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Frontispiece: THESEUS. (iriechische FLA IE J Vasi'iiiualerei. ATHENA AND A.\H'HITRITE KYLIX WITH THE SlGNAl IRE OF THE POTTER EUPHRONIOS : From riirlK'ciuglei'-h'ei ill hold. .

RICHARDS M. FELLOW OF ORIEL COLLEGE OXFORD &f WITH A PREFACE BY PERCY GARDNER LITT.A.D.A. CLASSICAL IN PROFESSOR OF ARCHEOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD LONDON CHATTO &f WINDUS 1921 ..B..S.A.. F. C. F..GREEK VASE-PAINTING by ERNST BUSCHOR WITH CLX ILLUSTRATIONS TRANSLATED BY G.

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. VII. . The Stone and Bronze Ages The Geometric ] Style 18 III. II. The Red-Figured Style in the Archaic Period VI. . The Seventh Century 29 IV. Index The Style of Polygnotos Late Offshoots of Illustrations Index of Names HI and Pheidias 133 I55 I5I I74 .CONTENTS Page Preface ^jj Chapter I. The Black-Figured Style 63 V..

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until it lies in the Neolithic age. but the difficulty of the necessary illustration caused the plan to break down. investigated. but with contributions from other countries. years ago I : Greek artistic activity the history of architecture. mainly in German. But it is not only in regard to the earlier phases of Greek vase-painting the red-iigured vase-paintthat research has brought light ing which is one of the most perfect fruits of Greek art in the fifth century has been far more minutely and intensively studied. and more than the outlines. painting . . of sculpture and of coinage having been already thoroughly . Vase-paintings can but feebly image the colouring of the great painters of Greece . fairly say that it includes almost the history of early Greek all that painting. of the history of a fourth great branch of antiquity. In the meantime an extensive literature has grown up on the subject. Buschor has shewn how the result of excavation in Greece and Italy has been to throw our starting-point further and further back. The result has been to fix the outlines. In his first chapter Dr. but they can give us invaluable information as to the principles of grouping and perspective adopted by them they can reflect the extreme beauty of their figure-drawing and they can shew us how they treated subjects from the vast repertory of Greek mythology and poetry . And this fourth branch is not merely vase- but since the fresco and other paintings of the we mav we can ever know of great age of Greece have almost entirely perished.PREFACE A HISTORY of time a Greek vase-painting has been for a long desideratum of students of Greek art and Many planned such a work.

knows whether he is treading on firm ice or on a more reckless and misleading than the procedure . the result is that the mere crust. Munich. Ihe mended. were sense of style.PREFACE take up the study of Greek art are of which are more strongly attracted by vases. ture that. . until a few years Vase-paintings. old engravall our English classical books It is a fouling of the ings are uncritically reproduced. be weeded out by slow degrees. few years the catalogues of vases in informaLondon and other places have given authoritative . Anderson in England employed. religion. such a course springs and however practically inevitable reader never may often have been. can very by photography. The truth of the origmals only be known from a technical examination must say that in nearly scattered through Europe. VUl . Anything of the publishers books The errors resulting can only and editors of illustrated classical can scarcely be imagined. because the draughtsmen had insufficient museums were great partly because most of the vases in the way. say fairly may are first-hand authorities. seldom be adequately of the vessels themselves. more or less restored. the subjects the case with sculpvaried. Studies of Hellenic English Societies for the promotion of a multitude of drawings have published really careful being one of the most vases Mr. And the published drawmgs Most of those who reproduced partly quite untrustworthy of them. Yet one study of them was satisfactory ago. athletics. Yet one and dictionaries. and the treatment freer than is they For mythology. about them could vases was quite misleading. in consequence of the shape impossible. Pans. often in a most misleading of the engravings published Thus merely to reproduce . daily life. until about 1880. F. ^ru Since about 1880 things have slowly and French the and German Arch^ological Institute. In the last accurate and careful of the artists Berlin.

which are seldom wholly to be trusted. however. through the traditions of the temples and the old families. Beazley has been good enough carefully to revise the tion as to restorations. about the middle of the sixth century. Mr. Before that time. We have reached a stage at which. D. C. and the approach to any particular province be made easy. I may add a few words by way of introduction to the subject. and an American. with its splendid At present the most authoritative works on early plates. Mr. a book not adapted for a mere cursory reading. J. recognized that before writings in the form of inscriptions . J. for all but specialists. and so fully illustrated (no easy matter) as to enable a reader Thus would the whole subto follow the text throughout. red-figured vases are those of an Oxford man.PREFACE A fresh era in the knowledge of and subject was begun by the magnificent publication of Furtwangler and Reichhold. Hoppin. before the age of Croesus and the rise of the Persian Empire. His examples are carefully chosen his text shews full mastery of the subject and it is very unlikely that his treatment will be superseded for a long time to come. but for careful consideration and study. We may divide the whole history of Greek pottery into two sections. Beazley. Buschor. technique present translation. ject be mapped out. what was most needed was a general history of Greek vases in all their periods. the history of Greece is very imperfectly known to us. which are separated one from the other by the line which divides primitive from mature Greece. These provide a skeleton of fact with which It is now generally to compare legend and tradition. ix . compiled by a trustworthy authority. . Where history is uncertain it is of untold value to have monuments and works of human manufacture to supplement it. It is. Mr. Such a book is that of Dr.

Evans and other investigators. and the study of their technique have been zealously prosecuted. Sicily. Laconia. back to Neolithic times. the interest attaching to the latter does not We no longer go to it cease. the movements In recent years the study of prehistoric Greece of peoples. have poured out a constant supply of these works of art. and a Constant comparison with the results of finds in Egypt which can be dated from inscriptions has revealed in a measure the state of the civilization of the ^gean in century beyond century. has revealed to us the outlines of the early history of Crete. The elegant forms of Greek vases and the charm of the designs painted on them have caused them to be sought after by great museums and wealthy collectors. to determine the outlines of the history of civilization. it has now become But a thing precious in itself because of its and the beauty. but it changes in character. primarily owing to the excavations of Schliemann. when inscriptions and coins begin to give us far more exact information than that which can be derived from pottery. Thessaly. The graves of Italy. some of them beyond value. . the religion . The subject seems to fascinate the younger generation of and the pottery found in the graves of the archaeologists early inhabitants of Greece and Asia Minor has been worked at with great minuteness and to much result. tricts. pottery furnishes the most continuous and most trustworthy material for the dating of sites. has made immense strides. Classical archseologists have naturally given much and of late years the assignment of attention to them examples to noted masters.PREFACE and coins come into general use. Hellas. When Greek civilization became fully established. indications of commercial intercourse. its life of Greece. They belong too wholly to a civilization which has passed away to be readily underclose relation to the poetry. number of other dis- the Troad. in the sixth century. It .

tion. or visit the vase-rooms of museums. Our successors will not be satisfied with drilling boys in Greek and Latin grammar. It is time to strengthen their hold by shewing how they lie at the very root of philosophy. the Greeks and the Romans. A conspectus of successive styles and periods their quality was possible. seem in comparison poor and half-civilized. Dr. Buschor's general plan has compelled him to write but in a summary way of the works of red-figured style. The old supremacy of the Classics in education has passed away. the Jews. In fact. of unsurpassed beauty.PREFACE stood by ordinary visitors of museums but those who have once been bitten with their charm find in them an occupa. in such small and rough illustrations as are possible in a handbook. a delight Greece is and a solace which are great helps the classical land of art in principles of art which all its in life. which is. but will have to insist on the place held by ancient peoples. and illustrate the literature from every point of view. in another sphere. and the were established by the successive schools of art there can never be wholly neglected. and in future they will have to hold their own not by prescriptive right but in virtue of their intrinsic value. If we set aside the pottery of China and Japan. And if was all that . which are incomparably the most beautiful. on which more and more stress is being laid by those who feel what their neglect in the modern world would mean. in the evolution of all that is valuable and delightful in the modern world. And I think that enough is here accomplished to arouse the interest of those who love art and have some sympathy with the Greek spirit. forms. literature and art. the pottery of Greece is the only perfectly developed and thoroughly consistent pottery in the world and the noted productions of modern Europe . For them the reader must go on to other works. We have to widen the field of Classics. could not be reproduced.

and the main lines of the subject are now so finds that firmly fixed very by induction. but to help them to lead a worthy and happy life. Mr. he will in fact have his reward. Richards' work as a translator was very difficult. . Not only the order of words in a sentence different. Richards' version is very accurate but it must be allowed to be not always easy . reading. Students will thank him for this and if the general reader . and German tion is scientific writers aim at an exactness in the use of terms which we seldom attempt. X. he has to give the text a closer attention than he is used to give to books. much change that they are not likely to suffer in the future. Dr. He preferred to retain as much as possible of the meaning. but the sentences themselves are much more involved. then I have no fear that the Classics will be permanently eclipsed.U Gardner. even if it involved some stiffness in the text. the German mind in literary produc- moves on different lines from the English.PREFACE it be felt that the object of education is not merely to enable boys and girls to earn a living. In spite of kindred origin. Mr. Buschor's work is a solid stone for the temple of knowledge. P.

of which the investigation has only just begun and which presents most difficult problems. we must begin at a period. thrown on eastern Greek pottery of the 7th century by the discovery of a cemetery in Rhodes.. Finally in quite recent times finds of vases of the Stone Age in Crete and in North Greece have given us a view of vase-producIf therefore we wish to tion in the third millennium B. Schliemann's spade unearthed the Mycenean civilization. and published in and earlier stages of civilization 1791-1803. i.C. About 1870 the Geometric style became known and the Dipylon vases In the seventies and eighties at Athens were revealed. the doors of Etruscan graves were unlocked. in North * ' 1 . from 1828 onwards. formed by Sir William Hamilton. Next. and in the beginning of the present century we were introduced to the culmination of this period in Crete. contained chiefly the output of later Italian manufactories.CHAPTER I. retrace this long road. procured in such numbers by the Etruscans of the 6th and About twenty years later a bright light was 5th centuries. The excavations in Northern Greece. British ambassador in Naples. and their contents proved to be the rich treasures of Greek red and black-figured vases. First of all graves were opened in Lower Italy the first great collection of vases.e. THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES STUDENTS of the history of Greek vases have been gradually led backwards from a late period to earlier by the course of circumstances.

red or black vases are often brilliantly polished and of In the later layers of the Stone Age finds this civilization differs considerably according to One class of painted (and incised) vases is very locality. alongside of coarse undecorated pottery. with rectilinear decoration (zig-zag. : shows quite a new principle of decoration (Fig. and it was found chiefly at Dimini and prominent excellent workmanship. brown on yellow. two simpler prehistoric techniques. especially the spiral motive. was discovered. Phocis and above all Thessaly. the colouring varies. unornamented (monochrome) and incised ware. black on white. have introduced Here alongside of the us to a purely Neolithic civilization. of the produced vases with incised geometrical but ornament. Ceramic of North It appears that this Stone-Age of South Greece. finds Greece has no connection with the and is rather to be traced to the North and the civilization Danube valley. 1). greatest variety of this style we find in other places the even polychrome decoration painted and unpainted vases . : appears. The South presents us with a much more primitive The large layer of Stone Age finds. even in the oldest strata. with linear ornaments painted either in red on vases with a white slip or in white on vases made red by firing.) Side by side with red. completely curvilinear patterns of Thessalian type are a less absent and painted vases are rare. vanishes In the early Bronze Age all this splendour and gives place to the production of coarse unpainted ware. The reason for Crete in civilization elaborate development of Neolithic seems to be that it gave place to the Bronze Age compara2 . a richly developed painted style. which came to picture. Sesklo. chequers. step pattern. etc. white on primitive maeander. It combines curvilinear patterns. light in Crete.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Boeotia. The monochrome.

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yellow and brown. that a section taken through instance channelled. nay even sometimes drive them out again. grey. which moreover sets off the painting excellently. red. Thus a ground is also obtained for painting. probably with smooth stones. . the most essential household vessels are fashioned by hand out of imperfectly cleansed clay. The invention of the wrongly styled varnish. little articulated. the clay is also treated plastically. Rectilinear ornaments are pressed or incised into the soft clay. is of the highest importance for the whole history of Greek vase-painting. though technically undeveloped. these contemporaneous prehistoric civilizations would present a highly variegated aspect. on which the rectilinear ornaments are imposed with colour. imparted to it.THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES in Thessaly it seems to go down far into the tively early second millennium. First. The Stone Age is succeeded by the Bronze Age. But the different techniques do not regularly succeed each other inventions are not immediately communicated from one locality to another primitive methods subsist alongside of more advanced. here 3 . This much is clear. appears even in North Greece of the Stone Age. The forms are primitive. for Gradually the clay is made less impure. and by degrees the method of filling and indicating the incised lines by a white fire. is more cleanly polished and more evenly baked in the oven. and by the actual firing has various colours. Greater solidity and brighter colouring are obtained by covering the vase with a slip.' a black colour glaze which. but already very various the decoration covers uniformly almost the whole vase. ' : . and burnt black in the open : and before long the outer surface is also polished. substance is learned . According to these early vase finds one has thus to picture to oneself the beginnings of ceramic art. black.

2).' and the imitation of metal forms in so-called earlier and there later . The Bronze Age civilization of the second city up fifth. to the which. grey. the nine superimposed settlements of which represent as many successive civilizations down to Roman times. 1890 and 1893 Dorpfeld and he investigated the rubbish hill. manner of necklaces. rude imitations of the human form. The potter's wheel and oven finally succeed in producing brilliant red. which are not repeated in Western Greece. . metals are gradually introduced. and in the excavations of 1871. of the finest technique. developed stages. It is evident that to the earlier Bronze Age belong a series of innovations which are of decisive importance for the history of vases. the perfection of the varnish.GREEK VASE-PAINTING here more quickly. there more slowly. The numerous ceramic finds of the five lowest layers show the transition from rude hand-made and ill-baked ware with impressed linear patterns to ever more layers at Troy. the vases are either monochrome or adorned with incised linear ornaments. which has become so famous. ears. In most places the potter's oven and the painting of vases appear only in the early Bronze Age. black. to dig at Hissarlik. mouth. produced by adding eyes. which are often applied in the . i. Heinrich Schliemann began. nipples and navel and there are also other vase-types.e. nose. and with them new techniques and a new civilization. the invention of the potter's wheel. Painting is rare. brown vases The variety of shapes is very great. with the strong and weak points of a dilettante. Into the early Bronze Age fall the finds from the earliest In the unalterable faith that he was discovering the world of Homer. some are already quite developed the imitation of metal forms is to be traced here and there. judging by the rich finds of metal utensils and 4 . 1878. or divide the vase vertically. * clay. A notable speciality is found in the so-called Face-urns (Fig..

. ]{'(] jrr.f: III.Fig. Fig. 4. FROA[ SVROS. 3. i'ro^[ FFATE m^'cen.

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Asia Minor and in Cyprus. has been found. Parallel with Troy II-V and the mainland civilization of Marina (below). circles. It is also related to the Cycladic civilization. following on the Neolithic. Its last phase cannot be separated in time from the western civilization of the shaft graves (p. Hagia Marina in Phocis is the chief place in which a pottery. was by no means primitive. 8) in influence of the Cretan technique and decoration is obvious. the Neolithic preceding stages had become known.' before in white. On Melos. as by the jug imitated from metal models. not exclusively rectilinear. which to both styles. presents a variegated picture beside the primitive vases there are vases incised and painted with rich. Its pottery. however. There is great difference between various islands and a comprehensive view of the development is not yet possible. Specimens like the beaked jug from Syros (Fig. ships and fish are later. 5 is is indicated common . hand-made with a black or red glaze. 3) are probably contemporary with the early Minoan style of Crete (p.W. the Kamares civilization (p. We return to the mainland and Central Greece. with or without rectilinear ornaments This was called Primitive varnish ware. The forms are very varied bronze and stone much more : : : models the structure of the vases and the distribution of the ornamentation show unmistakeably definite artistic intention. vessels often serve as . 'Marina' ware superseded the Neolithic in Boeotia (Orchosimilar vases have been found menos) and Thessaly also in the western islands (Leukas) and in the Argolid (Tiryns). ornamentation glazed (' varnished ') vases also occur. on the islands of the Aegean is the so-called Cycladic civilization. which has quite a separate position of its own. ' ' * . 7). but the pans with engraved spirals. 7).THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES gold ornaments. recurs in the whole of N.

4) are painted in colour. figured decorations {e. uses only geometrical ornaments in the Argolid on red or light clay vases linear patterns. The next stage is that Minyan ware and lustreless paint- ing are almost everywhere driven out by Creto-Mycenean * Varnish pottery. running spirals or even . Central Greece and Attica (Eleusis). In Northern and Central Greece as well as in Leucas it follows on the Marina ware. The wide extension of this already finely developed ware combines a series of bronze-age sites into a chronological unit. this locality and is ' and grey or yellow vases. the so-called Shaft grave stage (p. generally hand-made. in Troy it is parallel with the ware of Asia Minor and Cyprus. 6).' dark-grey layer is a totally different kind. in the islands it super* ' ' ' sedes the Cycladic pottery. turned on the wheel. wavy lines. Fig. unadorned and separated by from the upper.g. and also ir Attica (white-ground ware of Aphidna. as in Thessaly. In many places this process did not ' take place till the end of the Bronze Age. which are neither burnt dark nor glazed. birds. in the Argolid the Marina finds of Tiryns are followed by the shaft graves of Mycenae with Minyan vases.GREEK VASE-PAINTING The ware of Marina ' ' succeeded at Orchomenos by a which probably spread from therefore called Minyan. 6 It was apparently . Almost everywhere along with the Minyan ware we find vases not so finely constructed. with tall channelled foot. and in shape more plainly even than the Marina ware dependent on metal models. The decoration the lower part of the vase stripes brown generally emphasises the shoulder is . but show a decoration applied in dull colour. Eleusis). and (b) profiled two-handled cups (Fig. 7). especially (a) drinking-cups. This lustreless painting {Mattmalerei) in Central and Northern Greece. in Attica and Aegina it takes the place of the monochrome and incised ware.

KYLIX FROM MYCEN^.Fig. KAMARES VASE FROM KNOSSOS. 5. Fig. . 6. PLATE IV.

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appears beside Minyan and lustreless ware (Figs. patterns of which. developing without a break from the third millennium to the end of the second. famous by Schliemann shaft graves of gold. a technique which celebrated its triumph in the subsequent period. following on the miserable Cretans must have laid the foundation an inference may be drawn from the stone vases and goldsmith's work of Mochlos. which mainland. which in different parts of the island disclosed a compact civilization of markedly un-Greek character. and it has been divided into three epochs. The ceramic art enters on two paths. representative superior style of art. the builder of the labyrinth. the (p. of which the first two precede the period of the shaft graves. The vases were hitherto unpainted and only incised. The of quite a ' different and came from Crete idea that they has been confirmed by the excavations carried on since 1900. if * ' ' 7 * . 10). . or the vases are left in the colour of the clay and painted with bands of varnish to this so-called Mycenean technique belongs the whole late period There is a special group of flamed ware. By the side of these local products. the oldest Cretan import in the shape of vases of the first late Minoan style (p. Now either they are covered with brilliant black paint (Varnish*) on which the old patterns are painted in tenacious white colour. 4 and in 6). is in striking contrast to that of the This civilization has been named Minoan after the fabulous king Minos. for their rich treasure of 1874 behind the Lion Gate. In the early Age Minoan period. discovered and most freely opened and influence in the . 2) the of their riches. like much that is Minoan. the Varnish vases in the shaft graves appear like children of a strange and ' sunnier world. are far nearer Stone (p.THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES the lords of the Argolid who first their gates to Cretan importation Mycenae. which have a future before them. 10).

The motive of drops falling from sented in painting. which is a feature of the ornamentation of also expressed in the relief-like The ornamentation is still very (Barbotine). the black glaze is at by the first : A transition red in different shades occurs besides white. cave Kamares after the first discoveries in the occurs not infrequently alongedges the ornaments side of the polychrome but as it often them. which is characterized to modern applied art . it does not with incised lines or puts white spots on The * Mycenean technique ' . especially the wave series and running spiral. appearance of curvilinear patterns. living motives which characterize the later quadrupeds) are reprecreatures also (birds. and without division taneous use of decoration in bands. The Middle Minoan period.. Even in the first half the of this period the kiln seems already to be known potter's wheel appears in the second. occurs already. and also develops the numerous decorative further. and stripes (Figs. age and is vases many the spiral still fond of linear patterns. Ida. style. is the height of polychromy its very best. if at all. often unmistakeable. reject the tendency to richer effect. the Mycenean plastic of background. with in contrast with the lower The stock of forms increases. GREEK VASE-PAINTING than to Greek. fishes. the clay is finely cleansed. techdecoration appears. by ornamentation is found the emphasizing of the shoulder part decorated. 3 and 4). 5 and 9) polyIn the Kamares style proper yellow on black) chromy (white. which would be inconceivable the There is a simulvase-painting proper. a pure and richlydeveloped bronze civilization. named leads to the brilliant period of the Kamares on Mt. to the nique (dark on light) is relegated 8 . and lays the foundation of periods. Greek in brush. red. and dark the greatest variety reaches its highest development. the imitation of metal-work is (Figs.

Ari' \'. K\M \Ri:s IMIllOS n.Fif^s. V\i()\\ IMIAIS I'OS.A'ASES OF LATE MIXOAX I'AI. . FL'NXEI.K I l-'ROM Fig. y.AIKASTRO AXI) PSEIRA. 7 & 8. ST^I.

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bow and appear vegetable. Even living beings appear occasionally. The Kamares potter only aims at a pretty combination of colour and line. : : 9 is . but the natural object imitated is often barely recognizable. The technique did not disappear with the Middle Minoan peculiar relation to nature. This undisputed predominance of the ornamentation is in the sharpest contrast to the procedure of Greek art proper. The list of ornaments is and specially much increased and can scarcely be described in few words. and most important of all. zig-zags. By the side or in the place of geometrical motives. rosettes. branches. cups. the continuous wavy tendril. first because they prove the relation of Crete to the Nile valley. leaves.THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES The shapes become are vases beaked often saucers. The Kamares civilization. beaked metal jugs. amphorae with handles at the common. Usually the decoration spreads freely over the field and is not subordinated to the structure of the vessel. exercised influence over the islands of the Aegean the importation and imitation of its ware can be proved for Thera and Melos. groups of strokes. starting from Crete. and secondly because they give a fixed date (XII Dynasty). . crosses. mouth are more continually directly copied delicate. The plant ornamentation of the Kamares vases is in a spiral motives. Isolated finds in Egypt are of importance. Though nature here for the first time consistently imitated. and richly developed circle. not at representations. the reproduction is not at all 'naturalisHc' but thoroughly and from the first severely stylized. Not only does the colouring bear no relation to the object represented. not only is the combination of vegetable and geometric motives of purely decorative character. Nor is he concerned with structural arrangement division by bands and emphasizing the lower part of the vase by leaves pointing upward are uncommon.

The Cretans took to other objects instead.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Age. which the other lesser arts and the wall-painting of the period conjure before our eyes. Of the wonderfully vivid representations of men and animals. and with bold freedom depicts the newly discovered world In contrast to the Kamares in dark colour on light clay. but was long maintained alongside of the new style. which is no longer satisfied with gay ornamentation. animal body till it became decorative. in which the Cretans wxre masters. but with fresh vigour essays the conquest of Nature and her excellences. : Vase-painting gives only a small extract from the rich array of subjects. but it is to be understood as the . but a sign of the purely decorative feeling of They did not want to stylize the human or these artists. on a curved surface. the history of which may be regarded as a constant struggle to represent mankind and animal creation. 7. and by combining figures to upset the ease and flow of the decorative scheme. The investigation of their ruins has shown that these buildings were destroyed by fire and soon afterwards replaced by still finer new edifices. 8. 10 and 11). and yet also filled the field decoratively. without any loss to the picture from the eye by placing it 10 . This is certainly not an accident. style. The Kamares finds come mostly from the older palaces of Phaistos and Knossos. Figs. nothing is to be found on the vases. and are thus in marked contrast with Greek vase-painting. which could be represented in the vigorous way they aimed at. throws off the bands of the old technique. to distort it for the reflection of higher techniques. attraction it is given only a secondary place the new style (Middle Minoan III and Late Minoan I. Thus they entirely gave up all reproduction of them. The vase finds in these later palaces show a complete break with Polychromy is no longer the principal the old style. it did not arise on the vases themselves by the enrichment of an ornamental style.

STIRRl"P-\ASE 11.. Fio.K FRO>r OOIRXIA.\IF . I I STYI. 10.-R(). .\| 1NK1R.VTE VI.K |.STYI.\.MIXOAX I.Fig. OF AMIMIORA OF L. .\'1F MIXOW PL. .

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crocuses. one tectonic with arrangement in bands. What impelled the Cretan vase-painters thus unweariedly to represent the marine world exclusively on vases ? The explanation can only be sought in that supreme law of the development of artistic style. ivy. which freely scatters naturalistic representations over the vase. decoration of vases in the Kamares period : surround the vases. The which excellent naturalism directly inspired it by nature. lilies as they grow and wave in nature. spirit. a kind of ornament which to a short creative period : . which filled the field and was so life-like. ' 11 ' . continuous tendrils (which are also Thus two methods of treated naturally) or stylized plants. the cuttle-fish stretches out his feelers. The excellent idea of having the cool liquid surrounded by this decorative play of marine in the vases life. Lotus flowers. the nautilus swims about. corals and sea-anemones surround the living objects. marine plants and live creatures. common idea became popular.THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES The vegetable world had entered the now it does so in different but a totally afresh. and to them the future belongs. starfish and snails. often appears on the same vase in conjunction with it. and run of vase-painters created countless varia- tions of the theme. the stylized ornamentation never ceased to exist alongside of the natural nay. sea-weeds and reeds wave in the water. But these people were specially concerned with the sea. the talent for invention in a few pioneer brains and the slowness in invention of the many. . Grasses. decoration are in contrast. curve of the vessel. branches. and dolphins gambol around. perhaps came from a the The single gifted brain. another. Moreover. spirals in different combinations. but fixed conventional assert themselves decorative formulae remain. transfers with a bold brush to the vases. in the shape of wavy lines. is limited immediately the schematic and life disappears.

from which the Late Minoan civilizaMycetion transplanted to the mainland has been named superiority of these Cretan vases to : ' 12 . from Of course. knows nothing of perspective or shading. Cretan vases were there the also exported in quantities to Melos and Thera native industry loses itself in imperfect imitations of this imported ware. feeling for form in the way the body swells and contracts. foreign to abstraction and idea they set this art in contrast with the contemporary old civilizations of the Nile and Euphrates as well as with the Greek. 7). and stylizes the forms into the style of decorative drawing thus. The shaft graves of Mycenae (p. The Egyptian finds of this ware give as a date the XVIII dynasty. the marine world is represented without any indication of freely : . approximately 1500 B. this does not reality is mean that such abstraction not an advantage from the point of view of Often the vase-shapes show a cultivated decorative art. their direct relation to nature. and show most plainly their gay and heedless manner. The has spoken of has it adduce the adorned vases are also most characteristic of the art of the Cretans. The naturalism of the first Late Minoan period has narrower limits than has been usually estimated. Not only is the stock of themes scanty (Fig. especially the Argolid. emerge may be mentioned the and the funnel vase (Figs. 11 is an exception) but also the reproduction of nature is purely superficial. : water. 7 and ' that ' The ' stirrup vase ' (Fig.. all contemporary ceramic output showed itself in a vigorous export. for instance. but appear simple and constrained when compared with the Among new types fine lines of contour in the next period. a date confirmed by some Egyptian objects found in Crete.C.GREEK VASE-PAINTING made almost everyone who parallel of Japanese art. The Cretan civilization also enters the Greek mainland. their free decorative work. 10) 8).

AMI'HOR. 12 \ 18. I'LATl': \II.K OF THE PAI^ACE STYLE FROM KNOSSOS..Fio. .

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' are the oldest instance of this fact. An import- first * ' : ant difference is that the last traces of the Kamares technique (the imposition of white. The decoration neglects the neck and foot of the vessel and emphasizes the shoulder. as the latter is from the Kamares style. which Beside the ornaments produced the space. To the on the shape of the vase. red and orange on a black ground) disappear there is simply painting in black on light clay (Mycenean technique). in 13 . the representations are not the chief thing aimed at. . the naturalistic style gives place to a tectonic style. Both phases are connected by several transitional forms and run parallel for a time. by the which often look like a borrowing of architectural forms moreover. particularly with the characteristic half-branches. the juxtaposition and combination of the ornaments show the same spirit. 12 and 13) is not so sharply divided from the first. as can be seen most plainly in the amphorae.. vases of the six graves are distributed over the whole of the Late Minoan (early Mycenean) period. the significant unity of the design is interrupted by foreign elements the marine and plant ornamentation now never In covers the whole vase but retires into a single band. are changed into ornaments and patterns for filling . short. The animated reproductions of nature in the preceding they become fixed and style are treated in a fanciful way : . and also the emphasis now laid is the filling of which the structure and the swinging contour reach their highest form of elegance. schematizing of living natural forms come new ones. containing late specimens of Kamares style and early specimens of the Palace style but the bulk of the varnish vases found on the mainland belong to the succeeding period. The second Late Minoan period of vase production in Crete. This art had a wide influence outside Crete. the so-called Palace style (Figs. THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES The imported nean.

Orchomenos) and in Thessaly The finds continue during the period of the (Volo). who from their lofty citadels controlled the surrounding country. often burnt red. ornaments. Knossos. The ornamentation consists of the last remains of the naturalistic decoration. especially from domed tombs. ordered weapons. used them they also took into in life. belong many mainland finds. wavy lines. painters and potters. gave them to the dead in graves their service foreign artists. Melos. hatched triangles) become ever more prominent. becomes a lustreless Palace style. and with the destruction of these and other sites . spirals. concentric circles. the transition from the first to the second Late Minoan style. developed Palace style. with which are associated purely geometrical patterns of the simplest kind. Rectilinear patterns (groups of strokes. Old Pylos).GREEK VASE-PAINTING beginning of the period. The decoration is gener- 14 . Thorikos. far ported as as sixth city of Troy. About the end of the second Late Minoan period the Cretan palaces of Phaistos. : the Palace style decays. in Attica (Athens. 14-17) The technique Mycenean is very (or third Late inferior to that of the at first neat but afterwards clay takes a green tinge. The pottery of the Late Minoan) period (Figs. and gave employment to Cretan masons. Mycenae. in Peloponnese (Vaphio. surrounded themselves more and more with the splendour of this southern civilization. and Hagia Triada are destroyed. now become quite lifeless and poor. they were exThe islands too acquire Cretan vases and the distant Cyprus. is : black. The majority of these 'varnish' vases seem not to have been imported from Crete but made by Cretan artizans in the country. The Mycenean local princes. precious vases from Crete. the yellowish the smooth falls off brilliant glaze colour. Aegina. in Boeotia (Thebes. Spata). Argos.

FR()^r RHODES . Fli^.A'I'K LA'I'K M^'CKXK.U. 15.W ClI' FROM RHODES. M^CKNK. I.W S 11 RRf I'-VASK rE.XTE \lll.

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Sicily. the Cyclades. Two classes can be division of the field into ' ' But. shaft grave. being practically the whole Mediterranean basin. Italy. Rhodes). they last again the Egyptian finds give us a date from about the end of the 15th down into the 12th century. and especially all important sites of the Greek mainland. particularly birds with cross-hatched bodies. sinks down to it becomes once that primitive level from which it started : more a geometrical style. 17). Egypt. like the chariot-race on the krater from Rhodes ' ' . seem to have had practi- no acquaintance with the Mycenean style. after its brilliant achievements in the Kamares. emphasizes the shoulder band. Crete. it now comes into contact with the old indigenous technique. figured representations are not unusual on late Mycenean vases. 4 with Fig. cally Here : 15 . Phoenicia. like Olympia. where the varnish painting did not enter earlier. and Palace styles. 15) and {b) larger compositions taken over from wall-painting. certainly continuations of the old lustreless painting (cp. (Fig. Cyprus (where the Mycenean supersedes an old and plentiful pottery akin to that of Troy). In many places. The best-known example is the Warrior vase from Mycenae representing the departure for the battlefield.— THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES ally very loose. distinguished off-hand : animal (a) traditional ornamental style representations. and very in geometrical in treatment.g. on the other hand. Apart from these figured representations. Fig. one may say that Cretan vase-painting. The area over which we find this pottery is enormous. with many backthe monochrome. and usually puts on the lower half of the vase only a few stripes : vertical metopes is common. the coast of Asia Minor (sixth city of Troy) and its adjacent islands {e. incised and lustreless vases * ' : ward settlements. often provided with ornaments to fill the field.

the strong geometrical influence on the decoration. In this period the native seat of . so the late Mycenean pottery must have been produced mainly in conin the . when it had died out at home. back into the second millennium. the brilliant Minoan ground the centre . To arrange the huge mass of late Mycenean vases in this long development is impossible. Even period of the shaft graves we see the Peloponnesians eagerly adopting Cretan civilization in the following period the mainland vies with Crete in the production of Mycenean vases. which followed the Mycenean. . and finally must have wrested the lead from the southern outpost. hypothesis. that it was not merely exported from Crete indeed it is more than questionable. connects the destruction of the Cretan palaces with the Achaeans. So it was probably the Achaeans who spread the late Mycenean pottery all over the Mediterranean. until the material has been sifted and worked through. in favour of which there is much to be said. Thus we can explain the nonMinoan elements. and the taking over of figured scenes from wallpainting. and the new must have been formed by the Peloponnesians. in particular the Argolid. whether Crete played the leading part. Just as the walllords of the applies to the painting originally borrowed from Crete was still flourishing on the mainland. But one thing already can be said with certainty.GREEK VASE-PAINTING But since it is not conceivable that we should date the Geometrical period. A * Greece. They had tinental style * * 16 . This applies not merely to civilization but to political conditions. which was rejected by the old Cretans. civilization is no longer in the fore- of gravity has shifted to the mainland. the late Mycenean style must have lasted at least four centuries the rate of development. must have become considerably slower.' the name Homer invasion of conquering mainland. which in the time of great achievements had been very rapid.

A'iK mv(:I':nk. i.\x PLATE \\si:s IX. from riiodes. 1(5 \' 17.i-iys. .

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take the place of bronze the Mycenean vase style vanishes all along the line. These shiftings of population. as they justify conclusions about new localities of manufacture (Troy. and of their colonizing expansion in the Mediterranean the vase finds among other things give evidence. only sporadically to be found in the late Mycenean age. . of their united campaigns in which the Cretan king has the Argive Agamemnon as his overlord. while the Dorians represent a new tribe come in into of conquest in Asia just Minor. mark the end of the Bronze Age and of the Mycenean civilization. etc. and gives way to a new style. which subdued the Peloponnese and Crete and extended to the south of the Aegean Sea. the Geometric. from the north. the so-called Dorian invasion. In the beginning of the first millennium the scene is totally altered. 17 . the Homeric poems tell us. Iron weapons. Rhodes. Cyprus.). On the coast of Asia Minor and the islands are settled Hellenic races.THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES become a seafaring nation Crete we have on a great scale. Of their entry spoken. among which the Aeolians and lonians are probably descendants of the emigrated Achaeans. with which Greek historians begin the history of their country.

Euphronios. primitive the Greece may have been. first which we see afterwards expanding in con- tact with the East.CHAPTER II. the great genius of this period. Meidias. end As those primitive vessels. latent the forces. which continued throughout the Bronze Age technique. THE GEOMETRIC STYLE NOW time the history of Greek vases proper In the pottery of the geometric style are for the begins. from tinuation of the Mycenean the technique of painting. which led to the proud heights of Klitias. gives us of this world. but its beginnings are shrouded in darkcivilization of this early ness. of its development the style. We should like to have a glimpse of the origin of the Geometric style. however patriarchal is the picture which Homer. however much the works of art described by him point to Mycenean reminiscences and Phoenician importation. It cannot be regarded as simply a descendant of the pre-Mycenean Geometric pottery. yet in the department of ceramics the art of this time was thoroughly original and highly developed. it in outlying parts for in is its ' varnish * totally different little is it a direct con- from which it took over However much towards the latter inclined to decoration in 18 . . its forms and decoration. as well as the oldest beginnings that we can trace of that brilliant continuous development. and it is from the vases that this early phase gets its name. Its producers may be unreservedly described as Greeks : Hellas has come into However being.

Thus the Salamis vases. out of the frozen traditions of the mainland and the lifeless relics of Mycenean art created a new style and a firm basis for a fine 19 development. and Mycenean forms Mycenean ornaments fact an insignificant ware. and Assarlik in Southern Asia Minor. and their parallels from Athens. Though the Dorians did not develop the style as conspicuously as other tribes. at the tional forms. and there are transiwhich cannot be nicely divided. of decoration. They must not be too highly estimated they are. More like the stirrup like the spiral. show this * ' transition. but do not influence it. . the driving out of southern Mycenean civilization by races advancing from the North. which consistently unfolds and exhausts its individuality. Naturally Mycenean the style did not disappear abruptly from the face of the earth. the Argolid. but being in bad workmanship and meagre Mycenean home of the Minoan style. the Greek element proper. and the new mixture of blood. it is true. must rather bring in. which. Nauplia. those movements of peoples. which strengthened and made dominant the northern European element. the chief : certain vase-shapes.THE GEOMETRIC STYLE bands and the geometrizing of ornament. concentric circles and semi-circles on the shoulder are retained from the old style. . in complete contrast with the clear concise Geometric style. and in the seat of late Mycenean civilization interesting is the survival of traditions in Crete. From these and other unfolding of the new style Mycenean reminiscences the cannot be explained any more We than by a revival of pre-Mycenean Geometric styles. to explain the phenomenon. beginning of the new development. it was an outworn poor style that arose out of schematizing of living forms. there arose out of the ferment caused by their appearance on the scene the new creative vigour. hatched triangles. retaining in part vase.

emancipated from the silhouette style in the succeeding . properly speaking." (Furtwangler). stylized silhouettes. period. of the abstract It is not man as he actually is. hook maeanders. . The wavy line. but The head. while towards the end of the period. That is certainly not the case. style makes a virtue of the necessities of out of the simple decorative material at creates a rich system. and the same is the case with the representaMan and animal alike appear in tion of living beings. is to be rendered. Thus the human breast appears as an inverted triangle and is shown frontally. which gradually in the course of centuries of fresh observation of this 20 . but the concept linear style. takes a second place all other free ornamentation is eschewed the place of continuous spirals is taken by circles connected by Thus the ornamentation appears to be steeped tangents. its it . especially of women. maeanders broken up in different ways. become more numerous. rows of dots. hooked crosses. chequers. maeander systems. already often has a space reserved in the eye. and set them off sharply against one another. but a kind of mathematical formulae. rhombi. crosses. which bring the various parts of the body into the simplest possible scheme. . As a rule the human body is it to indicate represented naked. ' Angular patterns.' zig-zags. There has been division of opinion as to whether this nudity reproduces actual life. the instances of clothing. reproductions of nature. triangles. These oldest Greek representations of man are not.GREEK VASE-PAINTING The Geometric rude beginnings disposal. in mathematics. " This the nudity of the primitive artist. strokes. and clothes are no part of which man * is * concept. stars. net patterns are most common alongside of them are circles and rosettes neatly made with the compass. which is only the legs and head are in profile. which like the snake edged with dots perhaps comes from Mycenean polyps. fish-bones.

