of columns have been adopted for the entire height of
the building, since it will make construction of form work easier.
Torsion in our design we have deemed as negligible as the structure will consist of twoway
slab construction which will interlock the structure together therefore any torsion affects
would be considered minimal.
Loads and design actions from the above floor have been considered, which will be used to
determine the moment actions on the top end of the columns.
N40 concrete strength has been adopted for our initial column analysis; however this will be
reviewed at the individual design stage to confirm its adequacy.
D500N reinforcement steel was adopted for our column analysis; however this will be
reviewed at the individual design stage to confirm adequacy.
Any columns that are shifted from their original positions will still have the same design axial
loads provided. It will also be assumed that shifting these columns wont have any effect on
the original design of the building.
Floor system is designed for gravity loads only
The floor above us will have the same structural member layout as level five and also have
the same member cross sections.
AS codes will be crossed checked in order to ensure that any specific requirements are taken
into account, after the regulations are verified other factors such as safety, cost and
aesthetics may then be taken into account.
Page 7 of 98
5.0 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
5.1 General Requirements
Exposure classification
Based on our location and building type we select a exposure class of A2, also assuming sealed
tiles for waterproofing {Non residential, temperate climate [refer to table 4.3 AS36002009]}
Cover
Based on selected characteristic strength of our concrete (fc), which is selected as 40MPa, a
exposure class of A2, the required concrete cover will be 20mm {refer to table 4.10.3.2
AS3600.2009}.
Table 5.1 Concrete cover
5.2  Hardened Concrete
Values are based on 28 Days of curing. All values are taken from AS36002009, unless stated
otherwise.
Property
value
Reference
Compressive strength fc (MPa)
40
Table 4.4
Minimum Compressive Strength 
25
Table 4.4
Required for Exposure A2
Mean insitu compressive strength fc.mi (Mpa)
43
Table 3.1.2
32800
Table 3.1.2
Modulus of elasticity Ec *(MPa)
Uniaxial tensile strength fct (MPa)
o
Coefficient of thermal expansion / c
2.27
Section 3.1.1.3
6
10*10
Section 3.1.6
Table 5.2 Properties of 40 MPa standard grade concrete
Page 8 of 98
5.3 Concrete Mix
All properties for the coarse and fine aggregate have been take from Mamlouk M. & Zaniewski J.
(2002) Portland Cement Concrete. In Material for Civil and Construction Engineers, 3rd ed., pp. 246
314. USA: Pearson Education. P17. Unless stated otherwise.
Cement
Type I GP Cement
Admixtures
N/A
Air entrainer
N/A
Coarse aggregate
Gravel with crushed particles
Bulk oven dry specific gravity = 2.621
Absorption=0.4%
Oven dryrodded density = 1652 kg/m3
Moisture content =1.5%
Natural sand
Bulk oven dry specific gravity = 2.572
Absorption=0.85%
Fineness modulus = 2.6
Moisture content =4%
Fine aggregate
Table 5.3 Properties concrete materials
5.4 Reinforced steel
All values are taken from AS3600 2009, unless stated otherwise
Min Yield strength (Mpa)
500
Table 3.2.1
Shear modulus (MPa)
77000
Youngs modulus (MPa)
200000
Section 3.2.2
Min Tensile Strength
(MPa)
Elongation at maximum
force
Coefficient of thermal
expansion
Poisons ratio
675MPa
AS4671:2001
5%
AS4671:2001
Ductility class
Table 3.2.1
Minimum cover
20mm
Table 4.10.3.2
12*10^6/oc
0.3
Table 5.4 Properties of reinforced steel
Page 9 of 98
6.0 Structural Layouts
Notes on each drawing:
Fifth Floor (service) Column Layout Our structural layout of columns was kept relatively the same from the architectural drawings. There
were a few columns that had to be shifted slightly so structural analysis were easier, as a full
structural analysis is out of our scope for this project. The original design for this project is to have
slab straight on columns however for our concrete design; beams are placed over the columns
followed by the slab on top. This is why some columns were shifted as it made structural analysis
easier.
Fifth Floor (service) Beam LayoutLift is to be the structural core of the building, incorporating load bearing walls. The floor connects to
the structural core.
Fifth Floor (service) Slab area Layout 2
Some of the rooms contain different superimposed loads. Therefore some of the area slabs were
split into two to acount for different loads. It is not exact but a rough lay out as a full structural
analysis is out of our scope.
Student
Busiku Silenga [210037589]
Saliba Adrian [211261419]
Alexander Karl Schmid [210689597]
Thisara Indula Siriwardena [210057207]
Syed Adil Amzar Syed Amerrudin [211178813]
Qingyu Zhu [211178878]
Column
RedC11, C12, C13, C15, C4
Orange C12, C13, C14, C4, C16
Grey C16, C21, C22, C17, C19
Blue C31, C32, C33, C34, C35
Brown C21, C18, C19, C110, C31
Green C110, C31, C32, C111, C34
Table 6.0 Column allocation (Refer to column allocation figure below)
Note1: Purple is the colour used to distinguish shear walls
Note2: Many columns will be designed by multiple students, since each student has to design five columns.
Page 10 of 98
Fifth Floor (service) Column Layout
Scale: 1:150
Page 11 of 98
Fifth Floor (service) Beam Layout
Scale: 1:150
Page 12 of 98
Fifth Floor (service) Slab area Layout
Scale: 1:150
Page 13 of 98
A12
A11
A11
A11
A42
A11
A11
A11
A41
A11
A11
A11
A11
A131
A11
A22
A11
A81
A11
A11
A11
A11
A11
A11
A11
A82
A11A11
A11
A21
A11
A31
A11
A11
A11
A11A11
A32
A11
A11
A71
A11
A11
A11
A132
A11
A11
A11
A11
A11
A11
A11
A82
A11
2
A11
A11
A72
A11
A11
A311
A82
A11
2
A11
A312
A82
A11
A11
2
A361
2
A11 A392
A11
A11
A11
A11
A311A11
2 1 A82
A82
A11
A11
A11
2
A82
A36.1
A11
A36.2
A11
2
A82
A82
A11
.1
A391
A11
A11
A36.2
A82
A11
A82
A11
2
A372
A36.1
A11
A11
A36.2
A36.2
A11
A36.1
2
A82A382
A82
A36.2 A82 2 A36.2
A11
.1
2
A36.1
2
A11
2 A11
A82 A36.1
A82
A36.1
A82
A11
A11
A11
.1
A11
A82
A11
2
A82
A11
A11
A11
A36.2
A11
A82
A82 2
A11
A11
2
A11
A36.2
A36.2
A11
A36.1
2
A82
A82
A82 2A36.2
A82
A11
A11
A11
A11
A11
A82
A11
A11
A11
A11
A36.2
A11
A11
A82
A82
A11
A11
2
A37.1
A11
A36.1
2 A381
A82
A342
1
A11
A11
A311
A82
A82
A82
A82 2
A341
A11
A362
A36.2
2
A11
A11
.12
A11
A11
A82
A11
A82
A11
2
A11
A11
A11 A36.2
A11
A82
A82 2
A11
A11
A11
2
A11
Fifth Floor (service) Slab area Layout 2
Scale: 1:150
Page 14 of 98
Fifth Floor (service) column allocation
Scale: 1:150
Page 15 of 98
7.0 LOADS & COMBINATION LOAD CASES
Assuming only gravity loads are considered for the floor system. The following sketch shows gravity
load paths;
Figure 7.0.1 load paths
Figure 7.0.2 Vertical Load paths in a typical frame
Page 16 of 98
7.1 live loads
[AS1170.1, clause 3.4.1, table 3.1]
Q = 5.0 kN/m2
Note: largest possible live loading is selected due to amenities like the gym located on our floor
{areas with possible physical activities}
Note 2: 5.0 kN/m2 will be used for both level five and roof area.
7.2 Dead loads
[AS1170.1, Appendix A, table A1, A2]
a) Superimposed
Ceiling
Gypsum plaster
G (kN/m2)
0.13
Flooring
G (kN/m2)
Ceramic tiles
0.27
Granite flooring (15mm thick)
0.40
Terrazzo paving (16mm Thick)
0.43
Jacuzzi
3.27
2
Note: Jacuzzi load 3kN/m for water based on 710 people Jacuzzi, + 0.27kN/m2 for ceramic tiles
Note 2: The Terrazzo paving will only be used when calculating loadings for the roof.
b) Self weight
Outside walls
G (kN/m2)
Double glazed glass curtain
25.5 (kN/m3)
wall
Brick masonry (110mm wide)
0.19 per 10mm thickness
Note: it will be assumed that the Brick masonry is not loaded on the roof and will have no effect
.
[AS1170.1, Appendix A, table A1]
Reinforced concrete and assuming 0.5kN/m3 for steel reinforcement 1% by volume
Pw (density) = 24 +0.5 *1 = 24.5KN/m3
G = 24.5 kN/m3
Page 17 of 98
7.3 Area Calculations
a) Floor distributions
A10 = (6.9*5.6)/2 5.62/4 = 11.48m2
A24 = 42/4 = 4m2
A37 = (6.28*5.6)/2 5.62/4 = 9.74
Note: These calculations are for a few areas only, all area values were calculated the same as
these samples. For a full list of area values refer to Appendix A
b) T Beam cross section
Area cross section = 0.64*0.3 = 0.192m2
Note: the area of the stem was only calculated due as the selfweight of the slab will
account for the flanges. The trial size used for the selfweight is calculated in Appendix B
7.4 Uniformly Distributed loading
Beam 8
a) live Loads
B81
B82
B83
b) Dead loads
i) Superimposed
B81
B82
Page 18 of 98
B83
(
ii)Self  weight
TBeam
0.192m2 *24.5kN/m3 = 4.70kN/m
Slab
B81
B82
B82
Glass curtain wall
c) Total Loading
B81
Q = 8.32 kN/m
G = 0.67kN/m + 4.70kN/m+6.52kN/m + 1.10kN/m = 12.99kN/m
B82
Q = 5.00 kN/m
G = 0.40kN/m + 4.70kN/m+3.92kN/m + 1.10kN/m = 10.12kN/m
B83
Q = 7.75 kN/m
G = 4.52kN/m + 4.70kN/m+6.08N/m + 1.10kN/m = 16.40kN/m
Page 19 of 98
7.5 Combination Loading
[AS 1170.0 2002]
Beam 8
a) Ultimate strength
w* = max [1.35G; 1.2G +1.5Q]
[Clause 4.2.2]
B81
w* = 1.35*12.99kN/m = 17.54kN/m
w* = 1.20*12.99kN/m + 1.5*8.32kN/m = 28.07kN/m
Therefore w1* = 28.07kN/m
B82
w* = 1.35*10.12kN/m = 13.66kN/m
w* = 1.20*10.12kN/m + 1.5*5.00kN/m = 19.64kN/m
Therefore w1* = 19.64kN/m
B83
w* = 1.35*16.40kN/m = 22.14kN/m
w* = 1.20*16.40kN/m + 1.5*7.75kN/m = 31.31kN/m
Therefore w1* = 31.31kN/m
b) Maximum Serviceability loading
ws = max [G;G+sQ; G+ylQ]
s = 0.7 (table 4.1)
l = 0.4
0.7 gives higher value so calculate for short term.
[Clause 4.3]
B81
ws = 12.99kN/m
ws = 12.99kN/m + 0.7*8.32kN/m = 18.81kN/m
Therefore ws1 = 18.81kN/m
B82
ws = 10.12kN/m
ws = 10.12kN/m + 0.7*5.00kN/m = 13.62kN/m
Therefore ws1 = 13.62kN/m
B83
ws = 16.40kN/m
ws = 16.40kN/m + 0.7*7.75kN/m = 21.83kN/m
Therefore ws1 = 21.83kN/m
Page 20 of 98
In all spans the ultimate strength loads were the highest and should be used to determine bending moments.
