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Vol. XLVI, No. 1
I. S. S. N.—0002—1555

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AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING
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A National Level Quarterly Journal
on Agricultural Marketing

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Directorate of Marketing & Inspection
Ministry of Agriculture
(Deptt. of Agriculture & Co-operation)
Government of India
ATTENTION READERS
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"Agricultural Marketing” have been increased from April-June, 2003
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2 Agricultural Marketing

/ws4/My Documents/228M&I-Cov 2 28 M & I/2003 Mahabir Singh Fresh 1


Vol. XLVI–No. 1
pS=&&vk"kk<+] 1925 ¼'kd½ ISSN. 0002–1555
APRIL—JUNE, 2003 PAMA–116, VOL–XLVI, No. 1
500

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AGRICULTURAL MARKETING
EDITORIAL BOARD CONTENTS Page No.
1. SHRI P. K. AGARWAL, 1. Economics of Wheat Cultivation at village Badayal
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING Brahaman of R. S. Pura Block in Jammu district of Jammu
and Kashmir State.
ADVISER TO THE GOVT.
—Arun Kumar, Jagdeep Kaur Gill & Manish Sharma. 2
OF INDIA.
2. Basic Requirements for Popularizing Apiary Honey—
2. DR. G. R. BHATIA, Consumers’ Viewpoints.
ADDL. AGRICULTURAL —S. K. Chauhan & S. K. Sharma 6
MARKETING ADVISER. 3. Economics of Production, Post-harvest Management and
Price Behaviour of Cole crops in Western UP—An Empirical
3. SHRI H. P. SINGH, Analysis.
JOINT AGRICULTURAL —M. K. Wadhwani & T. S. Bhogal 10
MARKETING ADVISER. 4. Price Spread and Marketing of Green Chillies—A case study
in Andhra Pradesh.
4. SHRI D. N. TIWARI, —G. Sunil Kumar Babu, 21
JOINT AGRICULTURAL Sri Hari Naidu & Y. Eswara Prasad.
MARKETING ADVISER. 5. Marketing of Soybean in Sehore district of Madhya
Pradesh.
5. SHRI A. P. BHATNAGAR, —K. N. S. Banafar, A. K. Gauraha 24
DIRECTOR (COLD STORAGE V. K. Choudhary, G. N. Singh & B. C. Jain
AND REFRIGERATION). 6. Marketable Surplus of Rice and Wheat and Benefits of
6. DR. P. K. JAISWAL, Storage to the Farmers in India.
—B. R. Atteri and Geeta Bisaria. 27
DIRECTOR OF 7. Rearing of Male Buffalo Calves as a Meat Producer.
LABORATORIES. —Kamal Chakrabarti. 32
8. Cumin Seed Marketing in Rajasthan.
7. SHRI G. H. DHANKAR,
—A. L. Agrawal and Narendra Singh. 36
DEPUTY AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING ADVISER. 9. HOME NEWS: 43
8. SHRI LALLAN RAI
(i) National sample survey: 56th Round 2000-01. House
ASSTT. AGRICULTURAL
hold consumer expenditure and Employment situa-
MARKETING ADVISER tion in India: Key results.
EDITOR (ii) Modernization of Trade marks registry makes rapid
progress
SHRI N. K. MISRA (iii) Shri Ajit Singh calls for correcting inadequacies in
MARKETING OFFICER farm education.
(iv) All Exim policy notification issued simultaneously.
(v) Workshop on extension reforms inaugurated.
Annual Subscription :

IMPORTANT
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ANY ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN THIS JOURNAL CAN BE REPRODUCED PROVIDED DUE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IS MADE TO THE SOURCE.
THE VIEWS EXPRESSED IN THE ARTICLE ARE THOSE OF THE AUTHORS AND NOT NECESSARILY OF THE DIRECTORATE OF MARKETING
& INSPECTION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.
READERS MAY SEND POPULAR ARTICLES OF TOPICAL INTEREST IN HINDI AND ENGLISH TO THE EDITOR, AGRICULTURAL MARKETING,
DIRECTORATE OF MARKETING & INSPECTION, NEW C. G. O. BUILDING, N. H. IV, FARIDABAD-121001.
Economics of wheat cultivation at village Badayal Brahaman of
R. S. Pura Block in Jammu district of Jammu & Kashmir State
—ARUN KUMAR*, JAGDEEP KAUR GILL** AND MANISH SHARMA**

I f the 1980’s witnessed India attain self-sufficiency in food,


it was the 1990’s that earned a place for it among the major
foodgrain exporting countries. Alongwith wheat, rice has
ability (cost structure and return obtained) from wheat
cultivation on different categories of sampled farm of
village Badayal Brahaman of R. S. Pura tehsil of district
contributed substantially to attain such an enviable position Jammu.
(E. A. Siddiq, 2002).
Limitation of the study: The present study is based on
The native Indian wheat grain is globally recognized for some limitations that there is no influence of farm size on
its quality and has always been in demand from overseas the cost of cultivation and cost of production of wheat crop.
clients. During the later half of the 19th century, several 2) The farm size has no influence on the crop yield, total
Indian wheat varieties were used as parental lines in Aus- return and net return and input-output ratio is directly
tralia, Kenya and in many countries. During the crop year related to size of farm.
2001, India harvested 68.46 million tonnes of wheat and
Methodology
for the last few years is the second largest producer of
wheat in the world. India alone produces about 13 percent The study is based on primary data collected from the farm-
of the world wheat production. During the year 1999-2000 ers of Village Badayal Brahaman of tehsil Ranbir Singh Pura
India exported 2,00,000 tonnes of wheat which increased to by personal interview method, related to the year 2000-2001.
2.37 million tonnes during the last year and it may cross 3 The farm-size holding groups in this study were:
million tonnes this year mainly due to the growing demand I. Below 2 hectare of land, small farmer,
in our neighbourhood (S. Nagarajan, 2002).
II. 2-4 hectare of land, medium farmer.
Wheat is the second most consumed foodgrain of India.
It is grown in almost every state of India and the state of III. Above 4 hectare of land, large farmer.
Jammu & Kashmir is among one of them. During the year Simple statistical tools like percentage and averages
2000-2001, in J & K state the total area under wheat crop were employed on the collected data to achieve the stipu-
was 280.96 “000” ha and production was 1487 “000” Qts lated objectives of the present investigation.
(Digest of statistics, 2000-01).
Results & Discussion
Although the wheat crop is predominant in all districts
The details of land use pattern regarding the number of
of the state yet Jammu is famous from the point of view of
farms selected, total cultivated area in hectares average size
total production. Jammu district comprises of five tehsils.
of the farm, average irrigated area etc. of farm size groups
The tehsil Ranbir Singh Pura was selected purposely as it
of Village Badayal Brahaman of R. S. Pura Block of
has leading position with respect to area and production of
Jammu district are depicted in Table 1. According to the
wheat in the district. Tehsil R. S. Pura has all the character-
results of the study, the average size of the farm worked out
istics of wheat cultivation and has considerable potential to
to be 2.62 ha, it being 1.94 ha, in small, 2.67 ha, in medium
increase its production and yield per hectare by the intro-
and 4. 17 ha, in large.
duction of new inputs and improved practices of cultiva-
tion. Table 1
Average land use pattern of farm size groups in the study area
In order to open up new yield and income possibilities
on the farms, one needs detailed information on the level
Particulars Small Medium Large All farms
and distribution of farm resource, their utilization pattern
and the production and income levels. This is essential for 1 2 3 4 5
identification of structural weaknesses needing ameliora-
No. of selected farm 25 15 5 45
tion. Similarly, information on cropping pattern cost and
returns from wheat crop on farms of different sizes is Total cultivated area in 48.5 40.5 20.81 109.36
different size groups (ha)
essential for evaluating the scope of introducing new crop
production technologies in the area. Therefore an attempt Average size of the farm (ha) 1.94 2.67 4.17 2.62
has been made to study and analyse the economic profit- Average irrigated area 48.5 40.05 20.81 109.36

*From Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra and **Assistant Professors, Division of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, S.K.U.A.S.T.-
J, R.S. Pura, Jammu.

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size. While the cash crops indicated the reverse trend
1 2 3 4 5
area under these crops varies with the farm size. In Rabi
Average un-irrigated area — — — — season wheat occupied about 38% of crop area in overall
farms while it was 39.49, 37.46 and 37.78 percent of
Total % of irrigated area 100 100 100 100 total cropped area in small, medium and large farms re-
Percentage of area under spectively.
different sources

a. Tubewell/pumpset 14.98 19.77 16.82 17.13 Table 2


b. Canal 85.02 80.23 83.18 82.87 Distribution of crops and their percentage of the total cropped
area
Cropped area per farm (ha) 3.90 5.98 8.84 5.55
(ha./farm)
Cropping intensity 201.03 223.97 211.99 210.47
Crop Small Medium Large Overall
The total cultivated acreage in the study area was worked
out to be 48.5, 40.05 and 20.81 ha. in case of small Maize 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.05
(1.03) (1.00) (0.90) (0.90)
medium and large size groups respectively. All the culti-
vated area under different size groups is irrigated. There Paddy 1.05 2.14 3.34 1.86
were no un-irrigated areas in any of the size groups. It (26.92) (35.79) (37.78) (33.51)
means all farms have their area fully irrigated. The table 1 Other cash crops 0.39 0.53 0.85 0.53
further showed that the percentage of total irrigated area (10.00) (8.86) (9.62) (9.55)
covered by canal comes out to be 82.87 per cent. It is 85.02 T. Kharif 1.48 2.73 4.27 2.44
per cent in small, 80.23 per cent in medium and 83.18 per (37.95) (45.65) (48.30) (43.96)
cent in large group. The tubewell/pumpset covered 17.13 Wheat 1.54 2.24 3.34 2.12
per cent of the total irrigated area on the all farms. It was (39.49) (37.46) (37.78) (38.20)
14.98, 19.77 and 16.82 per cent on small, medium and Oilseeds 0.31 0.40 0.63 0.40
large farms sizes respectively due to the cheap source of (7.95) (6.69) (7.13) (7.21)
irrigation more then 82 per cent farmers irrigated their
Others 0.08 0.08 0.13 0.09
farms by the canal. Where canal water irrigation is not (2.05) (1.37) (1.47) (1.62)
available for irrigation some farmers irrigated their farms
T. Rabi 1.93 2.72 4.10 2.61
by the tubewell/pumpset. (49.56) (45.48) (46.38) (47.03)

The average cropping intensity on all the farms came Zaid Moong 0.49 0.53 0.47 0.50
out to be 210.47 per cent, which was maximum 223.97 (12.56) (8.86) (5.32) (9.01)
per cent in medium size groups and lowest 201.3 per
Total 3.90 5.98 8.84 5.55
cent in small size group of farms. The cropping intensity (100) (100) (100) (100)
is highest on the medium size farm because farmers of
this group made use of all the available resources more Note. Figures in the parentheses indicate percentage.
efficiently than others.
About 9 per cent of the overall cropped area occupied
Cropping pattern by the moong in Zaid season. The percentage area under
moong decreases as the farm size increases.
The information regarding area under different crops
and their percentage to the total cropped area is pre- Per hectare item-wise cost of wheat cultivation
sented in Table-2. The above table shows that the aver-
age cropped area on all the farms during the study pe- Table 3 gives the per hectare expenditure on various
riod was 555 hactare. Out of the total cropped area Kharif, inputs used in the production of wheat crop, the table
Rabi and Zaid crops occupied about 37.95, 49.56 and reveals that the per hectare overall total cost (Cost C)
12.56 per cent of the total cropped area respectively. was Rs. 13362.31, which varies from Rs. 12993.53 on
Within the different farm size groups the total cropped small farms to Rs. 13577.39 on medium farm size group.
area came to 3.90 in small size groups, 5.98 in medium There was not much difference in the overall cost in
and 8.84 ha in large size farm groups. Paddy and wheat between large and medium farm size groups. Rental value
were the main crops of the respective season occupied of land, value of human labour were the items occupy-
about 27 per cent and 39 per cent of the total cropped ing maximum share in total cost followed by value of
area. In Kharif season overall per farm area under maize machine labour and value of manure and fertilizers, value
0.05 hactare which shows downward trend with the farm of seed and interest in fixed capital.

April—June, 2003 3

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Table 3

Item-wise break-up cost of cultivation of wheat crop.

(Rs./ha)

Size groups Overall

Item Small Medium Large

Value % Value % Value % Value %


(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)

1. Human labour

a. Family 1214.58 9.35 1408.75 10.38 678.00 5.03 1110.79 8.31

b. Hired 354.58 2.73 558.50 4.11 1424.00 10.57 761.17 5.70

Total 1569.16 12.08 1967.25 14.49 2102.00 15.60 1871.96 14.01

2. Bullock 427.00 3.29 450.76 3.32 177.81 1.32 357.32 2.67

3. Seed 971.41 7.48 671.87 4.95 852.09 6.33 834.37 6.24

4. Manure & fertilizers 1572.14 12.10 1476.52 10.87 1209.00 8.98 1428.35 10.69

5. Machinery 1346.08 10.36 1487.50 10.96 1655.50 12.29 1493.93 11.80

6. Irrigation charges 287.00 2.21 290.00 2.04 272.00 2.02 283.83 2.12

7. Interest on working 185.18 1.43 184.02 1.36 188.05 1.40 186.10 1.39
capital

Total variable cost 6357.97 48.93 6527.92 48.08 6456.45 47.94 6455.86 48.31

Land revenue 20.40 0.16 40.40 0.30 50.50 0.37 36.09 0.27

Interest on fixed capital 590.06 4.54 712.22 5.25 669.35 4.97 657.46 4.92

Depreciation on fixed 525.10 4.04 626.85 4.62 591.13 4.39 581.30 4.35
capital

Rental value of land 5500 42.33 5670 41.76 57.00 42.33 5631 42.16

Total fixed cost 6635.56 51.07 7049.47 51.92 7010.98 52.06 6906.45 51.69

Total cost 12993.53 100 13577.39 100 13467.43 100 13362.31 100

Wheat crop is a labour intensive crop, therefore, besides rental value of land and depreciation on fixed costs capital
rental value of land, value of human labour ranked second showed increasing trend with the farm size.
in the total cost. Cost of family labour was found maxi- Table 4
mum in medium farm size group i.e. 1038 per cent, while Cost concept-wise break-up of per hectare cost of cultivation
or small and large farms it was 9.35 and 5.03 per cent
respectively. While values hired human labour was maxi- Category Cost A Cost B Cost C Cost C2
mum on large farms in comparison to other two categories Small 5688.89 11778.95 12993.53 14292.88
of farms and varies inversely with the farm size. Similarly,
Medium 5786.42 12168.64 13577.39 14935.13
value of machine labour use was highest Rs.1655.50 on
Large 6420.08 12789.43 13467.43 14814.17
large farms and lowest on small farm size group, which
indicate the extent of mechanization on different farm size Overall 5963.06 12251.52 13362.31 14698.54

groups in the production of wheat crop. Percentage share of The table shows the cost concept-wise break-up of
seed to the total cost varies inversely with the farm size hectare cost of cultivation of wheat crop. It reveals from
with exception in medium farm size group where it was the table that the overall expenditure C2 (total cost + mana-
found minimum. the fixed costs such as land revenue, gerial cost) of wheat crop in the study area worked out to

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Rs. 14698.54, it being Rs. 5963.66, Rs. 122251.52 and The overall cost of production of wheat crop worked out
Rs.13362.31 on small, medium and large farms respec- to Rs. 330 per quintal on overall farms, being Rs. 332.39,
tively. An overall average total cost (cost C) was found Rs. 326.16 and Rs. 332.67 on small, medium and large
maximum Rs. 13577.39 on medium farms followed by farm size group respectively looking into per hectare farm
large (Rs. 13467.43) and small (Rs. 12993.53) farm size business income, family labour income, net income and
group. It can also be observed from the table that cost C farm investment income. These were highest on medium
and C2 were highest on medium farms as compared to farm size group followed by large and small farm size
small and large farms size group. While on the other hand groups, except family labour income which was higher on
cost A, cost B varies with the farm size. small farms than large farm size group.
Table 5
The input-output ratio was also found to be highest on
Per hectare value of production medium farm size group that is 1:1.72 while it was just
(in Rs.) same on the large and small farm size groups. The overall
average input-output ratio was estimated 1:1.70.
Size group Value of main Value of bye Total value
product product Conclusion
Small 18698.40 5379.00 24077.40
Agriculture is still an unorganized sector consisting
Medium 20020.00 5622.00 25642.00 mainly of small and marginal farmers and agricultural
Large 19404.00 5536.50 24940.50 labourers. The benefit of technological advancement in
Overall 19443.20 5529.00 24972.20 agriculture in respect of increased productivity and
profitability have not been evenly distributed among various
It can be observed from the above table that the total category of farmers. The difference in the above parameters
value of the production of wheat crop per hectare was among the different category of farms are mainly due to
highest on medium farms i.e. Rs. 25642 while the overall differences in their availability to apply technology
average value of produce, main as well as bye-product efficiently. According to the results of the study average
came to Rs. 19443.20 and Rs. 5529 respectively. size of the farm in village Badayal Brahaman is 2.62
hectare. Large farms are not large enough. Average size of
It can be observed from the table that medium size
a large farm is only 4.17 hectare. The farms of the village
group obtained maximum gross returns from the cultivation
are privileged because of having 100 per cent of their area
of wheat followed by large and small farm size groups.
irrigated and most of it having assured irrigation by canal
Income Pattern of Wheat Crop (area irrigated by canal is 82.87 and tubewell/pumpset is
17.13 per cent of the total irrigated area). Average cropping
The relevant criteria of success or failure of the farm
intensity in the village is 210.47 per cent. Thus the cropping
business from farmer’s point of view is cost of cultivation
intensity is very high, because of 100 per cent irrigated
incurred and the returns that he is earning from his own
area. The average area under wheat comes to about 38.20
resources. In fact, profit and loss in the farm business can
per cent of the total cultivated area. The average cost of
be estimated by comparing the cost and return farm income
production per quintal of wheat in the study area is
of wheat crop from different farm size groups is presented
Rs. 330. The average yield of wheat (main product) came
in the following table.
to 34.72 quintals and by products (straw) is 36.86 quintal
Table 6 per hectare in the village. The average net income came
Income Pattern of Wheat Crop on differnt farm size groups to Rs. 10273.66 per hectare, farm labour income came to
Rs. 12720.68 per hectare and farm business income came
Farm size group Small Medium Large Overall to Rs. 19009.14 per hectare in the study area.
Cost of production 332.39 326.16 332.67 330.00
(Rs./qts.) REFERENCES
Gross income (Rs./ha.) 24077.40 25642.00 24940.50 24972.20 1. E. A. Siddiq (2002) “Exploring means to adopt GM
Farm Business income 18338.51 19855.58 18520.42 19009.14 rice”. The Hindu survey of Indian Agriculture, pp:
(Rs./ha) 47—52.
Family labour income 12298.45 13473.36 12151.07 12720.68
(Rs./ha) 2. Government of Jammu & Kashmir (2002) Digest of
Net income (Rs./ha) 9784.52 10706.87 10126.33 10273.66 Statistics published by Directorate of Economics &
Statistics Planning and Development Department.
Farm investment income 15874.58 17089.09 16495.68 16562.12
(Rs./ha0
3. S. Nagarajan (2002) “Now a global commodity” The
Input-output ratio 1:1.68 1:1.72 1:1.68 1:1.70 Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture, pp: 53—62.