18 ATTIC GEOMETRIC Fig.FO.Fig. PLATE X. . (. PROH-VBLV A ITIC (I^LACK DIPVLON CLASS). IRIC AMI'llORA.MI' AMPHORA (DITYLON CLASS) 19.

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Mycenean . like circles and rosettes. or rest with neck turned round. metopes as they are called. e. and particularly the handle bands (Fig. Either we have continuous ornaments. 23). which varied. roes. which in this style are essentially nothing but ornament or he divides the bands. as in the prestyles (Figs. The choice is in contrast with the Minoan animal world there is complete absence of the Oriental animal world of : fancy . 19) vertically into rectangular fields.THE GEOMETRIC STYLE nature become richer. spiritual. two figures 21 . the pure silhouette only the birds often. The technique is always that of storks. and there arise ornamental compositions not at all drawn from actual life. the antithetical group. the former requires ornaments complete in them. selves. The animals stand upright. is . constructively the most important. Animal representation begins also in the same formulistic manner. the heraldic opposition of fields of figures. corporeal. goats. are filled in two ways. With them he fills the bands into which he loves to divide the vase (Fgi. 19) or with parallel rings (Fig. graze. we only see the Northern fauna . and processions of animals.g. These geometric ornaments and abstract silhouettes of men and animals form the complete stock out of which the artist of the period provides for the decoration of his vases. show hatched or cross-hatched inner drawing of the body. The metope naturally takes a different scheme of filling the space from the band if the latter prefers a continuous series. warriors. horses. or in the case of figures. chorus dancers. geese. the breadth of Mycenean and late . The connected by compulsion of space are then more closely united by a central motive. two birds both holding in their beaks a fish or a snake. two or of two figures in the same different field. in which case he covers the lower part of the vase with black (Fig. living. The bands. chariots and horses. 4 and 15). 18) or at all events the shoulder or handle band.

. is still We see the dead man lying on the bed of state. or in the upper part of the vase a rectangle adorned with ornament or figures is left out from the surrounding black thus arises the vase with raised fore-legs leaning against a tree. tied to a tripod. which are connected with the sepulchral purpose of the sion in the Epics of Hesiod. . two roes Band and compulsory schematism no longer suffice for the growing need of representation in the large vases the chief band is often made very high. must be inspired by the Heroic But far more numerous are the scenes of daily life. women. are standing.GREEK VASE-PAINTING horses with crossed fore-legs. Centaurs only begin to be represented on late Geometric vases. with arms raised to their heads in token of grief. while. since on Geometric bronze fibula from Boeotia it is certain that legendary scenes are intended. which in this period found Homer and its brilliant expres- very much in the background in these vase-paintings. in honour of the deceased. Scenes such as the embarkation on the bowl from Thebes (Fig. 21) cannot be interpreted otherwise than mythically. as the rape of Helen by Paris or of Ariadne by Theseus. so all the representations are without any Chariot floors and table surfaces are not spatial sense. metope with their : : with special field for subjects. with their duellists surrounded by spectators and their fights on a large scale by land and sea. The battle scenes too. sitting and kneeling around him we see the bier placed on the hearse. or held by a man with a bridle. fore-shortened. As the human form is rendered without any feeling for bodily shape. Legend. covered with a big cloth men. chariotraces and mimic battles are represented and dances are performed to the sound of flutes and lyres. 22 . Saga. and children. and amid loud lamentation of the populace driven to the cemetery. the breast of the dead man lying on the bier vases. rearing towards each other.

' ON PLATE XL A HOWL FROM THEBES. . ' IPlMiR HALF OF A DIPVLOX C. THE RAPE OF HELEN.Fiu Fig.R WK-VASE. 20. 21.

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hooked regards it as a gap in the the void with dots. rows of artist fills crosses. e. this space. and this textile impression strengthened by the geometry of the ornamentation. which contains the figures. is in the case of pairs of horses the off horse is simply moved forward and represented smaller. by the decorais schemes and the division into bands.' THE GEOMETRIC STYLE is represented in front view. This even covering of the surface gives the vases of this period a carpet-like appearance. by the angular stylization of the living beings. as if it hung down upon it . rosettes with a central point. Where the figures do not sufifice to fill . Greek ceramic art never completely lost this textile character. technical limitation of weaving. and anyhow such a consistent and systematic perfection as that of the Geometric vase style is inconceivable tions so in the formation of the linear patterns may have been : an imitation of a foreign technique. the Geometric decoration of the vase and zig-zags. and actually paints birds or fishes between the legs of horses or between the chariot and the bier which rests upon it (Fig. and never quite renounced the Geometric school through which it passed. As in all primitive civiliza- Geometric vase style.g. The space. the covering of the corpse visible in its complete extent. But on this account to derive the whole style from the imitation of works of the loom would be a mistake the stylistic limitations of the style cannot be identified straight off with the tive . the hinder rows in the Helen bowl (Fig. 21) are placed high up. simple taken over from weaving and plaiting but this is not the case with circles and rosettes. 20). the surface of the vase to be adorned. is an ideal tectonic space. though by centuries of labour it freed itself from the defects and crudities of that as * 23 . masses of men are rendered by files of similar figures figures to be thought of as in the background.

but. like the late Mycenean. But this style did not put out everywhere equally fine It was not. . rows and of antithetic groups are always breaking the principle of using up the space is applied afresh out the superficially for some time and only gradually refined decoration in bands subsists for a long time beside the vases the with a pictorial field. if the phrase may be used The Geometric . compact and clear thought out in the decoration now sparingly spread over them. goes through the whole history of Greek vases and keeps the ornamental figure world of the vases always at a distance from the much less constrained world ment in . now beauty true children of the Greek genius. as . vases have not merely a historical meanThey are not a preliminary ing. In the magnificent 24 amphora. ' from the first— and this is significant for Greek each differentiated and conditioned by locality art own its and region had its own manufacture of vases.— rise in form. . . .. — which . Geometric style. In them Greek art in true complete. style. of free painting. out of a clumsy rustic style with poor ornamentation developed vases of technical perfection. but Greek fashion worked out a thought expressed itself for the first time in a classical way. technique and decoration to the greatest perfection and highest richness. something stage. later Athens. but a value of their own. and remains of it exist till late disinclination for deepening the field.' GREEK VASE-PAINTING Vase-figures long exhibit their origin out of the ornamental silhouette the decorative schemes of arrangeschool. consistently lavishly. an imperial flowers. was The to drive out of the field all competitors. Already the lead is taken by that place. in their austere in form. viz. based on a correct structural feeling. Dipylon vases the name usually given to — Attic Geometric vases from the fact that most of them were found in the cemetery before the Dipylon Gate.

Eleusis. several other Geometric classes were also found. as also that of the neighbouring Eretria in Euboea.' in which the painting is laid on a white slip. . . which developed a very definite though sober and monotonous Geometric style that seems to have obstinately persisted till well into the 7th of the century. richly ornamented vases de luxe. the pottery 80 important of which makes a provincial impression. often only sparingly decorated on the shoulder or neck and otherwise covered black. . among them sentations occur. but above all from the island of with the Cycladic. Dipylon there is a second site in Attica. though not Boeotia too must be mentioned. The rich finds of other classes bear witness to an active trade with the mainland. we get already an effect of colour which became popular much later the stock of forms is ampler.THE GEOMETRIC STYLE much as which are worthy of tomb decoration. The prototypes of the big Boeotian and Eretrian amphorae with high stem and broad neck have been found particularly in Delos and Rheneia. and the Ionic East. and is dependent in forms. In the same place. the maeander more developed. The same disinclination and the frequent use of a light slip characterize the pottery Dorian island of Thera. know 25 it . but generally in this class there is a disinclination to represent figures. * the precursors of the art which flourished in the 7th century and which is usually ascribed to the island On the Delian vases horses and human repreof Melos. the delight in telling a story and in representing Beside the a scene greater than in other Geometric styles. their style perhaps reaches its culmination in the so-called black Dipylon vases. where the cult of Apollo had a great attraction. the Geometric two metres monumental use as in height. patterns and subjects on Attica and the Aegean islands. the pottery of which has many points of contact We from Miletus and other places on the Asiatic coast. other Cyclades.

(2) that of Argos. in shapes like the metallic krater with a stirrup-handle. the heights and richness of the Dipylon vases so-called Protocorinthian. and the decoration of the rest with parallel stripes is characteristic. The Rhodian Geometric vases are distinguished from the Cycladic by the absence of the light slip. points to relations with Cyprus.' which in post-Geometric times extended from Rhodes over . made their way to the Greek main- The most important Peloponnesian manufactures are that of Sparta. On Italian soil. ' the Ionian region and so land. the so-called palm-tree. in the Euboean . The two-handled cup (Fig. seems to be at home in the Its early Geometric beginnings (p. This ware was more exported than any other Geometric class it entered the southern Argolid. and was exported to Aegina and Thera. kraters. which next to the Attic had the greatest future before Northern Argolid we do not know. 34). Italy and Sicily. which soon Mycenean reminiscences and develops on parallel lines with the Attic ware without attaining to the (3) above all. which now to some extent adopts the : (1) white slip later discards its predominant . . the jug with flat bottom (Fig. The limitation of the decoration to the upper margin. and seem in spite of many points of contact never to have reached the same level. points. 26 . This Geometric style. went by way of Corinth and Eleusis to Boeotia and Delphi. 33) are the favourite smaller shapes. Crosshatched rhombi and birds are very much in vogue they appear also in loose arrangement on the Bird kylikes. 23).GREEK VASE-PAINTING Rhodes. Italy and Sicily. It is akin to its Argive neighbour in many it. amphorte and jugs. An isolated vegetable ornament. the deep drinking-cup. the round box. Unfortunately little has been left to us of the large-sized vases. cauldrons. in the scantiness of its stock of forms. the globular oil-flask.

RHODLAN GEOMETRIC JUG. PLATE XII.Fig. PROTOCORINTHIAN GEOMETRIC SKYPHOS. 23. 22. . Eig-.

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the precursors of the tongue pattern on Attic and Theran vases. imitations. After the purely Geometric vases. which have their root in to the : . like the palm-tree on Rhodian vases. Moreover. which quickly took on a local character and exported in its turn but in various other places also the style evoked local . * 27 ' .THE GEOMETRIC STYLE colony of Kyme. the unsystematic rays on Attic and Protocorinthian ware. figured representations from an alien world of ideas creep into the fixed Geometric systems. where at first they are placed side by side with the native ones. particularly small jugs with concenthus a tric circles on the body (precursors of Fig. dependent on similar Cyprian models. the Cyprian circles on Attic and Protocorinthian jugs. as for instance the two lions devouring a man on a Dipylon vase. it certainly founded a branch factory. ment of the Dorians in the island. 27) pitcher from Kavusi. the goddess flanked by two animals on a Boeotian amphora. The Protocorinthian style owed its brilliant future both Geometric foundation. after the settlestrong influence of Cretan Art. the fabulous creatures on Rhodian vases. to the In Crete. as will appear. no definite Geometric the Mycenean traditions were too strong style was formed and the relations with the East too close. among which wide-bellied amphorse without a neck are common. These foreign elements. the running spiral probably borrowed from metal work on Protocorinthian and Theran vases. there soon appear vases showing Cyprian influence. and. in shape as well as in the ornament which consists of a row of S's on their backs and the un-Geometric drawing of its silhouettes. which by an exception has figures on charioteer and mourning women in a metope-like it (a arrangement) is apparently. Crete with its loosely-rooted Geometric style took up the new elements more freely than other localities.

we obtain an approximate date for the end of the Geometric style. 28 . drew Greek vase-painting out of Geometric uniformity and . and is ever expanding according to the earliest vase finds Syracuse. Since Syracuse was founded in the second half of the 8th century and its oldest graves contain late Geometric vases. as both the Epic and the finds testify. powerfully stimulated their fancy. while their mother-cities still had Geometric pottery. heralded the end of the Geometric style. handed on to the Greeks the products of Oriental art. Colonisation too has already begun. Nor did the Greeks remain at home either. Its dissolution would have come. the world of fantastic animals. The crowd of decorative motives from vegetation. even where the style was most richly developed. course. the islands and the mainland were united to the East by active trade relations. which were brought before the eyes of the Greeks by this active intercourse. them are the harbingers of a complete revolution. Kyme. and exercised on it a persistent influence. . while the Geometric style was flourishing. and the superiority of Oriental Art in the rendering of life. pointed it to new paths. In particular Phoenician merchants. It is obvious that a decorative style like the Geometric could have no future its possibilities were quickly exhausted.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Oriental and in art. Boeotian and Protocorinthian painters proudly place representations of ships on Geometric vases the statistics of the finds of the various Geometric wares show a constantly growing trade interis : . and perhaps also Massilia and the Black Sea coast received settlers. even if superior civilization with richer methods of decoration had not been in close contact of trade and intercourse with this early Greek world. The Cretans and Eastern Greeks lived in the immediate neighbourhood of Egypt and Asia. The objects of Oriental Art. but had long become a seafaring people Attic.

Fig. Figs. ATTIC GEOMETRIC KYLIX. CRETAN JLGS I\ THE FIRST ORIENTALKSEH STYLE. 25 & 26. 24. . PLATE XIII.

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and the intensity of the contact In most places there follows first a period of with the East. hesitation and experimentalism. tions of the old style. speaking. the fixed vase shapes. roughly tion. the process to anyone who goes deep Geometric of into its details takes on the character of a restless fermentaIt occupies. too firmly rooted. the fusion of both elements into a new unity. according to the tenacity with which the old style was retained. THE SEVENTH CENTURY ASnew the Oriental motives pour into the Greek world. and the technique. The smelting process took on a different character in the different regions. out of which finally the new style is formed. and the formation of the established body of black-figured types. and an almost dramatic tension. Nowhere does the Oriental element simply take the place of the Greek Geometric the acquisi.CHAPTER III. the 7th century. the collision of the native Geometric style with Oriental influence. the change in technique of clay and colouring. which in the details of its course is still hard to grasp. remain and are further developed. to find it necessary to 29 . let us here treat as one the period from the end of the Geometric style to the abandonment of filling ornament. and the growth of the archaic style. Greek pottery was much too highly and richly developed. In contrast with the quiet and consistent unfolding style. Without forgetting how arbitrary divisions in the history of Art must always be. the principles of decoration. a development begins.

Samos. one by way of the Greek East (Rhodes. and other fine which the foreign trader or the seafaring Greek brought from the Near or Far East or saw with his own eyes It became apparent to him. from costly jewellery. 26). the mathematical element a new Art. like the rays similarly used (Figs.' which plays a part in Geo- metric bronzes. and the Cretan Geometric pottery soon takes up motives of decoration borrowed from the Oriental or Orientalizing metal industry. which were imported during the Geometric period. The connection with bronze patterns is fully proved by the dots often placed on the ornaments. 31-35). which evidently had a strong influence on the Cyclades and Peloponnesus. It looks as if the stream of Oriental influence took two different routes. articles of . varied local colour. which were then passed on. 25-27) which surrounds the lower part and the shoulder of the vases. goes back ultimately to Egyptian plant calyces. they are taken from metal vases and richly carpets. embroidered materials. In Crete Phoenician metal objects have been found. by the technique of adding white on black painted vases (Fig. appears as we have seen on the Kavusi jug Its climax is the cable pattern (guilloche). Not all stimuli come from the East perhaps only comparatively few. The tongue pattern (Figs. more general nature stimuli were much of they are chiefly visible in the ornamentation and pictorial types. The feeling for finely-drawn line and vivid reproduction of life awoke in view of the freer Art of the East the Greek made the Oriental models his own and created out of them and things.GREEK VASE-PAINTING The imitate Oriental clay vases. style was really poverty-stricken and mathematical. were constantly altered and took on direct . engraved gems. obviously borrowed from Phoenician metal vessels (Fig. which is (p. that the Geometric abroad. 27). 29) 30 . . The row of 'S's. Miletus) and another by way of Crete.

THE FLIGHT FROM THE CAVE OF POLYPHEMUS. CRETAN MINIATURE JUG. 27. FROM A JUG FROM ^GINA. PLATE XIV.Fig. . 28. Fig.

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in that notable period when Greek art under the influence of Oriental art took to the chisel. and to a kinsman of this ancestor of all Greek sculptors it traced back the invention of the great art of painting. and the Berlin jug adds also the volute and the palmette. and in their rounding and contouring. Praisos pitcher (Fig. now the head is completely rendered by 31 . especially monsters and fabulous beings.THE SEVENTH CENTURY which aims and by the change of the These often get a quite non-ceramic appearance (Fig. in which a previously described class (p. It is noteworthy that Greek tradition embodied the beginnings of this development in a Cretan. The Praisos jug (Fig. which are characteristic of the 7th century. and is entirely inspired by the Egypto-Phoenician ideas of form. 27). without the influence of which we cannot conceive of vase-paintings henceforward. 25 and 27). The at a metallic effect. The first period of the transitional style betrays little this influence. and exercise a powerful attraction not only on plastic art. We are now in the time when Greek sculpture was born. especially by the emphasis on the foot (Figs. 27) reaches its high water mark. Thus the Geometric silhouette is superseded. which now make their entry into Greek art. but on poetic and mythopoeic fancy. The plastic head which crowns this little bottle. inaugurates a new era in the representation of man. 25). 25) to the Orientalizing patterns enumerated already adds the hook spirals. as is the delicate Berlin jug (Fig. The reproduction of living beings of is dominated by the decorative figures of the East. to enter on a century of development which ended in giving shape to the loftiest and most delicate creations that can move the spirit of man. If even the preceding age had felt the need of leaving void a hole to indicate the eye. vase shapes. they are in contrast with the Geometric forms. 26) is obviously under Cypriot influence. Daedalus.

which the ceramic art has developed 32 . the rams of the Odyssey. The are a interior incised lines in the body of the sea-monster indepennovelty. with its hook rhombi and spirals. the space. and the giant must have been more than blind not to notice But on the other hand the artist has drawn them them. till the white It is object under the sea-monster has been explained. and even. very clearly. from the attacks of Peleus by changing into a fish.GREEK VASE-PAINTING an outline and made lifelike by interior drawing (Fig. The the rams is far . 30). ram. fill the beyond Geometric technique in drawing of the body too the silhouette is given up. we show here a contour. the Cretan origin of which is not established. full of excellent plate from Praisos. : very closely connected with their saviours. is the ornamentally constrained which becomes now however cannot be interpreted with certainty. difficulty do without a clear outline. The animal frieze. has put both arms and both legs in view of the fugitives are not spectator. we may see in it the foot of a female figure who escapes filling the left half of the plate. and indication of the hide is attempted. These attempts are perfected in the outlined figure of a certainly Cretan (Fig. perhaps Thetis. but which must be in close connection with Cretan art. 29). where a small detail would not other- made a small nick in the belly of the This shows how the artist of the period could with wise have shown well. observation of which nature. This animal frieze is no longer an end by the men clinging to them the ornamental rams in itself become mythical rams. The childishly disproportioned structure has now become a clear organism of genuine Greek stamp. is characteristic triangles to older Oriental of art . 28). the Ram jug from Aegina (Fig. picture most likely that a free version of a legend. vase-fragment. dot rosettes. The next stage is that the whole body also is rendered in To make the transition plain.

Fig. . 30.AND SE/\-MO\STER (?) FROM A CRETAN PLATE. Fig. KRATER WITH THE SIGNATURE OF ARI. HERAKLES AR(iI\E . PLATE XV.STONOTHOS SEVENTH CENTURY. 29.

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different to be sure in essentials from the Minoan. cannot be explained apart from the influence of free painting. a district which also took over the inheritance of Cretan vase stated to have ' ' painting. drawing and the technical rendering of form. 15) perhaps justify the conclusion. seems from the shape of the vase to belong to this class. interval of several centuries wall-painting must have sprung up again and flourished in Crete. of The complicated shape up of the head of the circle of rays. The bloom of Cretan art seems not to have outlasted the Finds give out. The oldest Greek vase signed by an artist. the juxtaposition of the traditional legendary scene. Greek to represent painting as indigenous and admits this art was that tradition reluctantly highly developed in Egypt long before. 30). 37). are typical of the early period certain parallels with the late Mycenean Warrior vase (p. rather influenced by the East In spite of the tendency like the decorative art of the time. the light colour of the tint of woman. outline drawing with a After an filling of colour) and distinction of sex by colour.e. that remains of the old wall-painting had an influence on the style. some stirruphandled kraters with metope decorations continue Argive sea-fight with the Orientalizing . the breaking silhouette. 33 . whose oldest stages are been outlining with progressive drawing of interior details. the outline of Peleus. invented in Greece. fabrication.THE SEVENTH CENTURY But on the other hand the advance in dently (p. Of the two chief centres of Argive Geometric vase one which is to be sought in the region Argos and Tiryns cannot be followed out very clearly. the krater of the potter Aristonothos with the blinding of Polyphemus (Fig. monochromy {i. Like the Aristonothos vase. the reddish brown the rider on the reverse. fies to the migration of Cretan sculptors to the Argolid. and tradition expressly testi7th century.

found at the Argive Heraion. with plentiful use of 'monochromy. precisely and richly than any . as well as the fact that the great trading-centre of Corinth looked after the sale of for the area in which they were sold the wares style. system of decoration and technique. of which we are it was the place to which Cretan artists migrated. are exclu- traditions. and that quantities of small and hardly exportable ware are found at various places in the district. more severely. but must soon have been put in the shade by its near neighbour and rival. . is with identical that the of Corinthian vases. A krater with tall foot and ornamentation in bands. are Argos and Aegina. and so does the It which leads up to the Corinthian. cannot have played a leading part. is too isolated to make a picture of this Orientalizing pottery possible.' . whence the name has been given. representing the rescue of Deianeira. and developed its vase-shapes. under the influence of metal patterns. fixed a clear style of figure representation 34 . was the birthplace of Greek painting and seat of a told that that it metal industry. sively found in the West (Syracuse) and were probably made there they do not give faithful reflection of their Argive prototypes. For that the so-called Protocorinthian fabrication is also at home in the Argolid is proved by the fact that the chief places. account of these close relations with Corinth. The alphabet of the inscriptions agrees with this locality. where the ware is found. so that we are able to account for three ingredients of the new style. the On home of the Protocorinthian vases has been sought with great probability in the neighbouring town of Sicyon. however. particularly flourishing ' ' and near its end an ample store of types.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Geometric These vases. For the Protocorinthian style of the 7th century gave the most delicate development of Cretan Daedalic types.

PROTOCORINTHIAN JUG OF POST-GEOMETRIC STYLE FROM ^GINA. Fig.32. PLATE XVI.\TTLE-SCENE AND SLAUGHTER OF THE CENTAURS.Fia. 31. . Fig. EARLY SEVENTH CENTURY. 33. rROTOCORINTHIAN LEKVTHOI WITH B.

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was Of the greatest importfirst produced in metal industry. and as a matter of fact delicate silver vases of the same shape have been found along with the clay copies of them in Etruscan graves.. * ' 35 . 23). the kylikes. The delicate two-handled cups closely connected with the Geometric style (Fig. and the reduction of the walls almost to the thinness of paper. As a handle ornament it gets a rich enlargement (Fig. though not always in the typical place. In it the vase history of the post-Geometric century culminates. THE SEVENTH CENTURY other contemporary centre of fabrication. 33). improved glaze colour baked black to red. but soon it is surrounded with the circle of rays. In spite of its Geometrical treatment and its truly Greek close combination with the system of decoration. the unguent pots which show Cyprian influence in their oldest globular shape. with their well-cleansed clay. from Oriental metal-work. round boxes and other shapes. This motive also appears in the Geometric decoration of the flat-bottomed jugs (Fig. drives out the S's and the running spiral. no doubt. 30). it does not disown the impulse it owes to Oriental patterns (p. the fine stylization of which. 30 and 32). which according to the ideas of the new period emphasizes and makes clear the tectonic character of that part of the vase. The lower part of the cups is at first painted black. Even in the Geometric period which preceded it (p. 32). borrowed as has been shown (Fig. and often also combined with other ornaments (Figs. The Protocorinthian style also introduced its doubling (Fig. can only have been produced in competition with the metal industry . which still survives in the 6th century The cable pattern. 32). 26) (the sparing ornamentation of which is in contrast with the Dipylon pottery and its greater delight in using the brush) metallic influence can be traced the simple running spiral certainly comes from incised bronzes. 98).

which so often occurs in incised metal-work. also Fig. 34) flanked by two well as behind the naturally ' . 31. as applied on a black ground. 31) waits to catch the hare. 36 . expand with the help of the lotus-flower into a fine loop and flower ornament (' Rankengeschling '). On the other hand the ornaments in the field are quite as meaningless as in the sphinxes. and the rosette treated as a dotted star. is shown e. in spite of its rigid stylization. shoulder the already been met with in Crete. two ornaments we have seen already on the Ram jug (Fig. 35. later they become less and less prominent (Figs. often loosely stylized beginnings. but most commonly finishes Both motives have where it meets the neck. 38). Two further decorative motives lead us back into the region of metal-work. which appears in the advanced style. as drawn bush (on Fig.g. 26) is very popular with Protocorinthian artists. the scale-pattern extending over the whole body of the vase (Fig. the tongue ornament. 28). running tendrils and is which in combination with the palmette appear on the wall of the vase or as an upper stripe. and older style : . goes alongside of the clay-ground vases for the whole period. to those used by Geometric artists are now added the hook spiral. and from simple. by the volute-complex. which on clay vases as well often rises over the foot kindred rays. ' is thought of as a real tree. The black ground technique of the Praisos jug (Fig. and supplies richly coloured examples decorated with figures and ornaments of fine effect. 36) this shows that the volute tree (Fig. volutes. 32 and 34. 32. was felt by the Greeks to belong to the living vegetable world. cp. as in Figs.GREEK VASE-PAINTING ance the adoption of loops. That this ornamentation. particularly in combination in place of the with a new technique. behind which the hunter friezes of arcs. (on the lowest stripe of Fig. the typical decoration of bronze vessels. 28) at first they are independent and can be used to form friezes.

BELLEROPHON AND THE CHIM. AS THE CHIGI VASE. KNOWN PLATE XVH. 35. Fig. PROTOCORINTHIAN JUG. 34.\ FROM A PROTO- CORINTHIAN LEKYTHOS.Fig.\ER. .

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31). and the effect of the figures was further enhanced by the addition of details in red This is an important innovation in the history of Greek vase-painting * 37 . wild-goat. tion of this IS that the decorative animals outlines like the An indica never become pure human figures.t IS more important to establish the fact. These m quite definite types. lion and panther new animals. return to the complete silhouette.THE SEVENTH CENTURY being specially typical of scale and tongue ornamentation that of mcsion. with ever greater zest employ on their vases Bes. some in measure replaced the influence of the rising art of painting by that of metal-working. art sphinx. with which a lower stripe could be easily filled come for which they are chiefly indebted to Oriemal bull. and other hybrids. particularly the friezes of animals. appear griffin.de the birds stags and roes. as satisfying better the requirements of decoration return became This possible through the use of the incised line by the help of which interior drawing could be added on a black ground. beside the dogs pursuing liares. and this rule is devoutly observed through the whole period of decoration with animal friezes. bear. which the vase-painters. which exclusively. but after a period of partial silhouette (p. inspired by Oriental metal ware and embroideries. new stamp it was to the black- who were also to the style at the East used simple brush technique almost The incised line is always combined with the addition of coloured and particularly red details The technical advance. siren. which admit of little creatures variety • It IS characteristic that the panther's head is drawn in front view perhaps through an abbreviation of a heraldic double panther. and gave a a time when artists. : first that consistently and systematically applied ground vessels of the Protocorinthian famed for metal-work. is shown more plainly in the figured representations. ram. goat. It is perhaps idle to inquire into its invention .

finely stylised figured : rior detail. on the Chigi ]ug (Fig. Ram stage . bronze reliefs and metal engraved work is too much in the spirit of too great. for decorative purposes single parts of the which is . 35)^ later lekythoi (oil-flasks) and two-handled cups with technique is repeated on the big This which finally accomby small foreshadowed already plish an important advance silhouette with incised inteand hasty specimens the dark and the style of the animal friezes.GREEK VASE-PAINTING completely altered by the decorative play of colour. eye are taken over for the place at the end of the This adoption. To this corresponds flat accompanied by incised lines the outlines of the figures are on the finest of the on polychrome vases with black ground. women from that of men of distinguishing the lighter skin of body. the metal the kinship with Cretan asserted its influence have and Argive also . 30) First we have the vase of Aristonothos vase (Fig. which only takes style the and makes the Protocorinthian development. it makes the next (Fig. 28) the desire is represented by the ment . of the art of painting (p. which extends also to the ornamentation. The new it makes prominent colour system does not aim at realism animal body. 33). than on other lines new develop- a fresh start. the sharp clear-cut types postulate an mdebronze technique. for it to be possible to the fact that pendent development. especially the neck and belly. 38 . The drawing of the human figure proceeds In consequence of the that of animals. representations. prevalent in the circular rendering of the along with it certain details like representation of male figures. and The general effect of the vase is only dropped late in the 6th century. But in the leads to the tinting in brown of the male was not only formation of the figure types certainly it art must worker's painting that stood godmother. and takes on that gay many-coloured aspect which is so characteristic of the older archaic period.

i '/. PLATE XVlll .

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prominence decorated shields. . joins the animals winged demons in the remarkable scheme of running with bent knee (pointing to the metope treatment) are also placed amongst them kneeling archers shoot arrows at them.THE SEVENTH CENTURY starting point of black-figured vase painting. other frieze-like compositions. which to be sure is always a rarity on vases and must have played a larger part in free painting. make a direct appeal which is strange for such early art. are simply flanked by animals. which appears also on a frieze of riders (Fig. wounded fall. Purely human scenes. 36) show the awakening of the landscape element. them. whereas the bold front view of the Sphinx head (Fig. Bellerophon rides on Pegasus Chimaera. 43). thanks to charming observation of detail. Moreover. are equivalent in their mythological scenes there is a series of representations. corpses are hotly fought over. frieze. Greek forest monster. the processions of riders and chariot-races. the varying colouring of the animals on the stripe in question. and beside the free heterogeneous elements. does not unite For man and decorative animal juxtaposition. Hand in hand with the enlivening of the friezes it only is goes the suppression of field ornamentation : 39 . 31) and continues in Corinthian painting. hunters and combatthe old . The bushes in the hare-hunt of the Chigi jug (Fig. like the favourite Duel (Fig. The artist always in these cases gives auxiliaries hurry up. the hunting scenes and chase of the hare. The addition of figures in rows and overlapping makes this simple combat ants pursue against the into a battle . Herakles fights against the Centaurs. must come from the same source. 37) like that of the panther head and the Corinthian quadriga. the pride of Like the rows of fighting men. was attempted for the first time in an ornamental band. which seems to have grown straight out of the animal The Centaur. the to the finely Argive metal industry.

and reaches out its arms. The human figure remains a type. At times a lizard (Fig. as if it were yearning for ' . ' a frame.GREEK VASE-PAINTING sparingly applied. and if the names of the . limited to the animal friezes or entirelyabsent. if between chariot-race and lionspace. it fills from top to bottom the stripe assigned to it. or Bellerophon lays the Chimaera low in if close to the lionpresence of two Sphinxes (Fig. And as the body avoids all perspective. for even where it is not essentially an ornamental scheme. hunt on the Chigi jug (Fig. and the curly forehead hair as spiral. As the figure still 40 . There is no rendering of folds to show depth in the drapery. 34) Hermes leads the three goddesses hunt in the same stripe. These control the type of the human figure. like the runner with bent knee. Of course this is all devoid of meaning all progress and freer treatment the style for in spite of . unlike reality. human appears almost completely on a par with the ornamental animal figure. 37) a double Sphinx is inserted as central motive. which are entirely designed for filling It matters little. and renders the long hair falling down over the neck as smooth surface. is merely concerned with the decoration of a surface exigencies of space are its supreme law. a homogeneous constituent part of the stripes. before the fair Trojan shepherd. a swan or a monkey- comes into the figured scenes. in full extent. personages are entered in the field with big letters as a kind the incipient delight of ornamentation by way of filling in telling a story is taken at once into the service of filling : the field. so the head in profile shows its most expressive part. so there is little trace of any superior weight being attached to the scenic Where the representations in the decorative system. extends its breast frontally. 34). the eye surmounted by the brow. which now the artist in true Greek fashion treats in an abstract way.

Fig.Fij. 39. .. PROTOCORINTHIAN OR CORINTHIAN JUG. PLATE XIX. Fig. 38. CORINTHIAN ALABASTRON AND ARYBALLOS. 40.

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but he frames them with prominent stripes of ornament or animals. it is in contrast with the practice of the Geometric period (p. change their appearance. The presence of several animal friezes on a single vase (e. the Protocorinthian list of shapes is only known to a small extent. sometimes in the ground of the clay. Though it is chief frieze . gave the vase-shapes a clearness and precision. which the (Fig. 35) with ' ' 41 . with which the products of no other manufactory can compete the Sicyonian-Corinthian school of repousse work perhaps originated many metal vase-shapes. For the most severely shaped black vases. and goes through the whole history of the fabric. 35) is not uncommon like band ornamentation in general. Beside the jugs of primitive construction (cp. Fig. The close connection of the shapes with metal-work has been already proved in the case of the cups of early Orientalizing style (Fig. 38) which (Fig. and even where the models were not immediately copied. and side by side with the narrative vases purely decorative ones are still produced. 33 with Fig. exchange their old globular shape (Fig. 54) appear later more rounded vessels. 38). In the same way the little lekythoi which are technically often quite exquisite. on jugs of the shape of Fig. 23). sometimes black. which are nearest to the bronze models that we possess (Fig.g. shows us the style in a richer and more developed form than any other vase of this fabric. do not always adopt this fundamentally nontectonic breaking up of the body of the vase. 27) for a slimmer one with pronounced shoulder. true he puts at their disposal the and often one at the base in addition. 25) and is probably to be traced to a strong influence of Oriental textile art. which were afterwards used in various manufactories. . the chief example of its excellently decorated bands. an important change can be established.THE SEVENTH CENTURY painter employs them. the jug with rotelle ' * and the wineskin-shaped.

Rhodes. The lekythoi were the chief exported article. so the class called into existence a multitude of imitations in Sicily and Italy. it must not be forgotten Protocorinthian workmanship that we have only an accidental selection of this ware. Carthage). 42 and one .GREEK VASE-PAINTING caprice of the potter often furnishes with plastic additions. especially the occurrence of the vases in quantity in the Corinthian colony of Syracuse. ware came many it exercised places evoked local more than other districts the West was As the oldest Etruscan wall-paint- this Art. 52) dominated by . extraordinarily wide currency of the ware denotes not merely its superiority. Grotta Campana at Veii and the Tomba Caere. ings. point to the fact that the great trading city of Corinth took over the sale of the ware and gradually replaced it by its own products. And as beside the rotelle" jug. or at least the most favoured grave-offering of the customers But one cannot call it the favourite shape of abroad. Attica. Asia Minor) and in the West (Sicily. 39). in the East (Thera. with the place of manufacture. and many graves in the Argolid. and in copies (p. Argive transformations of Cretan Daedalic types (Figs. we have the wineskin-shaped jug. The vases localized with certainty in Corinth by their alphabet give an identical immediate continuation of the Protocorinthian. are quite under the influence of Sicyonian-Corinthian painting. and Boeotia. due to the discovery of two native sanctuaries (the Argive Heraion and the Temple of Aphrodite in Aegina). * ' 27 and 31). but also that of the trade-centre which exported it. so beside this sort of 'lekythos' there is a wineskin-shaped variety with a rough tongue-pattern on the neck (Fig. * ' ' : Italy. Wherever this a stimulating influence. This need not necessarily have been The Many signs. those of the del Leoni at particularly at Kyme.

. 41. Fig. ANIMAL FRIEZE FROM A PLATE XX. CORINTHIAN JUG.Fig. 42. ANIMAL FRIEZE FROM AN EARLY CORINTHIAN JLG.

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Naukratis. The heraldic scheme is more prominent than ever. nay. link on to the later Protocorinthian in decorain the style of the figures. but even technically perfect vases show a strong inclination to overfill the field. which thanks to the commercial capacity of the Corinthians could drive the older competitor out of the field its sphere of influence. . in the field also show this change. it decoration. if the vase picture repudiated the brush technique more than it does. one gets as a tion and in the result coarse animals and filling patterns like mere blots . neither in its takes over (Figs. replaces the Protocorinthian. nique becomes rarer white rosettes painted on the black neck and edge are in the indispensable tongue ornament on favour to the end the shoulder gradually comes to be rendered by the brush. encroaches still further on the Ionian region (Samos. 43). its chief workshops this to Corinth or : The Corinthian style did not long retain the metallic clearness and precision of its shapes. as we saw. We owe to it the invention of a new combination of lotus-flower and palmettes (Fig. but soon alter the types sense of a broader rendering of form. The animal-frieze vases. 35. which for the most part 39. Pontus). Which one might bring into causal connexion with the Corinthian textile art famed in antiquity. which are quite in the forefront of the interest. and the rosettes On the common ware. 34) is flanked ornament. The composition shows the same intrusion of a strongly decorative element. 38. 39). which was turned out along with the good.THE SEVENTH CENTURY can only ask whether manufacture simply transferred whether Corinth in the closest imitation of late Protocorinthian ware developed a new style. which exhibits the final style. nor in its predecessor. which like the old volute-tree (Fig. The dark ground techthe scaly fields continue for a time. triumph of the ornamental . a 43 .

swans. which have not got the palmette and lotus cross. and when in the representation of the central animal the myth begins to be active. 38) has finally discarded the old outline drawing with brown filling for the animal-frieze certainly technique. Thus arises a coordination of man and decorative animal similar to that of Protocorinthian art anyone who has followed on the vases this process.) fishes and serpents a motley series of hybrids. which is characteristic of the 7th century. tritons and other fabulous creatures are side by side with the favourite winged demons.g. but borrowed from other contexts. sirens and griffins. bearded sphinxes. but also non-ornamental figures. . They are more intimately connected with the animal figures. scenes of human life. are decorated with it but even in the stripes. The male figure (p.' there are groups of three animals at a time inspired by the heraldic . sphinxes. especially the runner with bent knee. The non-ornamental human figures in the animal compositions are of course not invented for this purpose. geese. winged panthers. which not surprised. grotesque dancers (Figs. winged lions. and the goddess of beasts (TroVwa e/)poou) which in the Oriental patterns are flanked by animals. existed beside the decorative representations and followed the lead of the Protocorinthian precursors. 39 and 40) (Alabastron and Aryballos). eagles. is : . cocks and owls. black silhouette with incised interior details. 41). ' scheme (Fig. women.GREEK VASE-PAINTING by two animals. 40 and 43) are found in this place. The place of the central ornament is often taken by purely human beings. The list of types grows beside the quadrupeds appear many birds (e. 44 . riders. when in the archaic Corinthian pediment at Corfu mythological scenes appear side by side with the Gorgon flanked by panthers. In particular the wineskin-shaped and globular unguent-pots (Figs. the successors of the Protocorinthian unguentpots.