Note 1: The fifth floor contained many different rooms all for specific purposes. Each room had
relatively the same superimposed dead loads except the Jacuzzi and walkways which had were larger.
Depending were the areas fell on the architectural plans determined which superimposed load it
carried. Also the outer beams are carrying dead loads from the double glazed glass curtain wall and
brick masonry.
Note 2: These calculations are for Beam 1 only, all other uniformly distributed loading for live and
dead loads for the other beam members and combination loading were all calculated in the same way
with just the values different. All values for uniformly distributed loadings and combination loadings
can be found in Appendix C
Page 21 of 98
8.0 BEAM ANALYSIS
8.1 Bending moment calculations
[AS 36002009, clause 6.10]
Moment Calculations may be used from clause 6.10.2.2 provided that clause 6.10.2.1 is satisfied.
a) Negative moments
Beam 8
B81
Left
M* = FdLn2/16 =  28.07kN/m*(6.1m) 2/16 = 65.28kNm
Middle
M* = FdLn2/11 = 28.07kN/m*(6.1m) 2/11 = 94.81kNm
Right
M* = FdLn2/10 =  28.07kN/m*(6.1m)2/10 = 104.45kNm
B82
Left
M* = FdLn2/10 =  19.65kN/m*(3.7m) 2/10 = 26.9kNm
Middle
M* = FdLn2/16 = 19.65kN/m*(3.7m) 2/16= 16.81kNm
Right
M* = FdLn2/10 =  19.65kN/m*(3.7m)2/10 = 26.9kNm
B83
Left
M* = FdLn2/10 =  31.32kN/m*(6.1m) 2/10 = 116.53kNm
Middle 11
M* = FdLn2/11 = 31.32kN/m*(6.1m) 2/11= 105.93kNm
Right
M* = FdLn2/16 = 31.32kN/m*(6.1m) 2/16 = 72.83kNm
Page 22 of 98
Note1: Only negative moments were needed to be calculated for the design of the columns. Shear
forces were not needed as the design axial loads were supplied to us, as a full structural analysis is out
of the scope for this project.
Note2: It is stated that clause 6.10.2.1 needs to be satisfied to use the simplified method. This is not
for all beam members. The simplified method is still used for all calculations for simplicity as a full
detailed structural analysis is out of our scope.
Note 3: Ln is clear length which is the distance between the faces of the columns.
Note4: The rest of the moment values can be found in Appendix D
Page 23 of 98
9.0 COLUMN ANALYSIS
9.1 Column sizes
Preliminary sizes were based from the architectural drawings provided and will be subject to review
in individual design of columns.
Column Trial Sizes:
C1
Column 1 with 800mm length and 300mm width
C2
Column 2 with 1000mm length and 300mm width
C3
Column 3 with Diameter of 500mm
C4
Column 4 with Diameter of 600mm
Page 24 of 98
9.2 Axial loads
Design axial loads are given to us as a full structural analysis is out of our scope and are provided in
the following table.
Column ID
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C110
C111
Axial Load (kN)
2,954
3,509
3,412
2,645
2,915
3,313
2,768
1,877
3,090
2,338
2,183
Column ID
C21
C22
C31
C32
C33
C34
C35
C4
Axial Load (kN)
3,643
4,094
3,080
3,216
3,366
3,249
3.039
3,823
9.3 Bending moment calculations
C31
X Direction
Right moment B51 left moment B52
= 138.979 kNm  80.358kNm = 58.621kNm
Ydirection
Right moment B123 left moment BB124
= 46.088 kNm  102.242 kNm = 56.154kNm
Note: All column moment values can be found in Appendix E
Page 25 of 98
APPENDIXES
Appendix A Slab Areas
Slab Sections
A1
A11
A12
A2
A21
A22
A3
A31
A32
A4
A41
A42
A5
A6
A7
A71
A72
A8
A81
A82
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A131
A132
Area (m2)
9
7
2
11.7
2.9
2.7
9
1
8
11.7
2
9.7
6.5
11.09
6.5
3.25
3.25
11.09
5.545
5.545
7.84
11.48
7.84
11.48
6.3
2.52
3.78
Slab Sections
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
A26
A27
A28
A29
A30
A31
A311
A312
A32
A33
A34
A341
A342
A35
A36
Area (m2)
7.2
2.52
0.9
1.26
1.26
6.2
4.9
6.2
4
7.2
4
7.2
4
7.6
3.29
7.6
3.29
6.5
3.25
3.25
9.51
6.5
6.13
3.75
2.38
3.38
7.84
Slab Sections
A361
A362
A37
A371
A372
A38
A381
A382
A39
A391
A392
A40
A41
A42
A43
A44
A45
A46
A47
A48
A49
A50
A51
A52
A53
A54
Area (m2)
0.96
6.88
9.74
8.16
1.58
7.84
1.41
6.43
9.74
2.56
7.18
8.94
7.62
8.94
7.62
6.5
7.58
6.5
7.58
5.15
5.15
5.15
3.6
3.6
3.06
2.46
Page 26 of 98
Appendix B Trial sections
Foster S.J., Kilpatrick A.E. & Warner R.F (2010) Beams. In Reinforced Concrete Basics, 2 nd ed., pp.77188. Sydney: Pearson Education Australia. Unless stated otherwise.
bw = 300
[p178]
bef = bw + 0.2a ; a = 0.7L
[209]
Designing for longest span, L = 6900mm
bef = 300 + 0.2 x 0.7 x 6900 = 986.00mm
Adopt 1300mm
tf
[Appendix C, Table C.3]
Depth of flange = depth of two way slab.
Designing for total deflection, heavy super imposed load and for largest slab;
Ly = 6900mm
Lx = 6000mm
Ly/Lx = 6900/6000 = 1.15 1
Lnx/50 =6000/38 = 157.89mm
Adopt 160mm
D
[Appendix C, Table C.1]
Design for heavy superimposed load, one end continuous and for longest span.
D = Ln/9; Ln = clear span = 6100mm
D = 6100/ 9 = 677.77 mm
Adopt 800mm
Page 27 of 98
Summary
bw
bef
tf
D
300mm
1300mm
160mm
800mm
Page 28 of 98
Appendix C Combination Load values
Level 5 (services)
Beam
B11
B12
B13
B21
B22
B23
B31
B32
B33
B41
B51
B52
B53
B61
B62
B71
B72
B81
B82
B83
B91
B92
B101
B102
B103
B104
B111
B121
B122
B123
B124
B125
B131
B141
B142
B151
B152
B153
B154
Uniform distribution
Loading
Total dead Total
load
live load
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
22.208
7.500
16.634
6.373
18.276
7.000
16.220
12.750
10.293
12.451
16.306
13.429
6.518
2.100
15.703
12.451
19.992
13.429
10.176
6.333
16.613
13.783
15.716
12.745
15.480
11.598
13.733
10.450
12.802
9.373
27.358
3.000
7.889
2.412
12.993
8.319
10.126
5.000
16.404
7.755
8.658
3.301
4.704
0.000
18.835
16.355
14.475
11.125
21.376
15.326
14.667
11.531
16.519
16.514
16.930
14.000
10.380
6.377
16.049
12.975
16.600
13.768
4.704
0.000
15.338
3.600
16.247
8.478
14.820
3.000
12.228
0.000
16.143
4.532
18.191
6.902
12.228
0.000
Combination loading
Length 1.35g
(m)
(kN/m)
6.000
29.981
5.100
22.456
5.600
24.673
6.000
21.897
5.100
13.895
5.600
22.013
6.000
8.800
5.100
21.198
5.600
26.989
6.000
13.738
6.000
22.427
5.100
21.216
5.600
20.898
6.000
18.539
5.100
17.283
6.000
36.933
5.100
10.651
6.900
17.541
4.000
13.670
6.280
22.145
7.800
11.688
1.700
6.350
6.900
25.427
4.000
19.542
6.280
28.858
5.520
19.800
6.900
22.300
4.000
22.856
2.650
14.013
3.630
21.666
5.520
22.410
1.350
6.350
1.250
20.707
6.900
21.933
2.100
20.007
2.650
16.508
3.630
21.794
5.520
24.558
1.350
16.508
1.2g+1.5Q g
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
37.900
22.208
29.520
16.634
32.431
18.276
38.589
16.220
31.028
10.293
39.710
16.306
10.972
6.518
37.520
15.703
44.133
19.992
21.711
10.176
40.610
16.613
37.977
15.716
35.974
15.480
32.154
13.733
29.421
12.802
37.329
27.358
13.085
7.889
28.070
12.993
19.651
10.126
31.317
16.404
15.341
8.658
5.645
4.704
47.134
18.835
34.058
14.475
48.641
21.376
34.896
14.667
44.594
16.519
41.316
16.930
22.022
10.380
38.721
16.049
40.572
16.600
5.645
4.704
23.806
15.338
32.213
16.247
22.284
14.820
14.674
12.228
26.170
16.143
32.183
18.191
14.674
12.228
g+Q
(kN/m)
27.458
21.095
23.176
25.145
19.008
25.706
7.988
24.418
29.392
14.609
26.261
24.637
23.599
21.048
19.363
29.458
9.578
18.816
13.626
21.832
10.969
4.704
30.283
22.263
32.104
22.738
28.079
26.730
14.844
25.132
26.237
4.704
17.858
22.181
16.920
12.228
19.316
23.023
12.228
Biggest
(kN/m)
37.900
29.520
32.431
38.589
31.028
39.710
10.972
37.520
44.133
21.711
40.610
37.977
35.974
32.154
29.421
37.329
13.085
28.070
19.651
31.317
15.341
6.350
47.134
34.058
48.641
34.896
44.594
41.316
22.022
38.721
40.572
6.350
23.806
32.213
22.284
16.508
26.170
32.183
16.508
Page 29 of 98
Roof
Beam
B11
B12
B13
B21
B22
B23
B31
B32
B33
B41
B51
B52
B53
B61
B62
B71
B72
B81
B82
B83
B91
B92
B101
B102
B103
B104
B111
B121
B122
B123
B124
B125
B131
B141
B142
B151
B152
B153
B154
Uniform distribution
Loading
Total dead Total
load
live load
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
11.229
7.500
9.141
6.373
10.794
7.000
15.797
12.750
10.248
12.451
16.387
13.429
6.531
2.100
15.536
12.451
16.387
13.429
10.214
6.333
16.696
13.783
15.792
12.745
14.794
11.598
13.796
10.450
12.858
9.373
27.466
3.000
7.904
2.412
13.043
8.319
10.156
5.000
12.552
7.755
8.678
3.301
4.704
0.000
18.933
16.355
14.383
11.125
18.038
15.326
14.736
11.531
15.226
16.514
16.884
14.000
10.252
6.377
15.992
12.975
16.682
13.768
4.704
0.000
15.360
3.600
12.080
8.478
14.838
3.000
12.228
0.000
8.647
4.532
10.709
6.902
4.704
0.000
Combination loading
Length 1.35g
(m)
(kN/m)
6.000
15.159
5.100
12.340
5.600
14.572
6.000
21.325
5.100
13.835
5.600
22.122
6.000
8.817
5.100
20.974
5.600
22.122
6.000
13.789
6.000
22.539
5.100
21.320
5.600
19.973
6.000
18.624
5.100
17.358
6.000
37.079
5.100
10.670
6.900
17.608
4.000
13.710
6.280
16.946
7.800
11.715
1.700
6.350
6.900
25.559
4.000
19.417
6.280
24.351
5.520
19.893
6.900
20.555
4.000
22.793
2.650
13.841