April—June, 2003 5

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Basic Requirements for Popularizing Apiary Honey—
Consumers’ Viewpoints
—S. K. CHAUHAN* AND S. K. SHARMA*

H oney has held a high place in the esteem of mankind,


all over the world, from time immemorial. Honey is
sacred substance. It is used in all religious ceremonies,
honey, and is sold with sealed packed bottles with Agmark
label. The three types of grades as specified by the Agmark
authorities are Special, Grade A and standard. In all cases,
from birth till the death as a food and as a medicine. It is the presence of methyl furfuryl should be negative by
not possible to give an account even in brief, the substance aniline chloride test. However, before giving the details of
of these ancient beliefs. Therefore, this signifies the impor- properties of standardised honey it may be mentioned that,
tance of honey in human life. Daily use of honey as food Agmark signifies a specific period for consumption or there
ensures long and good health. Just as good manure is is specification of expiry date. This raises certain eyebrow
essential for a good crop, quality honey is essential for a since it is generally believed in India that older the honey
good health and good living. Honey is sweet, refreshing, better for health. There is, however, no specific base behind
soothing and sedative, relieves and stimulates digestion of this belief. Ayurvedacharya Shibkali Bhattacharyaa in his
those with weak stomachs and loose bowels. It removes the famous book Chiranjeeb Banoushadhi mentioned that older
poisonous effects in the body. honey normally warms up the body quickly due to the
presence of alcohol. Therefore, fixing date for honey while
Honey as food has been mentioned in the mythical
packing obviously has reasoning. The chief characteristics
saying in Bible and Quran. Honey has certain nutritive and
of three grades of honey prevalent in India are depicted in
energetic advantages like:
Table 1. However, the characteristics required for table
• better energizing action honey in some advanced countries are shown in Table 2.
• a mild appetizing effect At the instance of feeeling of research team, it was
• an easier assimilation and digestion of other foods proposed to have consumers’ attitude survey covering the
important bee-keeping areas of Chamba, Kangra, Una,
• a desirable influence on the assimilation of cal- Kinnaur, Shimla and Solan in Himachal Pradesh. The
cium in children results based on small sample of 25 honey consumers are
• An action of preferential retention of magnesium shown in Table 3. The socio-personal and economic profile
which explains why children nourished with honey of the target group of consumers is important factor in this
develop. regard. It can be observed from the table that larger chunk
(44%) of honey consumers fell in the middle age group of
Honey consists essentially of different sugars, predomi- 26-40 years. The education variable showed that, honey
nantly glucose and fructose. It also contains protein, amino consumption increased with the level of education. Major-
acids, enzymes, organic acids, minerals, pollen and other ity (52%) of the honey consumers had graduation and
substances and may include sucrose, maltose, melezitose above qualification. People with no formal education also
and other oligosaccharides (including dextrin) as well as consumed honey but their proportion was low (41%) . On
traces of fungi, algae, yeast and other solid particles result- occupational front the study observed that majority of
ing from the process of obtaining honey. honey consumers were agriculturists (48%), followed by
The colour of honey varies from nearly colorless (trans- service class (40%) and businessmen (12%).
parent) to dark brown. The consisting may be fluid, viscous
The frequency and amount of honey consumed de-
or partly to entirely crystallized. The flavour and aroma
pends on several factors such as climate, health of family
vary, usually derived from its plant origin. According to
members, age, educational status, nutritional status, eco-
Kaur (1993) the average consistency of honey contain
nomic status and availability of honey in a particular
water (17%), sucrose (1.30%), fructose (38%), glucose
area. As far as honey consumption is concerned three
(31%), other sugars (9%), total acids (0.57%), ash (0.17),
types of honey consumers were found. The table shows
nitrogen (0.04%) and undetermined (2.92%).
that majority (56%) of the respondents consumed honey
Honey is standardised by Agmark authorities of Govern- once a week followed by 28% the daily consumers. The
ment of India. This standard honey is called “Agmark” proportion of honey consumers was 16 who consumed it
*Department of Agricultural Economics, H. P. Agril. University, Palampur, 176 062.

6 Agricultural Marketing

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once in a month. The per capita per annum honey con- in winter in comparison to freeze or granulated honey
sumption on all types of households was estimated at which is not palatable to many consumers, It is interesting
517 gm. The quantity consumed at a time or in one to note that very less proportion (4%) of the sample
goes, however, ranged between 5-10 gm in each and every respondents reported its use in religious activity. This ob-
selected district. servation was in contradiction with the general feeling
where, as in every religious activity honey is used. This
The next important question was to find out the prefer- response came in the context of quality of honey being
ential traits of respondents for honey consumption. The used for religious purposes; the respondents explained that
data in respect of preference for form, colour and type of since honey is used on rare occasions in small quantity and
flora (base of honey) were collected and analysed. It is thus they did not count for its use significant one. On the
evident from the Table 3 that 52% of consumers’ preferred other hand the use of honey whatever was reported mainly
liquid honey. The proportion stood at 48% for granulated meant for maintaining good health by way of protecting
honey. Most liking for liquid honey was due to the reason themselves against certain diseases.
that it can be easily taken out of the containers especially
Table 1
Characteristics of Agmark Honey

Sl. Characteristies Grade of Honey


No. Special Grade ‘A’ Standard
1. General Characteristies Well ripened natural pro- Natural ripened product, extract- Natural well ripened product ex
duct, extracted with mach- ed with machine/extractor, free tracted with machine/ extractor,
ine (extractor) free from from objectionable flavour/aroma free from objectionable flavour/
objectionable flavour/aroma,
free from foreign matter
2. Colour Light to dark brown

3. Specific gravity at 27°C 1.40 1.40 1.35


(Min)
4. Sucrose per cent (Max) 5.00 5.00 5.00
5. Ash per cent (Max) 0.50 0.50 0.50
6. Moisture per cent (Max) 20.00 22.00 25.00
7. Total reducing sugars per cent (Min) 65.00 65.0 65.00
8. Fructose/Glucose ratio (Max) 0.00 0.95 0.95
9. Acidity (calculated as formic acid) 0.20 0.20 0.20
per cent (Max)
10. Fiche’s test Negative Negative Negative
11. Aniline chloride Negative Negative Negative
12. Hydroxyl-methyl furfural ppm (Max) 30 40 40

The colour of honey is another important trait contribut- 1 2 3


ing towards its preference. The honey was normally avail-
able with four colours: the transparent, red, brown and yel- 3. Reducing sugar as invest sugar 7% or more
lowish. The analysis reveals that on an average brown colour 4. Dextrin’s 5% or less
was largely (44%) preferred. Regarding the choice for type 5. Acidity or meg/Kg 5% or less
of honey, multiflora base honey preferred most by 76% of 6. Ash Between 0.1 and 0.25%
honey consumers. Mono flora based honey was hardly avail- 7. Water-insoluble in the solids 0.1% or less
able with the beekeepers as this is to be obtained mostly un- 8. Diastege, Gothe test Between 8 and 10
der controlled conditions, yet 24% of the honey consumers 9. Fiche reaction Negative
expressed their choice for mono flora honey. 10. HMF 40 ppm or less
Table 2 11. Lund reaction, precipitate Between 0.6 and 3%
Characteristics Required for Table Honey in Some countries* 12. Lugol reaction Negative
Sl. Component or test Value acceptable 13. Trace metals Below certain limits
No. 14. Polarimetry Laboratory between-21/
1 2 3 and 2/

1. Moisture content 18% or less *Values acceptable in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Latin America,
2. Sucrose content 3% or less New Zealand, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Spain, france, U.S.A.,
Italy, Mexico, Sweden and United Kingdom.

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The price of honey is an important issue in the policy Demand for a commodity depends on various factors
decisions. The price of honey depends on various factors of which includes beside prices, the income, price of related
which cost of production, demand and supply situations goods, advertisement, subsidy, quality standard and pack-
and cost of production plus mark up margin are important. ing in convenient/suitable packs etc. the information on
The information gathered on these aspects reveal that 44% such variables was collected and views of honey consumers
of consumers held their view in favour of fixing price were analysed. It can be seen from Table 3 that majority
which may take care of cost of honey production and mark (88%) of the consumers favoured to go in for creating
up margin. Strong opinion with regard to this factor was awareness vigorously among the people about its uses
given by consumers of Kangra district (H. P.) from where through personal motivations. This means that creating
most of the bee-keepers formed part of detailed study awareness should be accorded the top most priority to
conducted on economic aspects of 200 sample migratory raise the demand for honey which may lead to dispose of
and stationary bee-keepers. the unsold stocks of honey if any quickly thus stimuli to
Table 3
Socio-Personal and Economic Characteristics of Honey Consumers

Sl. Characteristics Category No. of Percentage


No. respondents

1. Age (i) Young (upto 25 years) 6 24.00


(ii) Middle (26-40 years) 11 44.00
(iii) Semi old (41-60 years) 5 44.00
(iv) Old (Above 60) 3 12.00
2. Education (i) Illitrate 1 4.00
(ii) Primary School 3 12.00
(iii) Middle School 3 12.00
(iv) High School 5 20.00
(v) Graduate and above 13 52.00
3. Occupation (i) Agriculture 12 48.00
(ii) Service 10 40.00
(iii) Business 3 12.00
4. Consumption of Frequency
honey (i) Daily 7 28.00
(ii) Weekly 14 56.00
(iii) Monthly 4 16.00
Purpose
(i) Curing cough 12 48.00
(ii) Curing asthma 1 4.00
(iii Other ailments 12 52.00
5. Preferential trait for Form of honey
honey consumption (i) Granulated 12 48.00
(ii) Liquid 13 52.00
Colour of honey
(i) Transparent 5 20.00
(ii) Red 2 8.00
(iii) Brown 11 44.00
(iv) Yellow 7 28.00
Type of honey
(i) Mono-flora 6 24.00
(ii) Multiflora 19 76.00
6. Factors governing haney’s price (i) Cost of production 5 20.00
(ii) Demand and supply 9 36.00
(iii) Cost of production plus 11 44.00
markup of profit margin
7. Consumer’s view points (i) advertisement 2 8.00
for raising the demand (ii) Creation of Awareness 22 88.00
for honey (iii) Provision of subsidy 2 8.00
(iv) Quality standard 3 12.00
(v) Marketing in suitable packs 3 12.00

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bee-keepers. Supply of honey at subsidised rates to con- REFERENCES
sumers was also addressed by 8% consumers. advertise-
Ghose, G K (1994). Bee-keeping in India. Ashish Publish-
ment, quality standard (Agmark honey) and packing in
ing House, New Delhi.
suitable packs of 100 gms, 500 gms and 1 kg were the
other suggestions put forth by honey consumers in ulti- Kaur, S (1993). Honey and other bee products marketing
mately raising demand for honey locally and nationally. & exports potential. In first national conference on bee-
Since in India the honey consumption is too low (2-3 gms/ keeping, 75-78.
capita/annum) in comparison to about 1Kg in certain deve- Mishra, R. C. (1995). Honey bees and their management in
loped nations like Germany. India. ICAR, New Delhi.

‘AGMARK’ ENSURES CONSUMERS’ PROTECTION

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Economics of Production, Post-Harvest Management and Price
Behaviour of Cole Crops in Western U.P.—An Empirical
Analysis
—M. K. WADHWANI1 AND T. S. BHOGAL2

I ndia is the second largest producer of vegetables in the


world.The present level of production (82.7 MT) is not
sufficient to meet our domestic demand. According to an
The study pertains to the crop year 1997-98.
Methodological framework
The primary as well as secondary data were used to
estimate we require to produce about 160 MT of vegetables
accomplish the objectives. the time series secondary data
by the end of X five year plan. The projections are quite
on arrivals and prices were collected from the APMC,
optimistic considering the climatic variations and adoption
Bareilly, the representative vegetable market of the Western
of different vegetable crops to diverse agro-climatic condi-
region of U. P. Whereas, the primary data were collected
tions, availability of wide genetic resource of resistance,
from the sample vegetable growers selected randomly us-
varying production system and a strong research network
ing multi-stage random sampling technique. At the first
which have to create the plateform for raising their produc-
stage, one principal vegetable market namely, APMC
tion and productivity. The vegetables being perishable in
Bareilly, based on annual arrival of vegetables, was
nature, post-harvest management is vital to reduce the gap
selected. At the second stage of sampling, two important
between production and net availablity.
primary markets namely Naryawal and Devehara were
The vegetable production of late has become very spe- selected from the nine primary feeding markets. Further at
cialised and commercial due to their increasing export the third stage of sampling, 4 villages (2 near the road and
potential, rising domestic demand, providing better em- 2 atleast 3 kms away from road) were selected purposively
ployment and income opportunities in view of being labour from the area of each primary markets. considering the
intensive and remunerative. Production of most of the status of vegetable production. Thus 8 villages were se-
vegetables is seasonal and highly localised is favoured lected for present investigation. Finally 80 sample vegeta-
agro-climatic situation. The seasonal gluts are, therefore, ble growers were selected randomly at the rate of 10
common phenomenon in the assembling markets during growers from each village. The growers were selected in
normal production seasons resulting in price fluctuation proportion to their size group. The cross-sectional data
which has definite bearing upon the rationality of decisions were collected from the sample vegetable growers through
by growers as well as traders. personal interview with the help of specific pre-tested
schedules and questionnaires.
The cole crops reduce the risk of cancer, particularly
cancer of alimentary canal and respiratory tract. The cole Analytical procedure
crops, a very important group of winter season vegetables, For the analysis of economics of production, cost of
includes cauliflower, cabbage, Khol rabi, broccoli, Brussels cultivation and return were computed. The net return were
sprouts and chinese cabbage. Of these, cauliflwer and worked out over various cost concepts viz., Cost A1, Cost
cabbage are the two most important winter vegetables A2, Cost B1, Cost B2, Cost C1, Cost C2, and Cost C3 adopted
grown in India. In India, the total area under cauliflower by the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices
and cabbage was 220 and 218 thousand hactares with the (CACP), Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Govt. of
annual production of 2474 and 3861 thousand tonnes, India.
respectively in the year 1996-97. The profitability level in farming business is largely
In view of the above situation, the study had been determined by the efficiency with which the farmers are
conducted with following specific objectives : able to allocate and utilize the resources at their command.
The resource use efficiency in vegetable production was
1. To study the cost of cultivation and production of estimated by the following Cobb-Douglas model of pro-
cauliflower and cabbage. duction function.
2. To study the temporal price behaviour and price- b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7
quantity relationship of the two vegetables. Y = £.x1. x2. x3. x4. x5. x6. x7.eu.
1.
Jr. Scientist-cum-Asstt. Prof. (Agril. Econ.), Bihar Agril. College, Sabour.
2.
Associate Professor (Agril. Econ.), GBPUA &T, Pantnagar.