Fis. CORINTHIAN SKYPHOS. 43. .44. ACHILIRS AND TROILOS FROM THE LATE CORINTHIAN FLASK BY TIMONIDAS. : PLATE XXI.Fig.

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44) shares with the Chigi vase the contrast of colour important for Corinthian painting. painted red. e. and the new intrusion of a strong decorative element in this pottery is obvious. their reckless antics. and especially two works signed by the painter Timonidas. this makes clear rather than removes the defect. The duel flanked by sirens on the Boston cup (Fig. collected in big battlethe grotesque revellers and dancers with extended posterior. is only broken through by a few gifted masters. fill whole friezes with scenes . 64-67). which bridge the gap between the Chigi vase and later Corinthian vase-painting (Figs. the chiton parts. neighbourhood of Corinth itself has supplied some fine specimens with a marked character of their own. very rare. so that we may form erroneous ideas. When often instead of it the breast and thigh are picked out in red. the .g. The warriors and riders are ^ this often arranged in processions. however. which are for the most part careless decorative work intended for the export trade. 43) is typical of the older Corinthian style. as in the Protocorinthian style. This defect to be sure is due to a great extent to the accidental preservation of a series of vases. which. the shield 45 its bearer. and when vase-painters like Chares supply names to an ordinary series of riders. the connection with the animalcomplete.THE SEVENTH CENTURY But at the same time the memory of monochromy is not yet the head silhouette is still by preference quite extinct. The . the girls take hands for the dance. in the framed by tongue pattern ornament. The flask with the story interior field of Troilos (Fig. kylikes where. The flesh of women the man the is of sets off his light as a set-ofT to that of the nude men. when in sphinx and siren contour drawing abandoned. prototypes of the satyrs. Special legendary scenes are. is frieze style is Even the compositions of the figured scenes are under decorative spell. are fine Gorgon masks and human busts.

GREEK VASE-PAINTING The front horse the hinder of the pair. in the abandonment of filling ornamentation. is not crowded by any filling ornaments the finely drawn youth in the balance of his proportions and the rendering of detail . which only survives in vegetable 46 . delight in the land- scape element. the fine steeds. points back to Protocorinthian style. master one sees expressed something like feeling. and big inscriptions. But nothing is left of the ornaments scattered about the field but a small palmette. The decisive step in the history of vase painting. the trees conceived of in their special natures. surpasses the wrestler of the Praisos plate (Fig. show little of those progresses in colouring and spacing. whose a clay votive tablet outline nique or by the desire for contrast of colour (Fig. the cross-section like genre scenes from the workshop of the potter and metal-worker. however. and in his broad massive appearance introduces a new rendering And similarly the dog. which we must assume in greater measure for the great art of painting. from mining and sea voyages. coloured bright yellow of the body. goes far beyond the animal frieze One fancies that in this animal eagerly looking up style. 45). Timonidas has put on unconstrained by the silhouette tech- The hunter too. consists in the liberation of the field. with appropriate detail. Like the pinax of Timonidas many other votive tablets of the same find take one out of the stock vase scenes. which gives the necessary foundation for the descriptive style. which is especially embodied for us by the painter Timonidas. 29). the composition has become looser. but it is ingeniously adapted to new use. especially in the delight in landscape. there is much less tendency to cover the surface in the drawing of the figures the old scheme of the kneeling runner has its echo in the : Achilles lurking in ambush. in the transition from the to his ornamental to the pictorial style. Thus there is a much freer relation to space. The vases.

Fig. . PINAX FROM CORINTH. HUNTER AND HOUND. FRIEZE OF AN EARLY PHALERON JUG. 46.Fig. 45. SIGNED BY TIMONIDAS. PLATE XXII.

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and arrangement the luxuriant vegetable character of the decoration (Fig. 46). and in the triumph of figure-subjects over friezes of ornament or animals. which can best be followed in the kraters (Fig. now ranged in special rows. with which birds and insects are often combined. But before we pass to that. 47 . To the unsystematic reproduction and application of the new ornaments. we are brought close to the black-figured style proper. later Protocorinthian. The course here is similar to what went on in the Argolid. can rapidly pass over Sparta. and 66). The break-up of the most definite of all Geometric styles seems to have taken place in spite of vehement opposition. we have still to follow the suitable to the occasion serpents. Beside many one seems to notice kinship with Ionian pottery bands of squares accompanied by dots and the branches on the edge of the kylix. and so added to the others. the Nessos vase and Vurva. To the three stages. In what close relation earlier Spartan civilization stood to Ionia. 34 transition here described through the other fabrics of the 7th century. succeeds a severer choice. which as We yet produces no ware fit for exportation. Details of the Oriental flora and fauna are first assimilated to the old style. older Corinthian. and taken unobtrusively into the Geometric system of decoration. answer the three groups in Attica named respectively after Phaleron. In the group named after the finds at Phaleron the new style with marked Phoenician imitations gets the upper hand. only lasts for a time. lizards(Figs.THE SEVENTH CENTURY motives and scattered birds. now arbitrarily scattered. The same stylization . 65). which is completed in the beginning of the 6th century. we learn from the history of specialities in the small lyric poetry. which is differentiated by some technical innovations. in the placing of similar animals in rows. earlier Protocorinthian. With this step.

and casts a light on the conception of ornament as something living and not yet felt to be an abstraction from reality. the ear is like a volute. Attic pottery had already given greater scope to the narrain the Phaleron vases it tive style than other manufactures creates an important system of decoration. rendering of nature happily can extent in big vases. which we have not been able to get from the Protocorinthian vases that have been preserved.GREEK VASE-PAINTING experimental hesitation prevails in the figure drawing. knee-pan. which does not go straight from the Geometric silhouette to contour drawing and monochromy. for the hair and dress. e. only surrounded by narrow lines of orna- ments and animals. The big Phaleron vases also give evidence ^s to the grouping of the figures. Older specimens like the Berlin amphora from Hymettos outline with ankles. Similarly in early Greek sculpture an ornamental conception of the outline and the details of the body is expressed. and in the later Phaleron stage is not sparing of details in red. and in addition the neck of the amphora Even in Geometric times is adorned with figured scenes. the aquiline nose is very prominent. the skull is flat. but very soon experiments from time to time in the incised line and added white paint. : already fill the greater part of the vase surface with the descriptive frieze. When the later Phaleron vases re-adopt the full silhouette in animal drawing and extend the technique of incised detail and additions in red to human outline figures. which is continued in the group of which the Nessos vase is the chief representative. It still The progress in the be followed to some leads to a fixed type with a loose and elbow rendered like ornaments in the head the big eye in front view dominates at the expense of the forehead. which they often emphasize only to make them stand out from the 48 . and prevails to the exclusion of everything : else in the 6th century..g.

> Figs. PLATE XXIII. NECK AND BODY DESIGNS OF AN ATTIC AMPHORA. . . 47 & HERAKLES AND THE CENTAUR NESSOS THE GORGONS 48.

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Medusa whom furiously pursue a Perseus not repre- the Aegina bowl of kindred style and Louvre show along with his protectors Athena and Hermes.. In Attica. but type is the sisters of sented at all. the flesh-tone of the face women is retained for decorative effect.e. the lion-type on the vase just connected with the Protocorinthian. The field ornaments are similarly limited. intensifying or weakening them according to their talents. The same the rather later cauldron in the 49 . with which vase-painting parts company again from the great art and returns to decorative silhouette effect. The procession of chariots in the Piraeus amphora is only in the line of old borrowings. and the rosette with points has the chief place the lotus and palmette pattern of the Nessos vase (Fig. which one would be most inclined to explain by strong influence of Protocorinthian art. which is certainly only an extract from a larger composition. the circular rendering of the eye is taken over for the male figure. On are distinguished vases of this technique the Orientalizing luxuriance developed out Geometric richness is entered by a new and discipline. they prepare a step. the cable and of spirit of severity . by the old outline-drawing. the taking over of the animal-frieze technique into figure-painting.THE SEVENTH CENTURY background. the double rays of the Piraeus amphora (Fig. 48). decorative female creatures and monsters do not escape from the silhouette treatment (Fig. enlarging or abbreviating them according to their requirements. too. At any rate the vasepainters had no hesitation in taking over the compositions once created and cutting them up. i. One on the neck of the Nessos vase the Phaleron replaced by another. which is completed in the Nessos group. 48). and the same artist makes tradition. 49) are simple named is closely may ask whether the types in spite of their Attic stamp do not partly come from the Sicyonian-Corinthian school.

when the Medusa collapses with the speed of lightning through Herakles kicks the back of the rough monster. Apart not entirely give its character to the Vurva style. on some it entirely prevails. which may also form independent the decoration assumes quite similar forms to those friezes But the Corinthian elements do of the Corinthian fabric.. the so-called Vurva style. the flight of the Gorgons. But the Greek showed originality in animating and enhancing these types.GREEK VASE-PAINTING lucky ' laziness of invention ' is Old types the individual figure. and a bason from Vurva. shown in the rendering of behind of Oriental art are the battle motive of Herakles. older Corinthian denotes a strengthening of the decorative and is also to be regarded as a rival of Corinth. These vases lead over to a noticeably miscellaneous class. the broad handles are adorned with owls and swans under the principal field a row of dolphins gambol.g. On the Nessos amphora the decora- The mouth bears tive figures are of secondary importance the old goose frieze. the sisters rush the air. but they are hardly to be conceived of as a meaningless animal frieze. and the race of the Harpies on the Aegina bowl . : * ' . the same early Attic which next found plastic expression in the early sculp- bilities of art. which both reduce the filling ornaments very considerably. In spite of the harsh perspecfront view points to the origin of the tive arrestingly expressive it is in death. but are to be understood in a landscape sense the wild chase is by sea. for filling there is nothing but rosettes. e. On the other vases of this group the animal frieze element is much stronger. on big-bellied amphorae with no angle dividing body from neck. : 50 . tures of the Acropolis. the unusual Gorgon type as an ornament. and the victim supplicates his tormentor by touching his beard : we have an art with the joy of youth full of vigour and possidevelopment displaying itself. like the The ornamentation is very limited. which just .

Fig. ATTIC AMPHORA. Fig. PLATE XXIV. 50. . 49. CYCLADIC (EUBOIC) AMPHORA.

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purely decorative. Thus one may refer the painting of white on the figures. This vase with special field. individualize the world of figures out of its ornamental constraint. whose beginning we have reached with the last-named vases. they give up filling ornament. naturally the subject-vases went on. which is only occasionally employed at Corinth. the draped men and riders. Athens was then in connection with Naukratis. which it needs for its evolution. which had long known it. who trivial * maintain the connection with the older figure-painting the traditions of the Nessos vase and its parallels continued on These vases are to Attic big and carefully executed vases. and then becomes the chief vehicle of the new style. decorated with a female bust or a horse's head. only transitorily enters the service of animal decoration. so it meets us in Attica at the same vases with decoration in bands. panel reserved in the black ground. Beside the common ware. which arose from the needs of representation. 51 . as at runners with bent knee Corinth. kraters. to the influence of the East. which remained longer operative in the very ceramic and nonmetallic Attic school than in the Argive-Corinthian. placed on a special field for the subject. what the works of Timonidas were to Corinthian . in some and are 'pinakes. give the subject-style Just the spatial freedom. technically and poor. pottery.THE SEVENTH CENTURY from the traditions of the brilliant Geometric period. as we could follow this transitional style in Corinth on a vase of Timonidas. and cauldrons. necked amphorae. and in big-bellied amphorae with and pinax time in which take the place. to the evidence of vase finds. and explain in the same way many a similarity with the East in the motley array of animals. but on the Vurva vases often takes the place of the red. one According suspects also influences from Eastern Greece.' votive sepulchral of measure. . It is not only the mingled with the animals.

cannot yet be followed beyond the early Orientalizing stage. the new cable meets the old meander in the same frieze. 50). Similarly Attic and island influences are found side by side at the neighbouring Eretria in century. shows on one side the Oriental goddess flanked by lions. . 52 . from Thebes. quantities of which were imported in the 6th century one enters an Attic sphere of influence. It excels in . The Cycladic manufactory. surrounded by scanty filling ornaments. are imitated from vases of the islands (p. simple animal representations. to which class belongs the Stockholm vase with the roebuck (Fig. rows of triangles are enclosed by spirals in the metopes of the shoulder stripe appear. where an inde- pendent artistic spirit never existed. the decoration of which consists chiefly of a pictorial frieze at the level of the handles. had they not been influenced by other models as well. On the amphorae with white slip already described. imitated the Protocorinthian and Corinthian wares. One might describe these dependent manufactories as provincial branches of the Attic. 51). The best known instance. to which the Boeotian and Eretrian imitations point. severely stylized flowers and tendrils enter the not very rich Geometric ornament. Euboea. like those of Pyros and Mnasalkes. on the other a flying bird and spiral ornamentation.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Attic pottery of the 7th century exercised great influence upon its Boeotian and Eretrian neighbours. The big Boeotian amphorae with tall broad neck. This metope decoration with flying birds and Orientalizing volutes and palmettes called forth a special Boeotian class. Other workshops. which some conservative workshops went on producing with great tenacity to the end of the 6th tall-stemmed kylikes with white slip and colour accessories in red and yellow. divided vertically. and on the closely allied grifiin jug from Aegina (Fig. 25).

PLATE XXV.^GINA. CYCLADIC JUG WITH GRIFFIN'S HEAD FROM . 51.Fig. .

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since a closely-allied pottery. The similarity of the animal reprework and of the fine griffin head sentations to Cretan metal (Fig. which otherwise is completely under Proto. * ' * ' applied horse-heads. it received so many different elements that it appears venturesome to rename the Euboic Delian ware. the exact attribution of which is uncertain. but as the central meeting place of the . to those of bronze cauldrons from Olympia. which would have the same right to this name. Thera and Melos. is at any rate closely allied. never allows the new elements. and like the Protocorinthian. which has a predilection for decoratively islanders. but no Euboic find substantiates the name. 51) Thera is not in question as the home of these vases. It has hitherto come to light only on the islands of the Aegean especially DelosRheneia. This charming class has been called Euboic. In Melos it has been 53 . in the characteristic partial silhouette. but the skins with black or white spots according to the technique. which like the Attic sticks obstinately for a long time to the old style. strengthens the above-mentioned relations of the EuboicDelian style to the Cretan and Argive. 28). heraldic or fighting lions. pairs of panthers in heraldic scheme. The Ram jug from Aegina (Fig. Delos also supplied the earlier Geometric stages. This class. has the habit of putting red and white stripes on parts of the vase which are covered with black. corinthian influ ice. and as long as it exists.THE SEVENTH CENTURY generally birds. can be probably distinguished from it. This island had its own very important fabrication in Geometric times. also feeding animals. to get the upper hand. at an early date supplied figured representations without field ornaments it seems to have been occasionally imitated in the Euboic colony of Kyme. which often are strongly suggestive of metal patterns. which renders the head and parts of the body in outline.

and also the luxuriant show the same filling feeling for rich decoration in ornamentation. like the Attic. but are finely decorated on neck and body with representa- which in tions. the horses ranged heraldic- on either side of a volute-cross. and the superposition of many details all in white on horses and patterns of garments.' or quadruples as of another as The stamp.GREEK VASE-PAINTING perhaps correct to localize an important manufactory of which the products have been chiefly found in this island and in the neutral sphere of Delos-Rheneia. not only by the complete taking over of the blackfigured animal style. the big sphinxes and panthers.' give this pottery a peculiar style is most finely represented by the big weighty amphorae ' ' shape and technique of the light ground for painting on are akin to the above-mentioned Cycladic vases. 53) marks a great step in Marriage of Herakles advance. The Melian delight in representation. 52). and in the drawing of animals leads from the old partial silhouette to the later technique. and which it puts in to fill space. arranges in stripes. the favourite framed and horse-busts show the well-known partial silhouette ally . the free legendary ' ' scenes reflect in technique and drawing the same developcan assign to ment which we followed at Athens. the Persian Artemis carrying a lion. like the specimen a vases about the date of later Phaleron We Apollo vase (Fig. but above by the lively rendering of the paratactic composition and ' * the removal of all Geometric traces 54 in the rendering of . The heavy double spirals with gusset-like filling. the female busts. volute-cross. gives us an insight into the growth of the figured style. which this style prefers to the other Orientalizing ornaments. puts one on the top the the volute-tree. the confronted riders. The fine (Fig. The rows of geese (Fig. the duellists flanked by women. the gods facing each other or driving in chariots. which colours light brown the male body. 52).

.PLATE XXVI.

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54.\IPHORA. ( ?) : FROM A EARLY RHODIAN PLATE XXVn.\. " MELIAN JUG. " . 53.Fig. HERAKLES AND lOLE Fig. .

* vases take us lower down in the 7th Cycladic products. would have to be moved to Delos. the little inconspicuous island. the goose frieze on the shoulder edge is replaced by the tongue pattern. The technique of the white ground for painting and much in the filling ornament and the animal-drawing unites these insular vases with the artistic circle of S. The shape of the vase is more compact. We can trace something of this festal spirit and devotional pride of the insular lonians in the Apollo and Artemis of the Melian vase. Oriental decorative motives principally found their way into Greece. but not yet to its ' century than the other close. and the But the filling ornaments are as copious as ever. If we get them. which also as garment edging drives out the old zig-zag. a clearing up of the relations of the manufactories to one another and to the East and West. W. heraldic motives have given place to more the male type is not merely distinguished by brown painting from the female. through which obviously. of course in a humbler way ' ' : than in the magnificent hymn of the Ionian bard. the figures. to judge by the chief locality of the finds. on which the whole Ionic world gathered to celebrate its divine fellow-citizens. The impulses which guided the weak Geometric style of this district into new paths can with certainty be traced to metal work. we may hope for a completion of the picture here given. For even the Melian origin of the Melian vases is not certain this manufactory too. the decoration more tectonic. which the Nessos vase took in the technique of has not yet been taken. as well as through Crete. where Leto bore her twins Apollo and Artemis. Perhaps new finds will bring the continuation of these manufactories and build a bridge to the style of the 6th century. and evidence as to their localization. especially 55 .THE SEVENTH CENTURY bodies. Asia Minor and the adjacent islands. riatural The ones . Thus the Melian step.

26) to the developed style of animal decoration can be to some extent We see. the decoration of which was An attempt has been quite under the spell of the East.' The transition from the Geometric phase (p. 22) become metallically rounded. of running goats. Geometric motives in metope-like arrangement. are added to . but the Greek mainBut since Miletus need not have done land is unaffected. continuous loops. the extension of which made to fix at Miletus a coincides exactly with the commercial sphere of this great maritime town the coast of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands. jug (Fig. continuous friezes of animals in rows. in obvious rivalry with textile work adorned in bands. more than distribute. for instance. Miletus. * 56 . The stiff division into metopes of the shoulder stripe is next dropped. of grazing wild goats and deer. cables.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Phoenician bowls. just as Corinth did for the Protocorinthian ware. we may retain the traditional name Rhodian. and under this heraldic band. had a flourishing textile industry in the 7th century. a secondary part is played by the Cyclades and the Italo-Sicilian area. which in spite of their decorative character Bands often testify to a very fresh observation of nature. the cable on the neck drive out the old zig-zags. and the bulk of these vases were found in Rhodes. of dogs pursuing hares. the animals and fabulous beings of the East are placed heraldically one on either side of a central vegetable motive. 54). the old shape of the followed. and to textile products. the head of East Ionic civilization. and on the shoulder two animals antithetically flank the central metope (Fig. the colonies on the Black Sea and in the Delta are the most important. especially the upright garland of lotus buds and flowers. since closely allied and almost inseparable wares were made in several places. and of different ornament. manufactory.

PL.Fig.W JIG Fig.\TE FRO.\JE RHOUl. I.M RHODES: MENEE. 57.ATE XXVUI. 56. 55. El PHORBOS PL. .AN JUG. Fig.\ND HECTOR FIGHTING OVER THE BODY OF EUPHORBOS.. RHODI.VOS .

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and filling patterns were reduced to the rosette. bowls and other vessels. its necked amphorae. the well-distributed filling ornaments. uniform band decoration did not exclusively prevail. coloured red and white. and which gradually replaces the cable of the neck by the broken so-called metope maeander (Fig. 56). are features which we have already found in Western art but while these elements became prominent there at a time introduced. are all : . leaves out of the black body of the vase only a narrow stripe with the maeander reduced to potfilling A ' 57 . and the heraldic arrangement of Orientalizing animals round a vegetable combination of ornaments. 55 and 56). With these decorative stripes the Rhodian style at the production likes to cover the whole surface of its favourite jugs with rotelle on the handles (Figs.': THE SEVENTH CENTURY the animal friezes the last-named ornament generally : takes the place of the rays round the bottom of the vase. The accumulation of animal friezes. full when silhouette was in exclusive possession plant decoration took more abstract shapes. and the vigorous clear ornamentation. when the incised of the field. A group of jugs. when the plant decoration is naturalistic and ornamentation is abundant. and height of its * in this way ' arrives at a delicate and rich carpet-like effect the equipoise between the animal silhouettes neatly placed on the white ground. the culmination of the Rhodian animal-frieze vases falls in the pictorial period. which by its more tense and profiled shape and by a transition to the later floral ornamentation shows itself to be progressive. the showing of the ground through in delicate details where colour is purposely omitted. into which sometimes small birds with an absence of pedantry are very satisfactory to the decorative sense the distinction of the shoulder stripe by the heraldic element prevents the impression that the surface of the vase is too uniformly cut up.

in the heroes fighting in the well-known scheme on the Euphorbos plate (Fig. and surrounds the bottom of the vase with long rays. when elsewhere and probably also in the East the blackfigured animal style has become the regular thing. 57). Finally the Rhodian style also adopts the new fashion. which show the archaic Rhodian band style alongside of the developed In these hybrids incised animal style on the same vase. 58) and its parallels from Naukratis. which however take on a freer swing and submit to richer variations. We should know nothing of them. a favourite item in Rhodian fabrication. 115) is giving way. which are essentially akin to the vases of Andokides (p.. But beside this method the other certainly persists. Thus this style from an early date shows itself extremely decorative and little inclined to actual representations. and quite the old stylizing of the figures filling 58 . The place of outline drawing of the men is taken by brown tinting.g. did not exchange the old concentric decoration of stripes for the division into two segments. Its tenacious life is proved by vases like the Paris cauldron (Fig. e.g. and leaving void spaces continues to be cultivated at a time. the vegetable ornamentation is exchanging its vigorous plant-like appearance for thinner and more abstract shapes. while the women retain the old technique. if the plates. the larger of which is occasionally adorned with the human figure instead of the usual animal or fabulous creature. the rich store of motives is yielding to the prevalence of the rosette. like their Phoenician metal prototypes. The drawing of the figures adopts the method already familiar. which is an adaptation of the Oriental animal goddess.GREEK VASE-PAINTING hooks. the most important of which is the continuous At the same time the old technique of painting tendril. e. the Gorgon on a plate in London. and the filling ornamentation combined with it has assumed the blot-like shapes of the Corinthian and Vurva stage.

Fij.. (LEBES) . 58. LATE RHODIAX ( AILDROX PLATE XXL\.

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While the old filling motives are coming to an end. a plate with a running Perseus. which from their degenerate filling ornaments are plainly late products of the 7th century. 60) and also the brown tinting of the male body (Fig.g. Hector's shield in the exceptionally plates in drawing of the technique flying in figures is bird. 59). This transition to the black-figured style can be better followed in a closely allied pottery. Both show early beginnings of incised work. roughly contemporaneous with the Chigi jug (Figs. THE SEVENTH CENTURY fills the whole circular space (Fig. The old brush technique is still maintained in the specimens. The human representations. and rows of circumscribed palmettes. show a reluctance in taking this step. the animal frieze adopts the incised full silhouette. These conservative features are balanced by an innovation in colouring. which reserve thin lines in the silhouette instead of incising them (Fig. gradually asserting themselves beside the animal decoration. e. 61) seems to continue in this area longer than elsewhere. the Gorgon the inner marking of the drapery. fixed by the contemporary inscriptions of dedicators to the Milesian colony of Naukratis in the Delta. That when this happens the eye retains its oval shape. which like the change in plant ornamentation denotes an important step to the style of the 6th century 59 .. has transformed a conventional composition into a scene described in the 17th Book of the Iliad. and in the Argive lettering. with which the excellent artist. . often of a high order of excellence. The view that the incised borrowed from Protocorinthian work receives support in this shield with its Argive suggestion. The full silhouette with inner detail incised appears only in speci- mens. and the vegetable stripe ornamentation is being increased by the addition of continuous tendrils and confronted lotus and palmette. is characteristic of the Eastern Ionic school. 35 and 36). of bands of buds and rows of pomegranates.

found in Rhodes. since Naukratis was in close connection with Protocorinthian Aegina. 29) to paint in white the light flesh of women. 61). begins e. which the Naukratite painter likes to cover with a wash of black. and of . white rosettes and eyes (Fig. in order to contrast with the linen jerkin. This black-ground polychromy.g. and then to paint over it plant decoration in red and white. which occurs only occasionally on Rhodian jugs in white and red stripes. which is decorated in the old style with incised ornaments of red colour. Fig. the face of the and the same colour is used in the Herakles sherd 61). the fine Herakles sherd (Fig. and Boeotia in a grave of the early 6th century a late cup with .g. whose scenes of merry life drawn from legend. filling . and at a time when the Rhodian style was still practising pure brush technique. a conclusion which must also be drawn from the Paris cauldron for animal representation. the revel and With the Rhodian the dance we should gladly know more. 60 .GREEK VASE-PAINTING even before the actual decay of Naukratite painting ornamentation. was already preparing for the later phase. Beside Naukratis itself Aegina was also the chief place of export for this gaily coloured pottery. e. big-bellied and necked amphorae. Incision enters also into their polychrome lotus decoration and thus gives it an effect similar to that of an older class of kylikes. (as in the Praisos plate. which unfortunately has only reached us in precious fragments. on which the lion's skin still appears in the ground sphinx (Fig. ware it also reaches Italy and Sicily the Acropolis of Athens gives us. of the clay. 55) becomes so popular and elaborate at Naukratis. The delight in polychrome effect is very strongly expressed on the interiors of the tall drinking cups and other vases. that one is almost tempted to think of a continuation of Protocorinthian influence.

. lUSIRIS. Fif^s.. 60 & Gl.OX PLATE FROM RHODES. GOR(.Fit. 59. HERAKLES : PLATE XXX. NAUKRATITE SHERDS FROM NAUKRATIS AND ATHENS.

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pomegranates (Fig. true offspring of the Ionic spirit. with their coarse postures. which add Rhodian types the heron and the water-hen or the man with the head of a hare. such as the early 6th century favours. that of the vases called 'Fikellura. old A few all that dot rosettes. The loin-cloths are painted red and framed with incised which this style so long resisted. is left of the ornamentation. projecting noses and almond-shaped to the fantastic . and crescents (Fig. 56). eyes. where they were first found. reduced to their lowest dimensions. a long-stemmed bud. 62). like the Naukratis vases.' from the name of the site in Rhodes. take the place of incised lines. projects into the field. 63) also by the almost complete disappearance of the 'horror vacui' so that the painter may reduce filling ornament to its lowest dimensions. Their home is now generally sought in Samos because of the common ware found in that island. 62). as at Naukratis. In the animals and fabulous beings. are. Just as filling 61 .THE SEVENTH CENTURY heraldic cocks. and decorate the body of the vase with big continuous handle tendrils and an animal placed between them . 63). the prevalent form being the necked amphorae with metope-maeander (Fig. are lines. are contemporaneous with the later phase of the Rhodian. or only with a human figure boldly inserted in the void (Fig. paint big surfaces with loose net and scale patterns. The greater number of the vases preserved. which with their receding foreheads. 63) must be a late example. the partial silhouette is now rare narrow lines left without colour. This is proved by the advanced ornamentation with the thinner simplified lotus wreath. leaves (Fig. Beside the Rhodian ware Miletus seems also to have been the export-centre of another allied fabric. the rows of circumscribed palmettes. and in the same technique are the purely human forms. The Altenburg amphora (Fig.

The ornamental style has now in the East. who to the sound of flutes dance round their big mixing-bowl with cups and jugs.GREEK VASE-PAINTING London vase in his vigorous but stiff posture gives quite a new meaning to an old ornamental scheme. 62 . become narrative and descriptive. as well as in the West. we the runner of the pass finally from the wide ramifications of 7th century vase history to the developed archaic style. convince us of their intoxication. With these bibulous lonians. which entirely fill the field. so the movements of the Altenburg revellers.

62 &• 63. FIKELLLRA PLATE XXXI.l-: . AMI'HOR.lWM\\\\\UWil}l1IE Fios.

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progressiveness. is exactly methodical the language which it speaks always tells of inward cheerfulness and joy at the result of effort. which are its child-like freshness. reverence for tradition. because of the precious combination of their essential features. and the strong tradition of an ornamental early period give them a monumental effect. It is always full of serious painstaking zeal. the wonderful offspring of the contact of Greek civilization with the East. the effect produced by independent exertion. not in spite of their crudities but just because of hidden vigour. takes honest trouble. the period of full bloom. We We love these archaic works of sculpture and painting for their own sake. which has nothing of mummified stiffness but is kept ever fresh and youthful by an eminently progressive spirit and an energetic endeavour The archaic style with fresh boldness to attain freedom. unique saving grace to the classic period. and thus exhibits constant change and progress. goes beyond its Oriental patterns. There is something touching in the their unpolished ' : sight of archaic art with taking zeal. and yet its What fast its pains- bold a contrast to Oriental and Egyptian bound in tradition 63 : in the its one the . The fetters of space.CHAPTER IV. art. and to allow no independent value to the preceding century except as an inevitable transitional phase. THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE ARCHAIC art. exercises its charm have ceased to ascribe a to-day more than ever. is ever making fresh experiments. it is always careful.

are often incidentally treated as mere decorative accessories or seized by The principal interest is unheraldic liveliness. tion becomes true Greek when occasion demands. the tales of Herakles the mighty. the bold Perseus and Bellerophon. century. remembering the purpose of his vases. his doings and goings on. knows only occasionally inserted rosettes. but with greatest preference. the festal dance and procession. The Homeric Epic.GREEK VASE-PAINTING sweltering air of dull coercion. but 64 . or Plant ornamentaa lonely hud projecting into the field. had evoked pictorial representations even in the 7th century but now the full stream of the legendary treasury pours into painting and gives an infinitely rich . we saw the world of figures win its way out of ornamental compulsion The 6th to greater freedom and extend over the vase. he finds ever less satisfaction in ornamental comHe is never tired of describing hunting and position. to the beginnings of which we pursued the history of vases. devoted to depicting man. motives disappear. What the vase-painter makes of this material is never conceived in the historical or archaeological spirit. The vase painter is now more anxious than ever to narrate and quite depict . wrestling and chariot-racing. filling by quarrying in different localities. are his constant theme. in the other the fresh atmos- phere of freedom The become clear to us (Furtwangler). their bold exploits and strange adventures. and ornament. Animal ornaments forfeit their friezes retire to the foot or the shoulder. the bands of animals and saw the vases the ' history leading up to the origin of this style has lose their peculiarly carpet-like independence and become a subordinate member in the tectonic construction. abstract. We appearance. But also the heroes of past ages. tectonic. warfare. material to the joy of narration. full of life with its swing. drinking and wild dancing.

49).THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE breathes entirely the air of his own time often only the added names (which according to the new feeling for space assume smaller dimensions) raise a genre scene into one . was in constant flux. But everything strange need not be misunderstanding on the artist's entombment part.g. from one district to another. 65 . Types may also cross there arise purely through art. from myth. Its gods live a human life among men. early times the divinity is chiefly In betokened by inscriptions and attributes. conventionally repeated or filled with new life. Olympos too. e. which are . or the to Memnon. devoid of canon and dogmatism. which we cannot find in literature. go from workshop to workshop. this do with poetry. which. Moreover the Saga is only seldom re-shaped by inventive brains. as when on Attic vases the Athena is coupled with the apotheosis of Herakles. and saw an act of brotherly sympathy with the god's pains in this holding up of the tunny and thus a great deal beside must have appeared strange to them. is subject to these vicissitudes. Late observers of this picture failed to understand this external characterization of the sea-god. and are the faithful reflex of the fluidity of Greek mythology. expanded. Embassy has as a Corinthian painter unites the to Achilles (Iliad IX) with the visit of Thetis. The of the dead Sarpedon vases supply us with a multitude of legendary motives and variations. contaminations of legend. Types once invented pass on. are abbreviated (p. little birth of When to or the slaying of Troilos is transferred to Astyanax. Herakles without . On the painting of the Corinthian Kleanthes stood Poseidon with a fish in his hand beside Zeus in labour. the only difference being that some representative scenes give them a stiffer and more elaborate appearance than that of ordinary mortals. 52). foreign to poetry. Apollo with the great lyre still bearded in the 7th century (Fig.

was perhaps a vasepainter the creator of the later black-figured type was . certainly not. The big-bellied dancers and purely human creatures. begins to in contrast at the with the Chigi vase the Aegina bowl and the Gorgon lebes (p. is quite the patron of archaic vase-painting. That all these representations were developed by vase- That the Bacchic painting alone is more than improbable. The halfwhom ancient Greek fancy vigorously and make bestial creature in fair incorporates man's pleasure in wine and women with all its comic effects. nymphs pay for it. who gave natural impress which was regular in the older black-figured style. so it is with Theseus' struggle with the Minotaur. celebrate feasts with the Maenads. the Satyrs. never despise the gifts of their master. The favourite god is the wine-god Hephaistos drunk and leads him back to Olympos to liberate Hera from the magic chair. 49). in the first third of the century are superseded by the Ionic horse-men.' this heraldic type the more gifted artist.GREEK VASE-PAINTING lion-skin (Fig. and much besides. The fight of Herakles with the lion. express her bellicose nature by attributes. who only beginning of the 6th century. for his horizontal group is certainly a fine invention but always has to be adapted artificially to the vase surface. scenes of toping and dancing were created on the actual vase. who become ever more closely associated with Dionysos. 37). of the drinking vessels He makes with cup and vine. (Fig. 64). which is composed for a tall rectangle. and is expanded by the vase-painters for their purposes by filling figures^ * The spectators. As with the wrestling of Herakles. is most likely but one is often enough compelled to assume other sources. The same sort of extension occurs on a favourite subject of older black- 66 . the unarmed Athena. for instance. in its oldest form is the borrowing of an Oriental type. who form his escort on Corinthian vases. .

will scarcely be answered in favour of vase-painting.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE quadriga in front view. the heraldically turn their . This type. alongside : of the special property of the vase-painter and typical orna- mental figures equally common to all art. For a square. 46). still shows strong affinity with the Orientalizing frieze compositions (p. and the question. ' * ' reflex of the great art of painting on the vases. which on vses always has a 'borrowed effect. like the birth of Athena by Kleanthes. 66). certainly invented for a square. which are least constrained by ornamental considerations. in what technique it first appeared. a combination which is borrowed from an inlaid wooden chest of Corinthian workmanship at Olympia ('the chest of Kypselos') or a prototype from which both were derived. is also known in bronze and stone relief. The dependence of vase-painting on other techniques is finally evidenced by the so-called couplings the best-known instance is the combination of the departure of Amphiaraos with the Funeral-games of Pelias on a Corinthian (Fig. After all this one will not hesitate to look for a strong figured style. or to picture to oneself wall-paintings or easel pictures. after the fashion of the best vasepaintings. too. superseded by this type. the Reception of Herakles into Olympos. the Return of Hephaistos. an Attic and an Ionic vase. whose helmeted warrior is in front view while the unhelmeted driver is in profile. a theme common on Attic vases from the hydria of Timagoras onwards the older wrestling scheme. in its Herakles spread out before the eyes of the observer and kneeling as he wrestles. and is for vase decoration much more typical than the later invention. One is particularly impelled this 67 . the finely compact group of Herakles wrestling with Triton was first composed. or to reconstruct from the copies of vasepainters compositions like the Destruction of Troy (Iliupersis). whose horses heads sideways.

e. This limitation of the possibilities of composition by decorative considerations was of hardly any importance. Free painting drew with the brush on light ground. and with the new colouring entered decorative paths (pp 38. extracts from the same large composition thus we have a reflection on some dozen vases of Exekias and his successors of the fine representation of the heroes Aias and Achilles surprised by the Trojans while deeply absorbed in a game of draughts. that with the incised technique it took over. green. The wide gulf between free painting and vase picture was conditioned in the first instance by technique. Nor did the vase-painter feel any . used black and white very sparingly. Hence his strong disinclination for "landscape. now longer. the law of isocephalism was more binding for him than for the great art. when it took over the silhouette style from the decorative animal frieze. or only in palpable caricature the painter who on a hydria from Caere copied a seascape with the Rape of Europa. between vase-painting and free painting they both are children of one time. ing. more frequently red. We under whose spell it had been for a good part of the 7th century. 44.g. was obliged to place beside the figure what looks like a mole-hill but is intended for a moun. in the rendering of the body and the drapery. the circular drawing of the eye. but on the vases never.GREEK VASE-PAINTING way. yellow 68 . when the vases give now shorter. and warned by Athena just in time (Fig. Only as he had to decorate framed bands. increased its distance from free painting. 96). One cannot conceive of any difference of principle in perspective. 49). blue. necessity to alter the composition of his patterns." which we often meet with in Corinthian and Ionian pinakes and wall-painting. . It was that which gave its special effect to the black-figured style and saw previously that vase-paintset its stamp upon it. tain. in the spiritual content.

etc. with very little gradation and shading. the imposed colour gives a parti-coloured effect. which does not disown its predominantly decorative character.g. which assumes The darker colouring of the clay metallic lustre. the developed black-figured style. it is in its own fashion again an ornamental style. With this freecoloured effect the black-figured style was neither able nor anxious to compete. Tradition makes the Sicyonian Butades invent the red colouring of the The clay at Corinth. rendered the men in reddish brown. animals and objects in light colouring. to represent fire.. takes on a which now. which set off against the background more effectively than the old contour figures. The advance in the preparation of the clay and glaze colour came about on the Greek mainland. and compels the painters to replace the contour-drawing of women. and by the black glaze. which are in a certain equipoise of colour in relation to the rest of the decoration and the black painted parts of the vase the incision stipulates a sharp delineation of types. with which at afterwards first the contour is simply more commonly black underpainting filled is . Chalcidian and Attic workshops helped the new technique to prevail in the East it gradually gets the upper hand and forces the Ionian manufactories to give up their favourite white ground and adapt their technical freedom to the .THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE and brown placed these colours side by side in simple harmonies. used the smooth brush. The figure silhouettes serve it as ornaments to fill a given space. and thus gives the correct indication. gradually by laying on white colour. but overlaid. but also sometimes. brilliant in warm red upper surface. women. the vases is essentially defined by the clay. Just like the Geometric. clear silhouettes are also obtained. . children. linen garments. 69 . The coloured effect of . e. a deprives the lighter parts of their effects by contrast. With the transition to white.