3.630
21.590
5.520
22.521
1.350
6.350
1.250
20.736
6.900
16.308
2.100
20.031
2.650
16.508
3.630
11.673
5.520
14.457
1.350
6.350
1.2g+1.5Q g
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
24.725
11.229
20.528
9.141
23.453
10.794
38.081
15.797
30.974
10.248
39.807
16.387
10.987
6.531
37.320
15.536
39.807
16.387
21.757
10.214
40.710
16.696
38.068
15.792
35.151
14.794
32.230
13.796
29.489
12.858
37.459
27.466
13.102
7.904
28.130
13.043
19.687
10.156
26.695
12.552
15.365
8.678
5.645
4.704
47.252
18.933
33.947
14.383
44.635
18.038
34.979
14.736
43.043
15.226
41.261
16.884
21.869
10.252
38.654
15.992
40.671
16.682
5.645
4.704
23.832
15.360
27.213
12.080
22.306
14.838
14.674
12.228
17.173
8.647
23.204
10.709
5.645
4.704
g+Q
(kN/m)
16.479
13.602
15.694
24.722
18.964
25.787
8.001
24.252
25.787
14.647
26.344
24.714
22.913
21.111
19.419
29.566
9.592
18.866
13.656
17.981
10.989
4.704
30.381
22.170
28.767
22.807
26.786
26.684
14.716
25.075
26.320
4.704
17.880
18.015
16.938
12.228
11.819
15.540
4.704
Biggest
(kN/m)
24.725
20.528
23.453
38.081
30.974
39.807
10.987
37.320
39.807
21.757
40.710
38.068
35.151
32.230
29.489
37.459
13.102
28.130
19.687
26.695
15.365
6.350
47.252
33.947
44.635
34.979
43.043
41.261
21.869
38.654
40.671
6.350
23.832
27.213
22.306
16.508
17.173
23.204
6.350
Page 30 of 98
Appendix D Beam moment values
Level 5 (service room)
Beam
Clear Length (m)
B11
B12
B13
B21
B22
B23
B31
B32
B33
B41
B51
B52
B53
B61
B62
B71
B72
B81
B82
B83
B91
B92
B101
B102
B103
B104
B111
B121
B122
B123
B124
B125
B131
B141
B142
B151
B152
B153
B154
5.700
4.800
5.300
5.230
4.970
4.950
3.600
4.400
4.500
4.700
5.850
4.600
5.100
5.600
4.600
5.700
3.520
6.100
3.700
6.100
7.375
1.570
5.950
3.550
6.100
5.020
6.000
2.300
1.650
3.450
5.020
0.800
1.250
6.100
1.800
2.350
3.000
4.750
0.700
Left Moment
(kNm)
76.960
68.014
91.099
65.970
76.641
97.300
8.887
72.638
89.370
29.975
86.862
80.358
93.567
63.023
69.172
50.534
18.014
65.280
26.902
116.530
52.152
52.385
104.292
42.921
164.539
87.940
100.337
13.660
5.995
41.898
102.242
138.681
2.325
74.916
8.022
5.698
23.553
72.613
78.897
Middle Moment
(kNm)
111.942
42.509
82.817
95.956
47.901
88.455
12.927
45.399
81.245
43.600
126.344
50.224
85.061
91.669
56.595
110.257
14.739
94.953
16.814
105.936
75.857
1.423
151.698
26.826
113.120
79.945
145.945
19.869
3.747
28.805
63.902
0.369
3.382
108.969
6.564
8.288
14.720
45.383
0.735
Right Moment
(kNm)
123.136
68.014
56.937
105.552
76.641
60.813
14.220
72.638
55.856
263.935
138.979
80.358
58.480
112.040
38.909
134.758
6.755
104.448
26.902
72.831
52.152
0.000
166.867
39.019
180.992
54.962
100.337
21.856
5.450
46.088
63.902
0.169
0.422
133.184
4.513
9.116
23.553
45.383
0.337
Page 31 of 98
Roof
Beam
Clear Length (m)
B11
B12
B13
B21
B22
B23
B31
B32
B33
B41
B51
B52
B53
B61
B62
B71
B72
B81
B82
B83
B91
B92
B101
B102
B103
B104
B111
B121
B122
B123
B124
B125
B131
B141
B142
B151
B152
B153
B154
5.700
4.800
5.300
5.230
4.970
4.950
3.600
4.400
4.500
4.700
5.850
4.600
5.100
5.600
4.600
5.700
3.520
6.100
3.700
6.100
7.375
1.570
5.950
3.550
6.100
5.020
6.000
2.300
1.650
3.450
5.020
0.800
1.250
6.100
1.800
2.350
3.000
4.750
0.700
Left Moment
(kNm)
50.207
47.297
65.879
65.101
76.509
97.537
8.900
72.252
80.609
30.038
87.074
80.553
91.427
63.170
69.331
50.710
18.038
65.419
26.951
99.332
52.233
52.455
104.553
42.781
150.989
88.149
96.846
13.642
5.954
41.825
102.492
139.105
2.327
63.288
8.030
5.698
15.456
52.354
78.858
Middle Moment
(kNm)
73.028
29.560
59.890
94.693
47.818
88.670
12.945
45.157
73.281
43.692
126.653
50.345
83.115
91.884
56.725
110.639
14.758
95.156
16.844
90.301
75.975
1.423
152.077
26.738
103.805
80.135
140.868
19.843
3.721
28.755
64.058
0.369
3.385
92.056
6.570
8.288
9.660
32.721
0.283
Right Moment
(kNm)
80.331
47.297
41.174
104.162
76.509
60.961
14.239
72.252
50.381
265.045
139.318
80.553
57.142
112.302
38.999
135.226
6.764
104.671
26.951
62.082
52.233
0.000
167.284
38.892
166.088
55.093
96.846
21.827
5.413
46.008
64.058
0.169
0.423
112.513
4.517
9.116
15.456
32.721
0.130
Page 32 of 98
Appendix E Column Moments
columns
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C110
C111
C21
C22
C31
C32
C33
C34
C35
C4
x direction
bottom
moment
top moment
76.96
50.21
55.12
33.03
23.08
18.58
56.94
41.17
65.97
65.10
60.81
60.96
55.86
50.38
29.98
30.04
263.94
265.04
86.86
87.07
63.02
63.17
58.42
58.01
16.73
8.36
58.62
58.77
13.21
10.87
95.35
91.07
42.87
42.97
50.28
35.02
20.66
21.03
y direction
bottom
moment
top moment
74.92
63.29
100.34
96.85
104.29
104.55
65.28
65.42
125.16
104.48
77.55
77.72
89.63
72.38
14.44
6.34
36.45
36.41
49.06
36.90
124.28
111.58
15.86
15.87
125.52
112.10
56.15
56.48
93.05
77.94
35.96
25.152
202.58
203.16
144.15
129.11
123.95
124.50
Page 33 of 98
Appendix F Beam Load summary sketches + Moment Diagrams
Level 5 (service room)
Beam 1
37.90 kN/m
32.43 kN/m
29.52 kN/m
L = 6.00 m
Ln = 5.70 m
L = 5.10 m
Ln = 4.80 m
L = 5.60 m
Ln = 5.30 m
123.14
91.10
76.96
68.01
68.01
56.94
42.51
82.82
111.94
Page 34 of 98
Beam 2
38.59 kN/m
39.71 kN/m
31.03 kN/m
L = 6.00 m
L = 5.10 m
L = 5.60 m
Ln = 4.95 m
105.55 Ln = 4.97 m
Ln = 5.23 m
76.64
65.97
97.30
76.64
60.81
47.90
88.45
95.96
Beam 3
41.13 kN/m
37.52 kN/m
10.97 kN/m
L = 6.00 m
Ln = 3.60 m
L = 5.10 m
Ln = 4.40 m
L = 5.60 m
Ln = 4.50 m
89.37
72.64
72.64
55.86
14.22
8.89
12.93
Page 35 of 98
45.40
Beam 4
21.71 kN/m
L = 6.00 m
Ln = 4.70 m
263.94
29.98
43.60
Beam 5
40.61 kN/m
37.98 kN/m
35.97 kN/m
L = 6.00 m
Ln = 5.85 m
L = 5.60 m
L = 5.10 m
Ln = 4.60 m
Ln = 5.10 m
138.98
86.86
80.36
80.36
93.57
58.48
50.22
85.06
126.34
Page 36 of 98
Beam 6
32.14 kN/m
29.42 kN/m
L = 5.10 m
Ln = 4.60 m
L = 6.00 m
Ln = 5.60 m
112.04
69.17
63.02
38.91
56.60
91.67
Beam 7
37.33 kN/m
13.09 kN/m
L = 6.00 m
Ln = 5.70 m
L = 5.10 m
Ln = 3.52 m
134.76
50.53
18.01
6.76
14.74
Page 37 of 98
110.26
Beam 8
28.07 kN/m
31.32 kN/m
19.65 kN/m
6.28
L = 6.90
4.00 m
Ln = 6.10 m
Ln = 3.70 m
Ln = 6.10 m
116.53
104.45
72.83
65.28
26.90
26.90
16.81
94.95
105.94
Beam 9
15.34 kN/m
L = 7.80 m
Ln = 7.38 m
52.15
6.35 kN/m
L = 1.70 m
Ln = 2.57 m
52.15
1.42 0.00
52.39
75.86
Page 38 of 98
Beam
10
48.64 kN/m
47.13 kN/m
34.90 kN/m
34.06 kN/m
L = 4.00 m
Ln = 3.55 m
L = 6.90 m
Ln = 5.95 m
166.87
L = 5.52 m
Ln = 5.02 m
L = 6.28 m
Ln =6.10 m
180.99
164.54
104.29
87.94
42.92
Beam 11
54.96
39.02
26.83
44.59 kN/m
79.95
113.12
151.70
L = 6.90 m
Ln = 6.00 m
100.34
100.34
145.94
Page 39 of 98
Beam 12
40.57 kN/m
38.72 kN/m
41.32 kN/m
22.02 kN/m
6.35 kN/m
L = 4.00 m
Ln = 2.30 m
L = 3.63 m
Ln = 3.45 m
L = 2.65 m
Ln = 1.65 m
L = 5.52 m
Ln = 5.02 m
L = 1.35 m
Ln = 0.8 m
102.24
63.90
46.09
41.90
21.86
6.00
13.66
19.87
3.75
5.45
0.370.17
28.81
63.90
Beam 13
23.81 kN/m
138.68
L = 1.25 m
2.32
Ln = 1.25 m
0.42
3.38
Page 40 of 98
Beam 14
32.21 kN/m
22.28 kN/m
= 6.00 m
L = 6.90L m
Ln = 2.10 m
Ln = 1.80 m
133.18
74.92
8.02
6.56
4.51
108.97
Beam 15
32.18 kN/m
26.17 kN/m
16.51 kN/m
16.51 kN/m
Ln =2.35 m
L = 3.63 m
Ln = 4.75 m
L = 2.65 m
Ln = 3.00 m
L = 1.35
L = 5.52
m m
Ln = 0.70 m
72.61
45.38
9.12
23.55
23.55
0.74
5.70
8.29
0.34
14.72
45.38
Page 41 of 98
78.90
Appendix F column moment diagrams
Column
C11
X direction
Y direction
C12
C13
C14
Page 42 of 98
C15
C16
C17
Page 43 of 98
C18
C19
C110
Page 44 of 98
C111
C21
C22
Page 45 of 98
C31
C32
C33
Page 46 of 98
C34
C35
C4
Page 47 of 98
Page 48 of 98
Chapter 2.Individual Work
1.0 Introduction
Following the proposal of a new 6 floor building development in the Greater Geelong area, our
design team has been engaged as the structural design team responsible for the design and
analysis of a reinforced concrete design package that includes a detailed concrete columns,
shear wall and footing analysis and design for the 5th floor service space of the building. This
assignment will include a full reinforced concrete design of the selected 5 columns (four
rectangular and one circular) located on the fifth floor of the building as shown in the figure
below. The group assignment which includes design concept and assumptions, Loads &
Combination load cases, floor plans and sections, structural analysis and structural analysis has
been included.
A full set of architectural drawings has been provided. Also provided are detailed engineering
drawings showing dimensions of the floor, beam and column and wall placement with details of
spacings, gridlines and selected elements for simplistic analysis. Placement of some of the structural
members has been relocated ensuring it has no carry on effect on the car parking, in order to
simplify analysis. All designs delivered to the client will meet all relevant Australian Standards for
Reinforced Concrete Design. Also factors such as safety, strength, ductility, cost and aesthetics are all
considered during the design.
