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Classification of Virus, Bacteria, Protists, and

Fungi S3 Biology
What a virus is and isnt.
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A virus is not a cell. No nucleus, cell membrane, ribosomes,


mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc.
A virus is very small. 3000 poloviruses could be contained
in the period at the end of this sentence.
A virus is not complex. Genes: Humans (100,000), Bacteria
(1000), a Virus just 5!

Viral Structure
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Nucleic Acid DNA or RNA, but not both.


Protein Coat (capsid) Protects the nucleic acid from its environment.
Envelope Only found in viruses that infect animals.
Spike-like projections that recognize animal cells and bind to the cell surface

Viral Replication
Viruses dont reproduce, they replicate.
Viruses cannot replicate on their own.
Host cells.
Lytic Cycle.
When the virus enters the cell it immediately begins to replicate, rapidly
killing the cell.
Lysogenic Cycle.
Viral DNA is inserted into the host cells DNA. This DNA, called a PROPHAGE, may be
reproduced several times and eventually reactivates

Are viruses alive?


Properties of Life:
Highly organized. Yes or no?
Use energy. Yes or no?
Grow and develop. Yes or no?
Reproduce. Yes or no?
Respond and adapt. Yes or no?
Most scientists would say NO.

What are vaccinations

The process of injecting a person with a harmless (weakened or dead) form of a


virus to stimulate the immune system to produce cells and proteins that will
destroy that type of virus.

Bacterial StructureFlagella

Cell Membrane
Ribosome
Pili
Chromosome
Cell Wall

Survival/Reproduction
Binary Fission: the process by which bacteria replicate chromosomes and the cell
divides.
Power of doubling (1 penny doubled 20 times)
1048576 cents or $10,485.76
Average bacteria doubles every 15-20 minutes

Endospores
Thick-walled reproductive structures that can resist heat, drought, and
radiation, sometimes living centuries before breaking open.

Classifying Bacteria
Archaebacteria (ancient)
Methanogens: produce methane.
Thermophiles: heated conditions
Halophiles: salty conditions
Eubacteria
True Bacteria live in much less harsh environments than archebacteria.
Many types and ways to classify.
Shapes
Spheres (cocci), rods (bacilli), spirals (spirilla), chains (streptococci),
clusters (staphylococci).
Cell Wall Composition
Gram-positive (violet dye retains), Gram-negative(red dye).
Nutrition (autotroph, heterotroph)
Respiration (aerobes, anaerobes)

The Roles of Bacteria

Decomposers.
Breakdown dead material.
Convert (fix) nitrogen into usable forms for plants.
Symbiosis.
mutualism.
Bacteria can be harmful.

Common Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Diseas
Tooth
e decay

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Lyme disease
Tetanus
Tuberculosis

Preventio
Regular
n dental hygiene

Pathoge
Streptococcus
mutans
n

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Borrelia burgdorferi

Protection from tick bites

Clostridium tetani

Current tetanus vaccination

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Vaccination

Common Diseases Caused by Viruses

Proper food-handling practices

Type of Virus

Nucleic Acid

Disease

Oncogenic viruses

DNA

Cancer

Retrovirus

RNA

Cancer, AIDS

Adenovi

DNA

Respiratory infections

ruses

DNA

Chickenpox

Herpesviruses

DNA

Smallpox

Poxviruses

Protists

Common characteristic: EUKARYOTES


Very diverse
Three general categories:
Animal-Like Protists
Plantlike Protists
Funguslike Protists

Plantlike Protists: Red, Brown, and Green Algae


A.
Red Algae
B.
Brown Algae
C.
Green Algae
1.
Unicellular Green Algae
2.
Colonial Green Algae
3.
Multicellular Green Algae
Funguslike Protists
A.
Slime Molds
1.
Cellular Slime Molds
2.
Acellular Slime Molds
B.
Water Molds

Fungi

3 Common characteristics:
-1. Cell wall are chitin. Same covering as insects.
-2. Made of individual filaments, called hyphae. Tubes full of
cytoplasm and nuclei.
-3.Masses of hyphae combine to form the mycelium. This is the
body of the fungus.

How does a fungus eat?

Heterotrophs
Diffusion: most fungi absorb small organic nutrients from their
environment.
Saprophytic: they absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organic
matter.