With the disappearance of the old parti-coloured system the vases are completely removed from the effect of free painting. brings the With the refinement of incised finally process to perfection. The chief centre of commerce and industry in the Peloponnese. Greek life and Greek art terribly scanty. to shrink from borrowing figured scenes. but even in its red-clay phase had helped the designs to drive out animal decoration. as had the old Minoan vase-painters (p. and thus to transmit to us an infinite Greek would have remained variety of scenes. and composed. Attica. which in the 6th century opens a dangerous rivalry in Eastern and Western markets and wins the day. They had no need. repeated so often and which kept painters cidian and Attic 70 . Corinth must lead off the history of this new style. which supply material to other workshops The quadriga in front view. and helps the harmony of clay and black to its purest and fullest effect. 10). numerous types. it not only took the decisive step to the new technique.GREEK VASE-PAINTING growing strictness of the western system. or at least introduced into vase-painting. For this refinement of the black-figured style permitted the sensitive feeling of Greek artists for decoration to satisfy the delight of narrating and describing along with the ornamental traditions of the old style. technique it puts an end to the parti-coloured method still much affected by Corinthians and Chalkidians. without which our knowledge of legend. For that we may be grateful to fortune. the celebrated seat of a flourishing ceramic industry and of an important school of painting. it clears away the big surfaces coloured red and white and all colour in ornament and animal frieze. which Chalfor a long time. The recasting of types into the decorative silhouette style made it possible for them to conjure on to the vases whatever touched their hearts and delighted their eyes.

M A . CORIN n.. do. HERAKI. 64. .\ri-. l"i<:^.Fig-. I III AN KRATER. l-RO. nnnii.KS AM) KIRVTIOS HORSEMEN: ("ORIN miAN KRATER.

.

THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE its decorative effect for almost a century. The Homeric poetry and the Epic inspired by it. kitchen and winepress. of which there was a beginning in the Protocorinthian style. and that the lost great art of Corinth. to the vase-painters a number of mythological compositions. rider-friezes and chariotraces. the lays of Peleus and Herakles. marching out to battle. Unfortunately the is as lost to us. what we have shows us a fine inventive talent on the part of the Corinthian artists and a magnificently free and easy conception of life and legend. that a number of other types. the birth of Athena and probably also the Return of Hephaistos to Olympos. greater The loss part is the of rich this more to treasure be lamented. . 66) from the above-mentioned chest of Kypselos (p. which influenced other manufactories. started their victorious career from Corinth. which are not represented in the selection that accident has given us. and adopted by Chalkis and Athens often without any essential improvement. the bronze industry of which we have specimens and the richlyadorned chest of Kypselos described by Pausanias supplied the . . was taken by the Amphiaraos krater (Fig. from which come e. It is particularly 71 on the kraters (Figs. the ballad poetry now becoming very fashionable. carouses. drunken men who dance wildly with naked women. were most richly developed by the Corinthians. are reflected on these Corinthian vases in inimitably vivid and drastic fashion and the vase-painter also gives scenes from daily life. . wild mellay itself. riding and driving.g. appears here for first time the triangular scheme of two wrestlers seizing each other by the arms and pressing head against head. 67) the nuptial procession of Peleus and Thetis which we shall meet on the lebes of Sophilos and the Francois-vase is prepared for in Corinthian vasepainting and the battle-scenes. Thus one may be sure. and the . which survived to the time of Nikosthenes.

Meanwhile filling ornament disappears. as with the kneeling warrior who fights backwards. 40). 64). who form a lively decorative foil to the mythological principal picture (Fig.GREEK VASE-PAINTING 64-66) that we can gets space on the vases how the accumulating material animal decoration. gives a special application to a fine banqueting scene. the open country and the space-filling animals of the Amphiaraos vase. as the visit paid Herakles to Eurytios. Thus the liberation of the field. With this goes hand in hand the liberation of figure-drawing from ornamental constraint. it is 72 . which is still strong in the toned down or ingeniously given a motive. of the house stands with The fair by by daughter indifference between the guest some supposed to represent a legend. but is really little more than a genre scene. attained. and also by preference is replaced by lines of galloping riders. as which it is hard to The lively conversation of the guests. We will select two of the kraters to give us an idea of the development of the One. added names and the insertion of lole. the floor and the air. into the base stripe. over the rider (Fig. and does not disguise his connection with the old runner with bent knee. in human is figures. the dogs tied beat. The individualizing of men and animals carried forward by Timonidas now once more makes big advances 7th century. a Paris vase (Fig. is flying bird . to the sofa-legs waiting and speculating on the chance of and her brother . horses and dogs. retires ever more to the reverse. under the handles. The outspread- ing of the figure in the surface. The trace . for which Timonidas and his fellows paved the way. king of Oichalia. nay a better it transplants the scene out of a decorative space into an actual one. in which heraldic cocks are very popular. are not intended merely any longer to enliven the vase surface but the wall of the house. 64). . 65) renders the same service as the rosette. style. which are traditional (p.

o X < o w PLATE XXXllI. .

.

. which gives up red for male faces. but come from excellent models (p. mounts his chariot to go with open eyes to the death he forebodes his angry look is directed to Eriphyle and the fatal necklace in her hand. which are in line like the tables in the Eurytios vase. On the other hand the Amphiaraos krater (Fig. : evidently bidden him to train up the boy Alkmaion to take vengeance on his mother. Between the colonnade and fagade of the house. unite to some extent. though not so gifted as his colleague. has become more decorative and black-figured. and works with a frieze of riders shows. 66). not merely in technique. as the The advance becomes 73 plain in the krater encloses an almost . because of his oath. the faithful Halimedes sits on the ground his heart has . Such contours. Its pictures are not equal in execution to the invention. shields on the reverse. one dog. appear in outline drawing. and makes a point of covering the outline figures with a layer of white. The painter of the later vase.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE from the table are masterly. The whole delight in narration. are the more characteristic and living. is as genuinely archaic. a maid-servant gives the stirrup-cup to the charioteer. set of types The Eurytios ) before him. which in the exaggerated rendering of the necklace strongly emphasizes the previous history.' of an old type 'The The Amphiaraos krater is more developed than the Eurytios vase. draws more cleverly. the vase in its effect with the great art. as the mythological individualizing warrior's departure. and even the horses if out of proportion and inelegant. Foreboding evil. also found sometimes where men's bodies left bits falling in the supporting frieze. The technique follows old tradition the flesh of lole. 67). With raised hands the family takes leave. shape of the vase. the hero. as does the red colouring of the male countenance. tables and sofas. white set off those painted dark.

In the scene on the Eurytios krater we get the lebes with stand. with its lower part running to a point. which has a higher neck. and adorns it with spirals and maeanders. a steeper and much less swelling body. The tendency to development. All these ornaments. which we can read out of the vase shapes. which were favourite articles of export. 51) put human busts or animal representations of old and new style into the figure panel. Beside the necked amphorae. the interior picture is framed by tongue pattern. Unfortunately. the similarly decorated big-bellied amphorae continue. which like the kraters seldom have any other ornament than rays. may be taken as a symbol of the history of style. and often knobs on the handles. till finally the outline almost resembles an inverted triangle and from the handles a rectangular or curved bridge has to be built leading to the high rim (krater a colonnette). For a Greek vase was always something organic. partake of the solidity and variety of the style. as much so as a tree or animal. few vases are preserved. to which may be added the double lotus and palmette of the Eurytios krater and occasional net and step patterns. The kylix has an offset lip (as in Fig. which like their Attic parallels (p. 24).GREEK VASE-PAINTING uniformly swelling cauldron between a lip ring which is very low and a foot which spreads out in ample dimensions. From this round-bellied archaic shape we pass to a later more defined and elegant one in the Amphiaraos krater. the phase of the Corinthian style here described is for us the end of the fabric 74 . not one of these . shoulder tongues and neck rosettes. Strangely enough. also the jug and drinking cup (kylix). The three-handled water pitcher (hydria) has the type with vaulted shoulder common in the older blackfigured style. which exist in various extant specimens. besides the large kraters with their numerous figures.

.KIDIAN IIYDRIA PLATE XXXIV. CORINTHIAN PLATE.Fio. OF TVPHON RV ZEIS: (^HAI. THE SLAYIN(i U7. m.

.

For the vases denoted by their inscriptions as Chalkidian form. and is most closely connected with them by a series of detailed agreeNot only do the vase shapes consistently carry on ments. the quadriga in front view are taken over nay. the entry of the Satyrs. and the step pattern the Corinthian animal friezes (Figs. just as the Protocorinthian manufactory had its continuation in the Corinthian. the red spots on black clothes (Fig. the wrestlers scheme. therefore assume that the fabric had its seat. Corinthian tendencies. the rendering of folds. One asks whether this brilliant development could break off so abruptly. are not conceivable without their Corinthian predecessors . Corinthian pottery has no share in the Eastern Herakles with the lion-skin. not in Chalkis Not itself. the riders with the space-filling birds (Fig. the Amazons as Scythian w^omen. so the Corinthian was carried on by the Chalkidian. which is in succession of time to the later Corinthian vases. a single Chalkidian vase has been found in Chalkis all nor even in any part of the mother-country might One specimens preserved come from the West. the . or if it is only accident which has concealed from us its continuation. 68 and 69) continue with rosettes. the heraldic cocks. the devices on the shields . 69). at all events according to the present state of our knowledge. Andrew crosses (Fig. winged demon. 70). : 75 .THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE vases can be dated below the first third of the 6th century. but details of decoration like the white neck rosettes filled with red. a group covering a few decades. like the warrior's head in front view. It looks rather as if. the grotesque dancers. 71). with the serpents. 70 and 71). the sword sheath with the St. even the names of Corinthian grotesque dancers pass over to the Chalkidian Satyrs. the round outline of the edge of the short small chiton (Figs. details of drawing. Both are improbable. the painted ground for white additions.

. Why and how. and outward-bent handle bridges out of the older hydria with arched shoulder comes a later shape. which the painter picks out in red from the black foot. ing of the handle-bridges of the krater. and consistently develops the vase shapes to the highest. but in one of its colonies.GREEK VASE-PAINTING itself. : and clear up the close relation of the Chalkidian ware to the group of the Phineus kylix (Fig. the narrowing body leads to the insertion of a roll. the Chalkidian heightens these tendencies almost to faithful copying of metal vases. 74). in a specimen at Munich (Fig. as we saw. . 76 . cannot be stated perhaps the publication of the many unpublished specimens . and thus the powerful Corinwould be easily explained. which. From every point of view the Chalkidian vases give us a heightening of the Corinthian. 69) is of the lower part of the . . Thus arise novel vase-shapes the necked amphora (Fig. the distribution of colour is most delicately calculated no longer is there so much use made of white surfaces (under which there is regularly a wash of black) especially we see no more of the arbitrary colourcontrast which did not shrink from white colouring of the male. throughout the 7th century by Corinthian exportation and the colonies of Chalkis had always been provided by friendly Corinth with clay vases. Clay and black now attain their highest perfection. thian traditions in this pottery The West was dominated. 68) exactly copies elongated. high neck. so that the body almost assumes the shape of an egg the krater gets steep sides. a great advance in the direction of a later period. or at any rate to Corinthian exportation. its shoulder flattened. almost over-refined elegance . But the strong influence of the Chalkidian manufactory on the Attic is in favour of Chalkis itself having put an end to Corinthian production. If the Corinthian style had already aimed at metallic effect in the angular formation of the handles and the curvwill solve the riddle .

where the horizontal shoulder is no longer dominant in the general view. like the reverse of vases. the two-handled cup.THE BLACK-FIGURED STVLE the addition of cast handles to a metal body . the jug. the step pattern under the chief frieze are of old tradition but pass through a growing elaboration. The white dot-rosettes filled with red on the black neck. Out of these buds. 69). Certainly the ornamentation is based almost entirely on Corinthian foundations. fixed ornament. which was managed in a more masterly way at Chalkis than elsewhere. and the tendrils uniting them. and similarly on the the other shapes develop. or hangs over the figure-field : in place Ionic pattern is not exactly imitated in the process the swellings under the Chalkidian buds suggest roses rather than lotus. the kylix with knobs handles. On the shoulderstripe the riders with the space-filling birds tend to drive out the archaic scheme of decoration they flank the lotus and palmette cross and in later specimens. The proper place for this ornament its the centre of the upper band. 77 . The same endeavour after elasticity vails in the distribution of the and elegance preornament over the vase. is formed the of the lotus and palmette. The reverse of the vase also more and more shakes off animal in for decoration . The . and as secondary field is. the lotus and palmette on the ground of the clay. 69). now that the shoulder is set off more sharply is hydriae and necked amphorae. and rays at the foot. they pass from heraldic constraint to parade order. which we know from the East as a rule it occurs beneath the chief band (Fig. usually decorated in the first instance with animals. which generally serves as central motive to heraldic animals and often develops into a wonderfully rich 'complex of lively lines (Fig. and are also occasionally replaced by cleverly disposed dancers. palmettes. As a new motive of decoration comes in the chain of buds. tongues on the shoulder. which recovers importance.

GREEK VASE-PAINTING
decoration and replaces it by ornamental compositions, as
by the heraldic quadriga or the heraldic riders. Friezes of
animals beneath the main scene (Fig. 68) become very
However markedly the decoration of the vase
rare.
departs from the old style, yet in spite of that there is in
contrast with the Corinthian style a marked decorative

The vases that have nothing but
animal decoration are numerous, and the rosette often
invasion to be traced.
asserts itself again.

This decorative invasion, which is connected with the
perfection of technique and marked talent of the Chalkidian
artizan, does not detract in any way from the figure scenes.
The latter preserve their old vigour and power of observation,

some masters even

raise

it

to a

and breathe into the old types a
in

union with the

makes

fine

most intense

new and

vivid

elasticity,

life,

which

technique and arrangement in space

these vases superior to most of the other black-

How Herakles on the London amphora
unmercifully deals the death-blow to the
three-bodied Geryon, or on the similar Munich vase (Fig.
71) to Kyknos, is brought before our eyes with unambiguous
figured pottery.
(Fig.

70)

matter-of-fact

The

and verve.

chest of Kypselos had already thus represented

Herakles'

fight

with Geryon, and the Chalkidian painter

rests here, as often

and especially

in his battle scenes,

on

But his rendering is anything but a
borrowing, and bears witness to fresh and vigorous concepThe Herakles and Kyknos is based on the old
tion.
fighting scheme, which represents a warrior with raised
right arm assailing an opponent who almost kneeling moves
and so in effect only combines
to the right but looks round
On
the duellist (p. 39) and the runner with bent knee.
exigency
of space
type
the Chalkidian picture the old
everything has become
is hardly any longer to be traced
Corinthian types.
'

'

;

*

'

'

*

;

78

Fig.

HERAKLES AND GERVONEL'S

Fig. 71.

THE

:

70.

FROM

A

CHALKIDIAN AMPHORA.

KYKNOS BY HERAKLES
CHALKIDL\N AMPHORA.

.SLAYING OF

P[-ATF XXX\I.

:

FROM

A

THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE
expressive and characteristic.

To be

sure the contrast

between the body in front view and the legs in profile and
the spreading over the surface are still hardly toned down,
but the thrust dealt with the right arm, the clutch of the left,
the foot pressed against the back of the opponent's knee
are full of vigour, and the collapse of the bleeding son of

Ares, his prayer for mercy while he plucks the victor's
beard, the dimmed eye with its pathos, the composition and
the filling of the space are very artistic.
This heightening of characteristic touches does not
merely appear in battle scenes, but also the intimate touches
in many Corinthian subjects are carried on.
Even the
Eurytios krater had succeeded in expressing the horror

Odysseus and Diomede at the sight of the
The feeling in this group is perhaps surpassed by an episode in a Chalkidian battle-scene where
the intent care, with which Sthenelos binds up the finger of
the wounded Diomede, reminds one of the later kylix of
and when a Paris amphora enlarges the
Sosias (Fig. 114)
march out to battle by a domestic scene of arming, early

which

seizes

suicide of Aias.

;

;

red-figured painting

is

again anticipated.

The combination of this fresh and direct observation of
nature with a marked decorative talent unites Chalkidian
with the Ionic art of the islands. On Chalkidian soil, where
a language with a strong Ionic element was spoken, a close
It is not
contact with eastern neighbours must be assumed.
only the chain of buds on the vases that witnesses to this
The Satyr, a hairy fat fellow, with marked horsecontact.
ears

and

horse-tail, often with horse-hoofs, enters

from the

form, which meets us on the Phineus vase (Fig. 74).
the Chalkidian painter occasionally indicates the
outline of the female back, where previously the drapery
falling straight down entirely concealed it, when he
furnishes his Geryon with wings and often equips Herakles

East

in a

And when

79

GREEK VASE-PAINTING
with the lion's skin, in this, as in much besides, one cannot
fail to see Eastern influence.
Whether the rendering of
folds, the beginnings of

which appear on Chalkidian vases as
elsewhere, has the same origin, is doubtful.
The fabric in the Ionic islands which was in close reciprocal relation with the Chalkidian, may be called the
*

Phineus

fabric

'

after

its
chief product, till accident
betrays to us its home.
From the remains of lettering on
the Phineus kylix, it can only be said, that it was produced
in a place where Ionic was spoken, which cannot have

been near

to Asia Minor.
The style, more Eastern than
Chalkidian, but different from East Ionic in much, e.g. the

circular drawing of the

Chalkidian,
tion of this

male eye, and closely akin to
probably of Cycladic origin. But a connecpottery with one of the old Cycladic manufacis

tories (p. 52)

is

impossible.

As

little

as the

Chalkidian has

any previous history the few amphorae and kylikes that
remain belong exactly to the same short period of time, in
which the Chalkidian vases were produced.
it

;

The amphorae are rather earlier than the Phineus vase,
and often very like the decorative earlier Chalkidian specimens. Chalkis seems to have supplied to them the w^estern
technique, the vase-shape, the foot-ring, and also to have
supplied the patterns in many specimens for animal and
rider decoration.

But the less severe construction of the
vases, the irregular division of the fields for figures, the
preference for a dark covering of the ground above the
rays, the liberties in decoration, lead us to
soil.

The very chain

more Eastern

of buds, luxuriant

and hardly stylized,
which often covers the neck, shows the unpedantic and
concrete Ionic style, and the same playful carelessness

when the painter is lavish with filling rosettes and
when he inserts into a heraldic frieze of animals a

appears,
buds,

complex

of creatures furiously biting each other, or puts

80

Fig. 72.

IONIC EYE KYLIX.

Fig. 73.

HEAD OF ATHENA, BETWEEN THE EYES OF AN IONIC KYLIX.
PLATE XXXVII.

who now appears in armour. 72) may be taken as a symbol of the style of the figures. and fills the centre with an arbitrarily chosen motive. and makes a combatant the central motive of heraldic riders. the slaying of himself the warrior with head in front view the pursuit of Troilos goes back to an old Corinthian type a couple of dancers. it is true. On the group of amphorae a fine vigorous figure style prevails. amphorae. 57). which in perfected specimens shows alike the height and the end of this manufacture. which is absolutely remote from abstract dryness. 73). So it is no wonder if he makes into an effective motive of decoration the apotropaic eyes popular in this phase of art. the Scythian at home in who like the mounted Amazon is East Greece. and whose shield-edge the painter for decorative reasons finer has doubled. The wonderfully living and swelling outline of these delicate kylikes (Fig. mounted Penthesileia introduces. when he invents animal combinations with a common head. if he often adds ears and nose. the dog in 81 . and Rhodian vases of the 7th century (Fig. which we know from Delian. when he composes heraldically the heads of two processions of riders. but very often as outside decoration of the kylix. Melian. . which on the kylikes has a ' * and at the same time more delicate development. What the Phineus painter does with his models is always distinguished by individual and genuinely Ionic life. a leaf or The eyes are found on the necks of a human figure. but is based on the composition of a the Corinthian battle picture. or * ' . the skipping Silenus. two running girls. The charming Athena (Fig. It often enough adopts Corinthian-Chalkidian The Phineus painter did not invent of types as models.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE between his favourite squatting sphinxes a fighting warrior. a new Eastern Amazon' type in place of the old one (which is also used in this group).

the Boreads are already the muscles are rendered. perhaps original was and only drastic possible in for its an concepIonian. : A lion. The other picture shows the blind king Phineus. fine Silenus mask in the interior with a continuous the lack of which a hundred contemporary vases could not front view would not wall with the vine and the lion's head evidently a plainly divides the frieze into two scenes delighted the of cup the into magic well. the surrounded kylix Phineus of the painter fortunately the frieze.GREEK VASE-PAINTING But tell us much of this kylix-style. which we collar-bone and chest in the helmeted warrior's head. not to mention the linen chiton of Dionysos with its parallel lines indicating the material. movements of the Satyrs and the nude maidens. . Harpies have taken the food which he is Boreas pursue the impu- off the table. animals and plant-life are caught from nature. for the valiant sons of dent thieves through the air over the sea. tions appear in the himatia. vainly feeling All tion. The the is as . who by duty diverted from their lion's head as spout are bathing at a spring in a wood. which pours wine The outweigh. or much reduced in scale. various in itself betrays study The face of Phineus. Satyr. curved outline the long red chitons of the women and the garments of the Harpies of the shirts of the Boreads. or the adorned with Ionic crosses and borders important innova. the eyes of and this Especially important is the treatment of the drapery. and two a panther stags On his consort. A pours into a basin the water with which they are laving themselves their clothes they have already hung up. still painted red like that of the Satyrs. living. draw the chariot of legendary team a the the Wine-god and two of his colleagues are quite Satyr is making mischief the sight of three nymphs. have hitherto only found is drawn in front view. that of Phineus 82 is divided into . details. from whom the .

Griechische PLATE XXXVIII. From Furtivdngler-Reichhold. Vasenmalerei.Fig. 74. PHINEUS. IONIC. DIONYSOS : FRIEZE ROUND THE INTERIOR OF AN EYE KYLIX. .

.

and has not only in the Ionian region and the colonies was certainly Egypt and the Black Sea. style has not yet to light Fikellura ' style finds its continuation in a produced in Klazomenai. We do not know whether there were more this factories on the specimens with more On localized. We were able to accompany the Rhodian-Naukratite and Fikellura styles to the very threshold of the blackthe Shallow bowls figured. * metope ' maeanders. late Rhodian garlands. but here the thread seems to snap. those of Dionysos and the women show rendering of folds. but also in Italy. in several places at the same time. is a true Ionic feature. found in Egypt and South Russia with bud decoration and black-figured interior designs. the ceramic history of the some though the been cleared up. Beyond Phineus fabric cannot be pottery of this period is Cycladic Generally the traced. and of the decoration adorned in 83 . which perhaps also come fixed points. ' The * ware. it is very fond of a field consisting of a reserved panel or running all round. in continuous tendrils. on which the animal friezes are driven out of the chief band. which were imitated by the Attic Vurva style.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE red and black stripes. scales over a sur- face). hard to get hold of. perhaps represent the latest products of the Rhodian offers at least from the old transition ' style. and some fully Ionic isolated but allied alphabet cannot yet be the other hand. buds in the field. ' ' islands. but continues the old shape of amphora and has the beside the vases same preference for loose decoration : bands. rows of crescents. rays. friezes of leaves. Greek East the stage. and amphorae with remains of the old ornamentation and big isolated animal-silhouettes in the field. The Klazomenian style has in common with its predecessor not only a series of ornaments (tongues. That the himation rather emphasizes than conceals the outline of the back.

preference for the Siren : this rows to make a frieze. dancers. the winged horses and boars connection with Asiatic art. The stock of types varies considerably from that of the West this is particularly clear in the scenes with human figures. Rhodian legacy. the central motive of its heraldic sphinxes or cocks. when it makes isolated which are or men wearing mantles. the is a : * ' Satyr (Fig. and shows the same freedom. 84 . who here in the East have become mounted Scythian women. The seahorse and the Triton were invented somewhere in this area Fikellura man with the head of a hare Klazoto the being with a tail and a lion's head among menai adds a human revellers. The Klazomenian style is particularly strong in the new formation of fantastic beings. and in . 75). The palmette and lotus-cross and the animal types differ from Western types the selecfigures. an ornament. and when it puts a runner with bent knee between two lions that turn away from him (Fig. tion. to which the near neighbourhood of the East gave the impulse.GREEK VASE-PAINTING neck by means of the human head. The female panther occurs as well as the male the grazing deer ingly often heraldically. 75). beside . among which the most important are the battles of Amazons. in a measure constituent parts of heraldic compositions. an animal head or a of In the field it likes to put instead of the heraldic pair a single animal. the prominent place is taken by scenes of drinking and dancing in the the few preserved legendary scenes. The ostriches show knowledge of Africa. running girls. an isolated palmette and lotus cross. among dancing men and women appears suddenly the bearded monster with the horse's tail. . Beside the pictures of riders and battles. a sphinx before a standing man or upright branch. is There is a special bird-woman is used surpris- characteristic of the East. too. going even beyond that of the Phineus painter.

75. NECK-DESIGN OF AN IONIC AMPHORA.Fig. : KLAZOMENIAN VASE FROM KYME. PLATE XXXIX. . SATYR AND MAENAD Fig 76.

.

The maidens with so well as women. . whatever it may cost. even if they are only decorative artists or So they succeed in nothing artizans. the robust strong-maned horses.* white. strongly asserts itself in the dancing maidens and the abandoned the oblique inclination forward. The which still silhouette Not only with remind one makes liberal use strongly style inherited aversion does it of of often replace incision by delicate lines of paint. the fighting cocks forgetting their heraldic duties. and often almond-shaped their receding foreheads. can be to some In the beginning comes the conflict of the extent followed. the transition from the light slip to the reddish-yellow surface.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE Altenburg amphora (Fig. and the little mouth somewhat drawn in below. emphasizes at the same time the decorative arrangement. provide garments with white crosses. the female tail and hoof panthers with swelling breasts. and ornaments with white details period it also extends the white surfaces. is what these Ionian masters give. which the revellers Klazomenian painter often gives the intoxicated. 63). and the tendencies in ' ornamentation Fikellura. animals with white spots and white bellyin its earlier stripe. The history of this style. all show nature very close at hand. and increases the expressiveness. sensual and everyday though often grotesque and brutal. which it still places : 85 . The file principle. . and the well-marked back contour. manner of the : obliquely set eyes. satyrs and animals. have an attracthe tiveness even on the most careless representations shaggy satyrs betray their equine nature not merely in ear. just as the eccentric movements of the dancers equally well fill the space and mark the tone. which must approximately extend over the first half of the 6th century. For life. old Ionic and Western techniques. and which is very successfully preserved on an early Milesian relief in London. so potent in the East Ionic animal frieze.

) show the transition to the rendering of folds of drapery. from women and linen chitons to men. but the hare and the hedgehog with the ostrich riders of the Castle Ashby amphora are of Corin. 76). and the continuous tendrils (Fig. he follows old ornaments the among animals Ionic tradition. In this later group. the continuous scene preferred by the East. horses and dogs. thian origin (Fig. than was the case with the earlier style. 77) round a arranged Munich amphora cunning Hermes. who creeping up on with the . a peculiar severity and discipThe three chief specimens. 76 and 78) and one in Castle Ashby.C. Beside the Ionic looped and plaited bands.GREEK VASE-PAINTING on the ground of the clay at times. necked amphorae with line. is confirmed by the ornaments. are more defined and elastic in shape. the Western and when the painter scatters palmette and lotus system (Fig. to which a series of lebetes with topers. come the double rays. that this new spirit came from the West and the Chalkidian-Attic region. and which culminates in two amphorae at Munich (Figs. 86 . wares of the colony of Daphne (abandoned in 560 B. The conclusion which naturally suggests itself. free and easy. satyrs. the and Western severity vigour makes as charming an effect as the genuinely Ionic the scene of a and very decorative composition centre (Fig. which takes the place of the old parti-coloured surfaces in the group of vases which took its rise about the middle of the century. 66). more ornamental and elaborate in the rendering of The * latest ' the figures. and becomes as parallel to the Corinthian style with this contrast of colouring as with its wide-necked broad-bellied form of amphora. centaurs. meeting of Eastern In the treatment of the figure. broadly even laxly rendered. there enters into the old style varied. and battle scenes is an obvious introductory link. 76). more finished in shape and colour. leaf and bud friezes.

^ o r-' < ? O u: pi In PLATE XL. .

.

.

.PLATE XLI.

Athens seized not only the exportation but the entire production. But Asia Minor. and a baptism with Attic spirit. which are usually attributed to South East ciples of composition crop up. 78) are full of ornamental vigour and at the same time full of fresh observation. The left hand of the new study of nature compared with the oldfashioned right of Hermes and left of the front Centaur in the giant the artist is struggling to represent the anatomy. also only known through export to Italy.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE tip-toe steals away the fair cow lo from the sleeping giant Argos. could not save the itself in expor- Klazomenian manufac- tory from the preponderance of its Attic rival same time its end. in contrast with the absence of folds in the chiton. The arrival at merely in the jug of Kolchos Athens of East Ionic artists is reflected not names of the vase-painters. 104). giant shows a . was not a suitable soil for continued production. which even expressed tation to Italy. when the redfigured technique coming into existence on Klazomenian sarcophagi conquers the Attic workshops. typical Eastern prin- when Nikosthenes introduces an East Ionic shape of amphora (Fig. the Caeretan hydriae. when on early red-figure kylikes the same decorative tendencies which prevailed in the East assert themselves. it is at the decorative tendencies formed a blind alley the combination with western technique ensured its continued life. and the mantle of Hermes plainly falls in layers. * 87 . . When on the and the Attic vases.' so-called from the place where they were mostly found (amphorae and kraters being also represented). The new impetus. but only of a re-birth in Athens. and the picture of the Centaurs hunting on the reverse (Fig. there can be no question of an extinction of East Ionic art. which at this time fell into the hands of the Persians. Not that the East Ionic . About on a level with the Castle Ashby group is another East Ionic class.

' : 88 . if anywhere. the completed black which has a wash under the white and uses incision freely even for outlines. His broadly treated scenes of hunting. lions.' in Satyr and Nymph running to meet each other. The 'Caeretan* painter actually enhances this'colour preference. eflfect to the ornamentation. make their late origin certain. but the living interest makes one forget the it asserts itself ornamental scheme. and the agreement with Ephesian sculpture of about 550 B. though on the reverse of the vase two may face each other in symmetrical correspondence they are rather by choice included in hunting scenes. . fighting. When the system of in spite of that these vases stick fast to contrast in colour. the matter. the fine delineaits rosettes. and also reveals East Ionic freedom in natural myrtle branches and ivy-tendrils. is characteristic of the East and the neighbourhood of Asia.GREEK VASE-PAINTING The developed vase-shapes. and spiral-crosses ornamenting the neck. which shows plainly its descent from the old Rhodian in its broad lotus and palmette system. bright yellow and white and similarly alternates He gives the same motley the colour of hair and clothes. hook-crosses.C. clinches Ionia. in the figure scenes. figure technique. griffins. The animal world too. converging mantle folds and the graded edges of the drapery. in the horse-taming knee.. Lively drastic description is the strong point of the 'Caeretan' painter. expressed in treatment of hair. and winged bulls. winged horses. with its fallow deer. The traditional tendency finds In heraldic a refuge. that agrees with an expressed preference for gay decoration such as from the days of the Naukratis vases South East Ionia loved. in bucrania with festoons and in interspersed animals. which has got beyond the animal style. in that he varies the colour of the male body from black to dark red. and wrestling. with bent runner scenes of battle. and the decoration. These animals have long ceased to play their heraldic part.

: FROM . Fig.Fig. 79. From Furtwd)igler-Rcich]wld.AYS BUSIRIS . Griechische SPARTAN PLATE XLIL KVl-lX.'\ . VascnwaJerei.XND HIS FOLLOWERS C^RETAN HYDRL\. 80. HERAKLES SL.

.

.

. PLATE XLIII. 81. HERAKLES BRINGS CERBERUS TO EURYSTHEUS C/ERETAN HYDRIA.Fig.

which 89 . called on the Black Sea. heralds and Centaurs. The altar with volute profiles is an knowledge of the Egyptian and black races. because of this local colouring one cannot imagine them made by Ionian colonists in Caere. point to the same The 'Pontic' painters actually enrich our knowsource. palmettes. The local colouring tions of Satyr is life. the . strong man Herakles with the curly hair who dispatches the inhospitable Pharaoh. Busiris. are cabinet pictures of vigorous humour. origin of the Busiris legend is only conceivable in the neighbourhood of the kingdom of the Pharaohs. only known from Pontic. of Hermes and his theft of the kine. and the legendary scenes. of Europa carried by the bull over the sea. The Asiatic-Ionian origin of the style is based on the vase shapes as on the choice. leaf -friezes. and his cowardly throng (Fig. and in their aversion to the typical and abstract they are diametrically opposed to Attic painting.' as having been wrongly localized Etruria. or who with the hound of hell frightens the Argive king into a wine jar (Fig. types and application of the ornamental and animal decoration and also the figures. and naive vividness. maeanders. the lines of Tritons and Nereids. technique. of the drunk and lame Hephaistos. 79). riders and Scythians. volutes. On the other hand one may assume origin on Etruscan soil for another class of East Ionic style. leave nothing to be desired in the way of original invention. 81). 82 and 83) in execution and application. Thus though the Caeretan vases found a local continuation in Etruria. THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE Heraklean legend. can only have been obtained in Africa the East Ionic architectural shape. of the also unmistakeable.. The stocky. by a plentiful selection of animals. etc. healthy vigour.. of Egyptian priestly dress. by net patterns. * ledge of East Ionic decorative motives by a series of combined lotus. which are often under ornamental influence (Figs. of monkeys.

the Spartan. Corinth seems to have set the example for this transition as . This revolution is less connected with importation than with the immiBut even the new current is more gration of Ionic artists. whether obstinate persistence in stripe decoration. which in the East and West not merely captures the market but also forces production under its spell. p. Vases which represent Lanuvian Juno (B. or only decorated with stripes. fixed as East by many Greek can only be named for completeness sake one. either unadorned. the ware with a great extension in South Asia Minor and Italy. we must once more return to Peloponnesus. Two classes with scanty decoration. to a fabric standing in isolaand of marked peculiarity. Excavations at Sparta show the transition to the black-figured style. But on the whole the class very provincial and cannot be regarded as a clear source It is questionable. The style is visibly departing further from its Greek starting point. only reluctantly giving way to the picture field. GREEK VASE-PAINTING includes the marine Centaur. . the 'Bucchero' ware long known in Etruria. the other. which give important conclusions as to the development of vase-shapes. 66) or Etruscan winged demons. Cat. which perhaps originated in Aeolis and which owes its black lustre not to glaze colour but to impregnation with charcoal and to polishing finds. The East Greek manner took the place of the Corinthian in Italy at the beginning of the 7th century. would have been possible in the mothercountry well on in the 6th century..M. such tion took place elsewhere about the end of the 7th century. show in subject what the style of is of evidence. itself betrays. with the Asiatic man-bull. 90 . and is fond of lines of guinea-fowls. and more open to the influence of the ever-spreading Attic importation. Before we pass to this victorious fabric. II.

: From Furtwdngler-ReichhoU. Griechische PLATE XLIV. ATHENA AND APHRODITE BEFORE PARIS FROM A PONTIC AMPHORA. Vasenmalerei. Figs 82 & 83 PARIS . .AND HIS HERD PRIAM AND HERMES LEAD HERA.

.

has given us only a few big vases. though the conservative retention of the white slip and the inconsistent rendering of the male eye clearly distinguish it from Corinthian. ware when for exportation. in . as gradually pass Ionia. 80). . which in the 6th century. cannot be much later. specimens with antithetic or processional animal pomegranate net-like only with the simple or otherwise pattern. and the lotus and palmette pattern the animal friezes have types of their frieze and a frieze of figures above it. e. own and do not avoid the processional order not ordinarily favoured in the West.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE at all events Corinthian elements. Corinth and Athens. The earliest of them is a Paris lebes with heraldically arranged animal' * which pot-bellied topers are placed between the Troilos story and a Centaur battle two volute kraters and two hydriae. so also in Sparta. Broad tongues adorn shoulder and zig-zag and foot. the rays are doubled. The period. with lotus leaves and rays 91 . Even the larger vases found in decorative actual Spartan sanctuaries are almost entirely and show little of the figure painting coming in so vigorously in other manufactories. which are very conservative in their adornment. to Geometric of lotus and friezes hooked bands are added upright arched pomegranate. to Naukratis which spread and Samos far over the mainland as well as to Etruria. It becomes really tangible to us at the exportation properly begins. compensation for this is offered by the number of in East kylikes preserved. finely decorative works.g. into the high-stemmed shape with offset rim earlier few a in outsides of these kylikes are adorned only A friezes. at a time which already puts a black wash under imposed white and with the shapes takes us further along into the 6th century. riders with birds for space-filling in the black-figured style give this indication. from the handles pro- . continuous branches. by their shapes. The (Fig.

with which the painter decorates his interiors. rises out of pure ornamentation or animal decoration to free scenic representations. the musicians and drinkers. the girls bathing in the river. is even in its rendering helpless and antiquated to make up it preserves its independence and ease. but not this time from the life of a Spartan citizen. None of these kylix-pictures breathes the Spartan spirit. are in subject and execution truly Spartan. the rosettes. 85) takes the palm. riders and hunters. usually more or less at random. who have not yet. so far as we know. To be sure this is often at the expense of the decorative effect.GREEK VASE-PAINTING ceed palmettes on their confined to the interior. legendary scenes. . often ver>^ clumsily filled with plant and animal ornamentation. Beside the pictures from daily life comes mythology with pot-bellied dancers. and birds dispersed without meaning about the scene. so well as the Berlin vase with the carrying home of fallen warriors. in other manufactories. who once in African . with Erotes crowning riders and drinkers. the men carousing with women. The figures are entirely which much more commonly than sides. The stock of figures. are always clumsy old-fashioned compromises between representation and space-filling. Most scenes are anything but composed with a view to a round space. been superseded by Ionic Satyrs. It is a genre scene. filling flowers. and the segments under the line which marks the level of the ground. Gyrene looked on. the spirit of the lyric poetry of Sparta. but a travel reminiscence of a painter. which is perhaps taken over from a continuous frieze without any attempt to fit it into the circular field but even in this shape has the effect upon us of a funeral march of Kallinos or But in humorous descriptiveness the Tyrtaios (Fig. primitive solidity its the strong warriors. Arkesilas vase (Fig. 84). while the silphion was weighed under 92 . and various .

A SPARTAN KVI.Fij^.IX -JIpAIj . r^KTL RXIXd l'"R(>M HATTLK PFATE : FROM XL\'.7. 84.''''• jJ^'- .

.

.