Page 49 of 98
2.0 Updates to Group Work
2.1 General Requirements
2.1.1 Exposure classification
Based on our location and building type we select a exposure class of A2, also assuming sealed tiles
for waterproofing {Non residential, temperate climate [refer to table 4.3 AS36002009]}
2.1.2 Fire resistance
Assumption is that the building is designed for a fire resistance period of 90 minutes.
2.1.3 Cover
Based on selected characteristic strength of our concrete (fc), which is selected as 40MPa, a
exposure class of A2, the required concrete cover for corrosion protection will be 20mm {refer to
table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
Cover
as (axis distance)
2.1.4 Slab Thickness
Slab thickness is assumed to be 150mm thick. Since minimum thickness for fire resistance
protection is 90mm {table 5.5.1, AS3600.2009}
Therefore since D=150mm > 90mm, assumption is ok.
2.1.5 Material Properties
Concrete characteristics;

Assuming fc = 40MPa
Checking minimum strength requirements for concrete, minimum fc required for the
exposure A2 is 20MPa.
Since fc = 40MPa >20MPaconcrete strength is ok
Ec = 32800 MPa {table 3.2.1, AS3600.2009}
Reinforcement characteristics;

Use N12 reinforcement
Yield strength, fsy =500MPa
Page 50 of 98
2.2 Loading
Live loads
Q = 5.0 kN/m2 [AS1170.1, clause 3.4.1, table 3.1]
Note: largest possible live loading is selected due to amenities like the gym located on our floor
{areas with possible physical activities}
Note 2: 5.0 kN/m2 will be used for both level five and roof area.
Dead Loads
a) Superimposed [AS1170.1, Appendix A, table A1, A2]
Ceiling
Gypsum plaster
G (kN/m2)
0.13
Flooring
G (kN/m2)
Ceramic tiles
0.27
Granite flooring (15mm thick)
0.40
Terrazzo paving (16mm Thick)
0.43
Jacuzzi
3.27
2
Note: Jacuzzi load 3kN/m for water based on 710 people Jacuzzi, + 0.27kN/m2 for ceramic tiles
Note 2: The Terrazzo paving will only be used when calculating loadings for the roof.
b) Self weight
Outside walls
G (kN/m2)
Double glazed glass curtain
25.5 (kN/m3)
wall
Brick masonry (110mm wide)
0.19 per 10mm thickness
Note: it will be assumed that the Brick masonry is not loaded on the roof and will have no effect
Reinforced concrete and assuming 0.5kN/m3 for steel reinforcement 1% by volume
[AS1170.1, Appendix A, table A1]
Pw (density) = 24 +0.5 *1 = 24.5KN/m3
G = 24.5 kN/m3
Page 51 of 98
3.0 Column Design
3.1 Column C11
3.1.1 General Requirements
3.1.1.1 Exposure Classification & fire Resistance
The column is designed for exposure classification A2 and a fire resistance of 90 minutes.
3.1.1.2 Material Properties & Section
Concrete: fc = 40MPa
Reinforcement: Fsy = 500MPa, N28 bars for longitudinal reinforcement and N10 for ligatures
Trial Section;
The cross sectional area Ag, and hence diameter D, of the rectangular column can be estimated from
(Refer to lecture notes) ;
Ag = N* / 0.6(2* fc + fsy * P);
Where fc =40MPa and 2 =0.85 and fsy =500MPa
Assume a total steel ratio of 2% which is within the recommended limits of 1%  4% {refer to clause
410.7.1 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore;
350mm
Ag = 2954 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 112 *103 mm2
Because for a rectangular section Ag=b *D
Therefore; D = 335 mm
Note: In order to take into account the effect of
350mm
bending moment we will try a larger section, say, D=350mm.
Page 52 of 98
3.1.1.3 Concrete Cover, Axis Distance
Concrete cover for corrosion protection: The required cover (for exposure class A2 concrete with fc
=40MPa) to the ligature is 20mm {refer to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore, the required cover to the main bar (longitudinal reinforcement) is;
C = 20 +10 =30 mm (10mm is the diameter of the ligature).
3.1.1.4 Axis distance for Fire Resistance
 Assume N* f /Nu = 0.7, where N*f is the design axial load in fire situation and Nu is the ultimate
strength in compression. {Refer to clause 5.6.3 AS3600.2009}
For FRP = 90 minutes and column design D=350 mm; axis distance can be sufficiently taken as
53mm {refer to table 5.6.3AS3600.2009}.
The concrete cover to main bar corresponding to this value of axis distance is
C = as (1/2 * diameter of bar) = 53 (1/2 *28) = 39mm > 30mm (cover for corrosion protection)
Therefore we will adopt
Cover (c) = 40mm (to the face of main bar)
Axis distance (as) = 55mm (to the centre of main bar)
Therefore, the ratio of distance between outer reinforcement to the overall diameter is:
g = g *D /D = (D 2*as)/D = (350  (2*53))/ 350 = 0.7
3.1.2 Design Loads
Because the full structural analysis of the building is out of the scope of this project, the design axial
load for the column under consideration will be taken from the information provided to us in the
architectural and engineering drawings.
Therefore; N* =2954 KN {refer to pp 26; group work}
Assume that a minimum bending moment of 0.05 * D * N* will be considered {refer to table
4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
M*x = M*y = 0.05 * 0.35 * 2954 = 52KNm
Therefore the resultant bending moment
M* = (M*x)2 + (M*y)2 = (52)2 + (52)2 = 74KNm
Page 53 of 98
3.1.3 Biaxial Bending and compression
(Refer to clause 10.6.4 AS.36002009)
(M*x/Mux)n + (M*y/Muy)n 1.0
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo)within the limits 1 n 2
Therefore
Nuo= 1* fc *Ag + As* Fsy = 0.85 * 40 *112*103 +1232 *500 = 4424
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo) = 0.7 + (1.7*2954) / (0.6 * 5313.2) =2.0 2.0...therefore ok.
For P=0.01; Mux =450; Muy = 300
(52/450)2 + (52/300)2 = 0.03 1.0.Therefore design is ok.
3.1.4 Column Reinforcement Requirements
 Minimum Reinforcement: 0.01 * Ag
 Maximum Reinforcement: 0.04 * Ag
Where gross column area;
Ag = 2954 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 112 *103 mm2
Stresses due to design loading
N*/Ag = 2954 *103 / (112 *103) mm2= 26 Mpa
 M*/Ag*D = 74 *106 / (112 *103) *350 = 1.9 MPa
Assuming that the column is a short column (assumption to be verified)
As a trial we use 4N28 Bars as reinforcement
Therefore;
As = 282 * *2 /4 = 1232mm2
Therefore
P = As / Ag = 1232/ 112*103 = 0.011
Min Reinforcement = 0.01 * 112 *103 = 1120 mm2
Maximum Reinforcement = 0.04 * 112*103= 4480mm2
Therefore, since
1120 mm2 < As (1232mm2 ) <4480mm2
Therefore the assumption here is adequate, adopt 4N28 bars.
Page 54 of 98
The steel ratio adopted is 1.1 % which is within the recommended limits of 1% to 4% {refer to clause
10.7.1, AS 36002009}
Diameter and spacing of fitments and helices
The minimum bar diameter of fitment and helices =10 for bars 2428mm {refer to clause 10.7.4.3, AS
36002009}
S {D, 15* db} = {350, 15*28=420} = 350mm.
Therefore adopt N10 @150mm tie
3.1.5 Check If Column Is Short
Unsupported length of column: Lu = 3600 350 = 3250mm
Icolumn = b * d3 /12 = 350 *3503 /12 =1.25 * 109 mm4
Ibeam= b * d3 /12 = 640 * 3003 /12 = 1.4 * 109 mm4
= 1.0 for fixity factor {refer to table 10.5.4. AS 3600.2009}
1 = 2 = (1.25 * 109 / 3250)/ ((1*1.4*109)/6000) = 1.7
assume the column is braced (as there are shear walls and shear core in the building), the effective
length of the column is;
Le= K*Lu = 0.9 * Lu = 0.9 * 3250 = 2925mm {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Radius of gyration of cross section {Refer to clause 10.5.2, AS 36002009}.:
r= 0.3 *D = 0.3*350 = 105mm
Therefore, a column shall be deemed short where Le/r 25 {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Slenderness ratio;
Le/r = 2925 /105 = 28 < 120, Therefore slenderness ratio is ok.
Le/r = 2925 /105 = 28 >25, Column is not short.
Since column is not short, work out moment magnification.
3.1.6 Moment Magnifier
assume the column is braced (as there are shear walls and shear core in the building),
Km = 0.60.4(M*1 / M*2) 0.4
=0.60.4(52 / 52) 0.4
=0.2 0.4; therefore ok.
d= NG/NG+NQ = 24.5/24.5+5 = 0.8
Page 55 of 98
Nc= (2/le2)*(182*do ** Mub/ 1+ d)=(2/2.9252) *( (182 *(350*0.8*103)*(495*106))/ 1+ 0.8 )=
16200KN
For braced condition:
b = Km / 1 (N*/Nc) = 0.2 / 1(2954/ 16200) = 0.24
For unbraced condition:
b = 1 / 1 (N*/Nc) = 1 / 1(2954/16200) =1.2
Therefore; Max (0.24; 1.2). Therefore the moment magnification factor = 1.2
M*max = * M*2 = 1.2 * 1.9 =2.28 MPa
3.1.7 ColumnInteraction diagram
Point 1
Assume uniform compression, no bending moment: Mu =0
Asc= Ast = 282 * *2 /4 = 1232mm2
Ac = 3502 2*1232 =120036 mm2
For Fc= 40MPa, the coefficient 1= 1.00.003 *40 =0.88, therefore 1=0.85
Nuo = 0.85 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 120036 + 500 *(1232+1232)) /103 =5313.2KN
Therefore coordinate of point 1 = (0, 5313.2)
Point 2
*Ku =1.0; Neutral axis dn =d
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 40mm
Tie = 10mm
Rebar = 28mm
Page 56 of 98
dsc = 40 + 10 + 28/2 = 64mm.
d=35064 = 286mm
sc = u (knd dsc/ kud) = 0.003 * (ddsc/d) = 0.003* (28664/286) =0.0023
=1.050.007*fc =0.77
within limits of 0.670.770.85.therefore ok.
Therefore since sc =0.0023 < sy =0.0025, Therefore bars have not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0023 =460 N/mm2
Cs = sc * Asc = 460 * 1232 = 566720 /1000 = 567KN.
T = 0, because neutral axis lies on d
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *1 *286 *350)/1000
=2620.6KN
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 2620.6 + 567 0 = 3187.6KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 286 0.5 * 0.77 * 1 * 286 =175.89mm
Zsc = ddsc = 286 64 =222mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (2797.6 * 175.89 + 567 *222)/3187.6= 194mm
e = h(ddg)=194(286 350/2) =83mm
Mu = Nu *e = 3187.6 * 0.083 =264.5 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 2 (264.5, 3187.6)
Point 3
*Ku =0.545
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc /( 0.545 *28)5= 0.003/ 0.545 *28
Therefore; sc =0.0020
Therefore; sc = 0.0020 < y = 0.0025 Therefore compression bar not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0020 =400 N/mm2 > 500N/mm2...therefore ok.
Cs = sc * Asc = 400 * 1232 = 566720 /1000 = 493KN.
Page 57 of 98
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *0.545 *286 *350)/1000
=1428.2KN
T = fsy * Asc = (500 * 1232)/1000= 616KN
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 1428.2 + 493 616 = 1305.2 KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 286 0.5 * 0.77 * 0.545 * 286 = 226mm
Zsc = ddsc = 286 64 =222mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (1428.52 * 222 + 493 *222)/1305.2 = 327mm
e = h(ddg) =327 (286 350/2) = 216mm
Mu = Nu *e = 1305.2 * 0.216 =281.9 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 3 (281.9, 1305.2)
Point 4
*Ku =Not known, must be calculated iteratively
*Zero compression, strain in compression steel smaller than sy.