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where, Y = Yield (per ha) Ct = Cyclical variation.
X1 = human labour (days/ha) It = Irregular variation.
X2 = expenses on land preparation (Rs/ha)
X3 = Farm yard manure (qtl./ha) The seasonality was decomposed using moving average
X4 =Chemical fertilizer (kgs/ha) method. Then the trend equation was decomposed estimated
X5 = Plant protection (Rs/ha) from the deseasonalised series by estimating the following
X6 = Seedling (Rs/ha) trend equation—
X7 = Irrigation (nos)
Y = a + b.t
£ = Constant
bi = Elasticity of ith resource (i = 1, 2,----7) Where, Y = Deseasonal price series
u = random disturbance term, N (0, 62). t = Time (t = 1,2,3,...120).
The function was estimated using the Ordinary Least Squares The trend values were estimated with the help of trend
(OLS) technique. The marginal value products (MVPs) of equations obtained. Finally the deseasonalised series was
the resources were estimated as— divided by the trend values to have cyclical variations as a
The partial derivative of Y with respect to X1 is residual therein.
dY b1–1 b2 b3 b7 Results and Discussion
= a.b1.x1 .x2 .x3 – – – – – –x7
dx1 The cost of cultivation and economics of production of
b b b b cauliflower and cabbage has been worked out separately
= (a b1.x1 1.x2 2.x3 3– – – – x7 7)/X1 and presented in tables 1 & 2, respectively. It has been
estimated categorywise.
= a.Y/X1
By definition, dY/dX1 = Marginal The cost of cultivation and economics of production of
Physical Product of X1 (MPPx1) cauliflower has been illustrated in table 1(a) and table 1(b),
Y/X1 = Average Physical Product of X1 respectively. The table 1(b) reveals that the cost of production
(APPx1) of cauliflower was highest (Rs. 155.00 per qtl) on large
farms followed by medium and small farms. The overall
∴ MVPx1 = MPPx1.Py average cost of cultivation (cost C3) was estimated as Rs.
= In general, for the ith resource 22835 per ha. the average yield was found to be maximum
MVPxi = MPPxi.Py (Rs. 158 qtl/ha) on small farms and the minimum (Rs. 130
qtl/ha) on large size farms.
The efficiency of resource use was estimated by comparing
the MVPs of resources with their respective acquisition The analysis for cabbage has been presented in tables
costs and the statistical significance as– 2(a) and 2(b). It was found to be grown by the sample
small and medium farmers only. The table reveals that the
t cal = (MVPxi–Pxi) SE (MVPxi) small farmers could obtain higher yield (Rs. 226 qtls/ha)
Where, SE (MVPxi) = √AVPxi2.V(bi) than the medium farmers (Rs. 216 qtls/ha). The table 2(a)
Post-Harvest Management shows that on an average about 76 per cent of Cost C2 was
incurred on material cost out of which the operational cost
The level of profitability of commercial vegetable accounts for 41 per cent. On an average, the crop yielded
production depends much on proper harvesting, handling a net profit of Rs. 36366 per ha at the cost of production
and marketing. The post-harvest managment was analysed of Rs. 22786 per ha at Cost C3 Table 2(b).
in terms of grading, packing, storage, transportation and
sale pattern of cauliflower and cabbage at growers’ level. Resource use Efficiency
The post-harvest losses were also analysed. These were The Cabb-Douglas form of production function was
estimated at farm level, wholesale & retail level. estimated taking per hectare yield as dependent variable
The Price Behaviour and per hectare use of human labour, land preparation,
FYM, chemical fertilizers, seed/seedling and number of
The analysis was carried out on monthly statistics on irrigations as independent variables. The results of estimated
wholesale prices of cauliflower and cabbage obtained from function and MVPs of input used in production of
APMC, Bareilly for a period of ten years, i.e. from 1988 to cauliflower and cabbage are presented in the table 3.
1997 using a multiplicative model of following form—
The coefficient of multiple determination (R2) of the
Pt = St. Tt . Ct . It Cauliflower and Cabbage shows that 33 and 36 per cent
Where, Pt = time seried statistics on prices. variability in production of these two crops is explained by
St = Seasonal variation. the variables included in the model. The human labour and
Tt = Trend component. FYM was found influencing the production of both crops

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Table 1 (a)
Cost of cultivation of Cauliflower
Rs/ha
Category of vegetable growers Overall
Sl. No. Particulars Small Medium Large average
1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Operational cost
(i) Family labour 6946.89 1543.75 771.88 5398.42
(ii) Hired labour 132.03 5403.15 6946.90 1771.82
(iii) Machinery 385.94 385.94 385.94 385.94
Total Operational Cost 7464.86 7332.84 8104.72 7551.18
(37.79) (32.92) (33.96) (36.40)
2. Material Cost
(i) Seed 1659.53 1559.53 1459.53 1559.53
(ii) Manure & Fertilizers 3187.37 4723.88 5495.76 3716.72
(iii) Plant protection chemicals 1507.19 1543.75 1389.38 1480.79
(iv) Irrigation 1421.05 1235.20 1930.00 1438.83
Total Material cost 7775.14 9162.36 10274.67 8195.87
(39.36) (41.13) (43.05) (39.48)
3. Total Working Cost 15240.00 16495.20 18579.39 15752.05
(77.15) (74.14) (77.85) (75.88)
4. Other Costs
(i) Depreciation 716.66 1763.16 1265.42 992.56
(ii) Interest on working cost. 883.92 956.72 1077.60 919.42
(iii) Land revenue 17.33 17.33 17.33 17.33
(iv) Rental value of land 2666.67 2666.67 2666.67 2666.67
(v) Interest on value of own capital 247.10 367.39 277.54 328.62
Total Cost 4531.68 5771.27 5304.56 4924.74
(22.94) (25.94) (22.22) (23.72)
5. Total cost of cultivation
(i) Cost A1 = A2 9911.02 17688.66 20167.86 12382.94
(ii) Cost B1 10158 18056.05 20445.40 12711.56
(iii) Cost B2 12807.46 20705.39 13094.74 15360.90
(iv) Cost C1 17105.01 19599.80 21217.28 18109.98
(v) Cost C2 19754.35 22249.14 23866.62 20759.32
(vi) Cost C3 21729.79 24474.05 26253.28 22835.25

Figures in parenthesis show per cent of Cost C2

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Table 1 (b)
Economics of production of Cauliflower
Rs/ha
Category of vegetable growers Overall
Item Unit Small Medium Large average

Yield Qtl/ha 158.13 138.94 129.85 149.65


Average price received Rs/qtl 268.45 325.00 325.00 281.52
Marketing cost Rs/qtl 30.15 36.11 35.67 33.79
Net price received Rs/qtl 238.30 288.89 289.33 247.73
Cost of production Rs/qtl.
A1 = A2 62.68 127.31 155.32 82.74
B1 64.24 129.96 157.45 84.95
B2 80.99 149.02 177.86 102.65
C1 108.17 141.07 163.40 121.01
C2 124.93 160.14 183.80 138.72
C3 137.42 176.15 202.18 152.59
Net return over Rs/qtl
A1 = A2 175.62 161.58 134.01 164.99
B1 174.06 158.93 131.88 162.78
B2 152.31 139.87 111.47 145.08
C1 130.13 147.82 125.93 126.72
C2 113.37 128.75 105.53 109.01
C3 100.88 112.74 87.15 95.14
Net return over Rs/ha
A1 = A2 27770.79 22449.93 17401.20 24690.75
B1 27524.11 22081.73 17124.62 24360.03
B2 24875.43 19433.54 14474.38 21711.22
C1 20577.46 17888.53 13703.07 16313.35
C2 17927.20 20538.11 16352.01 18963.65
C3 15952.15 15664.10 11316.43 14237.70

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Table 2 (a)
Cost of cultivation of Cabbage (Rs./ha.)
Rs/ha
Category of vegetable growers Overall
Sl. No. Particulars Small Medium Large average
1. Operational cost
(i) Family labour 6632.96 6946.89 — 6803.19
(ii) Hired labour 1195.16 1531.46 1363.31
(iii) Machinery 383.06 385.94 384.61
Total Operational Cost 78211.18 8864.29 8554.11
(41.08) (41.16) (41.29)
2. Material Cost
(i) Seedling 1647.18 1659.53 1666.72
(ii) Manures & Fertilizers 2938.19 2671.31 2933.35
(iii) Plant protection chemicals 1379.03 1389.38 1395.39
(iv) Irrigation 1281.52 1235.20 1260.47
Total Material Cost 7245.92 6955.60 7255.93
(36.25) (32.30) (35.03)
3. Total Working Cost 15457.10 15819.89 15810.04
(77.34) (73.46) (76.32)
4. Other Costs
(i) Depreciation 716.66 1763.16 992.56
(ii) Interest on working cost. 896.51 917.55 916.98
(ii) Land revenue 17.33 17.33 17.33
(iv) Rental value of land 2666.67 2666.67 2666.67
(v) Interest on value of own capital 247.10 367.39 328.62
Total Cost 4544.27 5732.10 4005.18
(22.74) (26.62) (19.33)
5. Total cost of cultivation
(i) Cost A1 = A2 10457.64 11570.86 10933.72
(ii) Cost B1 10704.74 11938.25 11262.34
(iii) Cost B2 13354.08 14587.59 13911.68
(iv) Cost C1 17337.70 18885.14 18065.53
(v) Cost C2 19987.64 21534.48 20714.87
(vi) Cost C3 21985.74 23687.93 22786.36

Figures in parenthesis show per cent of Cost C2

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Table 2 (b)
Economics of production of Cabbage

Category of vegetable grower Overall


Item Unit Small Medium Large average
Yield Qtl/ha 225.85 216.13 — 220.95
Average price received Rs/qtl 277.93 300.00 — 280.84
Marketing cost Rs/qtl 13.29 12.00 — 13.12
Net price received Rs/qtl 264.64 288.00 — 267.72
Cost of production Rs/qtl.
A1 = A2 46.30 53.54 — 49.49
B1 47.40 55.24 — 50.97
B2 59.13 67.49 — 62.96
C1 76.77 87.38 — 81.76
C2 88.50 99.64 — 93.75
C3 97.35 109.60 — 103.13
Net return over Rs/qtl.
A1 = A2 218.34 234.46 — 218.23
B1 217.24 232.76 — 216.75
B2 205.51 220.51 — 204.76
C1 187.87 200.62 — 185.96
C2 176.14 188.36 — 173.97
C3 167.29 178.40 — 164.59
Net return over Rs/qtl.
A1 = A2 49312.09 50673.84 — 48217.92
B1 49063.65 50306.42 — 47890.91
B2 46414.43 47658.83 — 45241.72
C1 42430.44 43360.00 — 41087.86
C2 39781.22 40710.25 — 38438.67
C3 37782.45 38557.59 — 36366.16

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Table 3
Estimated production function and MVPs of Cauliflower and Cabbage in Western U.P.

Crop Item Constant Regression Coefficients (bi) of


Human Land FYM Chemical Plant Seed/ Irrigation
labour preparation (qha-1) fertilizer protection seedling (nos)
(days/ha) (Rs.ha-1) (Rs.ha-1) (Rs.ha-1) (Rs.ha-1)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Cauliflower b -632.95 0.3719** — 0.2561** -0.5552** — — —


SE(b) 0.2931 0.2464 0.2323
MVP 116.5741** 89.3571** -159.8637**
ASC 50.00 10.00 1.00
R = 0.33
2
n = 33
Cabbage b -4529.80 0.3315** — 0.2102** 626.55 — -13.9656** —
SE(b) 0.2503 0.1217 699.99 6.577
MVP 106.7914** 61.8176*** — -2797.2808**
AC 50.00 10.00 1.0
R = 0.36
2
n = 22

AC = Acquisition cost of input (Rs. ha-1).


*, ** and *** denote 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 per cent level of significance.

significantly. The MVPs were also significant thereby The cost of grading of Cauliflower was estimated as about
implying that the per ha yield of these could be increased Rs. 20.00 per quintal with the maximum cost of Rs. 23.00
economically by increasing the use of these inputs. this per quintal on large farms, while that of the Cabbage it was
shows the labour intensive nature of these crops. the chemical estimated as about Rs. 17.00 per quintal.
fertilizers were also found significantly influencing the
yield of both the crops, though the sign was negative in The cost of packing has been presented in table 4(b).
cauliflower, indicating excessive use of it. The coefficient The Cauliflower & Cabbage were transported in open as
of cost of seedling was found influencing negatively the well as in thin gunny bags depending upon the distance of
yield of cabbage. The MVP was also negatively significant, the market. The table indicates the maximum cost of
indicating its excessive use. packing of cauliflower as about Rs. 25 per qtl on small
farms followed by large farms (Rs. 23 per qtl) with the
Post-Harvest Management overall average cost of packing as Rs. 20 per qtl. The cost
of packing of Cabbage was estimated as about Rs. 17 per
qtl.
The vegetables come in different forms in terms of parts
consumed thereof. They are living organisms which The transportation is the most important Post-harvest
contribute to their gradual deterioration. Therefore, the activity which involves movement of the produce from the
skillful post-harvest management by the vegetable growers farm to the consuming areas. The analysis on cost of
is of great importance. The post-harvest management transportation of Cauliflower & Cabbage is shown in table
practices such as grading, packing, transportation etc. 4(c). The table reveals the cost of transportation of
performed by the sample growers have been analysed and Cauliflowers varies from about Rs. 24 (large farms) to Rs.
presented in tables 4(a), 4(b) & 4(c) respectively. 18 (small farms) with an average of Rs. 20 per quintal-
while it was about Rs. 18 per quintal in case of Cabbage.
The scientific grading in vegetables except potato is yet
to be popularised in our Country. The growers were found The most of the smaple growers (78 per cent) were
grading Cauliflower, Cabbage according to the variety, found selling their produce to the Wholesaler-cum-
size, insect-pest affected etc. before disposing to the market. Commission agents. None of the growers was reported to
The table 4(a) reveals that most of the quantity (above 95 sell either of the two vegetables to the processors in the
per cent) of the two vegetables was graded by the growers. study area.

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Table 4 (a)
Cost of grading Cauliflower and Cabbage
Category of Production Quantity Percent Cost of grading total
vegetable qtls. graded quantity (Rs/qtls) cost of
grower qtls. graded Family Hired grading
(of production) labour labour Rs/qtls
Cauliflower
Small 6.48 6.17 95.22 17.81 — 17.81
Medium 4.45 4.20 94.38 20.51 — 20.51
Large 45.02 44.34 98.49 9.13 20.06 23.19
Average 7.19 6.88 95.69 3.33 16.25 19.58
Cabbage
Small 9.49 9.16 96.52 17.19 — 17.19
Medium 2.16 2.04 94.44 18.75 — 18.78
Large — — — — — —
Average 8.34 8.04 96.40 17.47 — 17.47

Table 4 (b)
Cost of packing Cauliflower and Cabbage
Category of No. of packages Qty. per Cost of Labour cost total
farms used package packing Family Hired Total cost of
per qtl (Kgs) (Rs/qtl) packing
Rs/qtl.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Cauliflower
Small 2.85 35.04 17.39 7.81 — 7.81 25.20
Medium 2.22 45.05 13.10 8.13 — 8.13 21.23
Large 2.63 38.02 14.47 3.12 5.94 9.06 23.53
Average 2.62 38.12 15.37 4.03 4.81 8.84 24.21
Cabbage
Small 2.38 42.02 13.09 7.50 — 7.50 20.56
Medium 2.50 40.00 14.38 7.81 — 7.81 22.19
Large — — — — — — —
Average 2.40 41.63 13.50 7.56 — — 21.06

Table 4 (c)
Cost of transportation
Category of Quantity Distance of Transpor- Labour used total
farm sold (qtls.) market (Km) tation (Rs/qtls) transpor-
cost Family Hired tation
(Rs/qtl) cost (Rs/qtl)
Cauliflower
Small 6.17 3.68 10.53 7.85 — 18.46
Medium 4.20 10.00 15.00 8.30 — 23.80
Large 44.38 10.00 15.00 — 9.37 24.37
Average 6.88 4.29 10.95 1.52 7.59 20.06
Cabbage
Small 9.16 4.04 10.85 7.85 — 18.70
Medium 2.04 5.00 10.00 8.30 — 18.30
Large — — — — — —
Average 8.04 4.11 10.79 7.93 — 18.72

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Post-Harvest Losses harvest status. It has been estimated at producer and trader
The post-harvest losses differ from region to region level and presented below—
depending on various climatic factors as well as the post-
Post-Harvest Losses (per cent)
Vegetable Category of growers Trader’s Total
Small Medium Large Average level losses
Cauliflower 7.56 6.37 6.93 7.72 5.16 12.88
Cabbage 6.21 5.09 — 6.12 3.32 19.44

The results show that the total post-harvest losses of are associated with variations in the prices of agricultural
cauliflower was 12.88 per cent with 7.72 per cent of commodities. The seasonal fluctuations and secular trend
growers’ level and 5.16 per cent at traders’ level. The play an important role in guiding the producers and the
maximum losses (7.56 per cent) were found on small traders in managing their production and marketing strategy.
farms. The post-harvest losses of cabbage were estimated The irregular variation in prices are mostly caused by
as 6.12 per cent at growers level and 3.32 per cent at trader drought, excessive rains flood and during the festivals.
level with the total of 9.44 per cent losses. In this case also
The time series data on cauliflower and cabbage were
the small farms were found with more post-harvest losses.
maintained together by the APMC, Bareilly. Therefore, the
The temporal price behaviour analysis was performed jointly for the two vegetables. The
prices of these two vegetabes were found maximum in the
The price of agricultural commodities in general and month of September and started declining from October
vegetables & fruits in particular have attracted the attention onwards. The prices were again found increasing from the
of research, planners and policy makers. The four temporal month of May. The lowest prices were indicated in the
components viz. seasonality, trend, cyclical and irregularty month of March (Figure 1).
Seasonal price indices of Cauliflower-Cabbage in Western U.P.

July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May June

103.75 184.64 208.53 106.35 110.54 58.94 56.63 51.02 50.25 62.78 73.83 77.92

The secular trend—It has been estimated after removing The Cyclical fluctuations
the seasonal variations from the wholesale prices of
The cyclical variations in price have been esti-
califlower-cabbage. The trend equation for these two P
mated on wholesale prices after deseasonalising and
vegetables was estimated as—
detrending the price series. The results of the analysis
P = 3.1847 + t. (–0.0032) (r2 = 0.002) are as below—

1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

64.91 94.50 93.22 140.40 113.43 91.36 93.71 129.97 86.61 91.87
(–35.09) (–5.50) (–6.78) (+40.40) (+13.43) (–8.64) (–6.29) (+29.97) (–13.39) (–8.13)

Figures in parenthesis show deviation from 100.


The results show the prices of cauliflower-cabbage show The results of estimation was obtained as—
a regular cycle of 4 years. The results have also been shown At = 729.26 – 0.844**.Pt (r2 = 0.04) — (1)
graphically. (0.410)
Temporal Relation
Pt = 226.47 – 0.443**.At (r2 = 0.04) — (2)
The direct relationship between market arrival and price (0.0215)
of a commodity is theorised under Citeris-paribus
assumptions. The temporal relationship between market The perusal of equation (2) reveals that the prices of
arrival and prices of cauliflower/cabbage was estimated by Cauliflower/cabbage responded negatively to the arrival. The
the following linear relationships: result of equation (1) also shows that the arrival of these
vegetables respond negatively, i.e. the arrival (supply)
At = a+b.Pt-——(1) and Pt = a+b.At——(2) decrease by the increase in price and vice-versa, which
Where At = total monthly arrival, appears to be spurious. It may be due to growers enability
(qtls.) to withheld its supply once these are harvested because of
Pt = wholesale price in tth month (Rs./qt.) the perishable nature of two vegetables.