\RKES1L.\S PLATE XL\ I.SILPHION: FRO.\r A SIWRTAN KVLIX. . . OF CYRPINR \\ATrHIN(. 85. THE LADING OF .Fig.

which. which diminishes the foot. puts on the yard. and . . he became acquainted with in Africa round the ship . reigned about the middle of With this it agrees that his mantle is the 6th century. and often avoids the base- segment. the only the already know it to be The life-like picture. the 93 com- only one . no longer colours the ornament. divided into black and red stripes. and in the inscription. It is only late that the Spartan painters turn to the rendering of folds and richer body details. which agree with Spartan reliefs. as we saw in the Phineus kylix. and stowed in the hold of a sailing The monkey too. This conservative style does not show the same keenness as its contemporaries in rendering folds and developing the knowledge of anatomy nor is the need felt for a long time of freeing the field from filling ornaments or the base segment from animal decoration. . comes before the rendering of folds. which before the deciCorinthian. with the superiority of which Sparta cannot even remotely comSimilar vases without any figures show the last output pete. king. which the painter ship to be exported. really only in a time of decadence. The only pleted its life fabric in which the black-figured and exhausted style its possibilities. sive excavations in Sparta was regarded as chief proof of Cyrenaic origin for this pottery. the ornamentation. The occasional use of pale red figures painted on a black ground with incised details can only be explained as a provincial imitation of Attic red-figured technique. confirms the result of digging in the shape of the chair legs. of the fabric. we There is an approximate date given too for the whose portrait we have. The group of vases which belongs to the second half of the century is especially marked by the return of the white slip and of polychromy in Sparta. only possible in birds are not meaningless but lizard is fly an external addition.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE the stern eye of Arkesilas.

Phineus. traditional and progressive painting. they are only provincial offshoots of Attic industrial art. We already saw that Vurva vases were exported to East Ionia the Gorgon lebes of the Louvre comes from Italy. and the Cyclades. occasionally even Spartan fabrics 94 . . To be by continuous sure. as a complex of workshops. Chalkis ences. without doing them injustice. the inequality of produc- and style obtrudes itself on us here more than elsewhere. proved not only of their inscriptions but also finds in Attica itself. since : foreign fabrics had superiority. and makes us take fabric in a wider sense. ' Thus more and more it is that to give in to Corinthian. The fact that ware made to be exported to Etruria first gave us the knowledge of Greek vase-painting. Etruria now becomes the chief place where Attic and indeed all black-figured vases are found. its relations to East Ionia.GREEK VASE-PAINTING which shows through the archaic and classic at the end of the 7th century it begins to vie with others. The inequality of Attic ware has yet other reasonSi More than other fabrics the Attic adopted foreign influAthens' central position between Corinth. vases with light or dark-red clay. Attic manufactory by the alphabet is. 52). Athenian Chalkidian. is its living force Even the Attic. led to a penetration of old Attic art traditions with other elements and to the formation of a new style the rise of trade and industry enticed alien painters to settle at Athens. as we saw. The same is the case with Eretria. do not go on turning out in the 6th century. and even to-day the word 'vases' reminds us of the periods. decisive finds on Italian The soil. which turn out at the same time good and rubbishy ware.* East Ionic. in their old bird kylikes (p. led enquiries on false tracks for a long time in localizing the fabrics. we may class with tion in technique Attic workshops of the second class so far as they . The Boeotian workshops.

. Fig. 87. PLATE XLVIL A CAULDRON BY . \\EDDIN(.\TTIC TRIPOD-VASE.iMo. OF PELEIS : FRAGMENTS OF SOPHILOS. 86.

.

while relations to East Ionic art run along side by side. which we see developed on Corinthian kraters. women and Ornament . which one is inclined to make parallel with the to a dating of its separate phases. cannot be ascertained from this specimen a second vase of the same painter shows between the animals. The group. red of the male face and the varied colouring of the horses the system of contrasted colours is as plainly exhibited as in the red colouring of the male breast or of the whole male body on other contemporary vases. isolated large rosettes. immediate predecessor the Sophilos vase vies in motley effect with Corinthian ware. and other vases of . can- the lower part of the body contrast with this bold front view . The frieze is framed between a broad lotus and palmette pattern and a stripe with large animals. red-clay Corinthian. 95 . himatia and borders are picked is richly painted linen chitons have a white filling out in colour. might be suggested without its being too venturesome. In contrast may be named of a 'lebes' with its the 'Sophilos' group found on the Acropolis (Fig. probably under the in the Who influence of the chest of Kypselos. but on the other hand help After a period of Corinthian influence follows one with a strong Chalkidian element. 90). . Whether the filling ornament has been omitted from the animal as well as from the figured frieze. very varied air to Attic pottery. The marriage of Peleus and Thetis is the subject. the scene the not be stated marked Muse . in a type repeated on the Francois vase (Fig. perhaps from a double Siren. in profile that it is is in of orna- mental origin. in the eye-kylikes the pattern of Thineus' ware is at work. in front introduced into view playing on the syrinx.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE These reflections give a are reflected in the Attic pottery. from the fragments 86). in which nothing but the big lettering reminds us of the old requirement of filling the space. which still suggest the Vurva style.

88) over the animal frieze introduces the wild dancers. just and riders. lotus fields with heraldically arranged animals. influenced by the East like the gradually appearing friezes of buds and leaves (p. Chalkis and in East Ionia prepare the way for the Satyrs. . the succession of which is interrupted by a fallen horse just as the animal friezes of contemporary vases contain fighting animal groups and a kantharos of . 87) in the stripe on the rim shows alongside of the old animal composition two wrestlers of the Corinthian scheme and a horse race from the same source. this into the field. or a circle between zig-zags (the amphora which Dionysos is dragging on the Francois vase is of this type). when they do not cover the whole body with have like the Klazomenian on the neck a head. give the same impression. but in their way help to enlarge our Idea of the period. Boeotian manufacture and shape (Fig. which cannot compare with the fine work of Sophilos. 96 . The Munich tripod-vase (Fig. Ionic patterns often assert themselves drawing and colouring of the animals.GREEK VASE-PAINTING group make a palmette flower or bud with stalk project These isolated echoes of the old filling ornamentation. which leave a " metope " unpainted to carry their figures or make the figure field continuous. Of the smaller vases we may select two hasty compositions. are not infreas beside many Corinthian echoes in the friezes liberties too. and prefer still to decorate their stripes and stripes. This survival of old decorative tendencies in a new shape appears still more plainly in other vases of the "Sophilos" period. The Ionic meaningless compositions. 83) disappear about the middle of the century but the animal friezes themselves live on longer. and in the shape of animals in the and decoration of the vases. who as at Corinth. the quent. The kraters and hydriae which are parallel with the Corinthian. a and palmette cross. The amphorae.

GriechiscJic PLATE XLVIII. 89. Fig. : DETAIL OF THE Vasennialerei. 90. From FiirtwdiigJer-RcichhoJd. BCEOTIAN KANTHAROS.Fig. FIG. . ARRIVAL OF THESEUS' SHIP AT DELOS FRANCOIS VASE.

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in almost requires a microscope to see. 77). The treatment of the procession of the Olym- paramount position pians honour in on the have seen the of principal frieze newly-wedded is particularly that Klitias here utilized an old type. The Florence vase made by the potter Ergotimos. sea-goddess rich. ' ' * ' ' ' Corinthian kraters surpass the Eurytios vase (Fig. which secures for Attic pottery the for all time. Potter and painter here take a step. painted by Klitias and named after its finder Francois (Figs. We The repre- by the subject gives an archaic particular the richly adorned festal sentative solemnity required stamp to this frieze . 105) Ergotimos does his best in delicately moulding the shape and gives the vase a showy appearance with his elongated handle volutes. and goes beyond the round-bellied shape of the Gorgon lebes as much as the . 97 . heighten the stiffly venerable clothes with patterns that it But when compared with Sophilos. 89 and 90). even in the boldly rising outline of the body shows the spirit of a new age. 64). Klitias shows a considerable advance in the rendering of nature. which bear witness to uncanny patience and accuracy on the part of the painter. so in the figured decoration covering the whole surface and in the incredibly delicate execution of all style of . impression. so compression and precision Sophilos is followed by Klitias. just as Klitias does between the figured late and as Sophilos and that of Amasis (p. Ergotimos holds the mean between the old round-bellied vase shapes and the more elegant ones of the Chalkidian best period (p. massive archaic black-figured style in the shape of the vase and the rendering of the figures passes into more and more elegant we Just as Chalkidian workmanship.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE followed the process in late Corinthian and in Athens the broad. details Klitias presents a refinement of the black-figured style which in its way cannot be surpassed.

are attacking frieze . black horse alternates with white. diminished heaviness of the figures. and the delightful on the foot with the battle of dwarfs and cranes even the heraldic animal frieze is seized by the same liveliness. Perhaps Klitias got from eastern masters the interruption of the heraldry in the animal frieze by fighting groups and at any rate the Satyrs who accompany the drunken Hephaistos come from the . of the delineation of life friezes exhibit Klitias as a master and movement : the arrival of the ship of Theseus at Delos (Fig. each other. How much of these scenes is due to the inven- tiveness of Klitias and cannot be made out. ing. But with the perfection of the clay and the black used in painting.GREEK VASE-PAINTING For we must not lay stress on the head of Dionysos in front view. 98 . East into Attic pottery. which leads away from the old motley effect the masters of the . the division of the himatia into stripes. the hunt of Meleager. discipline more who and the gift of abstraction seem to have been characteristic of the Athenians than of the lonians. which here and there converge like folds. the chariot-race. for between the heraldic sphinxes and griffins the animals. now treated in quite an elegant and concise way. the adventure of Troilos. but instead a marked feeling for clear and speaking types and generally speak. the old style is worthily putting forth its last efiforts the white is still put direct on the clay. the battle with the Centaurs. for the god's mask-like appearance passed from cult into vase-painting but we may point to the that . In the technique of the figures. and the minute detail of incised lines. . 89). set more carelessly to work. direct his observation of nature He has not got the rough freshness and naturalism of the Ionic painters. and the reduction in size of the The other inscriptions. the return of Hephaistos. a new feeling for colour is brought in. the man's face is coloured red. the smaller size of the eye.

. (i riccliisclie FL.VrE XI. Wiseiniialcrci. 00.IX.. KRATKR BY KLITIAS AND KRCOTIMOS: "THE FRANCOIS VASE. From Fiirtiudiiglcr-RciclihoJd.Fii.

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a later specimen of about 520 * ' B. in opposition to the old conception. usually. lebetes. The group of kraters. which were given to the victors full of precious oil and labelled one of (twv 'AOrtPTjOev from the city of Athens prizes the warrior. 101. perhaps. it will not be possible to move the Francois vase and the transition to the later technique away from the sixties of the 6th century. 66) still followed by the Francois vase. is described by the antiquated name TyrrhThe conservaenian. The vases assume the tive 99 .) shows on the obverse the new type of Athena in the making. goddess in full armour.C. just as the poet Stesichoros and paintings of the time of Sophilos had made her leap from the head of Zeus.' derived from the finds in Etruria. At the same time he must have erected a new image of Athena on the Acropolis. The oldest of these Panathenaic amphorae (an idea of their shape is given by Fig. and on the reverse the chariot-race which was now becoming infrequent. which according to tradition Pisistratus replaced by other games. which immediately adheres to the Francois not interrupted by marked individualities. when in 566 B. The chariot-race for a prize on the neck of the Francois vase introduces us to an old and popular contest. which. which paints a ground for the white and gives up red in the male body. fighting a as Athena always appears ciexcov). other less thorough artists had already set going. amphorae and other vases.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE Frangois vase themselves in their later works go over to the new system. For on the prize vases. Since this vase adheres closely to the Sophilos group in style and especially in the animal decoration of the neck. he reformed the Panathenaea. a system which. hydriae. in so far as it is and often mechanical character of these vases does not conceal the progressive elements. but on the other hand already has a painted ground for white. represented the (p. vase.C.

and eastern influences. the interior picture of which is framed by tongue pattern thus a kylix of the type known to us from Corinth and Chalkis on the outside the Satyr is still loosely connected with drinkers of the old type. on Corinthian traditions. This type of kylix shews marked Chalkidian influence. and has thus not yet been associated with Dionysos and the Maenads. The firm of Ergotimos produces a cup with knobbed handles and no set-off for the rim. on the achievements of great masters. Series of branches and buds. especially in later specimens like that of Boston (Fig. over black) hands to the companions of Odysseus the fatal potion and so brings about her own abrupt end. . . . the Gorgon lebes and many vases of the Sophilos period. amphorae (p. which continue alongside of the amphorae with to show. new vase types and new kinds of decoration. perhaps from Chalkis. . which happily can be traced in its development by many signed specimens. It lives picture field.GREEK VASE-PAINTING more slender egg-shaped form known to us from Chalkis. The transition may first be followed in the Kylix. observation of nature this second-class group has hardly any . 96) is replaced by lotus and palmette. Thus their general appearance is still very like the Vurva vases. 92). White colour is regularly placed on the old neck ornament of the black ground Herakles is often equipped with the lion's with in place Athena at any rate helmet and spear skin of the old-fashioned burlesque dancers and naked women But of improvements in come Satyrs and Maenads. vie with the Frangois vase in the accumulation only in the lower stripe they economize in figure scenes by using lines of lotus and palmettes and animals. The traditions of the 7th century end in this mechanical group the great masters of the second third of the century bring. . on which Circe (painted white of figured friezes . The frieze amphorae. probably also the dog in front view (p 81) 100 .

Kij4.Fif?. . 91. PLATE L. ATTIC KYLIX WITH KNOB-HANDLE. 92. ' LITTLE MASTER ' KYLIX.S.

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who. betokening intention 101 .M.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE and much in the style of the figures come from the neigh- bouring fabric. which for a time carelessly draws its figures over the junction. have been handed down to us on these vases. Nearchos. explain the alteration of the Ionic style (p.. and Nikosthenes.. 86). 222) is * . that with off-set rim. and probably also for decorative reasons.' the makers of dedicated the so-called high-stemmed cups. Cat. More than twenty makers' names. side with that. p. by moves into the upper stripe (Fig. (not the one in Circe's hand). Cat. who. The masters of the Frangois vase themselves took this step forward in Naukratis and the interior of Asia Minor signed specimens have been found. ii. found among little masters. the painting of the rim black tion of the handle stripe with figures are very the figures Side and decora- common. 221).M. Charitaios.g. with special pride. In decorative tendencies. even when the rim is not marked off from the body. among them those of Exekias. consisting of neat miniature figures or a female head drawn ii. p. Pamphaios. This Chalkidian influence is to be traced on a second type of kyUx belonging to this period. put their names on their products. but finally makes a clean cut between handle frieze and rim ornament the rim is e. These masters preserve the division between handle and rim stripes. like the sons of Ergoteles and Tleson (B. As with Klitias. which help to : . in fine outline. the handle frieze bears figures or the artist's signature in neat letters between the palmettes proceeding from the handles. speaking documents of the popularity of the fine Attic ware in the East. decorated with a branch or painted black. the handle stripe bears the master's inscription or a drinking motto in this case the representation. 91). Hischylos. The workshop of Ergotimos passed to his son Eucheiros (B. an important piece of evidence for the vigour of Attic production in the generation after Klitias and Ergotimos.

a practice which continues on vases for a century. interior picture often consists of the Gorgon's mask. which develop scenes of hunting and pursuit. . fill the outside often bears meaning- winged creatures. (heraldic men wrapped in cloaks). out of . 80) in the later period of the little masters and perhaps the Ionian Amasis. the eye-cups go a good bit beyond this limit. When such scenes flanked by heraldic animals. Certainly the Attic artists never rival the swelling shapes and vigorous life of their prototypes.GREEK VASE-PAINTING The rather than convention. animals. assert themselves. Those celebrated are seldom to be regarded as the favourites of the vase-painters themselves. the explanation being supplied by the erotic scenes represented from the later time of Klitias. If the kylikes of the little masters last to the beginning of the red-figured style (p. who has left a fine specimen with a figure holding a branch between the eyes. chariot-races. battle pictures with are still many figures occur. but generally sons of the best society. and anyhow the common love-name puts all vases which bear it into a short period of time for the bloom of beauty lasts not more than a decade. had much to do with this naturalization. riders. fair More commonly boys are praised. in this case primitive traditions are consciously retained. With this type the outside begins again to be treated as a decorative unit . for whom there was a furore. for many of the Kaloi are great persons with established dates. On the Munich kylix (Fig. This worship of beauty is of use to the historian. 91) the painter in the inscrip- tion praises the beauty of Kalistanthe. The type must have been brought to Athens from the Phineus manufactory (p. 109). * * * ' ' ' 102 . or a figure to the space to fit the circle . and cock-fights but also mythological scenes and vigorous compositions less runners.

93. PLATE LI. DIONY-SOS : INTERIOR OF AN EYE KYLIX BY EXEKIAS. .Fig.

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which stand out markedly from the ordi- nary ware of the period. quite is unique. This emancipation from little the old superficiality. which in the period of the the in style fold the of emergence masters leads to the by vertical strokes. that rhenian ware and the kylikes.' not more richly decorated than by the When Exekias on one vase adorns the whole interior surface with a wonderful idyll. little masters. Klitias. an arrangement of which the red-figured The interior is generally style makes almost exclusive use. ' * * ' 103 ' . attach themselves to the Frangois The master of a fine lebes from the Acropolis showvase. this is quite an exception ' (Fig. and that it may be simply due to accident if certain firms producing larger vases do not recur among The names Ergotimos and the * little masters. Pamphaios and manufacture of kylikes was by no means a separate speciality.' larger masterpieces naturally show the progress of the style much more plainly than the conservative Tyrnoticed above.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE without division. who occasionally still colours the male face red. show that the Nikosthenes Charitaios. the giver of the vine in a sailing boat with dolphins leaping round him. The We single specimens. he has already in his mind the rendering of folds. probably emigrated from the East like his contemLike Klitias. patterns rather than to rich with garments prefer to cover they relieve the monotony of white chitons render folds : and divide the surfaces of cloaks into This division does not yet attain any effect of stripes. the father of two depth. Exekias and Amasis. and Kolchos grades the ends of cloaks with clear folds. 101 and 112). 93) : that the ground is painted brick-red. the masters poraries Kolchos and Lydos. masters (pp. divides the short male chiton also by wavy lines into black and red stripes. " little But when Nearchos. ing Ionic influence.

following period (Fig. show an obvious change in shape. or like the unsigned Iliupersis vase in Berlin (Fig. Nearchos and Kolchos. in that the handles. while the body of the vase is to some degree tightened. Vases like that of Taleides with the slaying of the Minotaur. must now be exhibited in a selection of amphorae and hydriae in connection with the change of vase-shapes and decoration. who has already laid one Trojan low and is on the point of despatching the aged king and his grandson with one blow. which is often adorned with animals. which banish the animal ornament into a lower frieze or give it up altogether. Fine specimens of the Klitias period. It is not only the way in which white is used that takes one beyond the Frangois vase the rosette ornamentation of the garments is quite typical of the : : . Menelaos threatens his faithless wife. excellently drawn and composed. are drawn up perpendicularly. while on the other side Priam's entreaties are supported by wife and daughter a picture rich in content. instead of standing off like ears. and which in the period of Sophilos begins to put an upper border of ornament on its figure-field. We begin with the big-bellied amphora. 94) with the gay alternate palmette pattern and the old heavy foot of the Francois vase. belong to this class. whom he has won back. On both vases standing figures form an extension of an animated central group. of true archaic vividness and talkativeness. but the Iliupersis master makes a better whole of his triptych than Taleides. 92) the wavy striping of the short chiton and the simple grading of the cloak reminds us of . which at the end of the 7th century we saw reserve a square field and decorate it with horses' or women's heads. and whether characterized a dying man as well as 104 Klitias could our master is have at least .GREEK VASE-PAINTING works of Amasis and Exekias. who merely juxtaposes the heroes' conflict and the spectators alongside of the furious Neoptolemos.

PLATE LII. .

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.PLATE LI 1 1.

belongs to the earlier From Exekias. 71) for a time commonly takes the place of the palmette and lotus band. a youthful work of this worthy successor of Klitias. its last trump-card. which it . and as (Fig. which is usually called the affected class. like all the vases of this master peculiar in shape and of perfect technique. because it consciously sacrifices the living representation of the figure world to the ornamental general * ' * : . is more progressive and probably somewhat later than the Stesias amphora of Exekias the cloak on the of Dionysos on the obverse is laid in three folds reverse the shaggy satyrs. The arched foot becomes more plate-like. stylized in a quite un-Attic way. The future belonged not to the masters of the adorned surface. the minute 'little master' kylikes represent the last refinement of the silhouette style. pressing. at Chalkis. and distributing into jars the beloved gift of the god. scantier The type a figure frieze little master period. seizes also the body amphora. the ' affected vases. 105 . The technical perfection and the fine decorative effect of Amasis' vases are only surpassed by a wonderful contemporary group. becomes and more monotonous. without the slightest attempt at the rendering of folds. a clay-ring unites with the end of the body. on which Chalkidian patterns are very finely worked out. The unsigned Wiirzburg amphora of Amasis (Fig. The over-elegant works of Exekias. who was himself in his off-hours a little master. The current of Chalkidian influence. who to the sound of the flute are gathering.' comes a specimen in the Louvre with the praise of the fair Stesias.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE questionable. which sets in vigorously about this time. show the same connection with the Phineus factory as the eye kylix (p. 95) may occupy this space. 102). 95). * ' * ' effect. which is more taper the Chalkidian wreath of buds (Fig.

The old-fashioned decoration with animal stripes is retained by the Tyrrhenian vases. 96) he exhibits in the cloaks of the players the last possibilities of his subtle technique with an almost incredible devoeven these fine clothes have their edges tion to detail. which we know from Chalkis.GREEK VASE-PAINTING but to the delineators of the surface in movement. Amasis seems not merely to have introduced it into Athens but also to have created the pretty variation with the flat shoulder with a rectangular turn and the wide handles running out below into tendrils : for these continuous tendrils are old property home. 69). . The amphora must be (Fig. chitons in same period as the eye kylix not only the feeling as a whole but the dark-red layers on the outside point to the late activity of of the the master. In the last phase of the body amphora prior to the red-figured style. besides foldless patterned clothes. till the later Chalkidian type conquers the whole field (Fig. The handle ornament separates off the pictures on the two sides and liberates the figures from the constraints of a frieze. The Paris amphora with Dionysos and the interesting group of embracing Maenads (Fig. which Amasis loves. but overlapping. which no longer praises Stesias but Onetorides (Fig. 95) not only by the double rays. 98) is closely connected with the Wiirzburg amphora (Fig. The necked amphorae complete our idea of two great masters. appear cloaks richly animated with folds. The old heavy shapes with the the arched foot take up Chalkidian influences and go through the same processes of change. of his eastern 106 . 93) . Exekias in his riper development passes over to rich rendering of folds on the harmonious amphora in Rome. and on the reverse of the vase. that with continuous pictorial field by the 'affected' group for a time. in which the band-like handles and the narrower neck are drawn higher and the stiff palmette pattern becomes canonical.

ACHILLES AND AL\S rLAVIXC. . ATTIC NECKED AMPHORA WITH SATYR-MASK. Fig. PLATE LIV. AT DRALCHTS: FROM AN AMPHORA BY EXEKL^S.9G. 97.

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Fio. 99. PLATE LV. 98. . AMASIS. DETAIL FROM THE INTERIOR OF A CAULDRON BY EXEKIAS.XATLRE OF THE POTTER Fig. NECKED AMPHORA WITH THE SIC.

for the simple Ionic masters of Caeretan hydriae. : scheme goes so far. The shape of the vase is slimmer. He need not on that account be put very late. : : * 107 . the eye decoration with the kylix type of the same time. and even of Kolchos' jug ' (Fig. the decoration simpler. by the beginning of himation folds. which praise the favourite of his later period. 91). On both vases the the Paris linen chiton of the god is left black is maenads are rendered in outline only it but seldom that the reaction against the old parti-coloured . the This lonism is in made this border before him. the relation of figures to space freer. but also by many details of the very individual style. and having played the pioneer not only in vase shapes and decoration but also in figure style. The bodies are no longer the thick-set broad-thighed type of the older style the eye plays no longer so prominent a part. favour of Amasis. The short chiton is not merely laid in black and red layers but even provided with a quite naturally waving border the artist thus far surpasses the standard of Exekias and even of early red-figured masters. Parallels are provided by the Athena and the girl-busts of the little masters Both the other amphorae of Amasis are more advanced. which in the other vase is transferred without change to satyrs. The neck ornament connects it with the late works of Exekias. Exekias (in whose works the unity of the whole is often expressly emphasized by the inscription made and painted me ') does not attack the problem of folds so boldly. The aversion to white colour is interesting. The slender Munich necked amphora (Fig. 69). 97) goes still further beyond the Chalkidian models (Fig. perhaps his countrymen. having himself painted all his vases. as a good Athenian he lays the drapery in neatly-ironed layers. who signs only as potter.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE by the grouping. Even on the two fine necked amphorae.

which perhaps Amasis introduced from the Phineus factory into Attic painting. The satyr mask. 67). Timagoras. some of which like the Exekias lebes (Fig. and red-figured vases) must have employed a series of painters. 99) on the body of the vase help the fine black colour to . besides a quantity of notably metallic band production of the handles. His Paris vase with the later type of the contest with Triton (p.GREEK VASE-PAINTING the space-filling vine-tendrils. gradually gives way to the later type with picture field and horizontal. method of Amasis. seems to be his speciality. Amasis and Nikosthenes amphorae. little master kylikes.g. eye kylikes. 104). though other masters adopted and modified the shape (Fig. is very important for chronology by a declaration of love for still 108 . exclusive possession amphorae . a contemporary of Exekias. neatly painted jugs with white ground. Epiktetos. separately adorned shoulder. on the Troilos frieze of the Frangois vase. with head in front view. like the Dionysos mask. The hydria too. Nikosthenes. alters * ' its form. we shall hear of later. are ' ' a favourite motive in later times. in Chalkis (p. 76) shown e. and Amasis the satyr. 106). on which he still paints the monster's face red for colour contrast. prefers a broad-bellied shape and does not form handle and foot as elegantly as Pamphaios. of whom almost a hundred signed vases are extant (kraters. The often very hasty and conservative decoration of these vases cannot come from one painter. We have not yet named the most productive amphora Nikosthenes supplied some fine examples of the painter. which often shows its use in pretty foun- which with in quantities ' ' ' * tain scenes (Fig. The only one who gives his name. As the egg-shaped type of the Klitias period. probably passed from cult into decorative painting if Klitias represents Dionysos. the influence of these masks is not to be mistaken.

u PLATE LVI. .

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The red stripes. and to which Pamphaios himself opens his workshop. a young colleague and later chief master of the If Timagoras is the predecessor of early red-figured style. falls into the red-figured period. Pamphaios is his rival. the lotus and palmette ornament loses colour. and are of also folds . quickly to the side of the style which painted the background and not the figure. no longer remind us that they once indicated sewed parts of white rosettes and red spots serve as surface On the fine hydria in Berlin (Fig. His slim London hydria with the slightly bent up handles. which ing ornament. The new from the time of style did not abruptly drive out the old its predominance perhaps more black-figured vases are preserved than from the preceding period. a red stroke as border. more hastily drawn in particular the rendering becomes regular. and after the transitional time of Andokides and Pamphaios only inferior talents experiment But though driven out of the in the old silhouette style. it is garments . this old style was still busy and productive : at least to the beginning of the 5th century : especially necked amphorae and hydriae. often by the same painters. keep the tradition. 100) probably of Euphronios' time. leading position. In the leading studios for a time both techniques were practised side by The balance inclined side. Andokides. which the new style did not zealously affect. 109 . sweep and consistency. patterns. At this later date the shapes become elongated. and the dark-red striping of the cloak assumes pure fold-character. which after the second third of the century begins to compete with the old technique. which.THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE Andokides. are painted quite meaninglessly between the folds. The hydriae bend their handles more steeply upwards the row of palmettes enclosed by tendrils is preferred as fram: The figures move more freely in the space. on which the vine of Dionysos overgrows the whole picture.

Apart from the Panathenaic amphorae and other vases. In Boeotia black-figured painting. but elongate it to agree with the slender proportions of the vase. 114) the Berlin vase is thus moved to the end of the century.GREEK VASE-PAINTING true. not on the old incised ' ' : style. continued as long in the burlesque parodies of myth of the so-called Kabirion vases black painting on a light ground is ' . has been found) even in late times they do not give up the old type of Athena. conservative. Hipparchos. only trifling small ware keeps up the old style. In the new century the black-figured production gradually dies away. and in exported specimens down into the 4th century. is quite unlike its class. help us to date this style. which for ritual reasons remain 99) (p.C. . and Leagros. Thus the circumscribed row of palmettes seems to appear in the early Leagros period (p. where they are dated to the year by archons' names (one of 313 B. and comlove like . the old round formation of the eye actually approximates to the natural oval. like a group of pelikai with charming genre scenes and a series of other vases of red-figured shape (p. 119). alongside of primitive attempts to imitate Attic red-figured vases. bine other later features with the old picture. The common links with names the red-figured especially style. 110 . Pedieus. and similar late phenomena occur in various localities. These late black-figured vases show real progress in nothing but the development of a loose freely moving vegetable ornamentation but this progress depended on pure brush-technique. found in the early Hellenistic Hadra vases made at Alexandria. The prize vases can be followed as votive offerings on the Acropolis.

102.Fig. ATTIC VASE. PANATHENAIC AMPHORA. 101. PLATE LVII. LATE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE. . Fig.

.

and Boeotian workshops we know of light painting on a dark ground. is not The inversion of the colour system is not yet explained. and the effect of big glazed the body-amphorae and in limitation to the by increasing clay and glaze. At any rate the idea on fell mixture of colour was long worn colour-effect. The fruitful soil. Kimon of Kleonai. IN THE ARCHAIC PERIOD HOW the sudden change of technique took place. rescued the body from archaic stiffness. Corinthian. that instead of painting silhouettes on the ground of the clay.how the idea suggested itself. and a plate from Thera has light figures in added paint and a But this is entirely different from the black background. garded as its earlier stages. which uses the ground of the clay for its Only late Klazomenian sarcophagi can be refigures. Eumares. for the first HI . archaic out.CHAPTER THE RED-FIGURED STYLE V. From Ionic. according to Pliny. new. 108). and it is quite possible that the new technique was naturalized in Athens by East Ionic painters. figures drawn in outline should be left free to contrast with the black background. furnished limbs with joints. red-figured style. invented A oblique views and foreshortening. vessels completely covered with black colour (p. But more than all else the revolution in figure-drawing which was now setting in strong in the great art was striving for successor of the Athenian expression in vase painting. the simplification of two values. Attic. was surfaces had been tried in in full swing.

the gay dresses. was quite unsuited for the new liberties of drawing.GREEK VASE-PAINTING time rendered veins.) Though it is also for the Pliny. also the circular shape man's eye connected with the incised style. after the fashion of ancient historians. which hitherto had hardly been touched. The new invention unites the enhanced freedom of movement of the draughtsman with a decorative effect which is not inferior to that of the old style.' this much is clear. and represented folds and swellings of drapery he must belong to the last third of the century for his predecessor is father of the sculptor Antenor. and much besides. but on the other hand outline drawing on light ground ran counter to the decorative purposes of the vases which used silhouettes. 103) but young Athenian Republic (510 B. . for the first time in the history of asserting ' the world. worked. and uses the ornamental effect of the figures. But it contains quite different possibilities. that after Eumares there was a breach with tradition in Athenian painting. The red-figured style enters into the characteristic working out of the human body and its parts.' splendidly contrasts with the wonderful black lustre of the ground. Naturally the vase-painters could not be left behind but since the old silhouette incised style . bonds were once for all burst. The warm red inner surface of the figures. and of itself moves away from the types of the old style and towards an individual treatment of the figures. is too fond of inventions. which the painter can animate by the brilliant sweeping relief lines. the study of drapery folds and the rendering of movement in a living way. and that here. true. The new style * too is a silhouette style. But growing naturalism is in filled figure of of the 112 .C. The contrast between the black silhouette of the man and the white- the woman falls away. for the old potter Nearchos (p. the idea of inverting the colour-scheme must have been received with enthusiasm among the vase-painters. who .

cannot be denied personal expression. each of whom in his own way breaks through the old system of type. It is also a result of the fresh current. a free rendering of nature is attained. till types . give an of these preserved in merely into the manifold production. But the red-figured conquerors of nature. never again felt themselves so much of vase-painting altogether. which now enters vasepainting. that ment we can more than ever follow the developindividualities. Step by step the ground is won from the archaic style. Klitias. if is laid Certainly the old black-figured masters. not into the new possibilities. produce a far more differentiated effect.RED-FIGURED STYLE—ARCHAIC PERIOD true Greek fashion contemporaneous with adherence to formula once invented are retained and repeated by different masters. We we must distinguish between must never assume that the 113 9 . Potters and painters were never again so conscious of their performances as in this period. which are such number from no other period. which then lays the foundation for the formation of a new and higher series of types. as rival individualities. Among potters and the signatures painters. but also growth of personalities and their struggle for ever insight. about the time of the Persian wars. and on the intimate relation between artist and technique. In it artistic craft had its greatest triumphs and created the most perfect synthesis between ornamental types and delightful naturalism. Timonidas. This period may be regarded as the culminating point emphasis on the intensity of the line. The signatures. after a struggle of about fifty years. Exekias and Amasis. In the archaic redfigured style this vigorous struggle between formula and bold observation of nature offers an exciting spectacle. until new discoveries by bolder spirits outdo them and put them in the shade. for the style of Polygnotos and Phidias.

Memnon's youth must fall about the same time for one of the many kylikes with his name.. in the tumulus of . The painters Phintias and Euthymides praise the youth Megakles now on a votive pinax from the Acropolis this name was replaced later by another. What it means. and Hipparchos his Stesagoras Marathon. it the painters had lived pretty independently and been employed first by one and then by another proprietor of a workshop. sometimes both together. must have been an ephebus in His son Glaukon. if all. our out The love-names help to fix the chronology of the vases We saw that still more than in the black-figured style. dates the vases which celebrate . and it is a plausible guess to connect this erasure with the banishment of a Megakles in 486 B.C. their ephebic years and these vases must be fixed about 520 B. the Epikfull swing..C. Anakreon. cannot be made knowledge. that now the potter looks rather as the painter. and that now signs.C. was Strategos in 440 B.C.GREEK VASE-PAINTING * maker * is responsible for the adornment of his vases .C. Andokides was kalos. brother. victor of the archon of 496 B.C. The only contradict the * name a generation later. The youthful beauty of Leagros is in the time of the vase-painter Euphronios.C.. so about established fact from finds does not Leagros ' chronology 114 . shows the bard many strong personalities do not sign at in the present state of ' ' . Hipparchos and Miltiades. kylikes and an Oxford plate celebrate the youths tetan If Miltiades is the Stesagoras. who was entertained by the Pisistratidae. who the last decade of the 6th century. like a lekythos signed by Gales. and anyhow earlier than the destruction of Miletos. : him with his father's 470 B.. 522514 B. who about twenty-five years before might have deserved these praises. when Timagoras' workshop was in When he is a full-blown painter. in which a Leagros vase was shattered the Leagros who fell in battle as Strategos 465 B.

PLATE LVIII. C . Z Qi O :5 u = . '-z.'/^.

.

but certainly Andokidean Munich amphora (Fig. 115 .e. black-figured hand from its redHerakles scene figured. In the Herakles scene we see the same joy in a harmonious picture expresses himself. This contrast of the two styles is made clear by no one more obviously than the We : potter Andokides on his fine amphorae. that the workshops of Pamphaios and neither master breaks Nikosthenes open their doors to it asserts itself together which often style.RED-FIGURED STYLE— ARCHAIC PERIOD Marathon (490 B. The Acropolis finds. which are directly never is the essence of in line of succession with Exekias . with which it is customary to close the archaic ' ' period of Greek art. same subject is treated by the same painter's hand in the old and in the new technique. drawing and for richly ornamented garments. 93) . i. 103) is not one of these instances in both styles so plain as spite of when on such a vase the the similarity of the subject by its . the old with abruptly with the new on the same vase. In much the drawing reminds us of as in the sea-voyage of Exekias (Fig. saw above.C.C. If this painter is identical and the game of copied and the same actually which he draughts (Fig. in which the same delicate and original artist as on painter) most of the signed works (the Andokides is certainly a different * ' with the potter. which are prior to the Persian conflagration (480 B.) the latest offering was a sherd of the kylix type with simple maeander (c.C. 115) which appears in the later Leagros period. Fig. 96). intense absorption in the subject makes all other works of Andokides charming.). Andokides was not merely in shape and decoration of his vases but also as draughtsman a pupil and successor of He has inherited the feeling for elegant detailed Exekias. According to this chronology the red-figured style must have made its entry into Athens about fifty years before the Persian War.. The unsigned. have not yet been sorted and sifted. about 530 B.p.

particularly the flat layers of drapery. pattern. which on red-figured vases takes the place of the Amasis ornament (Fig. by a third artist less archaic in decorated been must have signed by him (in Madrid) It Menon. it appears as handle decoration together with an equally novel calyx and The free leaf ornament. which can be traced back through Amasis (p. and approximates in style to the young Euph- ronios and his rival Euthymides. 98) and is in great favour as handle-ornament for kylikes. in pointed elbow and knee. but also by the more compact composition and the individual treatment of the heads. The entirely red-figured vases by Andokides are not necessarily older than the black-figured : the latest vase still combines both techniques. The ornament of the Madrid vase does not seem to have been devised as border It must be derived from the tendril-composition. though not yet in their also worked for the potter firm of the row final shape. and in Herakles' leg shown through the drapery. which appears in the drawing of hand and foot. decorative method of composition. and Oltos probably painted with scenes of hetairai and satyrs (Fig.GREEK VASE-PAINTING the teacher. But the more advanced pupil is shown not merely by the renewed study of the body. 104). The feeling. 105) and Klazomenai to the Fikellura style (p. is exactly in the which not only shakes manner of the red-figured off the frieze constraint 116 but . which the transitional master Pamphaios made after the patterns of Nikosthenes. which adorns the shoulder. who Menon painter adds to the Andokidean framing patterns of circumscribed palmettes. vine branches also is more in accord with the old technique than the new. but do not attain the life-like waving The filling of the space with of the late works of Amasis. 61) style. On the fine amphora in Paris. which already resolve the chitons into rich folds and end in the border more naturally.

PLATE LIX. .Fi^*. SATYR AND MAENAD: AMPHORA WITH THE SIGNATURE OF THE POTTER PAMPHAIOS. 104. HETAIRA.

I .

Fiy.

105.

THE ARMING OF HECTOR: FROM AN AMPHORA BY EUTHYxMIDES.
From

Fig. 106.

Fiirtzudngler-Rciclilwld,

FOUNTAIN

:

FROM

A

Griecliische

Vaseninalerei.

RED-FIGLRED HYDRIA BY HYPSIS.

PLATE LX.

s I
pi

PLATE

LXXIII.

!^

PLATE LXXIV.

RED-FIGURED STYLE— ARCHAIC PERIOD
Of the other painters of this period, we must content
ourselves with naming three, the Berlin master, Makron,
and the Bronze-Foundry master. The
master of the
Berlin amphora even surpasses Duris in elegance, and is
fond of introducing his slim elastic figures in Nolan style,
i.e. isolated on a dark background.
Makron, who painted almost all the vases on which
Hieron's signature as potter is found, studied by choice in
the Palaestra, where boys performed gymnastics and were
addressed by older men. A Berlin kylix (Fig. 123), like
several works of his hand, introduces us to Bacchic revelry,
an excited chorus of drunken and vigorously gesticulating
maenads, whose bodies are not concealed by the rustling
pomp of folds the kolpos or fold of the chiton drawn
up through the belt, which Brygos also is fond of, is more
transparent than the upper and lower parts of the complicated garment. These figures in which all is life, movement
and expression, should be compared with those of the
Andokides painter or even those of Euphronios, in order to
realize, how in these few decades the liberation from archaic
stiffness and adherence to type was almost tempestuously
'

'

'

'

'

'

:

accomplished.