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 40mm
Tie = 10mm
Rebar = 28mm
dsc = 40 + 10 + 28/2 = 64mm.
d=35064 = 286mm
Ast = Asc = 2 *282 * /4 =1232mm2
Nu = 0 = Cc + Cs T
0 =0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
Therefore by similar triangle;
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc = (u/ kud)
* (kud dsc)
sc = sc * Es = (u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc) where Es= 200,000MPa
Therefore;
Page 58 of 98
0 = 0.85*fc* *ku *d*b + ((u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc))*Asc fsy *Ast
0= 0.85 *40 *0.077 * 286 *350 *Ku + (0.003*200000/286*Ku)*((286*Ku)64)* 1232 500*1232
0= 279759.48 *Ku2 171568.32 *ku +123200
Therefore Ku = 0.28
Therefore;
0=0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
0 =0.85 * 40 * 0.77 * 0.28 *286 *350 +1232 * sc 500*1232
sc = 95.5 N/mm2
Cc = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b
=0.85 * 40* 0.77 *0.28 * 286*350 = 733.7 KN
Cs= Es * sc * Asc = 200000 * 0.0003 *1232 =148 KN.
Zc = d 0.5 * *ku *d = 286 0.5 *0.77 *0.28 *28 = 283mm
Zsc = d dsc = 28664 =222mm
Mu = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc = ((733.7/1000) * 283) + ((148/1000) * 222) = 240.5KN.m
Therefore; the coordinate of point 4 (240.5, 0)
ColumnInteraction Diagram
N
1 (0, 5313.2)
2 (264.5, 3187.6)
3 (281.9, 1305.2)
M
4 (240.5, 0)
Page 59 of 98
3.1.8 Summary
Summary Column C11

Rectangular column
D= 350mm
Longitudinal Reinforcement = 4N28
Tie (Ligature) = N10@150mm.
350mm
N10@150
350mm
4N28
N* =2954 KN
Page 60 of 98
3.2 Column C12
3.2.1 General Requirements
3.2.1.1 Exposure Classification & fire Resistance
The column is designed for exposure classification A2 and a fire resistance of 90 minutes.
3.2.1.2 Material Properties & Section
Concrete: fc = 40MPa
Reinforcement: Fsy = 500MPa, N32 bars for longitudinal reinforcement and N12 for ligatures
Trial Section;
The cross sectional area Ag, and hence diameter D, of the rectangular column can be estimated from
(Refer to lecture notes) ;
Ag = N* / 0.6(2* fc + fsy * P);
Where fc =40MPa and 2 =0.85 and fsy =500MPa
Assume a total steel ratio of 2% which is within the recommended limits of 1%  4% {refer to clause
410.7.1 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore;
Ag = 3509 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 133 *103 mm2
Because for a rectangular section Ag=b *D (Assuming b=350mm)
Therefore; D = 380 mm
Note: In order to take into account the effect of bending moment we will try a larger section, say,
D= 450mm.
Page 61 of 98
3.2.1.3 Concrete Cover, Axis Distance
Concrete cover for corrosion protection: The required cover (for exposure class A2 concrete with fc
=40MPa) to the ligature is 20mm {refer to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore, the required cover to the main bar (longitudinal reinforcement) is;
C = 20 +12 =32 mm (12mm is the diameter of the ligature).
3.2.1.4 Axis distance for Fire Resistance
 Assume N* f /Nu = 0.7, where N*f is the design axial load in fire situation and Nu is the ultimate
strength in compression. {Refer to clause 5.6.3 AS3600.2009}
For FRP = 90 minutes and column design D=450 mm can be sufficiently taken as 50mm {refer to
table 5.6.3AS3600.2009}.
The concrete cover to main bar corresponding to this value of axis distance is
C = as (1/2 * diameter of bar) = 50 (1/2 *32) = 32mm > 30mm (cover for corrosion protection)
Therefore we will adopt
Cover (c) = 32mm (to the face of main bar)
Axis distance (as) = 50mm (to the centre of main bar)
Therefore, the ratio of distance between outer reinforcement to the overall diameter is:
g = g *D /D = (D 2*as)/D = (450  (2*50))/ 450 = 0.78
3.2.2 Design Loads
Because the full structural analysis of the building is out of the scope of this project, the design axial
load for the column under consideration will be taken from the information provided to us in the
architectural and engineering drawings.
Therefore; N* =3509KN {refer to pp 26; Group work}
Assume that a minimum bending moment of 0.05 * D * N* will be considered {refer to table
4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
M*x = 0.05 * 0.35 * 3509= 61.4KNm
M*y= 0.05 * 0.45 * 3509 = 79KNm
Therefore the resultant bending moment
M* = (M*x)2 + (M*y)2 = (61.4)2 + (79)2 = 100.05KNm
Page 62 of 98
3.2.3 Biaxial Bending and compression
(Refer to clause 10.6.4 AS.36002009)
(M*x/Mux)n + (M*y/Muy)n 1.0
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo)within the limits 1 n 2
Therefore
Nuo = 0.85 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 199284 + 500 *(1608+1608)) /103 =8384KN
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo) = 0.7 + (1.7*3509) / (0.6 * 8384) =1.89 2.0...therefore ok.
For P=0.01; Mux =400; Muy = 280
(61.4/400)1.89 + (79/280)1.89 = 0.08 1.0.Therefore design is ok.
3.2.4 Column Reinforcement Requirements
 Minimum Reinforcement: 0.01 * Ag
 Maximum Reinforcement: 0.04 * Ag
Where gross column area;
Ag = 3509 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 133 *103 mm2
Stresses due to design loading
N*/Ag = 3509 *103 / (133 *103) mm2= 26.4 Mpa
 M*/Ag*D = 100.05 *106 / (133 *103) *450 = 1.88 MPa
Assuming that the column is a short column (assumption to be verified)
As a trial we use 4N32 Bars as reinforcement
Therefore;
As = 322 * *2 /4 = 1609mm2
Therefore
P = As / Ag = 1609/ 133*103 = 0.012
Min Reinforcement = 0.01 * 133 *103 = 1330 mm2
Maximum Reinforcement = 0.04 * 133*103= 5320mm2
Therefore, since
1330 mm2 < As (1609mm2 ) <5320mm2
Therefore the assumption here is adequate, adopt 4N32 bars.
Page 63 of 98
The steel ratio adopted is 1.2 % which is within the recommended limits of 1% to 4% {refer to clause
10.7.1, AS 36002009}
Diameter and spacing of fitments and helices
The minimum bar diameter of fitment and helices =12 for bars 2832mm.{refer to clause 10.7.4.3, AS
36002009}
S { D, 15* db} = {450 , 15*32=480 } = 480mm.
Therefore adopt N12 @150mm tie
3.2.5 Check If Column Is Short
Unsupported length of column: Lu = 3600 450 = 3150mm
Icolumn = b * d3 /12 = 350 *4503 /12 = 2.7 * 109 mm4
Ibeam= b * d3 /12 = 640 * 3003 /12 = 1.4 * 109 mm4
= 1.0 for fixity factor {refer to table 10.5.4. AS 3600.2009}
1 = 2 = (2.7 * 109 / 3150)/ ((1*1.4*109)/5100) = 1.3
assume the column is braced (as there are shear walls and shear core in the building), the effective
length of the column is;
Le= K*Lu = 0.9 * Lu = 0.9 * 3150 = 2835mm {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Radius of gyration of cross section {Refer to clause 10.5.2, AS 36002009}.:
r= 0.3 *D = 0.3*450 = 135mm
Therefore, a column shall be deemed short where Le/r 25 {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Slenderness ratio;
Le/r = 2835 /135 = 21 < 120, Therefore slenderness ratio is ok.
Le/r = 2835 /135 = 21 <25,
The maximum slenderness ratio for a short column is the greater of 25 and
c*(38 fc/15)*(1+M*1/M*2) {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Where;
c = 2.25 2.5 (N* /0.6*Nuo) = 2.25 2.5 (26.4/ 31) =0.7
Therefore slenderness ratio limit for a short column is
0.7*(38 40/15)*(1+61.4/79) = 43.9 > 25
Page 64 of 98
Therefore it can be seen that the slenderness ratio of the column under consideration is less than
the slenderness ratio limit:
Le/r = 21 < c*(38 fc/15)*(1+M*1/M*2) =43.9.
Therefore, the column can be designed as a short column which does not require moment
magnification.
3.2.6 ColumnInteraction diagram
Point 1
Assume uniform compression, no bending moment: Mu =0
Asc= Ast = 322 * *2 /4 = 1608mm2
Ac = 4502 2*1608 =199284 mm2
For Fc= 40MPa, the coefficient 1= 1.00.003 *40 =0.88; therefore 1=0.85
Nuo = 0.85 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 199284 + 500 *(1608+1608)) /103 =8384KN
Therefore coordinate of point 1 = (0, 8384)
Point 2
*Ku =1.0; Neutral axis dn =d
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 32mm
Tie = 12mm
Rebar = 32mm
dsc = 32 + 12 + 32/2 = 60mm.
d=45060 = 390mm
sc = u (knd dsc/ kud) = 0.003 * (ddsc/d) = 0.003* (39060/390) =0.0024
=1.050.007*fc =0.77
within limits of 0.670.770.85.therefore ok.
Page 65 of 98
Therefore since sc =0.0024 < sy =0.0025, Therefore bars have not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0024 =480 N/mm2
Cs = sc * Asc = 480 * 1608 = 771840/1000 = 772KN.
T = 0, because neutral axis lies on d
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *1 *390 *350)/1000
=3573.6KN
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 3573.6 + 772 0 = 4345.6KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 390 0.5 * 0.77 * 1 * 389 =240mm
Zsc = ddsc = 390 60 = 330mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (3573.6 * 240 + 772 *330)/4345.6 = 256mm
e = h(ddg)= 256  (390 450/2) =91mm
Mu = Nu *e = 4345.6 * 0.091 =395.4 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 2 (395.4, 4345.6)
Point 3
*Ku =0.545
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc /( 0.545 *32)5= 0.003/ 0.545 *32
Therefore; sc =0.0021
Therefore; sc = 0.0021 < y = 0.0025 Therefore compression bar not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0021 =420 N/mm2
Cs = sc * Asc = 420 * 1608 = 675360 /1000 = 675.36KN.
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *0.545 *390 *350)/1000
=1947.6KN
T = fsy * Asc = (500 * 1608)/1000= 804KN
Page 66 of 98
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 1947.6+ 675.36 804 = 1818.9 KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 390 0.5 * 0.77 * 1 * 390 = 240mm
Zsc = ddsc = 390 60 =330mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (1947.6 * 240 + 675.36 *330)/1818.9 = 380mm
e = h(ddg) =380 (390 450/2) = 215mm
Mu = Nu *e = 2400.7 * 0.215 = 516.2 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 3 (516.2, 1818.9)
Point 4
*Ku =Not known, must be calculated iteratively
*Zero compression, strain in compression steel smaller than sy.
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 32mm
Tie = 12mm
Rebar = 32mm
dsc = 32 + 12 + 32/2 = 60mm.
d=45060 = 390mm
Ast = Asc = 2 *322 * /4 = 1608mm2
Nu = 0 = Cc + Cs T
0 =0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
Therefore by similar triangle;
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc = (u/ kud)
* (kud dsc)
sc = sc * Es = (u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc) where Es= 200,000MPa
Therefore;
0 = 0.85*fc* *ku *d*b + ((u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc))*Asc fsy *Ast
0= 0.85 *40 *0.077 * 390 *350 *Ku + (0.003*200000/389*Ku)*((389*Ku)61)* 1608 500*1608
Page 67 of 98
0= 381490.2 *Ku2 171568.32 *ku +123200
Therefore Ku = 0.24
Therefore;
0=0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
0 =0.85 * 40 * 0.77 * 0.24 *390 *350 + sc *1608 500*1608
sc = 33.4 N/mm2
Cc = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b
=0.85 * 40* 0.77 *0.24 * 390*350 = 857.7 KN
Cs= Es * sc * Asc = 200000 * 0.0003 *1608 = 96.5 KN.