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The Cauliflower, in India, is marketed by the name of for value addition through adoption of integrated post-harvest
the month they mature, like Kunwari (earlier, in Sep.-Oct.), management and organised marketing network. Therefore,
Katki (Oct.–Nov.), Aghani (November). Poosi (December), promotion of integrated vegetable cultivation, setting up of
Maghi (January) etc. These are highly heterogenous in vegetable marketing infrastructure to facilitate co-operative
respect of all the characters, whether vegetative or curd. farming, formation of vegetable producers’/marketing
The earlier are short plant, bluish green leaves with waxy societies, establishment of a professional body on the lines
bloom and with very small to medium curds. The late ones of HOPCOMS/NDDB or a composite structure like
are long—leafed sturdy plants with somewhat better quality MAHAGRAPES is suggested to cater the needs of million
curd. The cabbages cultivated are either white, red or savoy of vegetable growers and consumers in the State.
cabbage. Of these only white cabbage is of commercial
importance in India. The white cabbages are available in 3 REFERENCES
shapes pointed, round and flat or drumhead. Among them Dhillon, P. K. and Goel, V. 1993. An analysis of the seasonal
round and flat headed cultivars are more popular, but the pattern of market arrivals and prices of onion in
recent trend is to grow of round varieties since the flat Ludhiana market of Punjab, Indian J. Agril. Mar.,
cultivars are often loose and voluminous. In plains it is 7(2) : 193-200.
mainly grown in winter season. While in higher hills and
latitudes in the hills, it is grown in cool summer and rainy Hinge, V. N. et al. 1984. Price supply relationship of
season. important vegetables in a wholesale market. Journal
It may be concluded from ongoing analysis that the of Marketing. 14(8) : 28-32.
vegetables being highly perishable, are lost after harvest Kasor, D. V.; Raut, R. C. and Rasane, V. S. 1996. Behaviour
due to decay, over ripening, mechanical injury, weight loss, of prices and arrivals of red chillies—A case study
trimming and spronting. The spoilage also results from the from maharashtra. 10(3) : 78-81.
grower’s lack of knowledge in proper post-harvest handling,
improper grading, packing, lack of storage and proper Rathore, M. S.; Bhati, J. P. and Swarup, R. 1975. Resource
transportation facilities contribute to low quality. The use efficiency and returns from some commercial
industry being concentrated with small and marginal farmers crops of Himachal Pradesh, Agricultural Situation
further aggravate the situation. Therefore, there is urgent in India. 30(7) : 507-509.
need of training the vegetable growers on scientific post-
harvest techniques, if the vegetable production in general is Thakur, D. S. et al. 1997. Market supply response and
to be sustained on profitable basis in the region. The marketing problems of farmers in the hills. Indian
changing profile of urban consumers opens up opportunities J. Agrill. Econ., 52(1) : 139-150.

USE ‘AGMARK’ GRADED SPICES

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Price Spread and Marketing of Green Chillies—A Case Study in
Andhra Pradesh
—G. SUNIL KUMAR BABU, SRI HARI NAIDU AND Y. ESWARA PRASAD*

C hilli is an important vegetable crop grown all over India,


not only for a huge home market, but also for export
purposes. India ranked first in the production of chillies in
it occupies first place both in area and production in the
district. From this division Amaravathi and Sattenappalle
mandals were selected based on area under chilli cultivation.
the world with an area of 9,62,500 hectares and a production Again three villages from each mandal were randomly
of 8,21,800 tonnes. Among the chilli producing states, selected to make the total of six villages and 30 farmers
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamilnadu were selected randomly from each village. Thus, the total
accounted for 75% of the total area and production. Guntur sample size was 90. The data related to channels,
district of Andhra Pradesh is one of the leading districts in intermediaries, marketing cost and margins etc. were
the production of chillies. In this paper an attempt has been collected from the chilli regulated market yard, Guntur. The
made to study the marketing pattern, price spread and also cross-sectional data for different channels, producer’s
the marketing problems associated with green chillies. expenses etc. were collected by personal interview method
with the help of well-designed and pre-tested schedules.
Methodology
The reference period for the study in 1999-2000 Agricultural
Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh was purposively Year.
selected as green chilli is one of the major commercial
crops in the district. Multi-stage random sampling design The producer’s share in consumer’s rupee is calculated
was adopted for the selection of ultimate units of by using the following formula :
respondents. Guntur division was selected purposively as Ps = (Pf/Pr) 100

Table I
Price Spread in Channel-I

Sl. No. Particulars Cost Price Percentage Share in


(Rs./Qtl.) Consumer’s Rupee
1 2 3 4

I. Net Price received by the Producer 181.53 41.48


II. Expenses incurred by the producer
a. Hamali Charges 4.55 1.04
b. Loading and unloading 1.00 0.23
c. Transportation Cost 5.33 1.22
d. Sub-total 10.88 2.49
III. Producer’s Sale Price/Village Merchant’s Purchase Price 192.41 43.96
IV. Cost incurred by the Village Merchant
a. Hamali Charges 5.60 1.28
b. Cost of bags 10.00 2.28
c. Transportation Cost 12.30 2.81
d. Market fee 2.20 0.50
e. Loss of weight and wastage @ 2% 5.05 1.15
f. Sub-total 35.15 8.03
V. Village Merchant’s Sale Price/Wholesaler’s 252.34 57.66
Purchase Price.

*Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Economics, Agriculture College, Bapatla-522101, Guntur (A.P.).

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1 2 3 4
VI. Village Merchant’s margin 24.78 5.66
VII. Expenses incurred by the Wholesaler
a. Hamali Charges 6.75 1.54
b. Transportation Cost 10.76 2.46
c. Commissionn Charges 16.06 3.67
d. Loss of weight and wastage @2% 7.07 1.62
e. Market fee 3.21 0.73
f. Sub-total 43.85 10.02
VIII. Wholesaler’s margin 57.18 13.06
IX. Wholesaler’s Sale Price/Retailer’s 353.37 80.74
Purchase Price
X. Cost incurred by the retailer
a. Hamali Charges 4.36 0.99
b. Transportation Cost 5.90 1.35
c. Loss of weight and wastage @2% 8.75 1.99
d. Market fee 4.02 0.92
e. Sub-total 23.03 5.26
XI. Retailer’s Margin 61.25 13.99
XII. Retailer’s Sale Price/Consumer’s Purchase Price 437.65 100.00
Price Spread 256.12 58.52

Where, Ps = Producer’s share in consumer’s rupee expressed It was due to the absence of middlemen and negligible
in Percentage. marketing cost.
Pr = Retail price (Rs) Marketing efficiency was also calculated for the identified
Pf = Producer’s rupee (Rs). to channels and the results are presented in Table III.
Results and Discussion
Table III
Two marketing channels were identified in the study area, Marketing Efficiency of Chillies
as under:
Channel-I : Producer—Village Merchant—Wholesaler— Sl. No. Particulars Channel-I Channel-II
Retailer—Consumer. 1. Value of goods sold 437.65 180.93
Channel- II : Producer—Local consumer. 2. Marketing cost 112.91 4.65
Generally, farmers dispose of their produce immediately 3. Marketing efficiency 2.88 37.91
after harvest due to lack of infrastructure facilities. The price
spread was calculated for the abovesaid two channels and The Marketing efficiency was to be the highest in channel
the results are discussed below : II, because of the absence of intermediaries as well as of low
From Table I, the net share of the producer in the marketing cost (table III).
consumer’s rupee was very low (41.48%). It was due to the Problems associated with Marketing of Chillies
presence of large number of intermediaries in between the
producer and the consumer. So, the farmers were not getting In the present study, several problems were identified
good remunerative price for their produce. regarding the production and marketing of Chillies. The most
Table II important constraint was the non-availability of quality seeds,
Price spread in channel II which was due to inadequate production. The other constraints
Sl. No. Particulars Cost price Percentage share in were non-availability of credit from the government and
(Rs/qtl) consumer’s rupee institutional agencies, high fertilizer cost, high manurial labour
cost, lack of infrastructure like cold storage facilities, lack of
1. Net price received by the producer 176.53 97.57
good support price and the non-existence of Regulated Market
2. Expenses incurred by the producer
(a) Loading and unloading 2.25 1.24 Yards at the producing center.
(b) Transportation cost 2.40 1.33
(c) Sub-total 4.65 2.57 Conclusions and Policy Implications
3. Producer’s Sale price/ Consumer’s
It was clear from the present study that the producer’s share
purchase price 180.93 100.00
Price Spread 4.40 2.43 in the consumer’s rupee as well as marketing efficiency were

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high in the channel II, where there were no middlemen. But, should give priority for the establishment and smooth
the majority of the farmers were forced to dispose of their functioning of regulated markets. (v) Production and
commodity to the village merchant who provided credit to marketing techniques have to be integrated to reduce post-
them. The main problems associated with marketing of green harvest losses and (vi) The government should provide a good
chillies were, absence of cold storage structures, high support price for the produce.
transportation cost, unawareness of market information, lack REFERENCES
of support price and unsatisfactory marketing arrangements.
Based on the findings of the study, the policy implications Goyal, S.K., 1999. Economics of Rose cultivation and its
which emerged out are (i) there is a need of installation of marketing in Sonepat district of Haryana state. Ind.
cold storage structures (ii) Proper market information should Jour. of Agril. Mktg., 13(3) : 44—51.
be made available to the farmers. For that, the extension FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United
agency should be strengthened (iii) Adequate and timely Nations), 1999. Production Year book, FAO, Rome,
credit should be provided to the farmers. (iv) The government Italy (53) : 346.

‘AGMARK’ STANDS FOR PURITY AND QUALITY


BUY AGMARK PRODUCTS

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Marketing of Soybean in Sehore District of Madhya Pradesh
—K.N.S. BANAFAR*, A.K. GAURAHA**, V.K. CHOUDHARY**, G.N. SINGH*** AND B.C. JAIN**

Introduction (ii) To examine the marketing cost and consumer share in


producer price under different marketing channels of soybean
A griculture continues to be the backbone of Indian
economy which contributes about 28 per cent of national
income. The source of livelihood of about 70 per cent of
Methodology
The present study was conducted in Sehore district of
population is still agriculture. Every culture is bound to fail
Madhya Pradesh which covers highest area under soybean in
tomorrow if agriculture fails today. India is major pulse
the state. A multistage stratified random sampling was used
growing country in the world which occupied in area of 22.43
to select the block, cluster of village and the respondents i.e.
million hectares with the annual production of 31.1 million
soybean growers. A random sample of 120 soybean growers
tonnes. The average yield of pulse crop is 584 kg./ha which
was selected from the universe of 12 villages of Sehore block
is very low. Soybean is one of the most important pulse crops
of district Sehore, Madhya Pradesh. There were three
of Madhya Pradesh. It is very rich in protein content. Its
marketing channels for marketing of soybean in the study
protein content is comparable to that of milk protein, rightly
area. To calculate the marketing cost and producer’s shares
designated as “Kalptaru” had a difficult commencement in
in the consumers rupee for different channels village
India. However, in recent years it developed so rapidly at least,
merchant. Wholesale dealers, processors, refiners, cooperative
in area that our country now amongst the top three in the
societies were interviewed. The primary data were collected
world in growth rate, the other two being Argentina and Brazil.
through personal interview method.
At present juncture, we stand satisfied but not satiated as both
the area coverage and pattern of growth represent only the To examine the producers share in consumers price the
“tip of an iceberg” and absolute manifestation of real potential, following formula was used.
both in terms of productivity and area expansion of this, still
Net price received by producer
await to be trapped.
Producer’s share = × 100
The major soybean growing states are Madhya Pradesh Price paid by the consumer
(3.41 million ha), Maharashtra (60,000 ha), Rajasthan (35,000
ha), Uttar Pradesh (25,000 ha), Gujarat (20,000 ha) and other RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
states (55,000 ha). The area and production of soybean in
different states and the country show a rising trend in the General Characteristics of Sample Farms
recent years. Sehore is major soybean growing district of the It was observed from the Table 1, that the average family
state occupying 10 per cent of its area. Sehore block is an size was 6 and literacy percentage was 55 per cent at aggregate
important block of the district accounting for 30.38 per cent level. Average size of holding was increased as the size of
of the total soybean area of the district. farms increases on an average. About 82.08 per cent area
Being a new crop in Madhya Pradesh, marketing facilities comes under cultivation. The major crops grown by the sample
have not yet been developed. Moreover, support price declared farmers were soybean, wheat, linseed and Arhar. The overall
by Government of India is based only on the cost of cultivation cropping intensity was about 181.42 per cent.
and in view of lack of organized marketing the cultivators do
Marketing Channel
not get remunerative prices. Thus, the development of
infrastructure in the marketing of soybean in the state of There were three marketing channels for soybean
Madhya Pradesh is of great significant. Looking to the above marketing in the study area are given below:
statement there is a need to study the production and marketing
of soybean in district Sehore of Madhya Pradesh. The Channel-I. Producer—Village Merchant—Wholesale
objectives of this study are : (i) To examine the elasticity of dealers—Processor—Refiners—Wholesale dealers of
production of soybean on different size groups of farms. soybean oil—Retailers of soybean oil-consumers.

* Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural & Natural Resource Economics, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur-492012 (C.G.)
** Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural & Natural Resource Economics, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur-492012 (C.G.)
*** Professor & Head (Retired) CSA, University of Agricultural & Technology, Kanpur (U.P.) 208002.

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Channel-II. Producer—Cooperative societies— Rajasthan”, Bihar Journal of Agricultural
Processors—Refiner’s wholesale dealers of soybean oil- Marketing 2 (1) : 43-54.
retailers of soybean oil-consumers.
Chopra, Kusum (1982). “Pulse Production in India A
Channel-III. Producer—Wholesale dealer’s in Regulated Statewise Analysis” Indian Journal of Agricultural
Market—Processor—Refiners—Wholesale dealers of Economics,37 (3): 371-380.
soybean oil-retailers of soybean oil-consumers.
Despande, R.S. and H. Chandra Shekhar (1982) Growth
Marketing Cost of Soybean and Supply Response of Slow Growth Crops: A
Table 2 indicates that the marketing charges paid by the Case Study of Pulses, Indian Journal of
producer, village merchant, wholesaler, processor, wholesale Agricultural Economics, 36(3) : 386-393.
dealer of soybean oil + cake and retailer of soybean oil + Table 1
cake in the marketing of soybean were came to Rs. 5.75, Rs.
Profile Characteristics of sample household
22.50, Rs. 40.37, Rs. 13.00, Rs. 6.50 and Rs. 7.00 per quintal
in channel-I respectively. The marketing charges paid by the Particulars Small Medium Large Overall
producer, cooperative societies, processor, wholesale dealer
Total No. of 75 25 20 120
of soybean oil + cake and retailer of soybean oil + cake came sample
to Rs. 16.50, Rs. 10.00, Rs. 13.00, Rs. 6.50 and Rs. 7.00 per household
quintal in channel II, respectively. The marketing charges paid Average family 7 6 5 6
by producer, wholesaler, processor, wholesale dealer of size
soybean oil + cake and retailer of soybean oil + cake came to
Literacy per cent 50.00 60.00 68.00 55.00
Rs. 17.00, Rs. 40.37, Rs. 13.00, Rs. 6.50 and Rs. 7.00 per
quintal respectively in channel III. Total marketing charges Average size of 0.80 1.91 3.74 1.52
holding (ha.)
were higher being Rs. 202.52 per quintal in channel I followed
by Rs. 191.27 in channel III. Net cropped area 71.97 86.32 87.97 82.08
as percentage to
Producer’s Share in Consumer’s Price total cropped
area
The producer’s share in consumer price was presented in
Major crops (%
Table 3. area to total
cropped area)
The Table 3 shows that the price paid by consumers for
per quintal of soybean products (oil+cake) was calculated (i) Soybean 27.06 27.75 29.67 27.72
Rs. 2000 which was Rs. 800 for soybean oil and Rs. 1200 for (ii) Wheat 24.54 18.22 32.73 24.85
cake. Table 3 further indicates that middlemen’s margin was (iii) Linseed 14.96 13.05 9.67 13.53
highest being Rs. 753.23 per quintal in channel I followed by
(iv) Arhar 11.78 8.45 11.90 11.25
Rs. 701.10 and Rs. 685.73 per quintal in channel II and III
respectively. Cropping 178.92 181.52 183.34 181.42
intensity (%)
Table 3 the producer’s share in consumer’s price was
highest being 56.92 per cent in channel II followed by 56.15 Table 2
and 52.21 per cent in channel III and I respectively. Thus, it Marketing Charges per Quintal paid by the Producer—Village
can be concluded that the marketing channel I is comparatively Merchant, Cooperative Society Mill Owner, wholesaler and
much complicated involving a number of middlemen and retailer in the Marketing of Soybean (in different marketing
market functionaries between the producer’s and consumers channel)
as compared to the others marketing channels. Sl. No. Particulars CHANNELS

Conclusions I II III
A. Total marketing charges paid by the
The total marketing cost of soybean was observed highest
producer
on channel-I (Rs. 202.52) and lowest on channel-II
(Rs. 160.40). The producer share in consumer price was 1. Transport charges — 10.00 10.00
almost similar in channel-II and channel-III. Exploitation by 2. Karda (Dirt) 5.25 6.00 6.00
middleman should be checked through strengthening the Oil 3. Sample — — —
Seed Producer’s Cooperative Societies in the study area.
4. Others 0.50 0.50 1.00
REFERENCES Sub-total 5.75 16.50 17.00
Agrawal, N.L. and Sharma, J.L. (1994) “Promoting B. Marketing charges paid by
Agribusiness Soybean Marketing problems in village merchant

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Sl. No. Particulars CHANNELS Sl. No. Particulars CHANNELS
I II III I II III

1. Transport charges 10.00 — — F. Marketing charges paid by whole-


sale dealer of soybean oil
2. Loading charges 1.00 — —
1. Transport charges oil+cake 4.50 4.50 4.50
3. Gunny bags charges 2.00 — —
4. Clearing/Karda 2.00 — — 2. Loading/unloading Oil+cake 2.00 2.00 2.00

5. Sample 6.00 — — Sub-total 6.50 6.50 6.50


6. Unloading 1.00 — — G. Charges paid by retailer of
7. Other charges 0.50 — — soybean Oil+cake

Sub-total 22.50 — — 1. Transport charges 3.00 3.00 3.00

C. Marketing charges paid by co- 2. Palledari oil+cake 3.00 3.00 3.00


operative Societies 3. Others 1.00 1.00 1.00
1. Transport charges — 5.00 —
Sub-total 7.00 7.00 7.00
2. Loading/unloading — 2.00 —
charges/gunny bags — 2.00 — Grand total 202.52 160.40 191.27
Stitching charges — 1.00 —
Table 3
Others — — —
Producer’s Share in the Consumer’s price per quintal of Soybean
Sub-total — 10.00 — in the Sehore Regulated Mandi
D. Marketing charges paid by whole- Sl. No. Particulars CHANNELS
saler
I II III
1. Transport charges 5.00 — 5.00
1. Total marketing charges 202.52 160.40 191.27
2. Palledari per bag 2.00 — 2.00
3. Weighing charges 1.00 — 1.00 2. Middleman margin 753.23 701.10 685.73