We

take leave of the archaic styles with the charming
of
an anonymous painter, the * master of
the bronze foundry,' who on a Berlin kylix (Fig. 125) transpicture

plants us into the interior of the workshop of a sculptor in
bronze.
workman is poking the oven, another is
handling the bellows, the assistant looks on, the master is
working at a statue, not yet fully put together
so intimate
is the contact with life in this scene.
Everything interested
the vase-painters of this time equally they have spread out
before us human life, got their material from every quarter,

A

:

;

and wherever they
closely they

came

laid

hold of

it, it

was

interesting.

to grips with their subject,

131

how they

How
tried

the garment into a thing of decorative life.GREEK VASE-PAINTING be clear. and how under their hands the object at once changed into to the artistic type. and to give a lively picture of what they saw. and an assemblage of human beings into an ornamental figure composition ! 132 . the human body into the clearly defined study of the nude.

Fio. SCHOOL-SCENE: FROM A KYLIX BY DLRIS. BRONZE-FOUNDRY: FROM A KYLIX WLFH THE NAME " OF DIOGENES. 123. Fiy. 121. PLATE LXXV LO\-E- .

.

.

126. CENTAUROMACY : FROM A RED-FIGURED PLATE LXXVI. .Fig. KVLIX.

of whose front and back he is conscious. to move. in the differentiated bold front view of the foot. 104). it is true. which the same even the pictorial field painter executed for the potter Euxitheos. he discards the old frame. But he not only helps the later palmette ornament to triumph over the old bands of zig-zags and buds (Fig. 117 . which now only separates black from black. when the transition of the breast seen in front view to the legs in profile is not and the head of the man and looking round in archaic fashion made clear. old scheme of breaks through the but his avoidance of lines shewing depth is so strong that he prefers to put those parts of the body. simply one beside the other.RED-FIGURED STYLE—ARCHAIC PERIOD on the amphora. is still turned in profile to the left the figure in one place. which are now purely red-figured. in the on the reverse in drunken men with limitations of his full indication of muscles. 105) but enhances the unity of effect by beginning to leave the ornament in the colour of the clay and to shape it in red-figured manner. when the woman's breast is turned outwards. 105). when the further from sight of the two chest muscles comes under the nearer one. and their anatomy male and female is studied by : the artists of this period with tireless zeal. Certainly the eye for perspective appear. The fruits of this study appear on the Munich Priam vase drawing of hands. the contemporary of the young Euphronios and gifted continuer of Andokides' body amphorae. keeps the frame on his vases. in which he demonstrates to the eye his progress Under the garments bodies begin in observation of nature. as was the case straight away with the handle decoration (Fig. It is true that the painter Euthymides. But it is . Almost as a rule he puts in his field three standing figures of large dimensions. walking to the right the artist. still more the bendings and turnings of three naked (Fig. and his example is followed sooner or later by other artists. in the pose of the legs.

that gives their charm to the vase- paintings of this period. if you like.GREEK VASE-PAINTING just the contrast between the bold attempt at progress on the painter's part and the perspective constraint. on which Theseus under protest from Helen (note the thumb) with gay impudence carries off Korone (Fig. Chalkidian painters had already rendered scenes of arming. ' ' amphora. and drapery is rather subordinate to the treatment of the body. was keener than ever. and the extract from the picture may give an idea of the 118 charm of archaic art. The contrast between the heavy woollen himation. according as they are close together or more freely distributed. His best work the master left unsigned. is plainly marked. the Munich . liveliness not merely from the shifting of the pupil from the centre inwards. What cared Euthymides about his subject "Hector's departure" ? He drew a scene from his neighbour's door and added heroic names. in an age which suddenly recognized in common things a world of artistic problems. . which divide the outline of the drapery much more rhythmically than the layered borders of the Andokides painter. Though the bodies are no longer as previously packed into the garments. may serve as example of the newlyconquered possibilities of expression. and the more delicate crinkles of the linen chiton The depths of the folds in the cloak. The feeling for everyday life. studies in drapery also have been very fruitful. which gets its increased 107). are given in gradation by thicker or thinner lines the chiton folds join in separate masses and run of colour out in the expressive so-called swallow-tail borders. The head of the ravisher. the feeling of conflict. But those of Euthymides mark a great psychological advance. The paternal anxiety of the bald-pated old man and the nervousness of the mother's pet making his first debut are finely expressed.

Fig.VTE LXI. L'REI) KYIJX. HIS. .M .\RCHAIC RED-FIT.SATYR: FRO.\PE DRIXKEX OF KORONE BY THESEUS.\N .'\ BY ELTHYMIDES. PL. . FROM AN AMPHOR. 107. THIi R.

.

.

109. RHVTOX WITH RED-FKiLRED DFCORAIIOX ON THE NECK. .Firt. PLATE LXH.

on which again both vase-shapes are represented for the girl. . whom we see from his beginnings in the workshop of Deiniades expanding more and more brilliantly. The pelike is a kind of small wineskin-shaped amphora. has placed a pitcher of the old type under the lion's head spout from which the water is pouring. The intensive study of the female form is seen in Oltos' picture of a hetaira (Fig. 146) 119 . on a London hydria of the old shape . the Turin psykter and the unsigned Vienna pelike. 104) and in many other vase-paintings of the period. while her companion is lifting a hydria of the new shape already well-filled from the satyr's mouth. but the gracefully moving boys. 104) in which the narrower cylindrical lower part is however missing. 106). newly-won knowledge to external probability. An idea may be obtained of the psykter (which is regarded as a cooling vessel) by the later example in Rome (Fig. elegant curve. Like the Bonn hydria. who is just putting the cushion on her head.RED-FIGURED STYLE— ARCHAIC PERIOD The Bonn hydria of Euthymides with the praise of Megakles shows a quite new type of vase in contrast to the offset black-figured shape. so that the old-fashioned division of the decoration into two or three parts disappears. 106). shape as does the painter Hypsis with the pretty well-house scene (Fig. The same fair youth is praised by his gifted colleague Phintias. the works of Euthymides witness to the emergence of new vase-types. who in the picture while drawing water are addressed by an older man. Fig. already carry water-pots of both types in and Phintias himself occasionally adopted the later their hands. it unites neck and body in an . and even when they represent girls clothed. the painters are unwilling to . Even the transitional artist Pamphaios gave Oltos a stamnos (cp. as Hypsis does on his well-scene sacrifice their (Fig. and even under the drapery help the charm of the body outline to assert itself.

one. which the red-figured style took over with the eye kylikes and in the most delicate way simplified and animated. in fabrication and and now not only but also through the abundance of and the richness of inscriptions preserved renders the most valuable service to the historian. 113). and the pretty heads of negroes and girls with the love-names Epilykos and Leagros form the beginning of the development. 112). seems to appear in the Leagros period (Fig. the psykters of Euphronios (Fig. On the Andokides amphora (Fig. The remarkable vases in the shape of a head (Figs. the kantharos. The other drinking vessels. 142). This late specimen of the old type must have been more popular than the extant painted examples lead one to suppose. 109) form served for the reception of unguents and oil even in Protocorinthian and early Ionic styles. like that of the big-bellied amphorae. 122). from which Euphronios' hetairai are drinking (Fig. the skyphos. begins with examples of mixed technique. a kind of enlarged cup with low-set handles. which master " period head finest finish. and the early red-figured The artist Smikros painted calyx-krater. 43). 88.GREEK VASE-PAINTING to paint. The history of these kylikes. but seem only at this time to become popular as bumpers in the service of the drinker. 103). of the vases. which culminates in Sotades in a smaller (p. 112) are only continuations and refinements of old shapes (Figs. The favourite drinking utensil even for the " exportation receives its specimens is little at the is naturally the kylix. the shape with offset rim appears. Andokides actually extended his principle of the blackbut figured and red-figured halves of the vase to kylikes In the early happily this procedure was extremely rare. 101. which is brandished by Duris' satyrs (Fig. : 120 . and Duris (Fig. 122). but was certainly far less usual than the shape with a single curve.

DRLXKEX LYRE-rL. .Fig.WER PLATE : FROM LXIII. 110. \ KYLIX BY SKYTHES.

.

.

Fii^. III. From Furfivdiiglei'-RciclilioJd. . Griechisdie PLATE LXIV. ]'aseiiina}crei. FIA'TE-PLAVER AND DAXCINd GIRL: FROM A KYLIX BY EPIKTETOS.

when he gives up the decoration with : . and with the painters' names Epiktetos and Psiax. one takes the signatures of the masters of this group together with those of the transitional kylikes and the contemporary big vases. that in the is rather to be found in the interior the black-figured picture. the quarter of Athens where the potters lived. When Skythes paints the outside in black-figured technique and the inside in red-figured of procedure is e. the number of the painters' names comes to about a dozen. It is interesting to follow the process by which the early red-figured kylikes from very decorative beginnings rise tc even greater freedom and objectivity. Pamphaios. and a conscious divergence from the traditional relation. this is. like the procedure of Andokides. Hischylos and Chelis.RED-FIGURED STYLE— ARCHAIC PERIOD kylikes the mixture of technique fact. which comes from the Ionic 'Phineus' fabric. which with its circle in the colour of the clay contrasted so decoratively with the black-covered edge. connected with the names of the potters Nikosthenes. 121 . a kylix (unsigned) dedicated to Epilykos. which then reigned in the Kerameikos. Leagros period this separation is effected by a narrow ring in the ground of the clay. which they leave uncovered by on the kylikes the eye -decoration is gradually black paint If dropped. while the potters are far more numerous and thus in view of the mere accident of preservation and the anonymity of other palpable artistic personalities one can form an idea of the vigorous life. is meaningless and a mere decorative scheme and also. This figures were inserted in the colour of the ground. and gradually also in their place. Even the insertion of the figure between the eyes. and with the love-name Memnon. while outside between the eyes. an exception.g. The transition to purely red-figured technique compels the artists to separate Up to the the interior from the black surroundings. was still retained. .

sentation. and occasionally. over to the two can see from their bodies that they are prior to the time of Euphronios and Euthymides. which often take no regard to the space in the representation. 110) goes beyond this stage.' GREEK VASE-PAINTING eyes. and fills the space more loosely with the lyre held at right angles and the freely arranged knotted stick of his singing boy and Epiktetos. who liked young colleague the painter fine black-figured votive tablets to dedicate his kylikes to his Epilykos. Pistoxenos. are by no means free from decorative schematism arrangement in a row and heraldry still play a part. and gives the interior a decorative and very animated appearance. as in the little master style. in the late Python kylix in under the influence figure picture. Ill). the painter likes to put one or three figures as central motive between the broad ornaments of the handles. winged horses or sirens take the centre of the repre. goes (Fig. often presses head and feet against the edge. One imagines the painters had studied and sketched the bending. 122 In his . Pamphaios. Skythes. One London of later masters. the master of on the Acropolis. twisting. Nikosthenes. ' Even the old Ionic scheme of the horse-holding runner revives on a kylix of this group. in the interior of the kylix at Rome (Fig. and turning of handsome youths often only to get motives for their interior scenes. which occur in the late period of the potter Pamphaios and in the full activity of the painter Oltos. Hischylos. crouching. who painted his wonderfully subtle figures in a long working life for various potters. Even the exterior pictures with numerous figures. the figure always adapts itself to the circular form. extends its masses to fit the space. Python and . The interior too at first is still under strong decorative constraint. Quite in contrast to the early Attic kylikes of the Klitias period and to the Spartan. running. to some extent comparable to a rotating wheel.

PLATE LXV. .

I .

.

PLATE LXXX\T. .

which takes us over into the Leagros period just like the works of Phintias and Oltos. praise the fair Leagros. has under the exterior scenes a band of circumscribed palmettes in the colour of the ground. and we see the development of the great master Euphronios. Euthymides creates his decisive works. and Oltos. But the master of a Munich eye kylix has side-views of shields. press against them in . the Petrograd psykter with the hetairai (Fig. like the Leagros kylikes of Oltos. an impossible way Epiktetos. and in their space-filling movement reminds of old types. The harmonious indoors scene of the psykter in its quite muscles seen in front view. Back views of the human body are given also in kylikes from the workshop of Kachrylion. i. For Phintias soon outdoes the theft of the tripod of his early Deiniades kylix on a fine amphora at Corneto. Skythes does almost too much in the rendering of the chest-muscles and makes the abdominal and rendered in thinned varnish. whom Euthymides boasts to have beaten on the Priam amphora (Fig. 123 . 105). who is for a while disinclined for interior drawing. whom we may identify with his favourite Epilykos. turns the breasts of his dancing women outwards. which bear the signature of Euphronios as painter. and draws a kneeling leg in back view. which appeared in Kachrylion's workshop. All the three vases. the Munich Geryon kylix.e. so that the sole is visible and the calf almost disappears. the painter of the Pamphaios amphora and most of the Memnon kylikes. which. passes from the praise of Memnon to that of Leagros on the fine kylikes from Euxitheos' workshop. 112) and the Paris calyx-krater with Herakles and Antaios (Fig. The Leagros period might be described as the culminating point of the dramatic tension prevailing in the older red-figured style. whom we already know. 113).RED-FIGURED STYLE— ARCHAIC PERIOD vigorous lyre-player. In it Phintias breaks the archaic fetters of his youth.

which was probably of palmettes. The reverse of the Antaios krater shows the artist well on the way to represent correctly the course of the abdominal muscles from the chest to the pudenda. 114) has been variously ascribed to Euphronios and to the painter kylix 124 . The made in the workshop of Sosias (Fig. Oltos (Fig. where the painter fully exhibits his anatomical knowledge. is more than improbable. and their contemporaries. The leg of the thirsty Palaisto disappearing in the background m recurs the Antaios scene. 104). and does the subject more justice than many pictures more advanced in perspective. A band and lotus in the red- figured style. The who are almost old-fashioned in their drawing. while the horrified women. and thus to give a convincing expression to the old distortion of the body. struggle of the muscular but quite civilized Herakles with the rugged giant (whose right hand is a masterpiece of drawing) is the true theme. were only signed by him as potter and some of them were demonstrably handed over to others to paint. serve like club quiver and lion's skin. That a progressive artist like Euphronios in this whole period never again took brush in hand. and shows as little regard for the concealing skin as other painters do for female drapery the mner drawing is not even as usual put on in thinner • The composition of the scene is not very flexible. Ill). and another of palmette borrowed. which fill the gap between the youth of Leagros and that of his son Glaukon. Unfortunately we cannot further follow Euphronios on this path in the light of signed vases.GREEK VASE-PAINTING neat and sure drawing of the nude sets the finishing touch to the studies of Epiktetos (Fig. for the ten kylikes with his name. colour. and among the unsigned vases of the succeeding period his more mature works must be represented. only as filling for the triangular wrestling scheme. vigorously frame the bold picture.

PLATE LXVH.Fig. WITH THE . 114.\ND P.VILRE OF THE POTTER SOSIAS.LES . .\(^H1I.ATROKI.OS : FROM A KYLIX SIGN.

.

.

.PLATE LXVIII.

112). which praise the colour of the ground. The new frame comes e. Furthermore on the Sosias vase a technical innovation comes seriously into play. comes the maeander in different varieties. The comof art an unknown third person (the position filling the space suggests the old style. 115). the full development of the bunches of drapery and the swallow-tail edges. mattered little to him. 106) the outline of the hair is no longer separated from the black ground by the old hard incised line. which is gradually adopted by Euphronios (Fig. 125 . a change takes place in the framing of the interior picture in place of the ring in the colour of the clay. 115. 116). the fair Leagros. the Leagros period. lead us into the critical phase of the archaic red-figured painting. Only an intense study of the model could lead this master so far from the beaten track that with the added names of Achilles and Patroklos he came into conflict with the Iliad. that one may ascribe this advance to Euphronios for theiine of the ground giving the hair outline and the organic connection of chest and belly are beyond the stage of the krater in question. but by a narrow line of Within the kylikes. 126). which by the hare-hunt gives such a natural motive for the space-filling movements of the running Leagros effect (Fig.g. by doubling. . . first simple and continuous (Frontispiece and Figs. especially but the boldly forethe pressing of the foot against the rim shortened right leg of Patroklos with the foot viewed from above. then ever more frequently in broken up shape (Fig.RED-FIGURED STYLE— ARCHAIC PERIOD Peithinos : the remarkable work must rather belong to Sosias painter). 108. and above all the extremely bold attempt to open the corner of the eye. Phintias and Hypsis (Fig. on the London kylix. known also to Euthymides and to Phintias in his maturity. . of which occasionally they attempt to increase the * ' : . Euthymides (Fig. The Leagros of the kylix agrees so exactly with that of the Antaios krater. 107).

from whose hand comes the London Panaitios kylix with the signature of Euphronios as The rich and ornamental interior (Frontispiece) is potter. the Panaitios stage. which partly coincides with it. Never perhaps was the inmost nature of the satyr so fully caught as in this he is squatting on the emptied pointed fine example amphora and positively breathing out an aroma of wine and wantonness. His lifelike picture goes far beyond the Antaios krater.GREEK VASE-PAINTING A same master may probably be seen in the Boston kylix. remove many hard features of the Leagros stage. If Euphronios thus surpassed himself one may believe him also responsible for the next step. has gone down to the bottom of the sea. signed by Euphronios as potter but without love-name. * Panaitios ' with the exterior scenes. whether Euphronios did not entrust the in a certain contrast decoration of the interior to a talented pupil with a great tendency to elaboration. to which it is a very short distance from the Athenodotos kylikes. that vigorous painter. and is so closely connected with the early works of Duris. that is about the end of the 6th century. But perhaps this contrast is due only to the representative seriousness of the subject. The boldly drawn exterior seems to form the bridge to the style of the further step forward on the part of the : ' master. and in the presence of Athena is greeted by Amphitrite. which praises both Leagros and Athenodotos (Fig. To the transition. perhaps identical with the later Euphronios. Young Theseus. that we may enquire. and a closely connected Athenodotos kylix in Athens actually carries this vivacity into the same subject. and in the oblique view of : 126 . in order to receive his rightful position as son of Poseidon. 108). belongs the Paris Theseus kylix. The time of Panaitios and that of Chairestratos. The turnings of bodies lose all violence in the frontal stand of both feet. the wrestle of Herakles and Antaios.

. AFTER THE BANQUET FROM A KYLIX WITH THE SKiNATLRE OF THE POTTER BRYGOS. : PLATE LXIX.Fif.^ 116.

.

.

Fig. FRENZY FROM AN ARCHAIC RED-FIGURED POINTED AMPHORA. .XX. 117..AENAD IN PLATE : I. A M.

to which is now added the bell-krater (cp. and the popular so-called amphorae of Panathenaic shape.C. with Chairestratos in the later which we get down to about 480 B. and are free decoration of the Oltos once more. 104) asserts ' itself ' 'Nolan' decoration often attacks other types of vases. the one who keeps most the Kleomassiveness and dignity of the older style is the phrades painter. and the Hippodamas period. liveliness. : The 'Kleophrades' painter was a pupil of Euthymides but for a number of his contemporaries it can be shown that they won their spurs in the celebrated studio of 117). The masters of this later date deal now quite freely and the old easily with the achievements of their predecessors rude vigour gives way to ornamental elegance or swinging : The relation forms move more freely. The small Nolan necked amphorae. though the bold painter is not generally Sosias experiment of the current enters the drapery. The fine and elegant effect of amphora (Fig. new possibilities are indicated. Above The divisions of the chiton with patterns of folds gives way the play of to a more natural and uniform distribution ' ' : folds at the edges of the cloaks is generally emphasized by These tendencies become complete a thick pair of lines. only reserve one figure or group in the black surface. 123 centre). The pupil is now always in the inner corner of the eye. all new a adopted. As an example of his style let us take the Munich pointed amphora belonging about to the passionate frenzy of frantic the Panaitios period Maenads has never been more perfectly caught than in the back-tossed head of the rushing waver of the thyrsos (Fig. Of these later masters. Fig. who grew up in the Leagros period and this ' ' has furnished one of his works with the potter's signature of Kleophrades. of figures to space also alters are less confined Thus the : the by space. surrounded with air. : 127 . son of Amasis.RED-FIGURED STYLE— ARCHAIC PERIOD the head.

in its free adaptation to space and in the sure hand with which the movement of body and drapery is rendered. combines in simple composition on his kylix riders and boys leading horses.. the Centaur's head. supported by the hands of a girl. 120) must be placed between the Paris and Wurzburg 128 kylikes. in the clearly and vigorously ' composed 118 and 119). hairy bodies and cloaks adorned with spots. is still of the Perugia master. It also gives a . as his name is usually restored. who in earlier works.g. 116). which Euphronios also signed as potter (the Perugia master) inherited more of the fire and dramatic vigour of the 'Panaitios' master. His Munich Centaur ' ' kylix 126) worthy is is of the great teacher. e.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Euphronios. Onesimos. The unsigned Vienna skyphos of the Brygos painter (Fig. but especially in the fine animation of the expression. which shows indication of shading. and especially the grandiose foreshortening of the horse-body. and thus is the predecessor of the 'Horse' master. Perhaps the finest work of his maturity is the strongly Iliupersis in Paris (Figs inspired interior of the by the achievements Wurzburg kylix (Fig. deprived us of all but the last four letters of his name. relieves himself The picture not only of the wine he has imbibed too freely. point beyond the Panaitios period. on which a young Athenian. The filling shield in and the interior (Fig. and later develops the fiery vigour of his youthful period in ever more delicate and elegant shapes. On the other hand the master of the Troilos kylix in Perugia. is a worthy last note of archaic art. the space and as rendering profile view. He is fond of shaded shields. To this group must have belonged the Brygos' painter. equally perfect as animated life. It is we only have evidence true that inscription of activity in the service of Euphronios in for an one and malicious accident has painter denoted by name.

118 & 119.\TE LXXI. From Furtwdngler-Keichhold. THE SACK OF TROY : FROM .ATURE OF THE POTTER BRYGOS.Figs. Griechische Vasenmalerei. .\ KYLIX WITH THE SIGN. PL.

.

.

SKYPHOS WITH THE RANSOMING OF HECTOR.VTE LXXII. THESELS DESERTS THE SLEEPING . 120. Fif.^ 121.\RIADNE EXTERIOR OF A KYLIX. PL.Fie. {?) FROM THE .

is reclining at his meal. as if he did not hear the appeal of the old Priam for his son's corpse and did not see the presents brought in by the attendants. and can only be recognized as the work of a painter of another tendency by the greater elegance and slimness of the figures. and the more schematic composition. show as plainly as possible this gradual realization of independence. How entirely Duris altered his style even during the Chairestratos period. the outside of which has been interpreted as the secret departure of Theseus from the sleeping Ariadne. and the delicate psychological animation of the countenances. from the artificial fold packets of the chiton to a uniform system of wavy lines. with an arming scene. docile imitator of the Panaitios master the routine draughtsman.g. The pair of Berlin kylikes. is shown e. is quite under the influence of the Panaitios master. who down and who puts how comes the out of the real Duris. his elegant figures with almost academic objectivity cares more for the uniform decorative effect of his neat silhouettes than for complicated compositions of life. by the Vienna kylix. For his earliest work. and talking to his charming cup-bearer. is at least closely related to the works of the Brygos painter.RED-FIGURED STYLE— ARCHAIC PERIOD fine picture full of life : Achilles has placed under the table the dead body of Hector. tion is as in the of the of the cup-bearer with weight on one ' In the kylikes with the names of Panaitios and Chairestratos. 121). though not finally. The kylix in Corneto (F'ig. and the kantharos. and also pass more and more. the Vienna kylix. painted for the potter Python. painted for Python with the contest for the Arms of on which Duris signs as potter 129 . The clear dramatic disposi- much manner master as the free pose leg. which he daily drags round the walls of Troy. it can still be traced to some extent. In the workshop of Euphronios the youthful Duris must also have been a pupil. perhaps made by Kleophrades. and painter.

but also the more elegant and easy draughtsmanship of the later time. 124). whether do not represent a late phase of this gifted painter. The great development. who need only be compared with their fellows on the Boston kylix. and on his later works include the ' ' ' ' painter's signature in that of the potter's firm. In the drapery of the teachers and pupils.C. nothing If even the Leagros period the cloak folds come to a natural end. and one can recognize at once the routine hand and endowment of the master. which is evidenced for Duris by his many signatures. The fine Eos kylix in the Louvre. In the later period of the artist (about 480 B. Euphronios did not develop out of the Leagros stage to that of the Panaitios master and the Perugia painter. had made bend round their ends and pave the way for the " drapery eyes. 122) belong to The satyrs of this psykter.g.) we must slighter artistic put along with their congeners the kylikes with the lovename Hippodamas." which in the next period so naturally characterize the packings in the material. this period. who are here assembled in the class-room. is widely distant from the arming scene on a kylix of the same workshop. and probably also the fine London psykter with the love-name Aristagoras Achilles. 126) ' . suggests considerations. they now of archaic stiffness remains. the London Theseus kylix. and whether e. works like the Munich Centauromachy ' 130 i.e. (Fig.GREEK VASE-PAINTING which not merely in its more elegant shape. the finest of which is the Berlin school vase (Fig. We ask whether other masters too did not fundamentally change. (Fig. who can be proved to have lived into the Glaukon period. which Duris painted for the potter Kalliades and dedicated to Hermogenes. but also in drawing and the relation of the figures to the space. instead of joining in procession play all kinds of unprofitable tricks behind the back of the leader of the chorus.

the inside (a . The progress in the rendering the oblique view of bodies and drapery is unmistakeable of the female breast is almost correctly caught. but the great Ethos of these paintings is praised. THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS the INmaster studio of Euphronios the so-called ' Horse painted a kylix now in Berlin with the praise of the fair Glaukon. on the ground covered with a white slip. as to the great painting of this age. of Polygnotos and his stables. even if at the beginning of this epoch the influence of the great art is not felt so much as at its culmination. beside which all precedThe simplification ing art seems narrow and embarrassed. which relieves the rendering of body and garment of . A new period is announcing itself a time of progressive naturalism and at the same time a period of noble greatness The statements of the ancients of style and exalted types. lay stress on these qualities not only the progress. : : company. But even the whole conception of the figures goes far beyond the proportions the archaic art of the pre-Persian time and faces have a touch of greatness. So with good reason we call the vase painting of the post-Persian generation Polygnotan. The outside is decorated in the usual red-figured technique with lively scenes of riders and ' youth and a girl) is rendered in outline. with coloured interior lines and surfaces. the old stiffness. the material of the cloaks is packed in lost folds with bent-round end. 133 . of the profile and the severe long lower part of the face essentially determine one's impression of the heads.CHAPTER VI.

which comes now into vogue. Kimonian age. which went . and when so employed invariably use the white-ground technique of the Berlin kylix. which we have met with on the Euphronios kylix of Berlin. Lekythoi. further than the later ones in thus individualizing. the profile not individualizes the traditional type but it is just the vasepaintings of the post-Persian. which the handmaid front of her has offered in a box. or slender oil-flasks. The of the Glaukon lekythos. show the painter penetrated by the same effort after truth. which has hardly any traces of : the old full-view and puts the pupil entirely into the open inner corner. and the hair hanging out from the cap dominated by any canon of beauty. gives the face a very natural and living effect. 128). almost always in the two-line arrangement. which has become the hinge of vase-chronology. On a Bonn fragment (Fig. not one taken from the cemetery.GREEK VASE-PAINTING The name of Glaukon. It is perhaps an idle question. which in the older style has a domestic scene. the old woman on a skyphos in Schwerin from the workshop of Pistoxenos (Fig. The eye. since each innovation taken from the model it is really looking : in confusion. afford several examples of this favourite's name. what period inaugurates the history of Greek portraiture. The effort to get rid of the traditional ideal types led a series of these 134 . 127) and on a loutrophoros in Athens. the head of a warrior from a krater in New York (Fig. and paints the flesh in white. and the drawing of the hands. the old traditions replaced by a quite individual almost portraitlike conception. 130) may be taken as symptoms woman of a very personal portraiture in the age of Kimon. The face of this in woman signifies a new world the archaic types are discarded. and often in combination with his father Leagros' name. which now become the regular offering for graves. recurs on a series of vases. a woman is sitting in an arm-chair and putting on a golden necklace.

THE ig. SKYPHOS WITH OLD WOMAN FROM RE OF THE POTTER PISTOXENOS.ATL DETAIL OF A FRAGMENTARY WHITE-GROUND LEKYTHOS. : . 127. PLATE LXXVII.Fig. . 128.V SIGN.

.

.

. THE 130.0\E-NAME RED-FIGURED KRATER. A GOOSE: FROM INTERIOR. HEARIXr. 1.ROl \l) Fig. WARRIOR : FROM A " A KYLIX \\1TH W lUTE" OF CLAIKON. APHRODITE ON (.).Fig. PLATE LXXVTII. 12.

makes his undistinguished goddess of the morning be carried off by a spindly street-lad the Demeter. though one may see a reflection of Anacreontic and ballad feeling in the art of the But the weight of the Aeschylean pathos later 6th century. . The new 'Physiognomy' in differentiathowever. as the 135 . betrays little of the sacred beauty of the motherly goddess and other vase-paintings have almost the effect of conscious .THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS masters to recast even the divine figures with a strikingly individual. caricatures of ideal types. the goose. of itself pointed away from archaic The genre scene is loquacity and pleasure in narration. is of more than earthly beauty her hands. : parable to that of a song. not only the one with the flower but the unoccupied left hand. which this period could bestow on its forms. No one will think of com- paring the Geometric style with the Homeric Epic in value of expression. The master of the Boston 'Eos' kylix. The more delicate animation. riding through the air on her sacred bird. is as little to be mistaken in works of graphic and plastic art Sophoclean glow and pure beauty of line. The effect of this picture is compossibilities of ing character by the facial type. and helped not merely to make men more human but also gods more divine. or the ornamental style of the 7th century with contemporary Lyric poetry. a successor of Makron in Hieron's studio. who on a Munich hydria attends the departure of Triptolemos. Now for the first time the inner kinship of the art of words with that of pictures presses itself on the observer of works of art. brought the expression of divine nature to its fullest expansion. coarse and almost common effect. speak the same expressive language as her face and whole form. A London white-ground kylix from Rhodes (Fig. The goddess of love. 129) is connected with the Bonn lekythos and the Berlin kylix of Euphronios by the common name of Glaukon.

especially with the enlivening of the eye. With the new liberation of the style.GREEK VASE-PAINTING certainly as old as the historical. a different sort of inward feeling asserts itself. the slim * ' * ' at the same time gets a marked decorative value. Figures devoid of action. can only rank as decorative artists and should by the same right be called 'affected' as the refined masters of the Amasis period (p. which they adorn with quickly drawn motionless figures wrapped in cloaks. when the cemetery scenes replaced the domestic ones on these vases. who only took over externally the big forms and the lofty simpli- and could not fill them with a life of their own. the combined with representations of action. 136 . whose living likeness fancy could not separate from the grave. Greatness is not every man's affair. and we have seen that The nearer the redmore representations of feeling were there was no difference of principle. and towards the end of the archaic style they are no longer rarities. on the stamnoi and other vases. The quantity of pictures of pure existence does much altered determine the aspect presented post-Persian to by * On Nolan ' amphorae and those with twisted handles. a value not without danger for the living rendering of reality. 106) Even talented painters consciously gave up to decorative effect the reverses of their vases. on the calyx-kraters and the bellkraters often decorated on the mouth with a branch. vase-painting. and the privacy of the indoor scenes . and the painters. are themes which the painters of lekythoi in particular were never tired of inventing and in later times. . the harmony of soul between the visitor and the dead.' the slender restful figures heighten the impresThus the grandeur of the new style sion of quiet elegance. 145). was transferred to the visit to the grave. which are decorated like the 'Nolan. city. occupied with themselves or contemplating another figure. often found an unspeakably intimate expression (p. figured style came.

1. FROM A Gricchisclu' PLATE LXXIX.31. THE DEATH OF AKT. ]'asciti>iah'i-ci.MOX From Fiirtivciiii^h'r-Reiclihohl : .Fij. RED-FKiLRED KRATER.. .

.

the folds running themselves out. always full as they are of dramatic life. represent Orpheus at the hands of the Thracian women. With the Centaur psykter 137 in Rome (Fig. The slaying of Aktaion by the divine huntress Artemis was brought to great eflect by the Pan master. the surely drawn foreshortened foot of Artemis. the fight in a contemporary picture may show the progress. the fragments of which. show the progressive master the suggestive effect of the composition. which can be plainly followed in his works. The long lower part of the face. In place of the very fragmentary Orpheus kylix. Otherwise there is little archaic in this picture. and the fight the death of The scheme. if one may speak of such. the lower legs of Aktaion disappearing in the background.THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS till The now we have met with existence. found on the Acropolis. new style. 132) we get . as on later works of the same hand. which scenes of dramatic movement attain in Polygnotan times. as on the Aphrodite kylix (Fig. is in so far old. and the urgent language of the gestures are quite in the spirit of the noble of the fighters the . In the stiff folds of the cloak of Artemis this vigorous and original painter betrays his descent from the archaic style.' The horse three Glaukon representations are pure pictures of ' * * master dedicated to the same boy Glaukon a second kylix. . which assert themselves even in the chiton. though in the faces inward excitement is not reflected. 129) the living expression of the eye is already strengthened by the line of the upper lid. is carried through with dramatic weight. as the victor moving to the right attacks an opponent in kneeling position also moving to the right and looking round but an infinite nobility is poured over the old type. which lends the heads their severity. Yet. so called from the reverse of the same Boston bell-krater (Fig. 131).

greaves. Naturally at no time were vase-painters entirely uninfluenced But just made now itself by the achievements of the great art. than ever. in the sixties of the 5th century. which the master undertakes with help of thinned colour the helmets. 134) only enclosed by a delicate branch. which very strongly echo works of the 'horse' master. and enticed the vasebeyond the limits of their branch of art. but from the fact. and rounded the is : horses' bodies by shading. remarkably determined by the experiments in colouring. are significant of the struggle with perspective . are the later The interior of the Penthesileia kylix (Fig. the master did not paint as in 138 . The three-quarters view of the face. and hides he has made dark in contrast with the human skin.GREEK VASE-PAINTING 1 perhaps beyond the bloom of Glaukon's beauty. the fore-shortening of the shield. These novelties master are only of the somewhat crude and quaint intelligible as reflection of a great painting. the motive of the falling man seen from behind. the bestial lust for battle speaks out of the eyes of the attackers as does the penetrating pain of the wounded and the pathos of the gestures is at least post-archaic. he has given an effect of light to the material of the hair of head and beard. as is expressly testified for the art of the great Polygnotos and his contemporaries. This felt painters often comes not only from the overpowering impression great personalities especially new bold among of the the painters of this period. which he outweighs by many innovations. and what reminds us of old times in the grotesque movement of the battle scene is probably only individual failings of the master. Among these new the vase-pictures. The impression of this vase . this borrowing more than ever. which struggled with problems of expression and light. that wall-painting now struck out on which vase-painting could follow it less paths. strains.

Fig.

132.

BATTLE WITH CENTAURS: RED-FKilRED PSYKTER.

Fig.

133.

THE
TOP-PLAYER- FROM A WHTrE-GROUND KYLIX WITH
HEGESIBULOS.
POTTER
THE
OF
SIGNATURE
PLATE LXXX.

Fig.

134.

.\CHILLE.S KILL.S I'EXTHKSILEIA

:

INTERIOR OF A RED-

FIGURED KYLIX.
From

Furtwdiigler-Rcichliold,

Grivchischc

PLA'IE LXXXI.

Vaseniualerei.

THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS
the kylikes of Berlin and Athens

on white ground, but he
heightens the red-figured technique by the application of
thinned black glaze, by dull red and light grey surfaces,
with brown and white additions, and by applications of
The four figures which are forced into this circle
gold.
almost burst the frame, not merely by the disproportion of
their tall forms, but still more by their inner greatness and
passion.
In the midst of the battle-field, where the sword
rages, and the ground lies full of corpses, Achilles has overtaken the Amazon queen, and furious with rage, plunges his
however much her hands and eyes
sword in her heart
plead for mercy, it is too late.
:

The

more of inner life
second Munich kylix, on

features of Penthesileia betray

than those of Orpheus
and on a
which Apollo in presence of Ge slays her son Tityos, the
master has gone a step further in physiognomy. The three
faces are as convincingly graduated in expression as for
example those on the beautiful Lament for the dead,' by
a contemporary master, in Athens.
On the big interior of his kylikes (Fig. 134) the horse
master could give freer play to his genius than on the
exteriors, which, as in the kylikes of Berlin and Athens, he
adorned with pretty scenes from the stable. The contrast
between the great round pictures with their fine technique,
and the lightly sketched exteriors, is so great, that some
have thought of two artists working in the same studio, who
divided the work, so that the
horse
master would be
different from the Penthesileia master but the white-ground
:

*

'

*

*

'

;

exterior of the
is

certainly

Orpheus

kylix seems to build the bridge.

characteristic

that

the

exteriors

of

It

kylikes

longer tempted talented painters
to such lively compositions, as in the days of the
Brygos and Perugia painters, and that even in the
lifetime of the great Euphronios the paratactic decorative
in

this

period

no

139

GREEK VASE-PAINTING
style

most consistently prepared by Duris

The new

exteriors.

most

laid

hold of these

and the
be found on

style required big surfaces,

faithful reflexions of wall-painting are to

large vases.

The most famous of these great Polygnotan vases is the
Paris calyx-krater from Orvieto (Fig. 135), the figures of
which, apart from Athena and Herakles, have not yet been
certainly identified.
figures

it

represents

From

has

been

the

start

preparation

the

of

of

Marathon.

any

rate in the

The
manner

the expectant attitude of the
suggested
that
the
picture
of
the
Argonauts,
or
the

heroes
for
the
mythological scene

Attic

great
of the

new

battle
is

at

period, which no longer

has the preference of the ancients for the crisis of action
but rather depicts preparation and after-effect, reflection

on the deed accomplished and rest from action. That a
Polygnotan wall-painting preceded the vase-painting in this
psychologically refined conception,

proved.

For the

figures not only

may be regarded

appear

in all sorts of

as

bold

foreshortenings, front and side views, not only surprise us

by an abundance

of motives,

which are quite beyond pre-

vious vase-painting, but also show a series of peculiarities,

which are expressly described
fresco-painter.