Zc = d 0.5 * *ku *d = 390 0.5 *0.822 *0.24 *32 = 387mm
Zsc = d dsc = 39060 =330mm
Mu = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc = ((857.7/1000) * 387) + (96.5/1000) * 330) = 363.8KN.m
Therefore; the coordinate of point 4 (363.8, 0)
ColumnInteraction Diagram
N
1 (0, 8384)
2 (395.4, 4345.6)
3 (516.2, 1818.9)
M
4 (363.8, 0)
Page 68 of 98
3.2.7 Summary
Summary

Rectangular column
D= 450mm
Longitudinal Reinforcement = 4N32
Tie (Ligature) = N12@150mm.
350mm
N12@150
450mm
4N32
N* =3509KN
Page 69 of 98
3.3 Column C13
3.3.1 General Requirements
3.3.1.1 Exposure Classification & fire Resistance
The column is designed for exposure classification A2 and a fire resistance of 90 minutes.
3.3.1.2 Material Properties & Section
Concrete: fc = 40MPa
Reinforcement: Fsy = 500MPa, N32 bars for longitudinal reinforcement and N12 for ligatures
Trial Section;
The cross sectional area Ag, and hence diameter D, of the rectangular column can be estimated from
(Refer to lecture notes) ;
Ag = N* / 0.6(2* fc + fsy * P);
Where fc =40MPa and 2 =0.85 and fsy =500MPa
Assume a total steel ratio of 2% which is within the recommended limits of 1%  4% {refer to clause
410.7.1 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore;
Ag = 3412 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 129 *103 mm2
Because for a rectangular section Ag=b *D (Assuming b=350mm)
Therefore; D = 369 mm
Note: In order to take into account the effect of bending moment we will try a larger section, say,
D= 450mm.
Page 70 of 98
3.3.1.3 Concrete Cover, Axis Distance
Concrete cover for corrosion protection: The required cover (for exposure class A2 concrete with fc
=40MPa) to the ligature is 20mm {refer to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore, the required cover to the main bar (longitudinal reinforcement) is;
C = 20 +12 =32 mm (12mm is the diameter of the ligature).
3.3.1.4 Axis distance for Fire Resistance
 Assume N* f /Nu = 0.7, where N*f is the design axial load in fire situation and Nu is the ultimate
strength in compression. {Refer to clause 5.6.3 AS3600.2009}
For FRP = 90 minutes and column design D=450 mm can be sufficiently taken as 50mm {refer to
table 5.6.3AS3600.2009}.
The concrete cover to main bar corresponding to this value of axis distance is
C = as (1/2 * diameter of bar) = 50 (1/2 *32) = 34mm > 30mm (cover for corrosion protection)
Therefore we will adopt
Cover (c) = 35mm (to the face of main bar)
Axis distance (as) = 53mm (to the centre of main bar)
Therefore, the ratio of distance between outer reinforcement to the overall diameter is:
g = g *D /D = (D 2*as)/D = (450  (2*50))/ 450 = 0.78
3.3.2 Design Loads
Because the full structural analysis of the building is out of the scope of this project, the design axial
load for the column under consideration will be taken from the information provided to us in the
architectural and engineering drawings.
Therefore; N* =3412KN {refer to pp 26; Group work}
Assume that a minimum bending moment of 0.05 * D * N* will be considered {refer to table
4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
M*x = 0.05 * 0.35 * 3412= 59.71KNm
M*y= 0.05 * 0.45 * 3412 = 76.8KNm
Therefore the resultant bending moment
M* = (M*x)2 + (M*y)2 = (59.71)2 + (76.8)2 = 97.3KNm
Page 71 of 98
3.3.3 Biaxial Bending and compression
(Refer to clause 10.6.4 AS.36002009)
(M*x/Mux)n + (M*y/Muy)n 1.0
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo)within the limits 1 n 2
Therefore
Nuo = 0.88 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 199284 + 500 *(1608+1608)) /103 =8384KN
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo) = 0.7 + (1.7*3412) / (0.6 * 8384) =1.85 2.0...therefore ok.
For P=0.01; Mux =430; Muy = 320
(59.71/430)1.85 + (76.8/320)1.85 = 0.1 1.0.Therefore design is ok.
3.3.4 Column Reinforcement Requirements
 Minimum Reinforcement: 0.01 * Ag
 Maximum Reinforcement: 0.04 * Ag
Where gross column area;
Ag = 3412 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 129 *103 mm2
Stresses due to design loading
N*/Ag = 3412 *103 / (129 *103) mm2= 26.4 Mpa
 M*/Ag*D = 97.3 *106 / (129 *103) *450 = 1.7 MPa
Assuming that the column is a short column (assumption to be verified)
As a trial we use 4N32 Bars as reinforcement
Therefore;
As = 322 * *2 /4 = 1609mm2
Therefore
P = As / Ag = 1609/ 129*103 = 0.013
Min Reinforcement = 0.01 * 129 *103 = 1290 mm2
Maximum Reinforcement = 0.04 * 129*103= 5160mm2
Therefore, since
1290 mm2 < As (1609mm2 ) <5160mm2
Page 72 of 98
Therefore the assumption here is adequate, adopt 4N32 bars.
The steel ratio adopted is 1.3 % which is within the recommended limits of 1% to 4% {refer to clause
10.7.1, AS 36002009}
Diameter and spacing of fitments and helices
The minimum bar diameter of fitment and helices =12 for bars 2832mm.{refer to clause 10.7.4.3, AS
36002009}
S { D, 15* db} = {450 , 15*32=480 } = 450mm.
Therefore adopt N12 @150mm tie
3.3.5 Check If Column Is Short
Unsupported length of column: Lu = 3600 450 = 3150mm
Icolumn = b * d3 /12 = 350 *4503 /12 = 2.7 * 109 mm4
Ibeam= b * d3 /12 = 640 * 3003 /12 = 1.4 * 109 mm4
= 1.0 for fixity factor {refer to table 10.5.4. AS 3600.2009}
1 = 2 = (2.7 * 109 / 3150)/ ((1*1.4*109)/5100) = 1.3
assume the column is braced (as there are shear walls and shear core in the building), the effective
length of the column is;
Le= K*Lu = 0.9 * Lu = 0.9 * 3150 = 2835mm {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Radius of gyration of cross section {Refer to clause 10.5.2, AS 36002009}.:
r= 0.3 *D = 0.3*450 = 135mm
Therefore, a column shall be deemed short where Le/r 25 {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Slenderness ratio;
Le/r = 2835 /135 = 21 < 120, Therefore slenderness ratio is ok.
Le/r = 2835 /135 = 21 <25,
The maximum slenderness ratio for a short column is the greater of 25 and
c*(38 fc/15)*(1+M*1/M*2) {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Where;
c = 2.25 2.5 (N* /0.6*Nuo) = 2.25 2.5 (26.4/ 31) =0.7
Therefore slenderness ratio limit for a short column is
0.7*(38 40/15)*(1+59.71/76.8) = 44 > 25
Page 73 of 98
Therefore it can be seen that the slenderness ratio of the column under consideration is less than
the slenderness ratio limit:
Le/r = 21 < c*(38 fc/15)*(1+M*1/M*2) =44
Therefore, the column can be designed as a short column which does not require moment
magnification.
3.3.6 ColumnInteraction diagram
Point 1
Assume uniform compression, no bending moment: Mu =0
Asc= Ast = 322 * *2 /4 = 1608mm2
Ac = 4502 2*1608 =199284 mm2
For Fc= 40MPa, the coefficient 1= 1.00.003 *40 =0.88; therefore 1=0.85
Nuo = 0.88 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 199284 + 500 *(1608+1608)) /103 =8384KN
Therefore coordinate of point 1 = (0, 8384)
Point 2
*Ku =1.0; Neutral axis dn =d
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 34mm
Tie = 12mm
Rebar = 32mm
dsc = 32 + 12 + 32/2 = 60mm.
d=45060 = 390mm
sc = u (knd dsc/ kud) = 0.003 * (ddsc/d) = 0.003* (39060/390) =0.0024
=1.050.007*fc =0.77
within limits of 0.670.770.85.therefore ok.
Page 74 of 98
Therefore since sc =0.0024 < sy =0.0025, Therefore bars have not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0024 =480 N/mm2 > fsy=500N/mm2..therefore ok.
Cs = sc * Asc = 480 * 1608 = 771840/1000 = 772KN.
T = 0, because neutral axis lies on d
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *1 *390 *350)/1000
=3573.6KN
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 3573.2 + 772 0 = 4295.2KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 390 0.5 * 0.77 * 1 * 390 =240mm
Zsc = ddsc = 390 60 = 330mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (3573.6* 230 + 772 *330)/4295.2 = 247mm
e = h(ddg) = 247  (390 450/2) =82mm
Mu = Nu *e = 4295.2 * 0.082 =352.2 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 2 (352.2, 4295.2)
Point 3
*Ku =0.545
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc /( 0.545 *32)5= 0.003/ 0.545 *32
Therefore; sc =0.0021
Therefore; sc = 0.0021 < y = 0.0025 Therefore compression bar not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0021 =420 N/mm2
Cs = sc * Asc = 420 * 1608 = 675360 /1000 = 675.36KN.
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *0.545 *390 *350)/1000
=1947.6KN
T = fsy * Asc = (500 * 1608)/1000= 804KN
Page 75 of 98
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 1947.6+ 675.36 804 = 1818.96 KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 390 0.5 * 0.77 * 1 * 390 = 195mm
Zsc = ddsc = 390 60 =330mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (2529.3 * 195 + 675.36 *330)/1947.6 = 368mm
e = h(ddg) =368 (390 450/2) = 203mm
Mu = Nu *e = 1818.96 * 0.203 =369.2 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 3 (369.2, 1818.96)
Point 4
*Ku =Not known, must be calculated iteratively
*Zero compression, strain in compression steel smaller than sy.
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 32mm
Tie = 12mm
Rebar = 32mm
dsc = 32 + 12 + 32/2 = 60mm.
d=45060 = 390mm
Ast = Asc = 2 *322 * /4 = 1608mm2
Nu = 0 = Cc + Cs T
0 =0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
Therefore by similar triangle;
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc = (u/ kud)
* (kud dsc)
sc = sc * Es = (u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc) where Es= 200,000MPa
Therefore;
0 = 0.85*fc* *ku *d*b + ((u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc))*Asc fsy *Ast
0= 0.85 *40 *0.77 * 390 *350 *Ku + (0.003*200000/389*Ku)*((389*Ku)61)* 1608 500*1608
Page 76 of 98
0= 381490.2 *Ku2 171568.32 *ku +123200
Therefore Ku = 0.24
Therefore;
0=0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
0 =0.85 * 40 * 0.77 * 0.24 *390 *350 + sc *1608 500*1608
sc = 33.4 N/mm2
Cc = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b
=0.85 * 40* 0.77 *0.24 * 390*350 = 857.7 KN
Cs= Es * sc * Asc = 200000 * 0.0003 *1608 =96.5 KN.
Zc = d 0.5 * *ku *d = 390 0.5 *0.77 *0.24 *32 = 387mm
Zsc = d dsc = 39060 =330mm
Mu = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc = ((857.7/1000) * 387) + (96.5/1000) * 330) = 363.8KN.m
Therefore; the coordinate of point 4 (363.8, 0)
ColumnInteraction Diagram
N
1 (0, 8384)
2 (352.2, 4295.2)
3 (369.2, 1818.96)
M
4 (363.8, 0)
Page 77 of 98
3.3.7 Summary
Summary

Rectangular column
D= 450mm
Longitudinal Reinforcement = 4N32
Tie (Ligature) = N12@150mm.