4. Commission per hundred Rs. 18.82 — 18.82 (a) Profit of village merchant 70.25 — —
5. Mandi fee 12.55 — 12.55 (b) Profit of cooperative society — 35.00 —
6. Other/storage 1.00 — 1.00 (c) Profit of wholesaler 16.88 — 19.63
Sub-total 40.37 — 40.37
(d) Profit of processor 69.60 69.60 69.60
E. Marketing charges paid by (e) Profit of wholesaler of soybean 223.50 223.50 223.50
processor’s oil/cake
1. Transport charges 2.00 2.00 2.00 (f) Profit of retailer of soybean 373.00 373.00 373.00
2. Palledari 2.00 2.00 2.00 oil/cake

3. Processing charges 107.40 107.40 107.40 3. Net amount received by 1144.25 1138.50 1123.00
producer
4. Packing charge/pan 9.00 9.00 9.00
4. Price paid by the consumer 2000.00 2000.00 2000.00
5. Others — — —
5. Producer share in consumer 52.21 56.92 56.15
Sub-Total 13.00 13.00 13.00 price (%)

^,xekdZ 'kq)rk dh igpku gSA

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Marketable Surplus of Rice and Wheat and Benefits of Storage
to the Farmers in India
—B.R. ATTERI AND GEETA BISARIA

T he improvement in living standard of rural India is one


of the major indicators of economic development of the
country. About 25 per cent of GDP is generated by the
period which could be beneficial to them. Therefore, the
efforts, in this study, have been made (i) to estimate the holding
size-wise marketable surplus of rice and wheat and (ii) to
agriculture sector. Since agriculture is one of the major examine the benefits from holdings rice and wheat in rural
producing sector in the economy, it influences the storages.
performance of other sectors too. The higher income and
consequently the higher purchasing power among rural Material and Method
households create demand for industrial goods. The Secondary data on all India market arrivals, monthly
agricultural production must be increased not only to meet wholesale prices, per capita/month consumption, number of
the demand of growing population, but also to meet the size of holdings & area operated and area under rice & wheat
increasing demand due to rise in income and living standard. was collected from various published sources of Government
The modern agricultural technology has raised the of India, such as Central Statistical Organisation, D.E. & S,
production and profitability of investment in agriculture. As Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Finance etc. as well as
a result the gross capital formation in agriculture accelerated. CMIE issues.
But, due to the land constraint and increasing requirement of Tabular analysis was used to work out marketable surplus,
land for non-agricultural uses, the growth in net sown area storage requirement and benefits to farmers from storage.
slowed down considerably. This explains why, despite the
accelerated increase in capital formation and the introduction Results and Discussion
of new technologies, the growth in marketable surplus (per The results and discussion on various aspects of the study
cent of toal production) could not increase substantially in are presented objective-wise as follows:
the post-green revolution period. However, the absolute
marketable surplus will further increase with improved Marketable Surplus
efficiency in marketing system, especially through storage. Marketable surplus can be defined as the residual
Storage of seasonally produced commodities is one of the production, of agricultural produce left, with the producer
important physical functions in commodities marketing after meeting his requirements of family consumption, farm
system especially when production and consumption are needs (seed and feed), kind payments, etc. The importance
widely spread over a long period. But the farmers in India do of increasing marketable surplus for meeting the increasing
not store the produce for better sale price opportunities in the demand for food, raw materials and other agricultural products
later market season. The needs for money and low storage by the non-farming population is well recognised. If the size
capacity of farmers in India have been the prime reasons for of marketable surplus in an economy does not rise, it may
immediate sale after harvest. The commercial minded farmers well contribute a fundamental limiting factor on the tempo of
or the group of farmers can earn a high profit through storage development by reducing supplies available for urban
of commodities produced. consumption, for industries and exports.

There is little literature on category-wise land holding size- On the macro-level, theoretically, it has been argued that
wise marketable surplus at macro level and the benefits of the surplus varies with relative prices of foodgrain crops.
rural storage to the farmers, if they retain the produce to sell However, the relationship between the two under many
in the off season. Therefore, there is need for estimating the situations is not clear. On the one hand, it can be argued that
category-wise marketable surplus, storage requirement of assuming the farmers have fixed cash requirements, price rise
farmers and the benefits of holding produce at rural storage will be accompanied by a decline in the quantity offered for
to the farmers. sale, implying a negative response of marketable surplus to
relative price. On the other hand, it can also be argued that as
Objectives
the relative price of rice and wheat increases, farmers will
Rice and wheat are two major cereal crops, which almost retain less for self-consumption and offer more in the market,
all the farmers grow in India but do not store for sale in later in order to buy the products of non-agricultural sectors. Thus,
Division of Agricultural Economics, IARI, New Delhi-12.

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the marketable surplus of rice and wheat with respect to its and (c) village and rural level for storages. The Central
relative price is more likely to be positive. Clearly, positive Warehousing Corporation was required to create storage
or negative response depends essentially on the relative facilities at centers of All-India importance, the State
strengths of income and substitution effects arising from a Governments and State Warehousing Corporation at centers
change in the relative prices of commodities. of state/district level importance but the rural storage needs
were to be looked after by the co-operatives. The Government
Another important factor that have also bearing on of India accepted the recommendations of the committee
marketable surplus is the aggregate level of production. and set up the National Co-operative Development and
Production of a crop itself depends upon various factors Warehousing Board (in 1956) and the Central Warehousing
including inputs use, rainfall and irrigation, technology, price, Corporation (in 1957). The setting up of State Warehousing
distance of agricultural markets and the availability of Corporations by all states followed this. There are three main
transport. The elasticity of marketable surplus with respect agencies in the public sector today, which are engaged in
to production can be more than one, i.e., increased production building large-scale storage/warehousing capacity viz., the
leads to a more than proportionate increase in marketable Food Corporation of India (FCI), Central Warehousing
surplus. Corporation (CWC) and State Wareshousing Corporations
Several micro level studies have also dealt with the question (SWCs), FCI is the main agency for handling rice and wheat
of the determinants of marketable surplus of different classes for procurement and distribution in India since 1960s. It has
of farmers for different crops under diverse institutional and its godowns and it also hires storage capacity from other
agro-climatic situations. The various variables considered in sources such as CWC, SWCs, and private parties. The total
such studies are: size of holding, production of the crop, size capacity with FCI was about 19156 thousand tones of
of family, number of livestock kept at farm, price of crop, foodgrains 12503 thousand tones owned and 6653 thousand
amount of payment in kind, non-farm income, consumption tones hired during March 1999. This does not include CAP
habits and taste. Among these the most important is the size capacity. However most of this capacity is non-rural based.
of holding. Based on this, marketable surplus may be negative The farmers are not benefited directly through its storage.
for marginal farmers, but positive for medium and large The main functions of the CWC and SWCs are to acquire
farmers, keeping other things constant. and build warehouses at suitable places and operate them for
storage of agricultural produce, fertilizers, etc.
Operational holding-wise all India total production,
consumption and marketable surplus during 1999-2000 has Besides, public sector agencies, cooperatives also have
been presented in Table-1. Marginal farmers owned about 78290 godowns in rural and marketing areas with storage
15 per cent of the total operational holdings area. They capacity of 13737 thousand tones for storage of fertilizers
produced 25.87 million tones of rice and 16.94 million tones and other inputs and consumer articles, mainly. This capacity
of wheat i.e. about 28.8 and 22.4 per cent, respectively of is insufficient if rice and wheat are also to be stored in rural
total production of rice, and wheat. But the total family godowns. Thus, to benefit the farmers co-operatives or private
consumption including feed and seed was also highest, about rural godowns especially for commercial crops including rice
31 million tones of rice and 22 million tones of wheat, and wheat are necessary where farmers can store the produce
among these farms. Because of this the marketable surplus for sale in later months after harvest.
for rice and wheat was negative for this group. The per cent Primary agricultural co-operative societies and most of the
marketable surplus for both the commodity increased with marketing co-operatives in the country now own godowns
the increase in size group. The estimated marketable surplus with funds provided by NCDC. Besides warehouses, there
with no losses at local storage was 59.75, 68.52 and 88.69 are cold storages, which help farmers/producers to avoid
per cent for rice and 60.24, 71.53 and 85.00 per cent for distress sales of perishable commodities like onions, potatoes,
wheat for semi-medium, medium and large farmers, fruits, vegetables, fish, meat, dairy products etc.
respectively during 1999-2000. On an average the
marketable surplus for rice and wheat was 39 per cent and Save Grain Campaign (SGC), launched as a pilot project
44 per cent (Table-1) respectively, for rice and wheat during in 1965-66, became a regular scheme since 1969-70. It seeks
1999-2000. This in future will increase to the limit of to popularise scientific methods for foodgrains storage at farm
increase in productivity. The marketable surplus will further level. The scheme aims at providing appropriate technology
increase if storage losses at farm level are reduced. through education, motivation and persuasion in preventing
losses and improving farm-level storage. Because of lack of
Rural storage facilities are necessary to prevent the storage proper storage and warehousing facilities, a significant share
loss arising out of defective storage and also to equip the -estimated at about 6 per cent, in some study, gets lost. To
farmers with a convenient instrument for credit. All-India that extent the total available supplies get reduced. Simple
Rural Credit Survey Committee (1954) recommended for but effective methods, of foodgrains storage and pest control
initiating a countrywide programme of warehousing are popularised with supply of improved types of metal bins
development. This Committee recommended a three-tier and pesticides. The main idea is to help farmers to minimise
system at (a) the National level, (b) state and district level, storage losses. This campaign has been undertaken through a

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network of regional team and sub-teams of technical staff in procurement at low wholesale price at harvest period, sell at
close collaboration with the state governments. This is a high price in later months. The monthly wholesale prices
supplemented by the Indian Grain Storage Management and in respect of rice and wheat are presented in table-4. The
Research Institute, Hapur, and its five field stations at table indicates that the prices increased steadily over the
Ludhiana, Hyderabad, Jabalpur, Udaipur and Jorhat. Rural months after the harvest. Slight decrease in wholesale prices
storage covers both farm-level small storage for retained is observed when the arrival of new crop neared.
produce and large-scale storage of marketable food grains On an average the wholesale price for these crops increased
surplus. by Rs. 12.50 and Rs. 8.52 per quintal per month for rice and
The farmers normally sell rice and wheat immediately after wheat, respectively. The wholesale price for rice remained
harvest for various reasons including loss in local storages. almost stagnant from October to March. The cost of storage
To retain the rice and wheat for off season sale they need for rice and wheat in the rural godowns ranged from Rs. 2.82
large scale scientific storage facility in rural areas. In fact the to 3.75 per quintal per month depending on year of
storage/godown requirement for rice and wheat mainly construction and the capacity of storage/godowns. Based on
depends on: average price and average cost the net benefit from storage
per quintal/month worked out of Rs. 9.06 to Rs. 9.92 per
1. Retention of these cereals production for self-
quintal/month for rice and Rs. 5.08 to Rs. 5.93 per quintal/
consumption, (for family and other purposes at farm).
month for wheat (Table -4). Thus the farmers will be benefited
2. Purchasing habit of these cereals by non-rice and if the rural godowns are constructed for rice and wheat. The
wheat producing rural population. finance requirement of the farmers can also be easily met by
3. Credit facility for storage. various financial institutions which will provide the credit to
the farmers on the basis of the storage receipts. In fact the
4. Availability of paddy sheller/huller units in rural areas. commercial banks and co-operative banks extended advances
The Central Government in 1980’s promoted a national against warehouse receipts, though the volume of such
programme of storage with the construction of rural godowns advances remained very small. The warehouse receipt has
each of 100 tones capacity, Most of rural godowns was in the not yet become a fully negotiable credit instrument in the
co-operative sector. It was supplemented by a Rural Godowns same way as promissory notes or bills of exchange or cheques.
Scheme, which was centrally sponsored but implemented Conclusion
through Market Committees and State Warehousing
It was concluded that 60 per cent of the farmers are
Corporation. The objective was to build godowns of larger
marginal farmers and do not have marketable surplus. In
capacity of 200 to 1000 tones in rural areas to facilitate storage
fact, marketable surplus of these farmers in respect of rice
of produce of small and marginal farmers. However, the
and wheat in 1999-2000 was negative. The small, semi
progress of construction as well as utilisation was generally
medium, medium and large farmers had the marketable
unsatisfactory. It is generally accepted that the rural godowns
surplus in India. The estimated marketable surplus with small,
have substantively contributed to the better storage of
semi medium, medium and large farmers was 51.81, 59.75,
agricultural inputs.
68.52 and 88.69 per cent for rice and 8.74, 60.24, 71.53 and
Cost-Benefit from Storage 85.00 per cent for wheat, respectively ignoring losses. The
The market arrival is expected to increase with the increase total estimated marketable surplus for all India was 39.46 per
in the productivity and production of rice and wheat keeping cent and 43.79 per cent for rice and wheat, respectively. The
other things constant. Total wheat arrivals as per cent of farmers sell a wide range of products surplus like foodgrains,
total production of wheat has not changed much since 1970- pulses, oilseeds and spices immediately after they harvest the
71 though it has increased for rice (table-2). Further, the produce, for various reasons like low storage capacity, need
farmer did not change the pattern of sale in different quarters for money, uniform procurement price throughout the year
of the year after harvest which could bring them more prices etc. Further, the quality and quantity loss as well as value
and thus the benefits. The quarterly arrival of both the loss risk acts as deterrent for storing the products. Only a
commodities during 1990’s is presented in the table-3. The few commercial minded medium and large farmers, who
table shows that about 50% of total rice arrival in the markets retain the surplus produce and or collect the surplus
in the month of October to December. The market arrivals commodities like onion, potato, pulse and some price from
went on decreasing for rest of the quarters though price of fallow farmers, go for storage. It was found that the total
the same increased. The market arrival in case of wheat was cost of rural godown storage per quintal per month would
higher, about 65% in the first quarter of the year harvest vary from about Rs. 2.82 to Rs. 3.75 depending upon year of
though the prices increased in most of the subsequent months. construction and size of the godown/storage structure. Based
Thus, the table shows that the farmers sell most of their on average prices and average cost the net benefit from storage
produce immediately after harvest tablet and do not take per quintal/month worked out to Rs. 9.06 to Rs. 9.92 per
advantage of increase in price in the market during later quintal/month for rice and Rs. 5.08 to Rs. 5.93 per quintal/
months. This benefit is harvested by the traders, who after month for wheat. Thus the farmers will be benefited if the

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rural godowns are constructed for rice and wheat. The net 1 2 3 4 5
price above this threshold cost, besides, the procurement cost
in the market will encourage the farmers to store the products Small 15.99 1.76 6.44 48.74
in rural godowns. Semi-medium 15.51 1.71 4.46 60.24

The new opportunities for sale, opened by liberal domestic Medium 13.90 1.53 2.43 71.53
and international trade along with government policy on credit Large 13.23 1.46 0.53 85.00
to construct the godowns in rural areas at low rate, will All groups 75.57 8.31 34.17 43.79
encourage construction of rural godowns for rice and wheat.
Source : The figures have been worked out by the authors.
Since traders may not construct the godowns in rural areas,
therefore, the group of farmers or the co-operatives only will Note : 1. Class-wise production has been worked out on the basis of
projected per cent area in 1999-2000, for various categories, for
have to take lead. The credit policy for credit against stored Rice and Wheat.
products will help in increasing withholding capacity of the
2. Family size of 6 members have been assumed for each class in
farmers. This will then have multifarious effect on orderly
the study.
marketing of products. Consequently, welfare of consumers
3. Consumption is based on 55th round of NSSO, i.e. @ 6.59 kg
as well as producers will be improved.
and 4.45 kg/capita/month for rice and wheat, respectively.
4. Marketable surplus will further decrease to the extent of local
Table—1
storage losses.
Estimated Production Retention and Marketable Surplus of Rice and Table—2
Wheat (Farm size-wise) in India During 1999-2000 All India Market Arrivals as percentage of production

(Million Tonnes) Years Rice Wheat

Size group Produc- Feed and Family Market- 1970-71 25.2 29.8
tion seed consump- able Sur- 1975-76 15.2 30.5
tion plus (%)
1980-81 30.2 31.9
1 2 3 4 5 1985-86 31.2 20.2

Rice 1990-91 30.9 29.5


Marginal 25.87 1.03 30.08 —20.26 1991-92 29.8 27.8
Small 21.58 0.87 9.53 51.81 1992-93 38.3 29.3
Semi-medium 18.22 0.73 6.61 59.75 1993-94 44.8 32.2
Medium 13.09 0.52 3.60 68.52 1994-95 37.7 32.4
Large 10.73 0.43 0.78 88.69 1995-96 39.7 31.3
All groups 89.49 3.58 50.60 39.46
1996-97 42.3 30.3
Wheat
1997-98 (P) 40.9 29.3
Marginal 16.94 1.86 20.31 —30.88
Source : Various issues of CMIE Publications.

Table—3
Quarterly Market Arrival Pattern of Rice and Wheat
(Th. Tonnes)

Period Oct.—Dec. Jan.—March April—June July—Sep. Total


Rice
1990-91 30137.2 14262.6 8909.3 6430.7 59732.8
(50.45) (23.87) (14.92) (10.76) (100.00)
1995-96 39167.8 13786.5 10116.5 6570.1 69640.9
(56.24) (19.80) (14.53) (9.43) (100.00)
Wheat
April—June July—Sep. Oct.—Dec. Jan.—March Total
1990-91 34475.5 6378.4 5000.6 4470.2 50275.4
(68.57) (12.69) (9.95) (8.79) (100.00)
1995-96 32601.0 6244.1 5777.5 5652.8 50275.4
(64.84) (12.42) (11.49) (11.25) (100.00)
Source : Various issues of “Bulletin of Food Statistics”.
Note : Figures in brackets are the percentages of the total.