When

mouths and show

as innovations of the great

the figures of the krater open their

their teeth,

when

the stationary interior

drapery eyes have shadows painted in
can only be explained as imitation of the great
painters, and similarly the gnashing of teeth and the shading
The Argoof the horses' bellies on the Centaur psykter.
nautic krater shows this dependence very strongly in its
composition. Great painting had not only graduated the
folds, the so-called

them,

this

parts of the

body

in

deep

spatial layers, but transferred this

novel deepening to the arrangement of

its

groups,

distri-

buting the actors over hilly country, which either elevated

140

n.Aii-:

i.xxx

.

not forgetting the surface effect of vase-decoration. is proved by ' ' the freedom in the use of colour and perspective. which on other specimens of this period burst the barriers of vase- painting. which characterized the rounding of shields and bodies and the recesses of drapery by the distribution of light and shade. That in other ways. 141 . * The very ' . too. So the two cases we have selected must be judged individually. The Penthesileia master was probably stimulated to his treatment of the theme by a big Amazon painting but the clever painter not merely translated this impulse into his own brilliant technique and adapted it to his circular field. shows that the vase-painters dealt with the borrowed property according to their own individuality and for their definite purpose. but also in the inferiority of the execution to the conception. though in Polygnotan vases primitive fashion. Both encouraged and warned by such examples. and what spirit copies. krater does not go so far. but he shows more strikingly than any other vase-painter the landscape of Polygnotan paintings. he does not shade but only indicates in outline by the incising tool.THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS the figures of the background or often partly concealed them. by making flowers. One can never expect fact that exact replicas never occur among the Polygnotan types. show of they are the offspring. especially on vases which agree in subject with the wall-paintings of which we have accounts. It is clear that an art. also gave actuality and effect of depth to the landscape by shading. he altered his pattern to suit the technique of vase-painting. and a series of proves the fact. and not only in the freedom named. but also extended over it his personal great feeling. one must look through the vase-painting of this period for other traces of Polygnotan painting. bushes and plants spring It is true the painter of the Argonaut out of the ground. which.

g. so that it has the effect of a natural continuation of his earlier works.. Great painting went on tempestuously developing. crocodiles devouring but also white-ground kylikes of most elegant sphinxes.' women's apartments. the painter who decorated the box signed by the potter Megakles (Figs. . The Argonaut master had no concern with this great 'Ethos' or the delicate polychrome technique.GREEK VASE-PAINTING translated the picture into his personal style. let us mention e. plastic vases in the shapes of knuckle-bones. from whose workshop came not only horses. took an extract from the big scene ' ' of his model individual in his strong relief-lines. 130). and in the next age burst its fetters of colour and space in a manner which could not but deter even the boldest vase-painter from imitation. He borrowed more superficially. masters. and the Polygnotan vases remain an episode. his bearded hero holding a spear is not inferior to the contemporary warrior of the New York krater (Fig. like the friezes of those 142 . and especially Sotades. negroes. 133). and the who lid with five comic hares or the author of the girl plying the top on a white-ground kylix of the potter Hegesibulos (Fig. shape. Naturally there were many vase-painters who did not enter this dangerous ground nay. With many the avoidance of a big surface went so far effect. 136-7) with charming scenes from constructive of series of these ' little considerations. etc. if he were not to shake off every sane regard for the preservation of his surfacerather So reflexions of wall-painting on vases become rarer. the majority did not do so. In realism. ' ' : that they divided the outside of a calyx-krater or big ' aryballos into two friezes and filled them with small figures ' in defiance Out of the beside the big-figure painters continued the traditions of the elegant style. characteristics and emphasized the than the dash of the original. whose exquisite interiors. a potter who was active as early as the'Leagros period .

PLATE LXXXIII. WITH THE SIGNATURE OF THE POTTER MEGAKLES. LID AND SIDE OF A PYXIS 136 & 137. MAEN.VDS: FROM A RED-FIGURED POINTED AMPHORA. Fig.Figs. . 138.

.

.

From Griechische Fiirtu'diii^lci-Rcicliliold. . I'OLVNEIKES OFFERS ERIPHYLE THE NECKEACE RED-FKiLL'RED PELIKE. : FROM A I'uscunmlcrei. A RED-FICrRED KRATER.Fig. THE THRACIANS FROM : PLATE LXXXIV. ORPHErS AMONr. 140. 13<J. Fig.

at the 'Eriphyle' of a pelike which we also pass the middle of This picture must be compared to the (Fig. may become at Lecce the clearer if we look century. The master of a krater with a dancing scene in Rome (the 'Villa Giulia' master). . expression. 138) with a scene of Bacchic revelry. who on a pointed amphora at Paris combined the wonderful group of two Maenads (Fig. 98). but subtly distinguished in The three-quarter view of the head is almost devoid of harshness. His pelike from Gela is a Polygnotan vase with an Amazon scene on the London stamnos. is not distinguished for temperament and progressiveness. the more the individual performances of vase-painters are cast in the shade by the The great art. and only the ladle-shaped under lip connects her with the Polygnotan female heads. Much more a correct . with 143 . which become rarer. to judge from the mixed nature of his unoriginal style. lead us to the beginning of the age of Pheidias. in the noble bearing of the figures and the manner in which they gaze at each other. The two girls are of truly royal talented dignity.but is rather and academic individual but the neatly drawn scenes of his krater and stamnoi. to be dated about the middle of the century. 139). is the master.THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS drinking vessels. and Polygnotos. betray the approach of a new ideal of man. as Amasis did almost a century before (Fig. Anonymous masters better represent the transition from Polygnotos to Pheidias. How even the drapery becomes a vehicle of expression and every fold breathes the greatness of the whole picture. must have lived by borrowing. This transition is also accompanied by some painters' signatures. the namesake of the great painter. like each other in this. tedious. signatures do not present us with the first Hermonax is somewhat smooth and artists of the time. advanced and old-fashioned types are combined in an unpleasing fashion.

sion to the effect of musical sounds on men.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Corinthian Amphiaraos krater (Fig. . simply attired in plain peplos. The later master represents not the dramatic culmination of the story but the psychological climax. As often on vases of this period. 140) belongs to the early Periclean age the sure touch in the rendering of a twist of the body and its rounded form is now a matter of course even in the hasty execution of a second-rate draughtsman the head type gets the . when Polyneikes offers to the wife of Amphiaraos the seductive necklace. The krater from Gela (Fig. impressed this age so much with his nature that one cannot imagine the vase-paintings as unaffected by this powerful influence. the beautiful musical pictures this period. we do not mean that he was close relations with the art of the vase-painters. . who in the Parthenon ceivable nobility of form. Since the Geometric style art had continually represented musical performers. is full of an inner life which This harcirculates through her body to the finger-tips. but they are here united by most delicate psychology Eriphyle. monious union of a monumental type with intimate feeling is at the beginning of the most Greek period of Greek arthistory the most human period of the history of mankind. who very But the in frieze introduced that inconin the West side of the frieze developed the play of lines to new greatness. the age of Pheidias. to heighten it in the pediment to a great outburst of passion. artist. Never was Greek art so much an art of expression as at As if in response to the search for a word to describe this new expression. . how in the interval of 120-130 years the soul of art has changed. for which she will send her husband to death. 66) to see. but it was reserved for the age of Pheidias to give pictorial expresof the time present themselves. two figures stand calmly facing one another. If we name the following decades of the history of vase- painting after Pheidias. 141 .

LRED NECKED AMPHORA. 141.MUSIC: REDFIC. .Fit!. PLATE LXXXV. .

.

.

SLKKP AND DEATH (WRRV Ol WHI rK-(.Fii^-. PLATE LXXX\ I.ROL 1 A WARRIOR TO lURIAL XD ITLKVTHOS. . 142.

Munich stamnos figures (Fig. 145 . whose proper history begins in the Glaukon period (p. the long drawn nose. London amphora with twisted handles (Fig.THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS square outline. All crudities have gone the too bold foreshortenings and the realistic details taken from great paintings are less obvious nothing any longer disturbs the free play of the lines. As music had tamed them. The special technique of these vases produces an effect often very . to take goodly men into his bark the brothers Sleep and Death dispose of the corpse (Fig. the conductor of souls. . But the purpose of these grave vases continually asserts itself more and more. 141) with the Muses Melusa and Terpsichore and the bard Musaios. beside which the dead man stands or sits as if alive. In their first period they had preferred to render domestic scenes. The conception if : : men The on merely masterpieces of fully developed drawing but also ideal types of pure free humanity. which are characteristic of the age of Pheidias the repetition of the epithet katos shows that the custom of inscribing About contemporary is the a love-name is dying out. . Orpheus among the Thracians and Terpsichore in a reverie with the harp are purely pictures of lyric feeling. The ferryman of the dead appears. 134) and cannot be traced far beyond the 5th century. 146) are not : monumental This new effect. . 142) Hermes. spirit also animates the finest of the white- ground lekythoi. becomes the typical subject of the lekythoi. waits to be followed the dead man laments for his life. Movements are often merely motives of beauty the fold style combines a new naturalism with the most of the rises to its highest possible point. the shortened jaw. representations from the female apartments. But the domestic scenes have given place to the walk to the grave and the visit to the tombstone. the vase-pictures of the Periclean age change their nature. .

GREEK VASE-PAINTING
different from the red-figured style, esnecially since the white
filling of

the outlines (p. 134)

is

dropped.

The employment

of glaze-colour in the rendering of outlines,

and the

transi-

which from the first surfaces
had been covered in different varieties of colour, lead afterwards to an unusual individualization of the line. One

tion to brush-painting, with

cannot say that

this

technique approximates the lekythoi to

the effect of wall-painting as

much

as

it

severs

it

from

red-figured vase-painting.
Only a few exceptional late
specimens in their pictures operating freely with light and
shade burst the bounds of vase-decoration, and show
clearly with what good sense the vase-painters renounced
competition with the great art, which now victoriously
solves the problems of full perspective, of giving the effect
of depth in space, with the gradation of dimensions, and the
contrasts of light and dark.
In a Boston lekythos (Figs. 143 and 144) we have an

manner of the new period (p.
The dead warrior stands in Polygnotan attitude, with
bent arm resting on his hip (cp Fig. 135, last to left), beside
his altar-shaped tomb, and looks over it to the girl, who
*

existence' picture in the

136).

without perceiving him approaches with funeral offerings.
One notices in the treatment of the nude, that he is the product of an age which already had the perspective sense
so
vividly do the few lines of his contour, his muscles, and his
knee-pan, give the suggestion of a rounded body and also
the drawing of the female nude, which accident has freed
from the drapery added in perishable dull paint, in its very
realistic outline goes beyond anything previous.
Since the
Circe and Phineus kylikes, and the numerous black-figured
and red-figured pictures of bathing, dancing, and drinking
hetairai, art had busied itself with the naked bodies of
women as much as of men and where nudity could not be
represented, it indicated the outlines of the body through
:

;

:

146

Figs.

143

Fig.

&

144.

145.

YOUTH AND

.MAIDEN ON A \VHITE-( .ROl

WOMAN SEATED

AT A r,RA\'ESTONE

GROUND LEKYTHOS.
PLATE LXXXVII.

:

ND LEKYTHOS.

FROM A WHITE-

THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS
the cover of the drapery (p. 119).
For Polygnotos we have
the express tradition of women with transparent garments,

and on the Argonaut krater even Athena's grand forms are
indicated
the great liberator of wall-painting must also
have been a pioneer in the drawing of the female body. The
new style here too brings perfection and fills the form of
women with its noble greatness and simplicity. That it too,
in contrast with the 4th century, eschews all that is typically
feminine, soft and unformed, is a proof how strong was the
ideal of male beauty.
;

A

London

lekythos (Fig. 142) also represents a dead
soldier at the grave
The winged brothers Sleep and Death
with tender hand dispose of his corpse, as they do with the
.

dead Sarpedon

in the Iliad
and the lekythos-painter took
type also from the Sarpedon pictures
the young
warrior who had fallen far from his country, should on the
vase have the same boon of burial in his native soil, as was
granted by Zeus to the Lycian king. The fine type was
then divested of its proper meaning and received a more
general signification. The London vase, which uses lustre:

his

less

;

colours for the outlines of

somewhat

technique, that is
time beside the old.
difficult,

and

its figures also, must be
Boston vase, although the new
pure brush technique, went on for a

later than the

one fancies

Though
in the

stylistic

estimates

now become

wonderful vigour of the drawing,

in the

stronger individuality of the hair, that one is
nearer to the period of the Parthenon pediments than in the

somewhat more austere Boston group. Where the way led
may be shown by the woman sitting on the steps of a tomb
on a lekythos in Athens (Fig. 145), which not only by
the strongly plastic suggestion of the outline goes beyond
the Pheidian period proper, but also in the grandiose
heightening of the simple motive shows itself as one of the
works, which take

up and

cast in

147

new moulds

the pathos of

GREEK VASE-PAINTING
Every line in the very indithe Parthenon pediments.
vidual drawing of the woman, who is supporting her left
hand and lifting her garment with her right, while her feet
are unruly in submitting to the sitting posture,

by passionate

is

animated

unrest.

Though

the age of Pheidias liked pictures of feeling with
figures
like the music-scenes, the Munich stamnos and
quiet
Beside the
the lekythoi, it did not exhaust itself in them.

vases with large figures, there are others, which continue to
cultivate the elegant style and prepare the way for a class
which flourishes in the last decades of the century. Little
jugs with nursery scenes,

female

life,

pomade boxes

with pictures of

globular unguent pots with lekythos-like

mouth
"

are the principal vehicles of this style, and the "Eretria
master is a typical representative. On great and small
vases

we

find scenes of

animated motion, passionate scenes

which on their side too, share in the nobility of
The brutal vigour and hardness of old
motives seems broken, softened, often almost takes a turn

of conflict,

the style of the age.
to elegance.

The order

of the large compositions with

its

arrangement of the figures over one another and indication
of the broken ground by lines closely follows the Polygnotan
But while the Polygnotan depth in space was prosystem.
duced by a naturalistic tendency, which soon led to complete freedom in the great art, it is continued by the vasepainters as a mere principle of distribution and space-filling,
i.e.,

it

receives a decorative character.

One

of the finest pictures of

movement from

this

period

women who are
decorates a stamnos at Naples (Fig. 147)
Dionysos and
as
sacrificing before a tree-trunk dressed out
dancing to the tambourine. The exact dating of this picture, like the whole chronology of the late and post-Pheidian
:

vases,
it

is

a matter of dispute

:

but this

much

is

certain, that

cannot be understood except as a near echo of the
148

art of

'f

<'

Fig.

Fig. 147.

(^-

frvW f W V u-rrmyi m

UG.

\j

^i

^.Ni:«.

RED-FICLRED STA.MNOS.

OFFERINGS AT THE IMAGE OF DIONYSOS
FIGURED STAMXOS.
PLATE LXXXVIII.

:

FRO.M A RED-

.

.PLATE LXXXIX.

Details added in white and liberal use of thinned black heighten the coloured effect. heightens the tendencies of Pheidian art without succumbing to the palsy which can be felt in the style of Meidias. emit sparks of the fire of the steeds on the pediments the . majestically animated attitude of Hippodameia reminds Athenian lekythos (Fig. and enlivens the clinging parts with restlessly curving inner folds. 148) must be in close connection with the last phase of the Pheidian style and cannot be far removed from the Naples stamnos. dissolves the hair in strong waves. 141) by sharper profiling of the mouth and foot. The divine horses. and the flowing chiton folds. Here too the draperies are rich and elaborate. the wild career of Pelops and Hippodameia over the sea. Its shape enriches the type of the Terpischore vase in London (Fig. 145) in Pelops every line is full of passion and bold movement. the expression of his eyes is strengthened by emphasis on the upper lid. Into the noble line-drawing of the middle style of Pheidias has come a new movement. The amphora with twisted handles at Arezzo (Fig. The upper garment of Dionysos is given rich effect by long border zig-zags. This new style with its marked enhance- ment of the lines is the later style of Pheidias. interspersed stars and an embroidered wreath. throws the drapery into great folds. Similarly the scene. the gift of Poseidon. and lived its life out and died in the school of Pheidias. pre- cne of the . which draws the contour in more passionate violent curves. a reflection of the last and highest development of the Parthenon master. which cling close to the body. which pointed Attic art into new paths. the restless billowing of the folds is more marked than on the Naples stamnos. which robs the amphorae and bell-kraters of the end of the century of strong and taut effect. 149 .THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS the Parthenon pediments. but does not yet draw the lower part into the dull curve.

beside the lekythos in Athens. One can scarcely realize the nobility of Pheidian conception more fully than by comparing this scene with the Phineus kylix (Fig. the fight for existence of the gods and the sons of the earthgoddess takes place in the early morning. when Helios is rising on the vault of heaven and Selene is sinking down into ocean. as on the east pediment of the Parthenon.GREEK VASE-PAINTING pare for the exaggeration dear to post-Pheidian sculpture and painting. the underlips project. the somewhat later Naples fragment of a Gigantomachia (Figs. 149-151). Not only does the drawing of individual forms show a plastic conception of space. a picture of a different order may show. 150 . and horizontal folds bring out the lower part of the forehead. which is also echoed on other later vases. 74) and its congeners. must be the basis of this picture. What early ages had repre. That the rendering of the female body was now not less accomplished than that of the male. The plastic effect of the middle line of chest and abdomen is increased by doubling. In fiery impetus only one of the vase-paintings of this period can compare with the Pelops vase. 154). the eyes are deepset. : An invention of truly Titanic force. The bold movements. the swellings and packings of the skin and muscles are rendered with sure touch. the 'lost* profile. and even the unusual division (unsuited to vases) by an arch points to In a rocky landscape a model from another branch of art. On an Oxford jug appears in the spaciousness favoured by these vases an old theme. Satyr and Nymph (Fig. the twistings and bendings of the combatants. but the whole scene is inconceivable without a contemporary big painting with considerable landscape capacities from the tree-clad hilly coast the chariot rushes out upon the deep sea. the locks of hair and tips of hide flutter as if they were alive the breasts of the earth-goddess are modelled out of the drapery as if bare.

.

.

.

PLATE XCI. .

she is distribu- also the vehicle of a wonderful feeling. whom the potter by exaggerated employed. which stand out dark on a lighter ground. and the which is free leg. . On the Theseus of the interior the hair is dissolved into lively curls. With the works of Aristophanes we probably go further from the time of Pheidias than with the Naples fragment Meidias painter take us to the time of the works of the * ' 151 ^ . ' The time ' of the School of Pheidias. is here refined and given a even the Satyrs and Centaurs. ness of both lay in exploiting as artizans accessible types. gives us again a few The painter Aison gives us a Madrid kylix artists' names. cannot have been produced long after Pheidias' death. just as is the hair with light under-painting. The picture. The sleeping nymph Tragodia is not only correctly observed in her foreshortening. which must be about contemporary with the Giant vase.THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS sented with drastic humour. who began his activity even in Pheidian days. of we have been whose best works introduced to a selection. the chiton clinging as if moist and blowing back. but neither master The greatinitiated a new development of kylix painting. to the utmost limit of . and Aison. which immediately prepares for the works of the Meidias painter and the Pronomos master. and the plastic swelling of the belly goes in his protectress what is possible Athena we see already the contrast between the leg that bears the weight and is covered by hanging folds. which is closely covered by the drapery Erginos Aristophanes. the rugged monsters of soul the woods and mountains. in movement and tion of the weight of the body. draws more elegantly than his younger colleague. and beside tlhe great ptyle of the Pelops and Giant vases shows us the continuance of the refined and elegant style. are tamed by the new spirit which : will not any longer endure brutality and obscenity. with the exploits of Theseus.

The effort for fine effect. the box of Megakles (Fig. But what there was born of passion.GREEK VASE-PAINTING the Nike balustrade. 152) all the figures exuberate in lazy grace and fine motives of beauty.* Paris with the goddesses. The many and over elegant brokenup foids. e. the whole extent of the care- on the wavy hill-lines (p. the curling of the cloak folds.g. the supporting of Aphrodite. the wonderful melting forms of the 'Fates' and other pediment figures. is in noticeable contrast to the drapery. which we know already on the white ground lekythoi (Fig.e. is playfully treated. which cling unnaturally close to breast and free leg. and the independent movement of the tips. which is expressed in lessly united society patterning. Particularly the groups. 137) and the works of the Eretria master (p. The raised gilt details of the clay. which inaugurate this enhancement of style. are now in hiijh honour. On the unsigned Adonis hydria in Florence century. but in travelling along the road this echo has lost its vogour.. * ' * 152 . is here become fashion.. and are plentifully employed on the Adonis the rich restlessness of A the vase. 141) in spite of all its grace has something of the formula about it. 148). 134). but without loss of vigour and by a kind of natural evolution. is a long way off the Parthenon pediments. the singer Thamyris. i. the two last decades of the 5th too are an echo of the art of the Parthenon pediments. the bowing and bending of bodies conscious of their beauty. certain inclination to pomp is characteristic of the post-Pheidian stvle. and The excitement of the faces with wide nostrils. Adonis in the lap and Hygieia with Paidia. They (Fig. of arms and play of fingers. the fair Phaon. The style of the drapery is certainly an indication of the weakening of earlier vigour. The Meidias painter also produced a series of similar existence pure pictures of on hydriae. remind us of the Parthenon.

PLATE XCII. .

.

which show it. He was no bold progressive artist his technically exquisite and very delicately drawn pictures recast in new shapes the new phenomena of art in him the series of masters of the type of the Sotades painter and the Eretria master comes to an end. : ' ' ' ' Lower Italy (Fig. existence in pretty poses. recurs after Polygnotan times often in the midst of mythological scenes. . and brings the vases. 158). His contemporary. on which the figures move less vigorously than the lines. are more successfully rendered than the pathos of the scene of abduction on the London hydria signed by the potter Meidias. a showy volutekrater with rich profiling. which generally Attic vase-painters consciously avoid so as to keep to the surface treatment. he puts on the obverse the cast of an Attic theatrical performance in two almost equal rows one above the other. The per- spective side-view of the footstool and of the tripod column are liberties taken by the great art. which reminds us surprisingly of the vases of Lower Italy. and thus starts a principle of composition which was taken up by the vase-painting of the Eleusinian deities. who may after the chief figure of the Satyric play vase at Naples be called the 'Pronomos' master. Liberal use colour. as the Athena of the Panathenaic vases to the Acropolis. In respect of shape and decoration one may speak of a decay of the finer tectonic sense. It has been proposed to recognise the effect of the stage 153 . which transplants us into the Theatre of Athens. but he draws likes figures of them with more spirit and does more justice to the vehement style of his time. On the Naples vase.THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS and decorated other vases also in this manner. These scenes. anyhow in relation to dramatic exhibitions. the centre of the scene is is made of thinned denoted by a white figure. the luxuriantly ornamented dresses contuse the general impression. The tripod-column.

Though the 'Talos' master altered the composition of his pattern to suit his vase. in the increased pomp of the dresses. thus in a sense the silhouette style declared bankrupt. so popular in this period. as the Meidias vases into the ornamental-elegant.GREEK VASE-PAINTING on vase-painting. not separated by more than two decades from the Parthenon pediment. one may regard the proper history of Greek vase-painting as closed with these post-Pheidian vases. The vase-shape is closely allied to that of the Pronomos the central figure in white. which is seen on vase-paintings at second-hand. but the painter too. is here most con* ' * ' : . 154 . is more than probable. This conclusion is certainly also justified in view of the Talos vase (Fig. he must have preserved with tolerable faithfulness the grandiose invention of the centre group the passionate impetus.g. With this fine masterpiece.g. recurs. and in its spatial effect is enhanced by shaded modelling far above the proportions of the other figures. Nay. Not merely does the potter make untectonic by excessive profiling and elaborate extension. This effect might at the most have taken place indirectly for that the vase-painters often took as their patterns votive paintings of victorious Choregi. which almost exaggerates the element of show. e. And in general one may draw conclusions as to the great art from many a fine invention. 153) which transforms the mighty echoes of the late Pheidian art into the pompous. e. vincing. from the Bacchic scenes on the reverse of the Pronomos vase. interrupts the unity of the vase-surface with the white-painted and plastically his vases modelled central figure is . we close the history of the vases that show the style of Pheidias. which fills the whole scene and catches even the cloaked figures of the reverse. which show plainly the conscious restraint of the vase-painters.

LATE ATTIC PELIKE.\D : THE RATH: FROM Fiirtu'diiglcr-Hi'ichliolil PLATE .\T .\EX. Fig. . FROM A (iiiecliisclie XCIII. 154.M. A RED-FIGURED JUG.\XD WOMEN From SLEEPING . .MfflMP lg)pi^B8Jfp/pfgfBfg/gJHMSlgl51 Fig. SATYR 155. \'ascninalc'rci.

.

In the course of the 4th century this foil too. But the long continue. which took root in the Periclean 155 . both the black of Boeotian vases (p. The brush technique.CHAPTER VII. red-figured the vases decorated in longer centre of gravity of the manufacture lies no Athens. to which the others ordinary technique are only a pale foil. The and often almost playfully treated vase-shapes give no longer any really tectonic ground for the silhouette style. the Talos vase (Fig. which culminates in spiral tendrils and branches with depth of space. as does the style of the figures Even in the last third of the feel the tectonic compulsion. and black glazed vases of elegant shape were decorated only rendered in with figures or ornaments loosely added in white. made a new development in ornamentation. The Pelops amphora (Fig. was dropped. which had exhausted the qualities compatible with its fully the elegance of the vases feels the pictorial decoration to be a burden. 110) and the white of Attic and Lower Italian. Even in the time of Pheidias the Attic school sent n branch to Lower Italy. 148) adorns its black neck with a sphinx added in white. inward nature : 5th century examples are multiplied of the transition to free brush technique. in combination Besides these freely of figures and foliage of plastic effect. 153) and with it a multitude of other vases seek to fix the impression by a white central figure. LATE OFFSHOOTS WE the centre of gravity in our treated the late period of Greek vase- should unnaturally narrative if we shift painting with anything like the same fulness as its develop- developed ment from the Geometric to Meidias.

who all seem to belong to the early period. Klytemnestra urging them to vengeance. and Southern Etruria. while the wonderful group of the sleeping Erinyes. In this production. like the closely analogous London krater (Fig This vase with much humour introduces 157) to us one of the favourite Italian farces (the Phlyakes) and begins a long ^ries of similar representations from different workshops Thus e. the master From them. and rather empty heads. Apulia. For the more these Italo-Greek vases in shape decoration and representation develop local peculiarities and depart from their purely Attic starting point. early group. which does not concern us.GREEK VASE-PAINTING colonies of Lucania.^. and soon grew up as a strong plant. one select ' of which comic parody gives the violation by Aias of Kassandra. 156). who from the stiflf variety of the style and the localities of the finds must be localized in South Campania. the very general conception of the divine types leave us no doubt as to the Italian origin of the Paris Orestes vase found in Lucania (Fig. show us not only a fine model but a clever hand. which in shape partly run parallel with the Attic 156 ' . and the purified Orestes. which excludes provincial varieties. belongs to a later phase. the less do they belong to our survey. the painter Assteas painted two Phlyax vases. From the drawing and shape of the vase it may very well belong to the end of the 5th century. extended to various places in Lucania Campania. which in the 4th century completely supplanted Attic importation. few really origmal artists took part. while the other is a serious theatrical scene which with its detailed rendering of the in stage clearly denionstrates the influence of the drama on vase-painting The activity of this painter. in which we good Attic tradition is strongly the felt two bell-kraters. The full. Out of the mass of Lower Italian vases of the 4th century. and perhaps were emigrated Athenians of the Pans 'Tiresias' krater is one of .

ORESTES AND THE FURIES: FROM Fig. LOWER-n'ALIAN BELL-KRATER. 157. PLATE XCIV. . COMEDY SCENE : A LUCANIAN BELL-KRATER.Ki. 15(5..-.

.

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.ACHILLES .\TE XCV.\PULL\N VOLUTE-KR. . 158.AND THERSITES : PL.Fig.\TER. .

where out of the successors of the Meidias. 155 and 159). the slaying of Thersites by Achilles. shade. faces traced. and thus gives a mythical prototype to the dead man. Pronomos and Talos styles an after-bloom developed (Figs. one example. which lead the way for Hellenistic products like the Apulian Gnathia vases in the increased pathos of the : * ' . as little as the vase sides by perspective views corresponds to its surface decoration. stiffness. On the reverse bearers of above one another in the favourite borrowed motives (sitting. The Boston (Fig. influenced coarseness. which elongate the shape of the Talos vase (Fig. points to a period. and certainly could distribute figures over the landscape more naturally than the vase-painter. 153) and add rich ornament in white colour. which often extends to the ornament. Sentiment and light. though provincially coarsened. drawing up one foot) surround a white-painted Heroon with offerings the dead man the obverse combines a similar building with a mythological scene. The liberal use of white paint. running. were the ruin of the decorative silhouette style. often fall into peculiarities.LATE OFFSHOOTS partly develop noticeably baroque and locally limited which in their chiefly sepulchral representaby Orphic-Dionysiac cults. for whose grave the vase is designed. which had won complete freedom in space. which from the bursting of its 157 . the great achievements of 4th century art. who filled the tall space with them only in a superficially decorative way. the black ground ornamentation of the neck and foot with branches and tendrils are progressive elements. standing. the stronger weight given to sentiment in the 4th century and the perspective rendering of the building operating with light and is . Even in Athens. or efteminate insipidity. tions. whose figure world can admit of pathos. 158) belongs to a group let us take only volute krater. IJ metres high of Apulian grand vases. leaning on a pillar.

but following the old manner simply arranged above and beside each other on the surface their generally large and restful figures. and interrupted the vase-surface neither by buildings or ornaments drawn in perspective nor by composition in several planes. in signing which he emphasizes his Athenian Pheidias. Thus the Kerch masters ensure to their vases a finer general aspect than the Southern ' Italians. nothing of this is observed. From the same finer decorative sense the Attic masters made no use of the full perspective of their time. in the strong emphasis on female forms. one an inkling little of the The varying shades of of the new problems the colour scale give of light. they even often heighten the decorative effect of colour by the application of light blue. in the drawing of the figures. just as their commonest ' figures are distinguished from the Italian by a certain nobility behind the huge advances of the great .GREEK VASE-PAINTING rich exports in the Black Sea style. enhanced pathos of the great painting. and have an arriere effect. betrays citizenship). sure this was in a different direction to Italy. which in the new naturalness of motives and drapery. the new tendencies To be of art is Kerch usually called the were fatal to the red-figured Lower The figure world of the elegant Attic vases. and do not despise gilded additions. occasionally also by figures in relief and painted (as Xenophantos did m his aryballos with hunting Persians. but they are far which now in its methods of expression attained the heights perhaps of Titian and Tintoretto. meant for Eastern customers. . which one would have to deduce from the sculpture of Skopas and Praxiteles. which were certainly struggling for expression not only in sculpture . listless and 158 art. green and rose. rendered in strong relief strokes. As in the post-Pheidian style they like to pick out single figures by white colour. nay. is far removed from the types of style. even if it were not expressly witnessed to by literary tradition.

160. PLATE XCVI. 159. LATE ATTIC KALYX-KRATER.F\a. . HELLENISTIC CUP. Eig.

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. hanging branches and fillets. painted pottery is com- of earlier times. Rightly recognising that the days of the draughtsman and his decorative figure style were past and gone. which are often of fascinating effect (cp. which appeared in several spots of the now decentralized Greek world. of its . which now gains ground more and more. often playfully treated vases tendrils. the representations. that which painted in black. which in dull. Fig. festoons. ends the history of by pottery with relief pletely driven off the field. and the Hellenistic. which The great increase of the means of be assumed for the late painting. and that which had a black ground (pp. new formations has a stiff and lifeless effect. red-figured technique. With these products of the mere craftsman. colouring. The future belonged to free brush technique. 160). any part . continued to exist down into the early Hellenistic was no longer the congenial vehicle of the expression age and it was only seldom that notable personalities attempted to practise it. the complete suppression of formal tendencies in favour of impressionism did not permit the silhouette style even a subsidiary place. the ceramic workshops of the late 4th century. 159 . no longer play the Hellenistic painters prefer to put on their elegant. more and more gave up the age. but often in shape and decoration cause one to miss the delicate taste Greek vase-painting ornament (already heralded by the completely black channelled vases of the 4th century and works like the aryballos of Xenophantos). wreathes and masks in loose arrangement. 110 and 157).LATE OFFSHOOTS Just as the new style could express itself better by the applied than by the reserved ornamentation. so too the red-figured style. The is to figured world. which as is proved by finds at Alexspite of andria.

Griechische Vasenmalerei. 160 . for permission to reproduce several drawing's from Furtwang-ler-Reichhold.NOTE Thanks are due to Messrs. F. of Munich. Bruckmann.

Height 0. oured ground. Annual IX. p. and Loschcke. Schmidt. Mykenische gler Tongefdsse. from house on the island of Pseira Candia. wheel.i6.10. ^ : Fig. : PI. fig.i2. V. 8 Beaked jug from the sixth shaftgrave at Mycenae Athens. From Nicole 164. Bowl from Sesklo Athens. Nicole Height 0. : From Tsountas.22. Fig. 22 yellow : PI. Vase of Kamares style from the palace of Knossos Candia. IX. Plate : I. 22 Berlin. LightNicole 123. Height.39. Louvre. 1. Paris. brown painting on yellow ground. from the fourth Athens. 311.20. 1899. 25. tig. CHAPTER I. Funnel-vase of late Minoan I. 10. Face-urn from Troy H.084 PL HI. ^'^^ No. shaft-grave at Mycenae Diameter 0. 8 : Fig. p. PI. from Candia. Dimini and Sesklo (Greek). Painting white. From Ephemeris Arch. Fig. : No'. Fig. Fig.30. No. Unpainted kylix with smoothed surface. p. polished. IV. Trofanischer Sammlung Altertumer. : 161 . Excavations on the island of Pseira. From Seager. 44. 8. Height Dark painting on lemon-col0. orange and 0. Turned on the wheel. Hubert 1. pi. Schlieclay. Fig. Turned on the i8q. 10 Funnel-vase of late Minoan I. CaereReichhold Frontispiece 5. V. pi. Mykenische Tongefdsse. 7. 0. 3. : yellowish mann's From H. Beaked jug from Syros Height 0. lustreless brown From Furtwan(and red) painting. 5.080 and 1. From British School 2. British School Annual IX. pi. No. Fig.INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS from Interior of a kylix signed by Euphronios as potter FurtwdnglerFrom Diameter G 104. 120.30. a house at Palaikastro Height 0.-V. From carmine-red on black glaze. 4. Furtwangler and Loschcke. : THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES :— H. 6. P^S^ f^*^^ ^ Athens. pi.

IX. PI.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Fig^. 12 Late Mycenean Cup from lalysos (Rhodes) London.. 1905.20.. Frocn Furtwangler-Loschcke. Amphora VIII. y k e n i sche Vasen. VI. cit. details in white.45. Fig.20. Height Dark0. from a With many de- of late house on Pseira. Late Mycenean stirrup-vase from lalysos (Rhodes) London.. 24 PI. VII. Height 0. Dark-brown glaze-colour on yellow ground. pi. Vase (Pithos) of Phaistos Kamares style from Candia. 16. 1905. a bird by the side of it. From Monumenti Antichi XIV. pi. Yellowish-red glaze-colour on : yellow ground... 14. pi. VIII. II. Height 0. 9. b Stirrup-vase of late a house at Goumia 0. partly red.34. 32 : Fig. Brown. From Archceoof logia. pi. Height 0. Palace style from a grave of Knossos. VI. IV. tails : To face page 8 Minoan I. Amphora H Minoan I. Fig. C. From Archceo- Fig. Mykenische Vasen. : 162 . 12. From H. 10. The tentacles of the cuttle-fish from a peculiar ornament on the reverse. brown glaze-colour (in parts burnt red) on yellow ground. CI Palace style from a grave of Knossos. From Seager op. PI. 17.on black g-laze. Fig. from Candia. of logia. 14 Late Mycenean vase with ribbed handles from lalysos (Rhodes) London. 13. pi. Fig. Fig. From Furtwangler- Loschcke. Goumia. PI.50 Red and white painting. Height 0. Height Boyd Hawes.23. Late Mycenean vase with ribbed handles from Rhodes Munich 47. Mykenische Vasen. From Furtwangler-Loschcke. 49 : M Fig. overpainted in white. 15. XXXV pi. : pi. pi. Amphora lo VII.

pi. said to come from Melos.... Height Collignon-Couve 1.A. : PL XIII. Miinchener Vasen: sammlung Fig. 40. (skyphos) from Greece Height 0. PI. Miinchener Jahrbuch. ^ 2 1 4. Fig. Athenische 6 Height 0. 163 307. : dell' I Frieze from the upper half of a bowl from Thebes. 8 : PL XII. pi. 21. Munchener Vasensammlung I. fig. Fig. Geometric Amphora. : 202. p.i2.33. pL 9d Cretan miniature jug with female : head: Berlin From T897. From : Candia.. 22. i8.io. Height 0. fig. PI. come from Crete Height 0. 191 3. 27.23. Cretan hydria from Praisos Height 0.. 24. White on glaze. 57 cup Geometric Protocorinthinian Munich. p. 28 . 78 Attic Geometric kylix from Athens Munich. 78. Fig. probably Attic (Black Dipylon) Munich. p. XI.. From B. 20. : I. Fig. said to Munich 455.S. II. Miinchener Jahrbuch. Cretan jug from Praisos Height 0. 6. 44. 26 : Fig.22.50. To 7 face page i6 THE GEOMETRIC STYLE :— : X. 26. I.73. IX.30. Biga with driver and companion. Height 0. Diameter 0. THE SEVENTH CENTURY :— Fig. IX. Upper 20 I half of a Dipylon grave-vase Athens. g-Iaze-colour fig-.250. PL XIV. 25. Munich : Amphora (Dipylon 1. of which the rest is only decorated with stripes London. p. 1913. 22 Rhodian Geometric jug. I. 23.GREEK VASE-PAINTING on yellow g^round. CHAPTER III. Miinchener Jahrbuch. p. British School Annual. photo. From Monumenti Istituto IX. Attic Geometric class) From Fig. Fig. 1909. CHAPTER II. pi. 19. 1899... 9c Candia.i8. From Journal of Hellenic Studies. pi. Mitteilungen. Fig.

12. From Archdologische Zeitung. Krater of Aristonothos Palazzo dei Conservatori. gie et d' histoire. bourhood of Papa PI. fig. 1897. From Catalogue. PI. Height From American Journal of 0. 29.44. From Catalogue. 31. pi. : Vasensammlung PI. Vasens. From Journal of Hellenic Studies. IV. 38. I.06..20.07. lekythos. 41. XIX. Corinthian aryballos. Animal frieze from an early CorinMiinch. 40. said to Berlin 336. from the neigh- come from Thebes PI. 36 Villa di From Antike Denkmdler II. Height pi. Protocorinthian lekythos London. : : Fig-- 33- Protocorinthian jug of post-Geome- Munich from Aegina Miinchener Height 0'i8. I. I.S. 1883.36. Protocorinthian I. PI. Fitzwilliam Museum 30. B.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Fig. 0. Fig. ca. 0. pi. XVI. 32 Fig. style tric 225a. XV. 28. 32. To face page 30 of : Fragment of a plate at Praisos : from a grave Candia. fig.20. IV. Original diameter ca. come from Corinth Height 0. XX. Fig. Fig. 34. thian jug: Munich 228. 2 Fig. Height 0. 0. pi. Height 0.25.. 17 said 34 to Boston. VIII. X. From B. F'e- 39- Fig. : Height From Melanges d' Archeolo0. Figs. XL. Archceology. Height 0. Fitzwilliam Museum 36.07. from Greece Cambridge. 30. 18 : : 164 40 .. 44 and 45 Protocorinthian or Corinthian jug 38 : Munich 234. Fig.. Rome. p. pi.M. Rome : : Rome. 357.A. p. from Greece Cambridge. XVII. Diameter Athenische Mitteilungen. Protocorinthian lekythos. 11. Fragment Athens. Corinthian alabastron. Fig. pi. From photo. Wrestle with a sea monster. pis. Protocorinthian jug.35. XVIII. IV. III. I. PI. Height 0.26. Giulio. 1900. pi. 191 1. a jug from Aegina Nicole 848..