350mm
N12@150
450mm
4N32
N* =3412KN
Page 78 of 98
3.4 Column C4
3.4.1 General Requirements
3.4.1.1 Exposure Classification & fire Resistance
The column is designed for exposure classification A2 and a fire resistance of 90 minutes.
3.4.1.2 Material Properties & Section
Concrete: fc = 40MPa
Reinforcement: Fsy = 500MPa, N24 bars for longitudinal reinforcement and N10 for ligatures
Trial Section;
The cross sectional area Ag, and hence diameter D, of the rectangular column can be estimated from
(Refer to lecture notes) ;
Ag = N* / 0.6(2* fc + fsy * P);
Where fc =40MPa and 2 =0.85 and fsy =500MPa
Assume a total steel ratio of 2% which is within the recommended limits of 1%  4% {refer to clause
410.7.1 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore;
Ag = 3823 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 145 *103 mm2
Because for a rectangular section Ag= *D2/ 4; D = 4*Ag / = 4*145000/
Therefore; D = 430 mm
Note: In order to take into account the effect of bending moment we will try a larger section, say,
D= 500mm.
Page 79 of 98
3.4.1.3 Concrete Cover, Axis Distance
Concrete cover for corrosion protection: The required cover (for exposure class A2 concrete with fc
=40MPa) to the ligature is 20mm {refer to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore, the required cover to the main bar (longitudinal reinforcement) is;
C = 20 +10 =30 mm (10mm is the diameter of the ligature).
3.4.1.4 Axis distance for Fire Resistance
 Assume N* f /Nu = 0.7, where N*f is the design axial load in fire situation and Nu is the ultimate
strength in compression. {Refer to clause 5.6.3 AS3600.2009}
For FRP = 90 minutes and column design D=450 mm can be sufficiently taken as 45mm {refer to
table 5.6.3AS3600.2009}.
The concrete cover to main bar corresponding to this value of axis distance is
C = as (1/2 * diameter of bar) = 45 (1/2 *24) = 33mm > 30mm (cover for corrosion protection)
Therefore we will adopt
Cover (c) = 33mm (to the face of main bar)
Axis distance (as) = 45mm (to the centre of main bar)
Therefore, the ratio of distance between outer reinforcement to the overall diameter is:
g = g *D /D = (D 2*as)/D = (500  (2*45))/ 500 = 0.8
3.4.2 Design Loads
Because the full structural analysis of the building is out of the scope of this project, the design axial
load for the column under consideration will be taken from the information provided to us in the
architectural and engineering drawings.
Therefore; N* =3823KN {refer to pp 26; Group work}
Assume that a minimum bending moment of 0.05 * D * N* will be considered {refer to table
4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
M*x = M*y= 0.05 * 0.5 * 3823= 95.6KNm
Therefore the resultant bending moment
M* = (M*x)2 + (M*y)2 = (95.6)2 + (95.6)2 = 135.2KNm
Page 80 of 98
3.4.3 Biaxial Bending and compression
(Refer to clause 10.6.4 AS.36002009)
(M*x/Mux)n + (M*y/Muy)n 1.0
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo)within the limits 1 n 2
Therefore
Nuo = 0.85 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 243040+ 500 *(3480+3480)) /103 =11743.36KN
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo) = 0.7 + (1.7*3823) / (0.6 * 11743.36) =1.6 2.0...therefore ok.
For P=0.024; Mux =575; Muy = 225
(95.6/575)1.6 + (95.6/225)1.6 = 0.3 1.0.Therefore design is ok.
3.4.4 Column Reinforcement Requirements
 Minimum Reinforcement: 0.01 * Ag
 Maximum Reinforcement: 0.04 * Ag
Where gross column area;
Ag = 3823 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 145 *103 mm2
Stresses due to design loading
N*/Ag = 3823 *103 / (145 *103) mm2= 26.4 MPa
 M*/Ag*D = 135.2 *106 / (145 *103) *500 = 1.8 MPa
Assuming that the column is a short column (assumption to be verified)
As a trial we use 8N24 Bars as reinforcement
Therefore;
Refer to chart CC8b408 exhibited by Design Handbook for Reinforced Concrete Elements, the steel
ratio obtained is p=0.024
Page 81 of 98
Therefore
Therefore the required longitudinal reinforcement is;
As = p * Ag = 0.024 * (145*103) = 3480mm2
Min Reinforcement = 0.01 * 145 *103 = 1450 mm2
Maximum Reinforcement = 0.04 * 145*103= 5800mm2
Therefore, since
1450 mm2 < As (5220mm2) <5800mm2
Therefore the assumption here is adequate, adopt 4N32 bars.
The steel ratio adopted is 3.6 % which is within the recommended limits of 1% to 4% {refer to clause
10.7.1, AS 36002009}
Diameter and spacing of fitments and helices
The minimum bar diameter of fitment and helices =10 for bars 2428mm.{refer to clause 10.7.4.3, AS
36002009}
S { D, 15* db} = {500 , 15*24=360 } = 360mm.
Therefore adopt N12 @200mm tie
Page 82 of 98
3.4.5 Check If Column Is Short
Unsupported length of column: Lu = 3600 500 = 3100mm
assume the column is braced (as there are shear walls and shear core in the building), the effective
length of the column is;
Le= K*Lu = 0.9 * Lu = 0.9 * 3100 = 2790mm {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Radius of gyration of cross section {Refer to clause 10.5.2, AS 36002009}.:
r= 0.3 *D = 0.25*500 = 125mm
Therefore, a column shall be deemed short where Le/r 25 {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Slenderness ratio;
Le/r = 2790 /125 = 22.32 < 120, Therefore slenderness ratio is ok.
Le/r = 2790 /125 = 22.32 <25,
The maximum slenderness ratio for a short column is the greater of 25 and
c*(38 fc/15)*(1+M*1/M*2) {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Where;
c = 2.25 2.5 (N* /0.6*Nuo) = 2.25 2.5 (26.4/ 31) =0.7
Therefore slenderness ratio limit for a short column is
0.7*(38 40/15)*(1+95.6/95.6) = 49.5 > 25
Therefore it can be seen that the slenderness ratio of the column under consideration is less than
the slenderness ratio limit:
Le/r = 21 < c*(38 fc/15)*(1+M*1/M*2) =49.5
Therefore, the column can be designed as a short column which does not require moment
magnification.
3.4.6 ColumnInteraction diagram
Point 1
Assume uniform compression, no bending moment: Mu =0
Page 83 of 98
Asc= Ast = p * Ag = 0.024 * (145*103) = 3480mm2
Ac = 5002 2* 3480 =243040 mm2
For Fc= 40MPa, the coefficient 1= 1.00.003 *40 =0.88; therefore 1=0.85
Nuo = 0.85 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 243040+ 500 *(3480+3480)) /103 =11743.36KN
Therefore coordinate of point 1 = (0, 11743.36)
Point 2
*Ku =1.0; Neutral axis dn =d
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025
 Cover = 33mm
 Tie = 10mm
 Rebar = 24mm
 dsc = 33 + 10 + 24/2 = 55mm.
 d=50055 = 445mm
=1.050.007*fc =0.77
within limits of 0.670.770.85.therefore ok.
sc = u (knd dsc/ kud) = 0.003 * (ddsc/d) = 0.003* (44555/445) =0.0024
Therefore since sc =0.0024 < sy =0.0025, Therefore bars have not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0024 =480 N/mm2> fsy=500N/mm2...therefore ok.
Cs = sc * Asc = 480 *3480 = 1670400/1000 = 1670.4KN.
T = 0, because neutral axis lies on d
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *1 *445 *500)/1000
=5825.05KN
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) =5825.05 + 1670.40 = 7495.45KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 445 0.5 * 0.77 * 1 * 445 =283.6mm
Zsc = ddsc = 500 55 = 445mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (5825.05 * 283.6 + 1670.4 *445)/7495.45 = 320mm
e = h(ddg)= 320  (445 500/2) =125mm
Page 84 of 98
Mu = Nu *e = 7495.45* 0.125 =936.9 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 2 (936.9, 7495.45)
Point 3
*Ku =0.545
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc /( 0.545 *24)5= 0.003/ 0.545 *24
Therefore; sc =0.0018
Therefore; sc = 0.0018 < y = 0.0025 Therefore compression bar not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0018 =360mm2
Cs = sc * Asc = 360 * 3480 = 1252800 /1000 = 1252.8KN.
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *0.545 *445 *500)/1000
=3174.7KN
T = fsy * Asc = (500 * 3480)/1000= 1740KN
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 3174.7 + 1252.8  1740= 2687.5 KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 455 0.5 * 0.77 * 1 * 455 = 280mm
Zsc = ddsc = 455 55 = 400mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (3174.7 * 280 + 1252.8 *400)/2687.5 = 517mm
e = h(ddg) =517  (445 500/2) = 322mm
Mu = Nu *e = 2687.5 * 0.322 =865.4 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 3 (865.4, 2687.5)
Page 85 of 98
Point 4
*Ku =Not known, must be calculated iteratively
*Zero compression, strain in compression steel smaller than sy.
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 33mm
Tie = 10mm
Rebar = 24mm
dsc = 33 + 10 + 24/2 = 55mm.
d=45060 = 390mm
Ast = Asc = p * Ag = 0.024 * (145*103) = 3480mm2
Nu = 0 = Cc + Cs T
0 =0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
Therefore by similar triangle;
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc = (u/ kud)
* (kud dsc)
sc = sc * Es = (u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc) where Es= 200,000MPa
Therefore;
0 = 0.85*fc* *ku *d*b + ((u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc))*Asc fsy *Ast
0= 0.85 *40 *0.077 * 455 *500 *Ku + (0.003*200000/455*Ku)*((455*Ku)55)* 3480 500*3480
0= 7735000 *Ku2 171568.32 *ku +123200
Therefore Ku = 0.19
Therefore;
0=0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
0 =0.85 * 40 * 0.77 * 0.19 *455 *500 + sc *3480 500*3480
sc = 77.69 N/mm2
Cc = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b
=0.85 * 40* 0.77 *0.19 * 445*500 = 1106.8 KN
Cs= Es * sc * Asc = 200000 * 0.0003 *3480 =208.8 KN.
Page 86 of 98
Zc = d 0.5 * *ku *d = 455 0.5 *0.77 *0.28 *24 = 452.4mm
Zsc = d dsc = 445 55=390mm
Mu = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc = ((1106.8/1000) * 452.4) + (208.8/1000) * 390) = 610.2KN.m
Therefore; the coordinate of point A (610.2, 0)
ColumnInteraction Diagram
N
1 (0, 11743.36)
2 (936.9, 7495.45)
3 (865.4, 2687.5)
M
4 (610.2, 0)
MM
Page 87 of 98
3.4.7 Summary
Summary

Circular column
D= 500mm
Longitudinal Reinforcement = 8N24
Tie (Ligature) = N10@200mm.
D= 500mm
8N24
N10@200 tie
as = 45mm
N* =3823KN
Page 88 of 98
3.5 Column C15
3.5.1 General Requirements
3.5.1.1 Exposure Classification & fire Resistance
The column is designed for exposure classification A2 and a fire resistance of 90 minutes.
3.5.1.2 Material Properties & Section
Concrete: fc = 40MPa
Reinforcement: Fsy = 500MPa, N28 bars for longitudinal reinforcement and N10 for ligatures
Trial Section;
The cross sectional area Ag, and hence diameter D, of the rectangular column can be estimated from
(Refer to lecture notes) ;
Ag = N* / 0.6(2* fc + fsy * P);
Where fc =40MPa and 2 =0.85 and fsy =500MPa
Assume a total steel ratio of 2% which is within the recommended limits of 1%  4% {refer to clause
410.7.1 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore;
350mm
Ag = 2,915* 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 110 *103 mm2
Because for a rectangular section Ag=b *D
Therefore; D = 315 mm
Note: In order to take into account the effect of
350mm
bending moment we will try a larger section, say, D=350mm.