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Table—4
Changes in wholesale prices and cost-benefit of storing Rice and Wheat
(Rs./Qt)

Month/Year WS prices Change in Cumulative change Cumulative Cumulative net


Rs/qt WS price in prices total cost benefit

Rice
Oct., 99 825 0 0 0.00—0.00 0.00 to 0.00
Nov., 99 825 0 0 2.82—3.75 —2.82 to -3.75
Dec., 99 825 0 0 5.64—7.50 —5.64 to -7.50
Jan., 00 825 0 0 8.46—11.25 —8.46 to -11.25
Feb., 00 835 10 10 11.28—15.00 —1.28 to -5.00
Mar., 00 825 -10 0 14.10—18.75 —14.1 to -18.75
Apr., 00 850 25 25 16.92—22.50 2.50 to 8.08
May, 00 875 25 50 19.74—26.25 23.75 to 30.26
Jun., 00 950 75 125 22.56—30.00 95.00 to 102.44
Jul., 00 950 0 125 25.38—33.75 91.25 to 99.62
Aug., 00 975 25 150 28.20—37.50 112.50 to 121.80
Sep., 00 975 0 150 31.02—41.25 108.75 to 118.98
Wheat
Apr., 99 615 0 0 0.00—0.00 0.00 to 0.00
May, 99 636.5 21.5 21.5 2.82—3.75 17.75 to 18.68
Jun., 99 698.5 62 83.5 5.64—7.50 76.00 to 77.86
Jul., 99 711.2 12.7 96.2 8.46—11.25 84.95 to 87.74
Aug., 99 732.5 21.3 117.5 11.28—15.00 102.50 to 106.22
Sep., 99 740 7.5 125 14.10—18.75 106.50 to 110.90
Oct., 99 744 4 129 16.92—22.50 106.50 to 112.08
Nov., 99 760 16 145 19.74—26.25 118.75 to 125.26
Dec., 99 748.8 —11.2 133.8 22.56—30.00 103.80 to 111.24
Jan., oo 738 —10.8 123 25.38—33.75 89.25 to 97.62
Feb., 00 721.75 —16.25 106.75 28.20—37.50 69.25 to 78.55
Mar., 00 717.2 —4.55 102.2 31.02—41.25 60.95 to 71.18

Source: The wholesale prices of coarse rice have been taken for Kakinada and Nizamabad wholesale markets of A. P. The wholesale prices for wheat
had been taken for Hapur wholesale Market.

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Rearing of Male Buffalo Calves as a Meat Producer
—Kamal Chakrabarti*

T HE domestic buffalo has been neglected for a long


time although many scientists have worked and written
about this animal. However, many arrears about this animal
Now an attempt is being made on the growth aspects in
terms of meat production by narrating various workers
experiments in this field.
have received little attention. There has been a lack of
The feeding ability of buffaloes mainly depends on the
research activities which leads to a major failure to recognize
stage of rumen development, individual physiological status,
and exploit the potential of this animal. Male buffalo calves
environmental condition, availability of quality feed stuff
never got desired care which they deserved, among Indian
and stress due to diseases. Rumen development of young
farm animals from the ancient times as stated by “Surapal”
buffalo calves is affected by the age, level and duration of
that a buffalo that begets a male calf, bride that gives birth
milk feeding. Growing buffalo calves fed fibrous feed of
to a female baby and rain that precipitates in the month of
low energy usually have larger feeding capacity than those
Kartika (October-November), all these portend ominous time
reared on high level of milk feeding or suckling for a longer
(Anonymous 1964).
periods. It has also been revealed that on sole feeding of
It is noticeable that buffalo exists in greatest number oat, hay, green maize, green oats, green cow-peas, and green
in those areas. Of the world, where shortage of animal barseem mean DMI per kg W 0.75 has been found to be
protein is most acute. The average world consumption of 67,88,96,91 and 100 gms respectively in buffaloes of 200-
meat, fish and egg is 36 kg/capita/year and the 250 kg body weight, (Jaikishan, 1974). Mean DMI was
consumption of animal protein in the far-east is less than much lower (70-75 gms. Per kg W 0.75) when wheat straw
half of the world average. In our country, the overall was fed with a small amount (25.30%) of concentrate
intake of animal protein is only 15% against the mixture during growing tenure. (johri et.al. 1982) under
recommended quantity of 30% of total protein, both in normal condition. It is postulated that DMI. Per kg unit of
rural urban areas. Mutton 07 kg/capita/year (1997), beef body weight is higher in early life and gradually decreases
.8 kg/capita/year (2000), poultry .850 kg/capita/year with the advancement of age and thus the body size in
(2002). So there is a tremendous scope for augmenting growing buffaloes DMI per 100 kg body weight may be
animal protein in our country. this region has the largest 2.5-3.90 kgs upto 150 kgs. Body weight, 2.2-75 kgs up to
livestock population in the world viz. cattle 218.80 million, 250 kgs. Body weight and 1.75-2.40 kgs upto 400 kgs body
Buffalo 93.77 million, Sheep 57.90 million, Goat 123 weight (verma 1991).
million, Pig 16 million & poultry 402 million (FAO-2000).
In our country, generally buffaloes are get three types of
The major potential of the buffalo however is a meat rations (A). High straw low concentrate or a mixture of
producer and it can only be achieved in a relatively short straw and green fodder or grazing on wasteland
time through increased research and investigation. In most supplemented with crop residues and domestic bye-products
countries the buffalo meat is marketed which comes from available from grains and pulses processing.
old animals at the end of a long life of work or milk
(B). Good quality cereal fodder or a mixture of cereal
production. Even these poor products are in considerable
legumes fodder, and
demand. There is a every reason to believe and experiments
revealed that if the buffalo is reared for meat production, (C). Good quality fodder supplemented with adequate
the meat will be tender, palatable of high quality and concentrate mixture. The energy values of these systems
acceptable to the consumers. It can easily be obtained at are highly variables and may be equivalent to 45-50% TDN
less expense than that from cattle and in tropics particularly or 1.6-1.8 Mcal. ME per kg. dry matter (6.7-7.5 Mj) in
at a much earlier age. Evidence has revealed that the system (1), 50-55% TDN or 1.8-2.0 Mcal or (7.5-8.4Mj)
buffaloes can be maintained in good condition, even when ME per kg. dry matter in system (2) and 60-65% TDN OR
only coarse fodder is available and as such buffalo would 2.25-2.5 Mcal or (9.4-10.5 Mj,) ME per kg. dry matter in
be used effectively in suitable environments for increasing system (3) of feeding buffaloes. Animals on system no. (1)
supply of meat and meat food products. nearly maintains the animals while system no. (2) & (3)
support different rates if growth as well as milk production.
So far the above discussions have been made a just as an
introduction in relation to establish the facts that buffalo Like other bovines the growth tenure in buffaloes may
calves could be effecively weaned/reared as meat producer. be demarcated into (1) pre-ruminant i.e. growth up to about

*Marketing Officer, Dte. of Marketing & Inspection, Mumbai.

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3 months of age when feed normally consists of milk and case of concentrate feeding groups but the same should
milk products, oil cakes and fodders. (2) Active growth considerable variations during hot summer and the rest of
which considered to be upto 18 months of age and the months in the case of all roughage rations. Thus in
(3) terminal stage when animals becomes capable of tropical countries like India different system of feedings
breeding and reproduction. Recently attempts are being made have to be adopted during the different seasons of the year
to accelerate the growth of male buffalo calves inn early for meat production.
life through increase nutrient supply for the production of
The average dressing percentage in the high concentrate
meat animals. the changes in growth patterns and thus the
group was 57. The same values were 55.5 and about 50%
tissue compositions are gradual and it is difficult to draw a
for the low concentrate high roughage and low roughage
strict line between the successive stages of growth. However,
feeding respectively. A variation in the digestive fill ranging
it has already been established that with the advancement
from about 9—25% of the shrunk body weights were
of age and normal growth, the proportion of moisture
recorded in this study. Feeding cost unit of dressed carcass
decreases that of adipose (fatty) tissues increases. Thus, the
was the lowest in about Rs. 4.60 kg. at 1974 base year. The
energy requirement per unit gain in body weight gradually
other two groups have been found uneconomical either
increases with age. This has also been revealed that the
because of high production cost or inferior meat quality
growth response of the buffaloes were limited to 50—70%
standard respectively.
when compared with the concentrate diet on the other hand
the forage fed animals showed considerable compensatory The performance of the animals can be further augmented
growth (Agarwal-1974). A study was conducted by (Pathak- if the seed cakes would have been fed properly during the
1979) observed that feeding high level of urea-molasses early part of their lives and better management practices
liquid diet (about 2.5% urea in molasses) the gain in body were adopted during the subsequent part of the growth
weight was considerably lower. The rearing of calves on period.
very low level of nutrition is mainly responsible for delayed
production and also decreases life time production (Ranjhan Sharma & Talapatra (1963) fed buffalo male calves aged
& Pathak - 1983). They also stressed that planning for 8 to 11 months on three plane of nutrition for 285 days.
rearing of buffalo calves must be clean and well defined so High plane animals retained a daily weight gain of 0.63 kg.
that for the production, the calves should be fed on high day on a ration of (1.8 to 3.6 kgs.) concentrate mixture ,
level of nutrition from the 1st week so that the body weight 2.26 kgs. of fresh grass and 1.3 to 2.73 kgs. wheat straw.
may be doubled before 10 weeks of age. The intake was drop to 0.9 to 1.8 kgs. concentrate & 2.2
kgs fresh grass & 1.3 to 2.7 kgs. wheat straw/day for the
Work was initiated at I.V.R.I. to study the comparative medium plane, which gave a daily weight gain of 0.88 lbs.
growth, feed efficiency, carcass quality and the economics (0.4 kgs.). The low plane group lost 0.9 kgs. body weight/
of raising buffalo calves of intensive feeding regimes and day on a daily intake of 0.45 to 0.90 kgs. concentrate 2.2
the traditional range of feeding regimes respectively. For kgs. fresh grass and 0.45 kgs. wheat straw, the loss was
this purpose two grossly divergent rations were worked out halted by feeding wheat straw adlib.
(1) high concentrate ration having about 55% TDN. These
rations were fed at two distinct level of intake, (a) an adlib According to Hafez (1952) buffalo beef differs texturally
level and (b) 25% less of the adlib level. Therefore, in all from ox-beef in many respects. The muscle fibres are thicker
four rations treatment were tried. and nucleus is more abundant, there is also difference in the
distribution of fatty & connective tissues. There is no
About 24 buffalo calves weighing on an average 75 kgs. marbling (intramuscular fat) in buffalo meat this is a very
At 8 months of age were distributed in four identical groups. important difference between cattle and buffalo. The
These animals were fed till they reached a slaughter weight nutritional excellence of buffalo meat is not the sole factor
of 300 kgs. the low groups under high concentrate feeding affecting consumers demand; palatability is of decisive
were fed the same rations throughout the experiment but in importance. Meat from milk fed buffalo calves slaughtered
the other groups the all roughage ration was replaced by just after weaning, commands the highest price in many
the high energy ration at 250 kgs. body weight for finishing. countries because of its excellent palatability.

The approximate time taken by the 70 kgs. Starter calves According to Zaki (1951) and Ferrara (1964) the taste
to attain a slaughter weight of 3000 kgs. was 12 months, 14 and tenderness of the meat of young buffaloes are superior
months and 18 months when maintained on full and limited to those of cattle of the same age, Hafez (1952) mentioned
intake of all roughage rations respectively. The growth rates that the buffalo beef is nutritionally superior to ox-beef in
were found to be about 610 gm/day with a feed efficiency many respects and can be produced at a less cost because
of 1 : 6 in high and concentrate groups respectively. the of the lower feed requirements of the buffaloes. More recent
corresponding values were 370 with 1 : 10 and 3000 with work in Italy on theearly weaning of buffalo calves and
1 : 9 in the case of two roughage groups. The pattern of rearing them for meat production indicates clearly that if
growth remained almost uniform throughout the year in buffalo calves are well fed and managed they yield a meat

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which in quantity and quality, is not inferior to that of other rate was high 9 kgs. Buffalo milk was required for 1 kg
bovine animals. carcass weight.
In Yugoslavia, trials were conducted byW. Ross Cockrill, Salerno (1948) showed that 1 kg live weight gain the
at an establishment where more than 3000 young cattle buffalo calves required 4.29 Scandinavian, 4.71 Brown Swiss
were usually fattened each year. !0 young buffalo males and Holstein Friesians 4.94.
were given the same feeding and attention as the rest of the
Improved conditions of buffalo rearing farms and more
animals in a feed weight rations consisted of 1.250 kgs.
rational system of feeding and hygienic, together with
concentrate and/kg hay/100 kg. live weight with green fodder
increased demand for the products, has meant that a quality
adlib. about 20 kgs. being consumed daily. The initial
meat can be obtained or marketed at an increase price, meat
average weight of the buffaloes was 199,1 kgs. at 12—14
production from yearling buffaloes at a weight of 300–320
months and the final average weight after 105 days fattening
kgs is feasible and practicable (De Francis).
was 314.8 kgs. total gained average 115.7 kgs. and the
daily average 1.09 kg. with individual variations from 0.610 Discussion
to 1.5 kg. the impressive response to intensive feedings was
only about 5% lower than that of young bulls of improved The results of all these investigations showed that the
cattle breeds. Further more, the buffalo attained a satisfactory buffalo efficiently converts feed into growth and meat. The
grade of finish 300—350 kgs. while the bulls only attained object of feeding a calf for the veal market is to convert as
a similar grade at 400—450 kgs. The number involved in much feed as possible into flesh. Tremendous wastage of
the trial was small yet individual variations were wide male calves of dairy buffalo in India should be stopped, if
enough to indicate the possibility of selection for high necessary with a suitable financial incentive to buffalo
fattening efficiency. dairymen to rear such calves up to an age of 12-18 monhs
for their utilization as meat stock by buffalo meat plants.
Houghton (1960) and Poulkner (1962) reported on the Once the dairymen get economic return for the sale of their
first evaluation, the buffalo as a meat producer in the male calves, the present practice of negligence towards them
Caribbean. The work was based on a trial involving two will gradually stop. The scientific exploitation is urgently
groups of young castrated buffalo weighing 182 to 277 required particularly of buffalo male calves from quality
kgs. fattened on good pongola grass pasture for 280 days. meat production point of view. Although most of the buffalo
One group received no supplementary concentrate and breeds in India are reared for milk, yet this species can be
showed an average daily weight gain of 0.6674 kgs. The exploited for meat particularly the male animals to catch
second group receives 0.91 kgs./day of mixture of citrus export markets to earn valuable foreign exchange. Male
pulp, coconut meal and salt. The average gain was 185.23 calves, if reared for would be available to the extent of 6.88
kgs. and with an average daily gain of 0.6583 kgs. A millions every year in the country. Scientific research needed
study by Shute (1966) in Trinidad compared growth rate on the following parameters : back fat thickness (cm),
of three groups. Each of six healthy animals pastured longissimus area (cm)2, ham loin percentage, marbling score,
together for 20 weeks, the first groups were Jamaica Red colour, firmness, structure score, ph, press fluids, bound
cattle, the second were buffaloes and the third was water, dripping loss, tenderness, juiciness, flavors as well as
Brahman cattle. The average initial weights were 190, different cuts like forequarters, hindquarters and so on.
184 and 140 kgs. respectively. For the first 10 weeks Aurora, S. P. (1978). In addition to this most emphasis in
they were on poor pasture, for second 10 weeks they research is needed to determine the efficiency of the various
had abundant but inferior roughages. types and breeds, particularly with reference to different
feeding systems and with special attention to locally available
Class Daily weight Daily weight gain on feed stuff.
gain in poor moderate pasture (kgs)
pasture (kgs)
The potentialities for development of market for buffalo
Jamaican Red Cattle. 0 0.4767 + 0.0726. meat both within the country and abroad are really immense
and no other country is in more favourable position than
Buffaloes. 0.1234+ 0.6174 + 0.0999.
India for establishing a prosperous buffalo meat industry.
Brahman Cattle. 0 0.2951 + 0.1317. World’s best buffalo resources are in India. India possesses
about one-fourth of the bovine population in the world. As
For the whole period, the live weight increased at almost
whole cattle constitutes about three-fourth and buffaloes
twice the rate of Jamaican red cattle and three times that of
one-fourth of the total bovine population in world. I want
the Brahman cattle. There were no wallows. Differences
to mention here that we need to make more investments in
could have been greater if relief from exposure to direct
the livestock industry not only for the inland requirements
sunlight had been provided.
but also for capturing the export markets. According to
Bedreldin (1955) recorded that data on milk consumptions FAO-monthly bulletin of agriculture economic and statistic,
weight increased in suckling buffalo calves. The conversation the per capita consumption of livestock products is 4.5 times

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higher in developed countries than in the developing the meat industry with an eye on export trade. We would
countries. In India about 54% of meat comes from sheep lose the race in capturing the foreign markets, if we can not
and goat, 26% from cattle and buffaloes, 13% from poultry utilize the advantage that we possess.
and 7% from pigs. 37.3 million Sheep and goat, 1.5 million
pigs and 1.4 million cattle and buffaloes are being Bibliography
slaughtered annually in our country. The percentage of the
animals slaughtered annually in relation to their respective 1. 1948 Meat reproduction of buffaloes reared in Italy,
population, cattle—0.9%, buffaloes—1.4%, sheep—32.5%, Salerno. A, cited from The Husbandry and
goat—36.85, pigs—22.0% and others—6.4%. health of the domestic Buffaloes by W. Ross
Cockrill.
The percentage of cattle and buffaloes slaughtered in
India in relation to their population is exceedingly low, viz., 2. 1951 The Monoufi type of buffalo. As suggested score
0.9% and 1.4% per cent respectively. Against that the card KZ, M.11. Cited from the domestics water
percentage of cattle slaughtered in the developed countries buffalo by Pshimuddin.
is between 30–40 percent.
3. 1951 Skin structure of Egyptian buffaloes and cattle
The main exporting countries are namely : Saudi Arabia, with reference to a sweat glands. Hafaz, E.S.E,
East Germany, Australia, Netherlands, Maldives, Oman, Badrelin, A.I. and Shroei, H.N, cited from the
Philippines, Malaysia etc. Indian export of buffalo beef Husbandry health of the domestic buffaloes by
quantity: 288027.84 (mt), value in crores Rs. 1375.04, sheep W. Ross Cockril.
and goat quantity: 11902.85 (mt), value in crores Rs. 78.16,
poultry products quantity: 15836.12 (mt), value in crores 4. 1955 Dressing percentage in suckling buffalo veal,
Rs. 86.18, dairy products quantity: 11068.86 (mt), value in Badreldin. A.I, Indian journal of veterinary
crores Rs. 83.9, animal casings quantity: 537.70 (mt), value science, 25-61-64.
in crores in Rs. 12.79, processed meat quantity: 130.69 5. 1960 Water buffaloes in Trinidad, Houghton. T.R.,
(mt), value in crores in Rs. 1.58 aggregating total animal cited from the Husbandry and Health of the
products exports: 327540.06 (mt), value in crores Rs. domestic buffalo by W. Ross cockril.
1637.16. In the light of the above, there is a considerable
scope for building up an export market for buffalo meat 6. 1963 Growth response in buffalo calves. Sharma
especially to the countries in the Middle East. A number of K.M., and Talapatra S.K., Journal of dairy
countries are now taking very active interest in developing Science 19:236:244