CoUignon-Couve 65 1 Height From Ephemeris. Figs. A From 547. Fig.. From Conze. from Samos Boston. from Melos non-Couve 475. from Aegina London.M. Vasens. PI. XXI. StockCycladic (Euboic) Amphora Height 0. Colligphora.95. XXII. from Rhodes Collection. From Jahrholm. 1905.14. Attic : Athens. 50- Fig. CoUignon-Couve ponnese) From Height of vase 0. Scheurleer Height 0. face page 42 Corinthian skyphos. Fig-. 1894. XXIV.22. pi. XXVII. 45.59. 4^ : . from Athens. Pinax (votive-tablet). 52 Chief design on a " Melian " amAthens. 50 : photo. Fig. non-Couve 468. pi.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Fig. Height of amphora 0.. ColligAnalatos (Attica) From Jahrbuch. 47-8 PI. Athenische Mitteilungen. CoUignon-Couve 657. pi. 52. 51. fig. Fig. 24 Miinch. Ephemeris. Fig. Fig.o8. 46. frieze from a Corinthian jug Munich 246. 42. p.. from Corinth. buch. IV. : 1887.22. Herakles and lole (?) on a "Melian" amphora. Height 0. I. 46 3 Neck and body designs of an early Athens from Amphora. 16. 1897. mdler I. Fi&- 54- pi. 43. Animal of : To PI.. PI. 8. XXVI. pi. From photo. 44 Berlin 846. 7 : Jug with griffin's head. : mdler Fig. 53. Scene from the late Corinthian flask of Timonidas. Hague. from Piraeus Athens. 13 Frieze of an early Phaleron jug. 49. : PI. From 13 Early Rhodian jug. From Antike DenkHeight 1. XXV. 5 1. PI. from Kleonai (PeloAthens. pi. B.22. Melische Tonge: 54 fdsse. pi. Fig. From photo. 1897. wine-skin shape I. 44. XXIII. 165 55 . signed by Timonidas From Antike DenkHeight 0. 57 Early Attic Amphora.10. 620. pi. CoUignon-Couve 477. said to come from Crete Athens. PI. VIII.

1905. From Monumenti X. B. 55. After photo. Height 0. 56 CHAPTER PI. From painted). p.. : XXXII. Height : 0. %• 46 : Munich Miinch 346a. From : Akropolisvasen PI. XXXIII. 60 24 I. 191 PI..35. A 131 1. from Rhodes (Fikellura) : London.M. XXXIV.. P. Fig. : Jahrb. XXIX. from Corinth Munich 344. from Rhodes London. 60. Fig:- 57- Fig. from Italy Paris. J. pi.M. 635. Height 0. Pl- Fig. jug. 4.28. From J. IV. From Miinchener Archdol Studien. 64.33. pi.31. Miinch : 200 II. fig. from Rhodes don. Naukratite sherd found on the Acropolis of Athens Athens. head painted red on white details by leaving the parts un- Sherd : (Busiris' slip. Fig. 61.46.GREEK VASE-PAINTING PL XXVIII. 290. VL. Diameter 0.33.H. Height 0. Miinch Vasens. p. Bohlau. From Altenburg. Fig. 63. PI. photo. Height 0. Acropolis 450a. 62. p.. Amphora (Fikellura) Height 0. ropolen. : Lon1885. 191 1. Euphorbos plate. 59.S. 72 ..31. II. fig.34. Jahrb. fig- Fig:- 56- 54 Late Rhodian Munich 450. Miinch : Fig.31. red and white painting on bright ground. Rhodian jug Munich 449.M. 66. Fig. Yellow. Louvre. from Caere Berlin 1655. Fig. I.H. PI. B. 166 plate 0.S. from Caere Paris. 1. Vasens. 58. : p. from Rhodes Height 0. Fig. p.38. Height : From 0. 24. 5 70 : PI. 65. Frieze of a Corinthian krater. 300. Two friezes of a Corinthian krater. 42. 67.46. Fig. Corinthian Diameter I-. Amphora. Nek- : 62 THE BLACK-FIGURED STYLE :— Fig. i. Louvre E. pi. B. 59- from Naukratis Oxford. 58 Gorgon plate. XXX. XXXI. Corinthian krater. From Photo To face page 56 Late Rhodian cauldron (lebes). I.

Fig. p.. Fig. 75 82 Kyme from B. 589. F\g. fig. p. XXXVI. from Italy Height 0. Munich kylix : I. photo. From photo. Ionic b..41. 84 585. 62. from Caere London. 79. 80 kylix.43. fragments. Height 0. PL XXXIX.39. from Italy I. Fig. Fig. phora. phora. : From Fig. Athena. To face page 74 photo. XXXVIII.33. from Vulci Height 0. photo.. : photo.M. I. Figs. Furtwdngler-Reichhold 41 Phineus Wiirz- : From burg. 34. photo. from Vulci Diameter 0. : wdngler-Reichhold 21 167 9c . (Asia Minor) London. 596. PI. Fig.. Vasens. : From To face page 74 Chalkidian amphora. 382. fig..10. 80. p. From Wiirzburg.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Fig.-f. Louvre E 701. Amphora. 73- Fig. I. Reichhold 51 Munich Spartan kylix.46. Vasens. B 155. PI. Scene from Chalkidian amphora of Munich 592. B. XLIII. PI. : Fig.f. 75. XXXVII. Italy hydria. fig. 70. From dustrie PI. Munich Ionic eye kylix.. 74. XLII. 64. p.-I. AmMunich 586. fig& 48 Caeretan hydria. 71. Height 0.45. 69 and 70. from Caere Paris. : Head of from Ionic eye 590. XXXV. Vasens. From Neck design of an Ionic b. 59. 74. Milnch. : Chalkidian amphora.15. PI. I. Vasens. 72. 77-8 Obverse and reverse of an Ionic b. : Pis. 69. 82-3 88 : 89 Obverse and reverse of a Pontic amMunich 837. Vasens.. 86 & 87 Chief design on a Caeretan hydria Vienna. 68. Fig. 76. from Italy From FurtHeight of vase 0. Milnch. p. Figs. PI. 81. XLIV. From Milnch. 73 Milnch. Museum fiir Kunst und In: From Furtwdngler217. 78 65. Fig.f. Italian provenance : Milnch. from Italy Height 0. XL. Chalkidian Munich from Height 0. from Italy : Munich From figs.M.

Fig. face kylix (Arkesilas). 96. pi. : From p. Furtwdngler-Reichhold. Jahn ' Interior of an eye kylix of Exekias. 1220.-f. D. Diameter 0. 10 PI. pi. from Vulci Munich. pi. Spartan : 189.. PI. Detail of the Frangois vase.-f. Francois vase.8o. Amphora. from Cometo Berlin. H. Cabinet des M6dailles 89. PI. Munich From 96 : Flor- Museo archeologico. 40. p. From Gerhard. Spartan kylix. und kische From Gerhard. Little From Fig. Fig.. 5- 419. page 92 47 Fragments 587. Graf the frieze 0. : From Boston. 21 PL LIII. PI. Urlichs 331. b. Height of vase 0. 94. 90. From Monu- Acropolis. Attic Fig. Amphora. Auser: lesene Vasenbilder PL LII. 168 105 Vulci : Helbig From . 93 of a cauldron (lebes) by Munich. I. ence. 26 Sophilos 87. EtrnsVasen- Kampanische bilder. Height fig-- 88. 86. probably from Vulci Wiirzburg.66. Akropolisvasen. Jahn 339. : photo. 191 1.GREEK VASE-PAINTING PL XLV. I. Vulci XLVII.-f. 3. Exekias. pi. 95. vase.09. Fig. d. Graf. 49 Scene from an Attic b. Amphora of From photo.. from Vulci Berlin 1685. 13 Fig. kylix with knob handles photo. from Vulci Height 0.19= Vasens. 291. : From Jahrbuch pi. XLIX. of Height Milnch. Fig-. Fig. : PL LIV. Fig. pi. photo. From Attic tripod : Athens.i2. menti I. XLVI. from Chiusi 0. Instatus 1901.15. PI. Height From FuHwdngler-Reich- hold. 36. LI. fig. Diameter 0. 92. 84. 91. Fig.-f. 98 Master Munich. To III. Height : of vase 0*49. Fig. Jahrb. Fig. : From Height 0. 85. 94 Boeotian kantharos b. Rome. L.30. from Athens 0. from Paris. from Museo Gregoriano. PI. 93.29. 52 Fig. kylix.. Miinch. 104 Scene from an Attic b. XLVIII.

Torlonia from Vulci sis. from Vulci : "7 _ PI. LX. Vorlegehldtter. LVIII. from Vulci Height 0. ^^^ Munich. 378. 107. 5. Boston. kylix. pi.. From To face page 106 photo. photo. Munich. 1888. Jahn 655. pi. Paris. Panathenaic Amphora. Detail from interior of a cauldron of Exekias. : Paris Height Cabinet des Medailles 222. necked Amphora. Fig. : LVII. decoration of neck From photo. 100. Fig. 169 of an archaic Boston. . From Gerhard. PI. from Vulci Munich. Attic Italy PI. 104.-f. 249-50 Attic vase in shape of negro's head with late b. From photo. of vase 0.-f. 103. From pi. 108 : Fig. Collection. mdler II. Jahn 410. from Caere formerly Cas: tellani Wiener Rome. THE RED-FIGURED STYLE IN THE ARCHAIC PERIOD :— PI.535. Height 0.-f. Fig. hydria. : From Furtwdngler-Reichhold PI. : ^o i photo.44. Orvieto interior from : ^^" .From photo. Jahn from Vulci Height 0. 1897. From Furt: wdngler-Reichhold 14. LXI. 99. Aiiserlesene Vasenbilder IV. LV. Jahn 388.40. from Munich.-f. 102. 0. b. Munich.33. : Necked Amphora Amasis of Fig.62. Height from Vulci Berlin.60. : From CHAPTER V. 97. Fig. Chief scene on a late b. Fig. Fig. Scene on an Amphora in the style of the Andokides painter. Fig. Detail from r.. 8 Detail of Amphora of Euthymides. 106. 107 3 b LVI. : From Fig. Pi. Scene on an Amphora of Euthy- Amphora 114 the of : PI. Shoulder scene on a hydria of HypRome. Louvre G 2. mides. from Etruria Height 0.38. loi. Height 0.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Fig. 108. 98. Fig. From photo. 4 potter Pamphaios (Nikosthenes' shape). 105. LIX. From Antike DenkCollection.

PI. 116. From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 92 Kylix signed by the potter Sosias. From FurtwdnglerReichhold 25 R.M. London. Fig. LXX. 346. 2290. Height of vase 0. PL LXXIL Branteghem 124 : Hartwig. W^iirzburg. Vulci PI. From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 48 Kylix of Hieron. PL LXXin. PL LXXI.M. phora. Fig. 109. Collection. from Caere 46. Fig. Meisterscha- Griechische VIII. pi. 120 From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 121 73. Industrie 328.-f.GREEK VASE-PAINTING PI. LXII. From photo. from Caere. III. r. 121.-f. PI. From Monumenti XL. 7 Interior of a kylix by Epiktetos.-f. wdngler-Reichhold 63 Obverse of a kalyx-krater of Euphronios. Diameter 0*32. 123. PI. from Vulci Berlin Diameter 0. Louvre. i Part of the design on the psykter of Euphronios.. Vienna. 120. from Vulci Berlin 2278. Rhyton (in shape of a horse's head) with r. from : 129 Caere: PL LXXIV.29. skyphos. Giulio.46. pi. Fig. LXVI. from Italy Fig. no. Fig. from Caere.33. Exterior of a kylix.-f. Fig. 408. 1 18-9 Exteriors of a kylix of Brygos Paris. from Vulci. B.. 114. Petrograd. Villa di Papa Diameter of interior 0. Fig. 130 : 170 131 . Fig. 117. 115. Detail of an archaic Urlichs : from Vulci from (1872) 126 r. 122. 20 Scene on a psykter of Duris. Fig. E. To face page 119 Interior of a kylix by Skythes. : From Monuments LXIV. From photo. Height of krater 0. : pointed am- Munich. PI. PI. 768. 127 128 : Museum fiir Kunst und From photo. E len. E. Fig. Fig. pi. Paris. Hermitage. Plot XX.. PI. From photo. B. 112. LXVII. Interior of a formerly LXIX. 113.io. decoration of neck Boston. PL LXIII. 38. From photo. Louvre G 103. LXV. B. from Corneto Corneto. 123 : LXVIII.M. London. From Furt1670. From 125 Interior of a kylix of Brygos. now London. Fig. kylix. Figs. from Caere Rome. Jahn From Photo..

PI. 127.-f. : PL LXXVIII.085. 171 From Frohner. Diameter 0.24. VII. pi. To face page 132 Interior of a r. B. Jahn 368. 139 Obverse of a : : 0. from Height of vase Boston. Fig-. from EtruDiameter Munich. II. Interior of a ria psykter. 133 From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 86. : LXXVII. 1913.36. Falerii : From Fig. From FurtHeight of vase 0. Diameter 0. pi. r. 1896.GREEK VASE-PAINTING LXXV. Villa di of the potter Munch.28.425. Obverse 135 a r. pi. Instituts 1912.063. Barre. Coll. Jahn 370.M. From Furtwdngler-Reich- 0. F\g. Berlin 2294. 136 PI. krater New York. from Caere Berlin Diameter 0. 133 LXXXI. Fig. LXXX.30. hold 5 PI. : : : CHAPTER VI. from Vulci Diameter 6. 125. From photo. LXXXII. 136-7. r. 129 Fig. D 2. Figure on a skyphos of Pistoxenos. Fig. kylix. PI. Diameter Brussels. Fig-. 4 Kylix with white-ground interior.55. Orvieto Figs. photo. Kylix of Duris.-f. from G 341.-f. from Vulci Munich. : Fig. 2285. PI. R. From J. kylix-krater. of Sicily (?) : From Furtwdngler-Reichhold 0. Detail of a r. Caere from Jahrbuch des D. PI. Louvre Paris. krater. 131 134 photo. Brussels kylix.-f. 135 PI. r. Fig. 134 of Interior : from Papa Giulio. From photo.305. Fig. from Attica Bonn. p. 138 89 kylix. from Rhodes: London. 124. From photo. 130 : From LXXIX. wdngler-Reichhold 108 Design on lid and sides of a pyxis Bibliothfeque Royale. a : : Jahrb. 6 of a fragmentary whiteDetail ground lekythos. 126. kylix.. 140 .S. From Schwerin.-f. LXXVI.-f.H. LXXXIII. Fig. THE STYLE OF POLYGNOTOS AND PHEIDIAS. Hegesibulos PI.-f. Fig. 132 Fragmentary Rome. of Megakles Height 0.

Fig. PI.46. To face page 142 77. From Furtwdngler- 151 Reichhold 38. LXXXV. From Furtwdngler-Reichhold. 0. pi.-f. photo. 4 volute amphora.-f. hydria. 141 : gramm PI. XCII.1 Scene on a r. Scene on a pania : From PL LXXXIX. Amphora. from Rugge (Apulia) Lecce. D 58. from Vulci don. pi. krater.-f. stamnos. From PI.-f. From Furtwiingler-Riezler. LXXXVI. : From PI. XC. Fig-. LXXXVIII. 153 R. pi. Fig. (i8go) Amphora. 149 : Munich Vase Collection r. from Populonia Florence. 144 White-ground lekythos. Figs. 148. From three photos.-f. Fig.-f.-f. 142 LXXXVII. B. Height of frieze 0. from Gela Berlin. LXXXIV. the Scene on a : PI. Jatta Collection 1501.. from Vulci Munich. Height R. vase Naples. From photo. Figs.50.48. from Attica London. Collignon-Couve 1822. From Berliner ^o WinckelmannsproParis. Height of vase From Milani. Height of vase. Fig 139- : Fig. 143-4 143 : Lon0.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Fig.35. 0. 67 149-51. photo.40. eiss griindige : W PI. : Fig- 145- Detail of a white-ground lekythos Athens. Monumenti 0. Naples. From 146 : photo. Height 0.-f.M. Height of vase 0. E 271. 152 in PI. Fig. pi.-f. Fig. from neighbourhood of Arezzo Arezzo. 147.-f. XCI.57. from Ruvo Ruvo. r. Jahn 382. pelike. 145 Youth and maiden on a white-ground lekythos. 152. 172 . 138.54. From Furtwdngler-Reichhold. Lekythen. stamnos. 146 Fig. : PI. from Cam- Heydemann 2419. 140. Height ca. Detail of a r. photo. Three details of a fragmentary r. 93 R. 148 Scene on a r.445. from Attica Boston 8440. amphora pointed : Cabinet des Medailles 357. From FurtwdnglerReichhold 66 Scene on a r. 150 scelti. Height of vase 0.

XCVI.GREEK VASE-PAINTING PI. XCIII.S. from Kerch (Crimea) Petrograd. 159. jugf Oxford. face page the from Height Paris. bell-krater Italian Lower comedy scene (Phlyax vase). 154. Attic Late Greece Munich. From photo. PI. Apulian volute amphora. From Munch.53. Height 0.2. : pi.. 156 : 157 : Fig. LATE OFFSHOOTS :— : Fig. Scene on a r. vi^ith from B. 8 173 Jahrh. of vase 0. F. Louvre. HermHeight 0. 1905. 79 Hellenistic cup with designs painted Height 0. XCV. Fig. : Furtwdngler-Reichhold 87. I.H. II. 1909. 158.. XCIV. in white Apulia. from Bari Height 1. from kalyx-krater. 160. Heig-ht From J. 204.09. Munich.21. Fig. Lucanian Basilicata Fig. p. From photo.39. Height of vase 0.-f. London.25. 158 . 191 3. To PI.38. 157- : From 0.41. From itage 1795. Boston. : From Miinch.M. 156. photo. p. 155- Scene on a late Attic pelike. 154 bell-krater. Fig. fig. Jahrh. PI. CHAPTER VII. Fig-. 151. I.

49. Aphrodite. 60. 51. 131. Amasis. (necked). 144. Aristophanes. 106. 42. 68. ^g-ina. Alexandria. 74. 156. 122. 89. Argos (town). no. 12. 109. 74. 22. 156. 2. Artemis. Apulian vases. 5. 109. 99. Berlin. 26. 143- (Campanian painter). 127. 49. (pointed). 140. 157. 53. 18. Master of the. 92. 108. 42Argonaut Master. 25. 139. 66. 92. The. Athens. Andokides ' Bellerophon. /3i- painter. 155. 99. 50. otherwise stated. 55. Apulia. (Nolan). 153- Amphitrite. 105. 139. 106. 131. 72. 137. 151. 54. 54. i39> 157- Acropolis (of Athens). 96. 6. 65. 136. 123. king. Berlin amphora. ^olians. Vases in. etc. 19. * 86. no. Aryballos. 5. Argos (giant). 25. 55. (Attica). 135. 84. 115. 147. (big-bellied). 159. Aphrodite. 126. 99. at. 126. amphora Altenburg-. 68. 94. Aison. Africa. 136. 129. Adonis. 151. 137. 26. Asia Minor. (with twisted handles). 153- "DARBOTINE. 52. Andokides. 22. 121. 1 Beaked 114. Aristagoras (kalos). amphora at. 119. 71. 32. 130. 82. 114. Arg-onauts. 59. 139. 17. 147. 143. Boeotia (Boeotians). '^s. i33> 134. 112. y. 127. Amphora. 42. Arezzo. 114. 14. Acropolis sculptures. 115. 174 . 67. 26. 104. Alabastron. 6.^ Artemis the Persian. 15. 51. Amazons. 19. Athens. 149. The. 106. i6. jug. no. Athenodotos . Anakreon. Astyanax. 100. 7. 81. 55. 44. Athena. 157. 6. 127. 52. 6. 156. 117. ^olis. 60. 68. 141.INDEX OF NAMES The names of painters Athenian. 103. 149. 147. 65. Boreas. 120. 38. Aias. 46.^. Assteas 107. 191. 84. 26. it is ACHAEANS. 75. Aristonothos (? Aristonoos. 87. 104. 17. 64. 52. 54. 89. no. 39. 152. 51. Temple of. 128. Antenor Aphidna 8. Attica. 50. Bonn. 33. 6. 116. unless and potters are printed All are in italics. Amphiaraos. ^g-ean Sea. 58. 158. 153. 90. Arkesilas. 99. 42. 56. 81. 19. 130. in. 149. 61. 142. Ariadne. 44. Alkmaion. 42. 33. 152. 5. 127. 33. Vases in. 126. 108. 121. 79. Vases in. 125. (Panathenaic). 124. 135. 40. 50. (sculptor). 126. Arg-ive alphabet. 24. 125. perhaps Argive). 137. Achilles. 42. 135. 49. The. 92. 131. 97. 140-2. 80. Antaios. 126. 65. 14. 103. 129. 134. 115. 135. 137. 139Black Sea. 19. 113. 67. 71. Argolid. Assarlik. 102. 17. Aktaion. (kalos). 28. 96. no. 65. 158. Apollo.

i. 106. Euphrates. 26. 100. 123. 2. 2. 89. 56. 80. Caeretan hydriae. 45. 131. 53. 94. 120. PATTERN CABLE (Guil- ' 34. 156.147. 50. master. Centaurs. Campania. 25. 38. 15. 90. plate. style. 87. 69. Eleusis. 7^. 104. . 19. Cycladic (pottery. 33. Dorpfeld (Wilhelm). 52. 6. i. Cyrene. Castle Ashby.'53- Corfu. 94. 156. 91. 17. 43. 139- Centauromachy. 68. 6g. 96. 99. 92. The. 44. 6. loi. 26. Dorians. 6. 42. 98. 135. Eretria. Etruria. Cretans. 129. 106. The. 34. 73. 58. 129. 35. 34. 53. Deiniades. Daphne. 129. Diomede. 66. 82. 140. Eiicheiros. 130. 137. AEDALIC TYPES. 10. 25. etc. 50. Delos. 52. Vases in. 131. Dionysos. 45. Chalkidian Dipylon (Athens). 131. Delta. 91. 100. 45. 25. . 114. 108. 81. 89. Ergoteles. 105. 59. Demeter. The. 5. Deianeira. Chigri jug-. 103. style. 16. 126. 148. Bowl <"pv Bronze Age. Egyptian. 12. 87-9. 94. 107. 54. 54. ). 25. 112. 94. loi. Epilykos (kalos). 124. 127. 75. 97. 146. Chares (Corinthian painter). 9. Ephesian sculpture. Delphi. 100. Brygos painter. Erginos. 14. 27. 90. 100. 17. 35. Chalkis. 120-3. 151. 148. Eos. 133. Ethos. Charitaios. 96. 25. 123. 89. 105. 75-80. Bronze-foundry Master. 22. Boston. Duris. 100. 126. 22. 56. 143. 135. Eumares. Corinth. Eriphyle. 34. Cyprus. The. 123. 94. 69. 86. 26. 150. 14. 144. Euboic (or Delian) ware. 42. (kalos). Chimaera. 94. 108. 99. 39. Carthag-e. Eretria Circe. 26. 86. 90. Butades (Sicyonian).83. Euboea. 130. Chairestratos 79. 13. 96. 19. Euphorbos 5. Ergotimos. EGYPT. 15. 31. 70-75. 126. 119. Busiris (Pharaoh). 152. 94. 40. Etruscan. 96. iii. 129. Chelis. 2. 40. 66. 55- Cyclades. 71. 88.INDEX OF NAMES Boreas. 128. 70. 122. _l_y Daedalus. Amphora at. Vases in. 35. 128. 4. 107. 17. 100. 52. 86. 121. The. 98. loi. 121. 66. 146. 118. 130. 42. 106. Caere. 90. 25. 15. 70. 15. 90. loi. 80. Delian (or Euboic) ware. 100. 55. 103. Dimini. Crete. Corneto. 135. 157(Schiissel). 139- Bucchero ware. 30. i. Corinthian 108. Epiktetos. 82. 130. 27. 97. 142. 175 12. 149. Sons of. 39. 4. 3. 77. loche). 59. 24. 97.

Euxitheos. 123. 67. 23. 146. . 133. Kachrylion. 86. Geometric 149. 130. 99. 157. 114. 50. Gorg-on lebes. 109. Gela. 60. Horse master. 72. Funnel vase. 4. 48. loi. 71. 105. 100. 88. Exekias. 126. loi. rotelle. 130. 114.skin-shaped. 135. 71. Hephaistos. 64. 108. 142. 67. Euthymides. 130. 66. loi. 139. 40. y8. 1 Iliad. 133. J Jug with 12. 95. 144- Gig-antomachia. (kalos). 86. 123. 16. 114. 72. 57. 108. ^37. 123. Sir William. 82. i8. Hermogenes (kalos). 60-2. Isocephalism. 47. 122-9. Herakles. 98. 118. Vases in shape of. 134. Fikellura (Samian) ware. 83. 127. 94. 41. i. 150. Hermes. 118. HADRA Ionic art. Iliad Furtwang-ler. 79. 68. 127. (kalos).GREEK VASE-PAINTING Euphronios. 71. Ge. Hypsis. 7. 55-62. 74. 90. 49. 17. 150. 31. 18.' The. Mt. 42. 79. 22. Hellenistic painting. KABIRION. loi. 114. 119. 59. 97. Hesiod. 50. 73. Homer. Italy. 41. 119. 125. Harpies. 116. Fates. Homeric poems. 39. 134. 11 6-9. 69. Hydria. 131. 50. 135.. Vase in. 102. 119. 144. Griffin head jug. 29. 97. Hipparchos Hippodamas 116. 139- 20. 109). 66. Hieron. 133. Gorgon. 108. 113. 157. 16. 128. Law of. 135. no. 8. 26. wine. 109. 103. 65. T DA. 122. 22. VASES. 131. 55. The. 129. Kalistanthe (kale). style. no. 138. 62. APANESE ART. 54. 120. 65. 120. 96. 68. 17. 114. Heroon. 64. 22. Geryon. 103. 53. Hegesibulos. Adolf. 120. 102. Hymettos. Francois vase. 88. 79-89. Hamilton. 15. 109. Hippodameia. 125. 143. 88. and Odyssey). Helen. Hetairai. 25. 22-8. 125. 117. 145. 147. 58. 12. 4. 68. 79. 124. 67. Florence. FACE ' URNS. Hygieia. 116. 49. Gnathia vases. 66. 59. Hermonax. 115. 123. 22. 115. 20. 60. 97. 72. Ionia. Helios. 159. Hector. lonians. 71. 75. 124. Flamed ware. 152. 19. 56. 145- lole. 100. 143. 135. 116. 44. 123. Halimedes. son of Leag-ros (kalos). Eurytios. 67. Hissarlik (Troy). Iliupersis. Glaukon. 152. 137. 120. Head. GALES. 176 41-3. 122. Hymn (Homeric). 117. 128. Fibulae. 104. 135 (see 17. 97-9. lo. 138. 104. 107. Hischylos. 142 (Figs. 73. 54. 89. loi. 139- Europa. 121.

116. 90. 6. Kyme ' Melos. 134. 153. 52. Megakles (Alkmaeonid). Loutrophoros in Athens. (statesman). 122. Krater. 65. 25. 145. 104. 42. Chest 18. Minotaur. Kyknos. 84. Makron. Kerameikos. loi. Pelike Leto. Early. 6. 130. 131. 104. 12. 125. (volute) 157. (eye) 81. 66. 27. 71. Lecce. 49. 66. 108. Miletus. Massilia. Metope maeander. 5. Megakles (potter). 55. son of Amasis. iii. Kavusi. 115. 158. Menelaos. 81. 102. 87. 87. 15. 115. 103. Minyan ware. 27. Louvre (see Paris). 95. 123. 103. 125. Kamares London. father of Glaukon (kalos) . of. 127. . 97. 11. 156. 78. 67. 135. Memnon Memnon hero). 123. 9. Kaloi. 151. 147. 12. ' yr Menon. 155. 28. Kalliades. (2). 120. 126. (epic (kalos). 86. 156. 9. Lucania. 114. 118. 8. 95.. 1 1. 134. 107. 18. . 114. 140. 65. Late. 73. Minoan style (i). Marina (Hagia). 10. 53. 61. 136. 9. 124. Metopes. 66. 103. painter). Leukas. 49. Korone. ' 149. 6. Knossos. Monochromy. 67. 127. (with offset rim) 91. 158. 92. Leagfros. Mattmalerei (lustreless painting). (with stand) 74. 142. 116. 127. Metallic effect in vase shapes. Minos. 6. 121. 10. Klitias. Melian vases. Kerch Kimon Kimon style. 98. 84. Kolchos. 52. Melusa. (bell) 127.109. 156. 114. Vases of. Kleophrades. 105. 106. (bronze) 53. IN. Klazomenian sarcophag-i. Middle. 129. 116. painter. 71. 34. 149. 5. 143- Kleophrades painter. 83. 30. 126. Meidias. 71. 87. 10. Klazomenian style. 7. Meleag-er. Mnasalkes (Theban). 98. 78. 114. 72. 7. 7. loi. 91. ' 131. 78. (calyx) 123. 149. Medusa. Lydos (the Lydian). 104. Mochlos (Crete). 76. Kleanthes (Corinthian 11 1. (bird). Klytemnestra. 14. 113. 135. 33. Kypselos. 5. (3). 104. 142- Lebes (cauldron) 57. 26. 130. 121. 53-5. Kallinos. 83. 119. 44. Lower Italy. 13. 5. 100. 114. 96. Kantharos. 120. 136. 102. LANUVIAN JUNO. 61. (a colonnette) 74. Marathon. 129. 14. 53. 5. 13. 134. 152. Lion Gate. 157. (Italy). Kylix 119. TV ADRID. 33. 14. style. 177 48. 121. of Kleonai. VASES Maenads. 108. Vases in. at. 156. 127. 145. Lotus. The. 55. 56. Kassandra. 143. 50. 94. 114. 57. 130. 58. 143. 8. 21. Klazomenai. 25.INDEX OF NAMES Little Masters. 30. 28. 156. 142. 108. 140. 7.

130. loi. 13s. Phaistos. (see Amphora). Odyssey. Pedieus (kalos). 78. 19. Periclean ag-e. 53. {?). 145. 113. 61. 107. Nauplia. 125. 148. (Boeotia). 150. Penthesileia. Patroklos. Phaleron style. 129. 148. 152. 27- Orpheus. 35. 14 109. 145. The. 107. 123. 92. 126. 154140. 65. 128. Mycenean. 142. loi. Olympia. i. 13. 79. 123. 152. Perseus. 16. no. 130. 32. Vases in. (2) Parthenon. The. Peloponnese. 2. 142. 59. Panathenaea. Vases PAIDIA. Oltos. 143. 66. 137. Paris Vases in (i) Louvre. 138. 14. 178 80-3. 121. NAPLES. Pamphaios. Phaon. 122. Musaios. 67. 114. 147. 128. 13. 109. Neoptolemos. 128. 151- Nereids. 115. 10. : 49. 106. 103. Nessos vase. New York. 103. Pausanias (Descriptio Graeciae). 11. Naturalistic style. 108. 149. 8y. 96. 51. 137. 131. 7. 134. 22. 121. late 124. 12. Neolithic. 91. 88. 1. 138. . 139. loi. 79. in. 117. 127. 123. 82. Naples. Vases in. 126. 58. Panaitios ' Master. 124. 43. 104. 139. 47. 130. 122. 9. 15. 143. Onetorides (kalos). 71. Perugia Master. Pan Master. 49. 145. 128. 116. Penthesileia Master. Orvieto. 102. Calyx-Krater from. 141. 144. 83. 7. Nearchos. 104. Paris (of Troy). Nudity. Oxford. Nike balustrade. 105. 123. 144. 59. 95. 14. 108. 140. ' Phineus ' style. 39. 40. Peleus. 49. 90. 139- Petrograd. Muse. Psykter 106. Nile. 5. 20. dailles. 60. - 152. 76. 151. 115. The. 112. 33. 151. . 64. 126. 94. Orestes. Vase in. Orchomenos 17. — 19 (late). 130. 14. Pelops. Panathenaic amphorae I. 6. 51. 1 1 15. Fron' ' 8. Pelias. 150. Pheidias. Nikosthenes. 81. Peithinos. The. 50. 89. loi. 150. 128. 156. 127. Cabinet des M6- 148. Pegasus. 58. 99. 148. Panaitios (kalos). 105. 103.. 143. Palaisto. 12. ODYSSEUS. 48. ' tispiece. 102. 67. 121. 118. 150. Oichalia. 86. 48. 150. The. Palace style (second Minoan). style. 49. 119. in. 122. Naukratis. 5. 144. 155. 95. 71. Pelike. Onesimos 119. 156. Olympos. 29-32. 14. 6. ^2. 116. 67. 108. 72. 139.53. 116. The. 32. 100. 54. 91.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Munich. 123. 127. Mycenae. 124. 13. Nolan Nymph. Oriental art. 47.

Psiax. Stamno'S. 35. Rankeng-eschlingf. 138. 123. 151. 34 (see Butades). 136. 120. 146. 14. 84. 37. work. 56. 98. 145. 147. 121. Plate (Teller). 154. 36. 114. 153. Poseidon. 27. 139. Skythes (the Scythian). 44. 114. 109. 153. 25. 79. * Spartan ware. 133. 53. 140. 80. Praxiteles. 158. 75. ' Skopas. 114. 107. 156. Naukratis. 119. 96. 127. 123. 147. 41. 47. Pinax (votive tablet). 31. Stesagoras (kalos). 134. 126. 34. 30. Rheneia. 37. 95. 45. South. 71. 150. 49. 75. 81. 96. 14. Sirens. 90. 143. 26. Sicyonian-Corinthian metal work. 56-9. ' 7. 41. 54."ured 1 1 style. III. 83. 143. Pyros (Theban). 90-3. 123. 47. Sesklo. Silhouette. 104. 112. 120. Pontus. 59. 26. 32. 140. 42. 15. 46. Priam. Pisistratidae. 32. 26. 41. 119. 4. 61. 32. 2. 123. 119. Sarpedon. 119. 105. 122. Phoenicia. 42.. Shaft graves (Mycenae). 65. 135. 45. 15. 102. Silenus. 5. Piraeus amphora. 120. 134. 79. 116. 10. Sotades. 89. 61. 38. Master. 75. 84. 15. 33. 31. 141. 134. Spata. 36. Skyphos (two-handled cup). SAMOS 51. (see Fikellura). 53. 2. 38. Sosias ' painter^ 125. 60. 58. 30. 91. Protocorinthian. 158. Pisistratus. 125. 97. Schwerin. Polygnotos. Phintias.) Polygnotan vases. Polygnotos (vase painter). 59. 117. Phoenician metal 135- Rotelle. Polychromy. Satyrs. 43. 124. 60. 122. 128. 104. 145. Sparta. 92. 122. 87. 148. Polyneikes. 99. 122. 88. Rays. ' ' Pronomos The. 146. 1-3. 123. 36. Rome. Silphion.INDEX OF NAMES Phineus kylix. 42. Phlyakes. 52. 39. 8. 126. Praisos. Pontic vases. 76. Sarcophagi (see Klazomenai). 120. 130. 158. 143. Smikros. 6. 120. Russia. 89. 30. 99. 46. 100. 179 . 150. 7. 49. Scythians. 32. 144. Phocis. Pistoxenos. 71. 130. 90. 114. 92. Heinrich. 47. 121. 58. 150. Physiognomy. Psykter. 81. Red-fig. 57. Sicyon. Pliny. 142. Selene. 81. RAM JUG. 93 (see Kamares. 129. 122. Polyphemus. i. 93. Rhodes. 79. Circle of. Pylos. Sphinx. Rhodian ware. Sosias kylix. 26. 40. Vase in. 65. 120. 35. 12. 17. Sleep and Death. Python. Sophilos. 82. 43. 45. Vases in. 43. 66. Sicily. 125. 81. 95. 137. 45. Schliemann. 55.

Head. Triada Hagia (Crete). Skyphos. 126. 95. 145. Polygnotos). Stylized ornament. 42. 14. 12. 81. 155. Vienna. 138. Tiryns. 50. Villa Giulia Master. Thebes. . 67. The. 33- Wiirzburg. 139. 24 Floral St. Amphora. 128. Talos vase. Vurvd 2. loi. 98. Triptolemos. 14. (from Mycenae). London. Stirrup vase. Thera. 71. 17. Eumares.C.2. 105. 158. VAPHIO. 11. 42.. Kylix. Thetis. 47. 72. XENOPHANTOS. 2. Tyrrhenian' vases. 23. 100. 34. 6. 147. 151. 13 . 11. 14. 19. 108. 67. 15. 51. 97. Veii. Bowl. Psykter. 14. 2^. 45. Beaked jug-. Z EUS. Thersites. Troy. 33. 92. Lebes. 99. Theseus. Vase shapes (see Alabastron. Textile influence. i. Hydria. 4. 7. 5. Kimon (see 45. 6. Tripod vase). 129. 119. Aryballos. 100. Stirrup-vase. 108. Warrior vase Tiresias. Kantharos. 65. 9. 1 19. Tripod vase. Vases in. in (82). 135. 157. 66. 113Tintoretto. Tyrtaios. Volo. Timagoras. 106. of Kleonai. 154. 95. W. 25. 118. 130. Tectonic style. Sthenelos. 52. 65. Face urn. 28. 156. 96. Plate. Troilos. 22. 51. THE 158. 98. 5. Kleanthes. 31. 33. 79. 157. 65. 5. 128. Printed by Herbert Reiach. ATHENIAN. 93. PAINTING WALL Butades. 103. 68. Triton. 16. 26. vases.. 46. TALEIDES. 89. 158. Vases Titian. 32. 42. 67. Pelike. Psykter in. 3. 83. 152. Thorikos (Attica). 149. 104. 108. 106. CoventGarden. 158. 3. Syracuse. 91. 129. 53. Terpsichore. Thamyris. Stamnos. Thracian women. Stesichoros. 129. Loutrophoros. 143. Tityos. 105. Stone Age. Turin. Funnelvase. Vase in. Krater. ' Stockholm. 99.GREEK VASE-PAINTING Stasias (kalos). Timonidas (Corinthian). 151- Thessaly. Tragodia. 22. 137. 14. III. Ltd. 12. Jug. Tleson.

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PRINTEOIN USA. .

B8713 1921 Ernst. Ernst Greek vase-painting. . Art NK 4645 Buschor. Greek vase-painting . 1886-1961.ARTH 3 5002 00247 1253 Buschor.