Page 89 of 98
3.5.1.3 Concrete Cover, Axis Distance
Concrete cover for corrosion protection: The required cover (for exposure class A2 concrete with fc
=40MPa) to the ligature is 20mm {refer to table 4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
Therefore, the required cover to the main bar (longitudinal reinforcement) is;
C = 20 +10 =30 mm (10mm is the diameter of the ligature).
3.5.1.4 Axis distance for Fire Resistance
 Assume N* f /Nu = 0.7, where N*f is the design axial load in fire situation and Nu is the ultimate
strength in compression. {Refer to clause 5.6.3 AS3600.2009}
For FRP = 90 minutes and column design D=350 mm; axis distance can be sufficiently taken as
53mm {refer to table 5.6.3AS3600.2009}.
The concrete cover to main bar corresponding to this value of axis distance is
C = as (1/2 * diameter of bar) = 53 (1/2 *28) = 39mm > 30mm (cover for corrosion protection)
Therefore we will adopt
Cover (c) = 40mm (to the face of main bar)
Axis distance (as) = 55mm (to the centre of main bar)
Therefore, the ratio of distance between outer reinforcement to the overall diameter is:
g = g *D /D = (D 2*as)/D = (350  (2*53))/ 350 = 0.7
3.5.2 Design Loads
Because the full structural analysis of the building is out of the scope of this project, the design axial
load for the column under consideration will be taken from the information provided to us in the
architectural and engineering drawings.
Therefore; N* =2915 KN {refer to pp 26; group work}
Assume that a minimum bending moment of 0.05 * D * N* will be considered {refer to table
4.10.3.2 AS3600.2009}.
M*x = M*y = 0.05 * 0.35 * 2915 = 51KNm
Therefore the resultant bending moment
M* = (M*x)2 + (M*y)2 = (51)2 + (51)2 = 72KNm
Page 90 of 98
3.5.3 Biaxial Bending and compression
(Refer to clause 10.6.4 AS.36002009)
(M*x/Mux)n + (M*y/Muy)n 1.0
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo)within the limits 1 n 2
Therefore
Nuo = 0.85 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 120036 + 500 *(1232+1232)) /103 =5313.2KN
n = 0.7 + (1.7 N*) / (0.6 Nuo) = 0.7 + (1.7*2915) / (0.6 * 5313.2) =2.0 2.0...therefore ok.
For P=0.01; Mux =440; Muy = 300
(51/440)2 + (51/300)2 = 0.04 1.0.Therefore design is ok.
3.5.4 Column Reinforcement Requirements
 Minimum Reinforcement: 0.01 * Ag
 Maximum Reinforcement: 0.04 * Ag
Where gross column area;
Ag = 2915 * 103 / 0.6(0.85 * 40 + 500 * 0.020) = 110 *103 mm2
Stresses due to design loading
N*/Ag = 2915 *103 / (110 *103) mm2= 26.5 Mpa
 M*/Ag*D = 72 *106 / (110 *103) *350 = 1.9 MPa
Assuming that the column is a short column (assumption to be verified)
As a trial we use 4N28 Bars as reinforcement
Therefore;
As = 282 * *2 /4 = 1232mm2
Therefore
P = As / Ag = 1232/ 112*103 = 0.011
Min Reinforcement = 0.01 * 112 *103 = 1120 mm2
Maximum Reinforcement = 0.04 * 112*103= 4480mm2
Therefore, since
1120 mm2 < As (1232mm2 ) <4480mm2
Therefore the assumption here is adequate, adopt 4N28 bars.
Page 91 of 98
The steel ratio adopted is 1.1 % which is within the recommended limits of 1% to 4% {refer to clause
10.7.1, AS 36002009}
Diameter and spacing of fitments and helices
The minimum bar diameter of fitment and helices =10 for bars 2428mm {refer to clause 10.7.4.3, AS
36002009}
S {D, 15* db} = {350, 15*28=420} = 350mm.
Therefore adopt N10 @150mm tie
3.5.5 Check If Column Is Short
Unsupported length of column: Lu = 3600 350 = 3250mm
Icolumn = b * d3 /12 = 350 *3503 /12 =1.25 * 109 mm4
Ibeam= b * d3 /12 = 640 * 3003 /12 = 1.4 * 109 mm4
= 1.0 for fixity factor {refer to table 10.5.4. AS 3600.2009}
1 = 2 = (1.25 * 109 / 3250)/ ((1*1.4*109)/6000) = 1.7
assume the column is braced (as there are shear walls and shear core in the building), the effective
length of the column is;
Le= K*Lu = 0.9 * Lu = 0.9 * 3250 = 2925mm {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Radius of gyration of cross section {Refer to clause 10.5.2, AS 36002009}.:
r= 0.3 *D = 0.3*350 = 105mm
Therefore, a column shall be deemed short where Le/r 25 {Refer to clause 10.3.1, AS 36002009}.
Slenderness ratio;
Le/r = 2925 /105 = 28 < 120, Therefore slenderness ratio is ok.
Le/r = 2925 /105 = 28 >25, Column is not short.
Since column is not short, work out moment magnification.
3.5.6 Moment Magnifier
assume the column is braced (as there are shear walls and shear core in the building),
Km = 0.60.4(M*1 / M*2) 0.4
=0.60.4(51 / 51) 0.4
=0.2 0.4; therefore ok.
d= NG/NG+NQ = 24.5/24.5+5 = 0.8
Page 92 of 98
Nc= (2/le2)*(182*do ** Mub/ 1+ d)=(2/2.9252) *( (182 *(350*0.8*103)*(495*106))/ 1+ 0.8 )=
16200KN
For braced condition:
b = Km / 1 (N*/Nc) = 0.2 / 1(2915/ 16200) = 0.245
For unbraced condition:
b = 1 / 1 (N*/Nc) = 1 / 1(2915/16200) =1.2
Therefore; Max (0.24; 1.2). Therefore the moment magnification factor = 1.2
M*max = * M*2 = 1.2 * 1.9 =2.28 MPa
3.5.7 ColumnInteraction diagram
Point 1
Assume uniform compression, no bending moment: Mu =0
Asc= Ast = 282 * *2 /4 = 1232mm2
Ac = 3502 2*1232 =120036 mm2
For Fc= 40MPa, the coefficient 1= 1.00.003 *40 =0.88; therefore 1 =0.85
Nuo = 0.85 * fc *Ac + fsy *(Asc + Ast) = (0.85 *40 * 120036 + 500 *(1232+1232)) /103 =5313.2KN
Therefore coordinate of point 1 = (0, 5313.2)
Point 2
*Ku =1.0; Neutral axis dn =d
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 40mm
Tie = 10mm
Rebar = 28mm
dsc = 40 + 10 + 28/2 = 64mm.
d=35064 = 286mm
Page 93 of 98
=1.050.007*fc =0.77
within limits of 0.670.770.85.therefore ok.
sc = u (knd dsc/ kud) = 0.003 * (ddsc/d) = 0.003* (28664/286) =0.0023
Therefore since sc =0.0023 < sy =0.0025, Therefore bars have not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0023 =460 N/mm2 > fsy =500N/mm2. Therefore OK.
Cs = sc * Asc = 460 * 1232 = 566720 /1000 = 567KN.
T = 0, because neutral axis lies on d
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *1 *286 *350)/1000
=2621KN
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 2621 + 567 0 = 3187.6KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 286 0.5 * 0.77 * 1 * 286 =175.89mm
Zsc = ddsc = 286 64 =222mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (2621 * 175.89 + 567 *222)/3187.6 = 184mm
e = h(ddg)=184(286 350/2) =73mm
Mu = Nu *e = 3187.6 * 0.073 =232.7 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 2 (232.7, 3187.6)
Point 3
*Ku =0.545
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc /( 0.545 *28)5= 0.003/ 0.545 *28
Therefore; sc =0.0020
Therefore; sc = 0.0020 < y = 0.0025 Therefore compression bar not yielded yet.
sc = Es * sc = 200000 * 0.0020 =400 MPa > fsy=500...therefore ok.
Cs = sc * Asc = 400 * 1232 = 566720 /1000 = 493KN.
Cc = compression of concrete = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b = (0.85 * 40 *0.77 *0.545 *286 *350)/1000
=1428.2KN
Page 94 of 98
T = fsy * Asc = (500 * 1232)/1000= 616KN
Nu = Cc + Cs T (Force equilibrium) = 1428.2 + 493 616 = 1305.2 KN
Zc = d0.5**Ku*d = 286 0.5 * 0.77 * 0.545 * 286 = 226mm
Zsc = ddsc = 286 64 =222mm
Nu*h = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc (Moment equilibrium)
h = (1428.2 * 226 + 493 *222)/1305.2 = 331mm
e = h(ddg) =331 (286 350/2) = 220mm
Mu = Nu *e = 1305.2 * 0.220 =287.1 KN.m
Therefore coordinate of point 3 (287.1, 1305.2 )
Point 4
*Ku =Not known, must be calculated iteratively
*Zero compression, strain in compression steel smaller than sy.
sy (yield strain) = fsy / Es = 500 /200000 = 0.0025

Cover = 40mm
Tie = 10mm
Rebar = 28mm
dsc = 40 + 10 + 28/2 = 64mm.
d=35064 = 286mm
Ast = Asc = 2 *282 * /4 =1232mm2
Nu = 0 = Cc + Cs T
0 =0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
Therefore by similar triangle;
sc / kud dsc = u / kud
sc = (u/ kud)
* (kud dsc)
sc = sc * Es = (u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc) where Es= 200,000MPa
Therefore;
0 = 0.85*fc* *ku *d*b + ((u * Es /Ku*d) * (Kud dsc))*Asc fsy *Ast
Page 95 of 98
0= 0.85 *40 *0.77 * 286 *350 *Ku + (0.003*200000/286*Ku)*((286*Ku)64)* 1232 500*1232
0= 279759.48 *Ku2 171568.32 *ku +123200
Therefore Ku = 0.28
Therefore;
0=0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b + sc*Asc fsy*Ast
0 =0.85 * 40 * 0.77 * 0.28 *286 *350 +1232 * sc 500*1232
sc = 95.6 MPa
Cc = 0.85 * fc* *ku *d*b
=0.85 * 40* 0.77 *0.28 * 286*350 = 733.8 KN
Cs= Es * sc * Asc = 200000 * 0.0006 *1232 =148 KN.
Zc = d 0.5 * *ku *d = 286 0.5 *0.77 *0.28 *28 = 283mm
Zsc = d dsc = 28664 =222mm
Mu = Cc*Zc + Cs * Zsc = ((783.3/1000) * 283) + ((148/1000) * 222) = 254.5KN.m
Therefore; the coordinate of point 4 (254.5, 0)
ColumnInteraction Diagram
N
1 (0, 5313.2)
2 (232.7, 3187.6)
3 (287.1, 1305.2)
4 (254.5, 0) M
3.5.8 Summary
Summary Column C11
Page 96 of 98
Rectangular column
D= 350mm
Longitudinal Reinforcement = 4N28
Tie (Ligature) = N10@150mm.
350mm
N10@150
350mm
4N28
N* =2915 KN
4.0 REFERENCES
Page 97 of 98
AS3600  2009 Concrete Structure
AS1170.1 2002 Structural design Action Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions
Foster S.J., Kilpatrick A.E. & Warner R.F (2010) Beams. In Reinforced Concrete Basics, 2nd ed.,
pp.77188. Sydney: Pearson Education Australia
Mamlouk M. & Zaniewski J. (2002) Portland Cement Concrete. In Materials for Civil and
Construction Engineers, 3rd ed., pp. 246314. USA: Pearson Education
Page 98 of 98