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Cumin Seed Marketing in Rajasthan
— N. L. AGRAWAL* AND NARENDRA SINGH**

C umin seed occupies an important place in the Indian


economy in various ways. Cumin seed has an aromatic
odour and a spicy bitter taste and is extensively used as
drawn from the four selected villages. The selected farmers
were categorized into four different size groups i.e. small,
semi-medium, medium and large as per system adopted by
condiment in all mixed spices and curry powder for flavouring Government of India in classification of holdings. The data
soups, sausages, pickles and cheese and for seasoning bread on marketing system, costs, margins and price-spread in
and cakes. In Europe, cumin as a flavouring spice has largely marketing of cumin seed through different marketing
been replaced by caraway. In indigenous medicine, cumin channels were collected for the agriculture year 1997-98.
seeds have long been considered as a stimulant and The data were collected from the respondents with the help
carminative. The cumin seed is stomatic astringent and useful of specially designed schedules. The Data were analysed by
in diarrhoea and dyspepsia. Cumin seeds are also used in expressing the data in simple percentage terms.
number of veterinary medicines. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In India, cumin is cultivated in the States of Gujarat,
Producers surplus
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. The first
two states namely Gujarat and Rajasthan together account Cumin seed is retained by the farmers at home for use
for 90 per cent of the country’s total production of cumin as a spice in preparation of different consuming item and
seed. Rajasthan state has the pre-eminent position in also retained on farm as seed for sowing the crop in the
production of cumin seed accounting 58% of total cumin ensuing season. The consumption for these uses viz., as
production of the country. Rajasthan occupied an area of seed and for consumption by the family is categorized as
199839 hactares with a production of 76760 Tonnes in year on farm utilization. On farm utilization of cumin seed is
2000-2001. Cumin seed in Rajasthan state is grown mainly only 0.13 quintal per family (1.82 per cent of total
in the districts of Jalore, Barmer, Nagaur, Ajmer, Pali, Sirohi, production). Among the size groups, it ranged from 0.06
Tonk and Jodhpur. quintal on small sized farms to 0.21 quintal on large sized
farms (Table 1).
An efficient marketing system is one of the pre-requisites
for raising the income of the farmers. The available The overall marketable surplus on all sized farms has
marketing facilities and different marketing channels bring been 98.18 per cent of total production. There existed minor
variation in the net price got by the producer-farmers for variation in this surplus on different sized farms. Marketable
the produce disposed of by them. The farmers behaviour surplus was equal to marketed surplus on all these size
with respect to sale of their surplus produce and the pattern groups of farms as farmers disposes the total cumin seed
of flow of surplus produce in the marketing channels is surplus and do not retain any quantity for sale in future.
influenced by number of factors as proximity to market, Marketing system
price of the produce in the market, availability of transport The marketing system of the selected farmers in respect
facilities, available storage facilities, finanical position of of sale of cumin i.e. place-wise, time-wise, lot-wise and
the farmer, etc. The study on performance of cumin seed agency-wise is presented under following sub-sections:
marketing helps in planning and developing the system for
(i) Place-wise sale pattern of cumin seed
efficient marketing for the crop. In this paper, an attempt
has been made to examine the existing marketing system Selected farmers marketed 95.16 per cent cumin seed
and price spread in marketing of cumin seed in Nagaur surplus in the Merta City regulated market and only 4.84
district of Rajasthan. per cent quantity was marketed in their own village
(Table 2). Among the size groups, small and semi-medium
Methodology sized farmers sold 43.58 and 15.03 per cent quantity in the
The present study was carried out in Nagaur district of village whereas the quantity sold in the mandi by these
Rajasthan State. Multistage random sample technique was farmers group were 56.42 and 84.97 per cent. As against
followed to draw the sample for the study. Merta city this, cent per cent medium and large size farmers marketed
regulated market having the highest market arrivals of cumin their cumin surplus in the Merta City regulated market. The
seed among the cumin seed markets of Rajasthan was tendency of village sale was observed to some extent only
selected for the study. Based on the market arrivals, four in small and semi-medium sized group of farmers due to
villages were selected for detailed study of the marketing lesser quantity of cumin seed surplus available with them
patterns purposively. A sample of hundred farmers were and also to fulfil immediate cash requirement.
*Professor of Agril. Economics, RAU, Bikaner Campus Jobner.
**Sr. Research fellow, MPUAT, RCA, Udaipur.

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(ii) Time-wise sale pattern of cumin seed The farmers sized group-wise adopting different channels
Selected farmers sold 80 per cent cumin seed surplus in in sale of cumin seed are shown in Table 5.
the first two quarters of the year i. e. during the month of Marketing Margin and Price-Spread
March to August and only 20 per cent quantity of cumin
seed was sold by them in other two quarters of the year i.e. Prevailing rates of market charges in sale of cumin
during September to February months (Table 3). The farmers seed in Merta City market are presented in Table 6. All
of all size groups sold 48.79, 31.30, 18.49 and 1.42 per marketing charges are to be paid by the buyers except
cent surplus cumin seeds in the first. second, third and fourth unloading and cleaning charges prior to sale of cumin.
quarters of the year, respectively. Among the size groups, Producers got 61.36 per cent of the price paid by the
semi-medium, medium and large sized farmers sold 70.59, consumer in sale of cumin seed at village. Marketing
47.90 and 12.81 per cent surplus cumin seed, respectively costs incurred by the middlemen including that of the
in the first quarter. The quantity marketed by them in the producer has been 4.79 per cent of consumer’s price.
second quarter was 29.4, 31.13 and 41.93 per cent, Intermediaries earned a total margin of 33.85 per cent of
respectively. Medium and large sized farmers sold 20.97 the price paid by the consumer in sale of cumin seed.
and 36.86 per cent quantity of cumin seed in the third Agency-wise break-up of the gross margin revealed that
quarter of the year. Only large sized farmers sold 8.40 per the village trader, wholesaler and retailer got 8.42, 6.27
cent quantity of cumin seed in the fourth quarter. As against and 19.16 per cent of the consumer’s price, respectively.
this, all the small sized farmers marketed their total surplus Further, the share of retailer in the total margin has been
cumin seed in the first quarter of the year. much higher (more than 50 per cent) due to the demand
of cumin seed in small quantity by the consumers.
(iii) Lot-wise sale pattern of cumin seed
On sale of cumin seeds in Merta City regulated market,
Eighty-one per cent farmers marketed 65.64 per cent producer farmers got 69.87 per cent of the price paid by the
surplus cumin seed in one lot, 17 per cent farmers sold consumers. Marketing cost incurred by different middlemen
29.12 per cent cumin seed surplus in two lots and only 2 including the producer was 4.69 per cent of consumers rupee.
per cent farmers disposed of 5.24 per cent surplus cumin Middlemen in sale of cumin seed earned a margin of 25.43
seed in more than two lots. Further among the size groups, per cent of the price paid by the consumers. Farmers got
small and semi-medium sized farmers marketed their 8.51 per cent higher share in sale of cumin in the regulated
available total surplus cumin seeds in one lot whereas 69 market than sale in the village. Margin earned by the
per cent medium sized farmers sold 60 per cent quantity of middlemen has been lesser by 8.42 per cent is sale of cumin
surplus cumin seed in one lot and other 31 per cent farmers seeds in the villages.
sold 40 per cent surplus cumin seed in two lots (Table 4).
Large sized farmers sold their total surplus cumin seed in Disposal of Cumin Seed by the farmers in Unjha
three lots. Among the large sized farmers, 50 per cent farmers (Gujarat) Market
sold 35.79 per cent quantity of cumin seed in one lot, 30
The state of Rajasthan occupies a premier position in
per cent farmers sold 33.58 per cent quantity in two lots
production of cumin seed accounting 58 per cent of the
and 20 per cent farmers sold 30.63 per cent quantity of
total production of cumin of the country. However, only 25
cumin seed in more than two lots.
per cent cumin seed arrives in the markets of Rajasthan
It is well known that cumin seed deteriorates in quality state and rest 75 per cent cumin seed are marketed in the
as other seed spices on storage. On this account, the tendency markets of other states. Production and arrivals of cumin
of sale of cumin seed in one lot was more common (65.64 seeds for sale in the major producing districts of Rajasthan
per cent surplus) in all size group of farmers. Cent per cent are given in Tables.
surplus quantity of cumin seeds were sold by the small and
semi-medium sized farmers in one lot. Medium and large Barmer and Jalore districts of the state ranks first and
sized farmers disposed of their surplus cumin seed in two second in production of cumin seed but only 0.22 and 0.57
and more lots. These sized group farmers had sizeable per cent production of cumin seed arrived in the mandies of
quantity of cumin seed surplus with them and as such these districts (Table 8). More than 99 per cent cumin seed
disposed in more number of lots. from these two districts has been marketed at Unjha market
of Gujarat state.
(iv) Agency-wise sale pattern of cumin seed
Following marketing channels were observed in Arrivals of cumin in other major cumin producing
marketing of cumin seeds at village and mandi sale: districts of the state viz., Nagaur, Jodhpur, Pali and Ajmer
were 68.66, 26.71, 63.89 and 316.26 per cent of total
(i) Farmer producer—Village trader—Wholesaler production, respectively. In Ajmer district arrivals of cumin
Retailer—Consumer (at village level). seed exceeded the total production of the district because
(ii) Farmer producer—Wholesaler Retailer—Consumer (at producer farmers from Bhilwara, Tonk, Pali and Nagaur
mandi level). districts brought their cumin seed in the prominent cumin

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markets of this district for sale viz., Vijaynagar, Kekri, Conclusion
Beawar and Kishangarh.
To recapitulate the results, cumin is an important seed
Unjha market of Gujarat state is the well known
spice crop having 98 per cent marketable surplus of total
international market for sale of cumin seed in the country.
production. Farmers market cent per cent surplus
This market was established in February 1954 and presently
immediately after harvest as the color of seeds deteriorate
it is one of the main market of cumin seed and fennel in the
due to storage. Place-wise sale depicts that 95 per cent
country having national and international repute in the trade
surplus was sold in the regulated markets and village sale
of these spices.
was only 5 per cent. Time pattern-wise of sale revealed that
Traders of the state of Rajasthan also market their cumin 80 per cent surplus was sold in the first two quarters after
seed in this famous Unjha market due to price advantage on harvest and 20 per cent surplus was carried in the last two
account of the existence of competitive conditions among quarters by the medium and large sized farmers. Two
the buyers and availability of processing and export facilities marketing channels were observed in sale of cumin by the
in the market. As a result of good number of merchants farmers.
dealing in cumin and existence of processing units, there is
good competition among the buyers (traders and processors) (i) Farmers producers—Village traders—Wholesalers—
and offer competitive prices accrued to the sellers. The Retailers Consumers (Village level)
difference in prices between Unjha market of Gujarat and
that in Bhinmal and Sanchore markets of Jalore district (ii) Farmers producers—Wholesalers—Retailers—
(adjacent to Unjha) was as high as Rs. 50 to Rs. 100 per Consumers (Mandi level)
quintal. Even after taking into account the transportation Further, producer’s share in consumer’s rupee has been
cost of Rs. 5 to 10 per quintal net margin by sale of cumin 61.36 per cent in village sale and 69.87 per cent in sale
in Unjha market is very high. at regulated marketed. As such farmers selling cumin seed
Traders of Unjha market also send their agents or appoints in the regulated marketed got higher share (8.5 per cent)
the agents of local area in Rajasthan for making advance which in absolute terms (Rs. 1000 per quintal) is quite
payment to the potential cumin producers for purchase of substantial in this high value crop. More than three fourth
their cumin by the traders of Unjha market. The rates of of the total production of cumin seed was marketed by
different market charges (commission and market fee) and the farmers in Unjha market of Gujarat state. Only 25
the rate of sales tax to be charged by Govt. are also lower per cent of the total cumin seed production of the state
in Gujarat state market compared to Rajasthan. As such arrived in the markets of Rajasthan state. This is causing
sellers of cumin seed are benefited substantially by sale of heavy losses to the state exchequer in term of loss on
cumin in Unjha market. account of mandi fee and sales tax. Thus, to attract more
arrivals of surplus cumin seed in the markets of Rajasthan
In pursuance of low market arrivals of cumin seed in
state, there is dire necessity for development of
Rajasthan mandies (25 per cent) and disposal of cumin
infrastructure facilities in the markets of the state such as
seeds at Unjha market, detailed study was also under taken
opening of cleaning and processing units, establishment
in four major cumin markets of Rajasthan viz., Nagaur,
of export houses and construction of storage structure in
Merta City, Jodhpur and Kishangarh. Primary data were
all cumin markets of Rajasthan to check the flow of
collected from ten leading firms commanding 60 per cent
cumin for sale in the out side markets.
of the total transactions in the respective state markets. Data
for this were obtained for the period from March, 1998 to
August, 1998 i.e. of the peak marketing season of the crop. REFERENCES
Disposal of cumin seeds by these firms in the Unjha market
1. Acharya, S.S. and N.L. Agarwal, “Agricultural Marketing
is presented in Table 9.
in India”, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.,
Traders of Nagaur, Merta City, Jodhpur and Kishangarh New Delhi, 1999, pp. 306-7.
mandies disposed of 70.55, 65.16, 77.58 and 52.28 per cent
of cumin seeds in the famous Unjha market of Gujarat 2. Acharya, S.S. and N.L. Agarwal, “Efficiency in Millet
state. From Jodhpur and Nagaur mandies, 70 to 77 per cent Marketing—A Case Study of Rajasthan”, Ind. Jn.
cumin seed was disposed of in Unjha market due to nearness of Agri, Econ., 39 (2), 1984, pp. 233—38.
of this market from these mandies. As against this, traders
of Merta City and Kishangarh mandies marketed only 52 to 3. Agarwal, N.L. “Costs, Margins and Price-Spread in
65 per cent of cumin seeds in the Unjha market. About 67 Marketing of Spices Crops in Rajasthan”, Niyamit
per cent cumin seeds from Rajasthan state find the way to Mandi, 8(2), Jun.-July 1998. pp. 13—16.
international fame Unjha market from where after processing
the cumin seed are sent to the consuming centres and also 4. Agarwal, N.L. and B.L. Meena. “Agricultural Marketing
exported to the markets of the foreign countries. in India: Performance of Cumin Marketing in

38 Agricultural Marketing

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Rajasthan”, The Bihar Journal of Agricultural 7. Agarwal, N.L. and S.C. Sharma, “Marketing of Red
Marketing, 5 (3), July-Sept. 1997, pp. 319-28. Chillies in Rajasthan”, Spices India, 5 (8), August,
1992, pp. 16-21.
5. Agarwal, N.L. and Narendra Singh, “Marketing of
8. Ashturkar, B.W., L.V. Ambegoonkar and C.D. Deol,
Fenugreek in Rajasthan”, Published in Edited
“Performance and Profitability of Turmeric in
Book by Jagdish Prasad Encyclopaedia of
Maharashtra”, Financing Agriculture, 12 (4),
Agricultural Marketing Vol. 7, Mittal Publication,
October-December, 1989, pp. 31-33.
Delhi.
9. Nadda, A.L., R. Swarup and S.S. Tewari, “Economics of
6. Agarwal, N.L. and R. Vijay, “Marketing of Coriander in Cultivation, Returns and Marketing of Ginger in
Rajasthan”, Niyamit Mandi, 4 (3&4), August- Sirmur District of Himachal Pradesh, 18(4), June
November, 1993, pp. 13-15. 1976, pp. 7-14.

TABLE—1
Marketable and marketed Surplus of Cumin Seed on Sample Farms
(Quantity in quintals)
Size Number of Production On farm Marketable Marketed
groups Selected Utilization Surplus surplus
Farmers
Small 13 Total—2917 0.78 28.39 28.39
(0-2 ha.) Per farm—2.24 0.06 2.18 2.18
(100.00) (2.68) (97.32) (97.32)
Semi- medium 32 Total-149.97 3.09 146.88 146.88
(2-4 ha.) Per farm—4.69 0.10 4.59 4.59
(100.00) (2.13) (97.87) (97.87)
Medium 45 Total—414.92 7.23 407.69 407.69
(4—10ha. ) Per farm—9.22 0.16 9.06 9.06
(100.00) (1.74) (98.26) (98.26)
Large 10 Total—122.33 2.10 120.23 120.23
(Above 10 ha.) Per farm—12.23 0.21 12.02 12.02
(100.00) (1.72) (98.28) (98.28)
Overall 100 Total—716.39 13.28 703.19 703.19
Per farm—7.16 0.13 7.03 7.03
(100.00) (1.82) (98.18) (98.18)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of total production in the respective size group.

TABLE—2
Place-wise Disposal Pattern of Surplus Cumin Seed by the Sample Farmers
(Quantity in quintals)
Size Number of Particulars Village Market Total
groups Farmers sale sale
Small 13 Total 12.37 16.02 28.39
(0-2 ha.) Per farm 0.95 1.23 2.18
(43.58) (56.42) (100.00)
Semi-medium 32 Total 22.00 124.88 146.88
(2-4 ha.) Per farm 0.69 3.90 4.59
(15.03) (84.97) (100.00)
Medium 45 Total — 407.69 407.69
(4-10 ha.) Per farm — 9.06 9.06
— (100.00) (100.00)
Large 10 Total — 120.23 120.23
(Above 10 ha.) Per farm 12.02 12.02
(100.00) (100.00)
Overall 100 Total 34.37 668.82 703.19
Per farm 0.34 6.69 7.03
(4.84) (95.16) (100.00)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of total sale by the respective size group farmers.

