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Subject-Verb

Agreement
Subject and verb must agree in #
Singular subj. Plural subject
X along with Y X and Y
Collective
They
nouns: agency
Indefinite

pronouns:
everybody
Each or Every
Or/nor- verb agrees with the
closest noun
All/more/most- use context
When in doubt think singular

Parallelism
Parallel items must be
logically similar
Markers of parallelism: and,
both, either
Linking verbs like to be and
are require parallelism
No right answer omits and
before the last term
Logically similar: giving,
running
Not logically similar: gift, run

Modifiers
Adjective only modifies noun or
pronoun
Adverb modifies anything but noun
or pn
A noun and its modifier must touch
A verb and its modifier dont have to
Who/whom modified people
Which/that modifies things
Where modifies a place
Whose can modify people or things
Non essential modifiers have comes
between the mod and noun and use
which
Essential: use that and no commas
Which can only the noun
immediately preceding it

Idioms
Correct idiom
Incorrect idiom
Ability to
Acted as
Agree that
In comparison with,
compared to, compared
with
Continue to
Forbids x to y
Holds that
Indicates that
Has mass, is mass
Object to
Have an objection to

Pronouns
The antecedent must exist
Antecedent and pronoun must
agree in number
To test: replace pronoun with
noun
This, these, that or those cannot
be used in place of nouns
Should be no pronoun ambiguity
Possessives cannot be
antecedents
They cannot refer to a singular
antecedent


Comparisons

Tenses
Simple tense- eternal states of
frequent occurrence
Progressive tense- ongoing
Tense sequence
Present + future (I believe he
will)
Past + conditional (I believed
he would)
Subjunctive is only for the
hypothetical
Sometimes passive voice is ok,
but not preferred
GMAT Preferences
Concise>wordy
Active voice>passive voice
Verb>action noun
Ing form of verb> infinitive

Is potentially
Can potentially be
Proposed that
Recommended that
Substituted for
Variations in
Estimates x to be y
Not only...but also
Intent of, intent to
Means to, means of
Prohibits from
Revealed that
Refers to, referring to
Targeted at
Succeeded in
Thinks of x as y

Like-must be followed by a
noun, pronoun or noun phrase
As is not restricted
Comparisons must be parallel
Comparing 2 things use
superlative (better)
Comparing 2+ things use
superlative (best)

Connections
, is not enough to connect 2
main clauses
; for two related that can
stand on their own
: to elaborate on something
- safest option pick when in
doubt