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TABLE—3
Time Pattern of Sale of Cumin Seed by the Sample Farmers
(Quantity in quintals)
Farm Number Particulars Ist IInd IIIrd IVth Total
Size of Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter Sale
Groups Selected (March to (June to (Sept. to (Dec. to
Farmers May) Aug.) (Nov.) Feb.)
Small 13 Total 28.39 — — — 28.39
(0-2 ha.) Per farm 2.18 — — — 2.18
(100.00) (100.00)
Semi-medium 32 Total 103.58 43.30 — — 146.88
(2-4 ha.) Per farm 3.24 1.35 — — 4.59
(70.59) (29.41) — — (100.00)
Medium 45 Total 195.38 126.95 85.36 — 407.69
(4-10 ha.) Per farm 4.34 2.82 1.90 — 9.06
(47.90) (31.13) (20.97) — (100.00)
Large 10 Total 15.36 50.42 44.35 10.10 120.23
(Above 10 ha.) Per farm 1.54 5.04 4.43 1.01 12.02
(12.81) (41.93) (36.86) (8.40) (100.00)

Overall 100 Total 342.71 220.67 129.71 10.10 703.19


Per farm 3.43 2.20 1.30 0.10 7.03
(48.79) 31.30 (18.49) (1.42) (100.00)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of total sale by the respective size group farmers.

TABLE—4

Lot-wise Disposal Pattern of Marketed Surplus of Cumin Seed by the Sample Farmers

Farm Selling in one lot Selling in two lots Selling in more than
Size two lots
Groups No. of Quantity No. of Quantity No. of Quantity
farmers (qtls) farmers (qtls) farmers (qtls)
Small 13 28.39 — — — —
(0-2 ha.) (100.00) (100.00) — — — —
Semi-medium 32 146.88 — — — —
(2-4 ha.) (100.00) (100.00) — — — —
Medium 31 243.27 14 164.42 — —
(4-10) ha.) (68.89) (59.67) (31.11) (40.33) — —
Large 5 43.03 3 40.37 2 36.83
(above 10 ha.) (50.00) (35.79) (30.00) (33.58) (20.00) (30.63)
Overall 81 461.57 17 204.79 2 36.83
(81.00) (65.64) (17.00) (29.12) (2.00) (5.24)
Figures in parentheses are the percentages of total number of farmers/quantity of cumin seed in the respective size group.

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TABLE—5
Distribution of Producer Farmers Adopting Different Marketing channels
(Number)
Marketing channels Size groups Total
Small Semi- Medium Large
medium
1. Producer—Village
Trader—Wholesaler 7 6 — — 13
—Retailer—Consumer (53.85) (18.75) (13.00)
(In village sale)

2. Producer— 6 26 45 10 87
Wholesaler
—Retailer-Consumer (46.15) (81.25) (100) (100) (87.00)
(In mandi sale)
Total 13 32 45 10 100
(100) (100) (100) (100) (100)

Figures in parentheses are the percentages of their respective column total.

TABLE—6
Market Charges in Sale of Cumin Seeds in Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti, Merta City

Particulars Unit Rate Charges


borne by
1. Sales tax Per 100 rupees worth of 2.00 Buyer
produce
2. Mandi fee -do- 1.60 Buyer
3. Commission -do- 2.00 Buyer
4. Labour charges for Per bag of 55 kgs
(a) Unloading, seiving, -do- 3.00 Seller
cleaning and filling of
bags prior to sale
(b) Loading -do- 1.50 Buyer
(c) Unloading _do- 1.50 Buyer
(d) Weighing -do- 0.20 Buyer

Source : Records of Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti, Merta City.

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TABLE—7
Price-Spread in Marketing of cumin Seeds at Village and Mandi Sale
Sl. Particulars Village sale Mandi sale
No. Rs./quintal Share in consumer’s Rs./quintal Share in
rupee (Per cent) consumer’s rupee
(Per cent)
1. Producer’s net price 4791.53 61.36 5455.82 69.87
2. Cost incurred by
(a) Producer 13.30 0.17 32.96 0.42
(b) Village trader 26.77 0.34 — —
(c) Wholesaler 319.62 4.09 319.62 4.09
(d) Retailer 14.00 0.18 14.00 0.18
Total Cost 373.69 4.79 366.58 4.69
3. Margin earned by
(a) Village trader 657.18 8.42 — —
(b) Wholesaler 489.70 6.27 489.70 6.27
(c) Retailer 1496.37 19.16 1496.37 19.16
Total margin 2643.25 33.85 1986.07 25.43
4. Consumer’s price 7808.47 100.00 7808.47 100.00
TABLE—8
Production of Cumin Seed in Major Producing Districts and of Rajasthan, Arrivals of Cumin Seed in Mandies
Major Production of Rank in Arrivals of cumin seed in Krishi Upaj Rank
cumin seed cumin seed the state Mandi Samities of the respective in
Producing districts of (qtls) districts (qtls) the
Rajasthan Quantity of Per cent of total state
arrivals production
(qtls)
Jalore 132930 II 754 0.57 V
Barmer 159120 I 345 0.22 VI
Nagaur 96730 III 66410 68.66 I
Pali 13530 V 8644 63.89 IV
Jodhpur 92570 IV 24727 26.71 II
Ajmer 74100 VI 23403 316.26 III
Rajasthan state 529610 — 130064 24.56 —
Source : Records of Directorate of Agricultural Marketing.
TABLE—9
Disposal of Cumin Seeds to Unjha Market of Gujarat State from important Cumin Markets of Rajasthan State
(Quantity in quintal)
Disposal from Krishi Purchased quantity of Disposal of cumin seed in Percentage of
Upaj Mandi Samiti of cumin seed by the Unjha market by the total purchased
Rajasthan selected firms selected firms of the mandi quantity
of Rajasthan
Mertacity 17341 11300 65.16
Jodhpur 7218 5600 77.58
Nagaur 4160 2935 70.55
Kishangarh 7460 3900 52.28
Source : Information obtained from cumin dealing traders.

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Home News
NATIONAL SAMPLE SURVEY : 56th ROUND, 2000-01

HOUSEHOLD CONSUMER EXPENDITURE AND EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN INDIA : KEY RESULTS

Consumer expenditure Other living conditions


• About 75% of the Indian population lives in rural areas • The percentage of households living in dwelling units
and 25%, in urban areas. There were 942 females per owned by them was 93 in rural India and only about 61
1000 males in rural areas and 908 females per 1000 males per cent in urban areas, while 34 per cent lived in rented
in urban areas. dwelling units in urban areas.
• The all-India average monthly per capita consumer • There is an increase of around 3 percent in the proportion
expenditure (MPCE) is Rs. 495 and Rs. 914 for rural of urban households using LPG for cooking over the
and urban areas, respectively. Thus, the average MPCE previous year. The percentage of urban households
for urban areas at all-India level is 85% higher than that depending on firewood and chips for cooking came down
in rural areas. by 1 whereas the same for rural areas remained more or
• Average MPCE in rural areas has increased by 2% less stable.
(Rs. 9) from the previous year and in urban areas, by 7% • About 99% of the households are dependant on kerosene
(Rs. 60). and electricity for their lighting purposes in both rural
• For rural India, average MPCE of Rs. 495 comprised and urban India. At the all-India level the percentage of
Rs. 279 for food, and Rs. 216 for non-food. Food households using electricity is 91% in urban areas and
expenditure included Rs. 100 for cereals and cereal 51% in rural areas; the remaining households are, mostly,
substitutes, and Rs. 90 for milk, milk products, users of kerosene.
vegetables and edible oil. Non-food expenditure included Employment and unemployment
Rs. 41 for fuel and light, and Rs. 41 for clothing and • Over two-fifths of the population (42%) in rural areas —
footwear. and more than one-third (35%) in urban areas — are in
• For the urban sector, average MPCE of Rs. 914 comprised the employed category as per their usual status (ps + ss,
Rs. 400 for food and Rs. 514 for non-food. Of food that is, if principal and subsidiary status workers are taken
expenditure, only Rs. 102 went towards cereals and cereal together).
substitutes while Rs. 143 is spent on milk, milk • The worker population ratio (WPR) according to the usual
products, vegetables and edible oil, and status (ps + ss) differed between males and females in
Rs. 58 on beverages, refreshments and processed food. both rural and urban areas. In rural areas, the rates are
Rs. 77 is spent per person per month on fuel and light 54 and 29 per cent for males and females, respectively.
and Rs. 69 on clothing and footwear. In urban areas, the corresponding rates are 53 and 14 per
• At the all-India level, the share of cereals and cereal cent, respectively.
substitutes in total consumption expenditure is 20% in • Both for males and females, the unemployment rates are
rural India and 11% in urban India. appreciably higher in urban areas than in the rural areas.
• There is a declining trend in the share of food in total • In rural India, according to the usual status (ps + ss) about
expenditure. It is 56% in rural areas and 44% in urban 69 per cent of the male workers and 82 oer cent of the
areas during NSS 56th round compared to 64% in rural female workers are engaged in agricultural activities. In
areas and 56% in urban areas during NSS 43rd round urban India, about 58 per cent of the male workers and
(1987-88). about 48 per cent of the female workers are engaged in
Adequacy of food the tertiary sector activities as per the usual status
• At the all-India level the proportion of chronically hungry (ps + ss).
households (not getting enough to eat during even some • the proportion of usually employed (ps + ss) who reported
months of the year) is less than 1% for rural areas and themselves as not employed (i.e. unemployed or out of
less than 0.5% for urban. As for seasonal hunger, 19 per labour force) as per current weekly status is higher for
1000 households in rural areas and 4 per 1000 households females than for males. For females, it is 25 per cent in
in urban areas reported getting enough food only in some the rural areas and 18 per cent in the urban areas.
months of the year.
Source : Press Information Bureau, Government of India, New Delhi dt. 20-3-2003.

April—June, 2003 43

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Modernisation of Trade Marks Registry makes Rapid Universities here today. Shri Ajit Singh said “competition
Progress posed by globalisation and opening up of economies, ethical
issues of trade related intellectual property rights, genetically
As part of the major project for modernization and
upgradation of the intellectual property framework in India, modified foods and organisms and enforcement of strict
the Trade Mark Registry in the country is being modernized quality regimes need immediate attention”. He expressed
at a rapid pace with the basic objective of eliminating the concern over inadequate knowledge base about intellectual
backlog of pending applications. During the visit of Shri property rights and said the government could not find five
Arun jaitley, Union Minister of Commerce & Industry and qualified persons for special teaching assignments in this
Law & Justice, to the Trade Marks Registry (TMR) in Mumbai regard.
recently, it was indicated that the backlog of unexamined trade Shri Ajit Singh said the government is in favour of
mark applicatioins has been reduced from 5 to 6 years to less conferring statutory powers on the Indian Council of
than a year now and will be fully liquidated by September Agricultural Research to ensure uniformity and quality in
2003. Further, by 31st March, 2003, zero pendency will be agricultural education in the country. Due to lack of such
attained by the Trade Mark Registry in respect of issuance of powers with the ICAR various states are setting up farm
the first examination report. Renewal of Trade Mark universities without any consideration for man-power
Certificates is being done instantly in clear cases, while online
requirement and academic and financial sustainability. He
registration of applicatiions in all the regional offices and the
called for creating a class of grass-roots level workers,
headquarters started from October 2002.
technicians and para professionals capable of handling
Action Plan for 2003-04 includes registration of trade services like soil testing, seed production, elite planting
marks in clear cases within one year from receipt of material, artificial insemination, disease surveillance grading
applicatioins as against 5 to 7 years taken earlier; renewal of and marketing etc. The Minister observed that there was a
registered trade marks within a week of the receipt of need for introducing farm education at the school level.
application for renewal as against 2 to 3 years taken earlier; Only Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan are offering agricultural
ensuring no backlog at any stage except that of contested education at higher secondary level.
cases; expediting disposal of contested cases; and completion
of the moderinization project initiated in the 9th Plan. As part Referring to the financial problems of farm universities
of decentralisation of the operations, examination of Shri Ajit Singh said they deserved more support both from
applications will begin at branch offices with effect from April the Central and State governments but resource constraints
2003 and renewal of registered trade marks at branch offices are a handicap for both. He said the Universities shall
by the end of the first quarter of 2003. Substantial progress endeavour to stand on their own by generating at least 20%
will also be made towards complete automation of Trade of their revenues from internal efforts. Without going for
Marks Registry functioning. crass commercialisation the universities could mobilise
resources through other initiatives. Shri Ajit Singh said
Government underlook modernisation of intellectual
seminars and workshops on WTO related issues need to be
property framework in India as a strategic response to the
organised with farmers’ participation to enhance their
emerging challenges posed by globalisation and the increasing
understanding.
relevance and importance of intellectual property in a
knowledge-based development environment. This has Dr. Mangala Rai, Director General of Indian Council of
included modernisation of the infrastructure of Patent Offices, Agricultural Research said the country do not as yet have
Trade Marks Registry etc., besides legislative changes in the a national policy on agricultural education. He said there
relevant IPR laws, The TMR administers the Trade and was a need for the farm universities to avoid duplication of
Merchandise Marks Act (1958) and the Head Office the TMR efforts by specialising in identified areas. Ms. Krishna
is at Kolkata. Bhatnagar, Principal Advisor in the Planning Commission
Source : Press Information Bureau. Govt. of India, New Delhi, dt. 26.3.2003. observed that the most profound indicator of backwardness
in any part of the country is low agricultural productivity.
Shri Ajit Singh calls for correcting inadequacies in Farm
Education The two day conference of Vice Chancellors will
deliberate on national policy on agricultural education,
Vice Chancellors meet to discuss National Policy on
commercialisation of agricultural education, introduction of
Agricultural Education
agricultural education at school level, restructuring of
The Agriculture Minister Shri Ajit Singh has called for undergraduate education etc.
reorienting agricultural education to make it relevant to the All Exim Policy Notifications Issued Simultaneously
emerging challenges in the context of globalisation and
opening up of economies. He was inaugurating the two-day All notification pertaining to the Export and Import
Conference of Vice Chancellors of State Agriculture (EXIM) Policy announced by shri Arun Jaitley, Union

Source :—Press Information Bureau. Govt. of India New Delhi, dated 1-4-2003.

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Minister of Commerce & Industry and Law & Justice, have (V) Workshop on Extension Reforms Inaugurated
been issued simultaneously with the Policy. As indicated by
Shri Jaitley, required notifications by the Director General of The Agricultural Minister, Shri Ajit Singh has stressed the
Foreign Trade (DGFT), Ministry of Commerce & Industry need to bring about agricultural extension reforms for meeting
and the Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBEC), the challenges of the international trading regime under the
Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, covering World Trade Organisation. He was inaugurating here today a
provisions of the EXIM Policy 2003-04 have been issued three-day workshop on Operationalising Agricultural
simultaneously, for the first time. Extension Reforms in South Asia. He said that a sensitive
and responsive research and extension system could help turn
The list of Customs Notifications pertaining to the Exim the threats of a global market place into opportunities for the
Policy issued by the Department of Revenue are: farming community. The Minister pointed out that reforms
of the extension system have gained urgency for increasing
1. Customs Notification 53/03–Cus dated 1.4.2003 to production and productivity and utilizing export opportunities.
operationalise Duty Free Entitlement Credit Certificate Shri Ajit Singh said that the biggest challenge in agriculture
Scheme (vide paragraph 3.7.2.1(vi) of the Exim Policy). today is how to give the benefit of science and technology to
the poorest farmer. The Government alone can not meet this
2. Customs Notification No. 54/03–Cus dated 1.4.2003 to challenge and the private corporate sector, farmers’
operationalise Duty Free Service Entitlement Credit organisations, co-operatives, NGOs, media and other Groups
Certificate Scheme (vide paragraph 3.8 of the Exim will have to contribute to the task. The Minister said that
Policy). private provision of agro-services needs to be encouraged
through policy reforms and institutional changes so that
3. Customs Notification No. 55/03/Cus dated 1.4.2003 to farmers’ needs are serviced more efficiently. He stated that
operationalise the new 5% duty EPCG Scheme (vide extension work in India is very difficult and complex because
chapter 5 of the Exim Policy). of wide differences in farming practices in the country.

In his Presidential address, the Minister of State for


4. Customs Notification No. 56/03-Cus dated 1.4.2003 to Agriculture, Shri Hukumdeo Narayan Yadav said that research
operationalise Advance Licence for annual requirement and extension agenda must be relevant to contemporary and
scheme in respect of status holders (vide paragraph future needs of farmers. He also stressed the need for
4.1.7A of Exim Policy). developing agricultural extension services suitable to the
conditions of the country.
5. Customs Notification No. 57/03-Cus dated 1.4.2003
amending 4 earlier Customs notifications issued under Earlier, the Agriculture Secretary Shri R.C.A. Jain said
Advance Licence, DEPB, DFRC and deemed exports that agricultural extension has emerged as a challenging
schemes to synchronise with provisions of 2003-03 Exim area in the post Green Revolutions era. The countries of
Policy. South Asia region could learn from each other’s best
practices.
Further, the following 9 notifications covering SEZs
(Special Economic Zones)/EOUs (Export Oriented Units)/ The Three-day Workshop has been organised by the
EHTP (Electronic Hardware Technology Park)/STP (Software Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with the World Bank.
Technology Park) have been issued by the Department of The Workshop aims at promoting greater awareness among
Revenue, Ministry of Finance & Company Affairs: No. 22/ agricultural extension policymakers and practioners in
2003-Central Excise dated 31st March, 2003; No. 24/2003- Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka about the
Central Excise dated 31st March, 2003; No. 25/2003-Central best practices in the design and implementation of agricultural
Excise dated 31st March, 2003; No. 26/2003-Central Excise extension programmes. Issues like public private partnership
dated 31st March, 2003; No. 27/2003-Central Excise dated in technology dissemination, ensuring access for women and
31st March, 2003; No. 28/2003-Central Excise dated 31st vulnerable groups to extension services and use of information
March, 2003; No. 8/2003-Customs dated 31st March, 2003; and communication technology in agricultural extension
No. 51/2003-Customs dated 31st March, 2003; and No. 52/ services will be discussed. Experts from within the country
2003-Customs dated 31st March, 2003. and abroad are taking part in the Workshop.

Source :Press Information Bureau, Govt. of India, New Delhi,


Source : Press Information Bureau, Govt. of India, New Delhi,
dated 6.5.2003.
dated 3.4.2003.

April—June, 2003 45

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