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1.

ABSTRACT
Experiment concentric heat exchanger is conducted. In this experiment, the
objective is to study the working principles of a concentric heat exchanger operating
under counter-current flow and co-current flow. Therefore, we can study the transfer
of heat at a different temperature gradient. The concentric heat exchanger is an
apparatus that was combined with thermometers and flow rate meter. Therefore, the
temperature can be controlled which is indicate TT 1, TT 2, TT 3, and TT 4 and the
water flow rate (hot and cold) is adjusted based on the requirement that we need
while doing this experiment. For the counter-current flow and co-current flow the
experiment is divided by two sections. The first section is we constant the flow rates
FT 1 but the flow rates FT 2 is changes. While, the flow rates FT 2 is constant but the
FT 1 is changes in the second section.

2. INTRODUCTION
A concentric heat exchanger is a device that implements the thermal energy
transfer from one fluid to another at different temperatures and a solid wall as a
separator. The types of heat being transferred in this experiment are called countercurrent and co-current flow of concentric heat exchanger. In a counter-current
concentric heat exchanger, the cold water enters the shell at room temperature while
the hot water enters the tubes in the opposite direction. Thus, the co-current
concentric heat exchanger occurs when the cold water enters the shell at room
temperature while hot water enters the tubes in the same direction.

Figure 1 : Counter-current concentric heat exchanger

Figure 2 : Co-current concentric heat exchanger

In this experiment, we learned how to analyse conduction and convection heat


transfer in a systems with different geometries. There are few variables that can
affect the performance of a heat exchanger which is the fluid flow rates, the inlet and
outlet temperature of the fluids, the heat transfer surfaces, the physical properties of
the fluids, the physical properties of heat exchanger and the ambient conditions.

3. OBJECTIVE
The objective of this experiment is to study the working principles of a concentric
heat exchanger operating under counter-current and co-current flow.

4. THEORY
Heat exchanger is equipment where the heat being transferred between two fluids
that enters and exit at different temperatures. The objective concentric heat
exchanger is designed to remove heat from a hot fluid to a cold fluid by the relation
between fluid motions. Thus, there are two different flow motions in the concentric
heat exchanger which is counter-current flow and co-current flow. This flow is being
used in this experiment. In counter-current flow, the cold water enters the shell at
room temperature while the hot water enters the tubes in the opposite direction.
Besides that, the co-current flow occurs when the cold water enters the shell at room
temperature while hot water enters the tubes in the same direction.

The overall heat transfer coefficient can be difficult to obtain experimentally but it is
important in heat exchanger analysis. One of the most common, the heat transfer
coefficient depends on the wall conduction and the fluid convection resistances which
it is take places on the surface of the heat exchanger during system operation. In
order to find the overall heat transfer coefficient for this experiment, the equation is
shown below is used;
Q=UA T lm
Q=UA (T hT c )
Where, the Q is heat transfer rate. U is the overall heat transfer coefficient, while A is
surface area of the heat transferred. Where the

T lm

is the log mean temperature

difference is used to express when the temperatures at the inlet and the outlet for the
hot and cold fluids are readily available.
The derivation by using the log mean temperature difference analysis, we find that
T lm

is equal as;

T lm=

T 2 T 1 T 1 T 2
=
T2
T1
ln (
)
ln (
)
T1
T2

For the counter-current concentric heat exchanger we will have;

h ,T c ,out
T

c ,
T h ,out T

h ,T c ,out
T

c ,
T h ,out T

( ]

ln

Q=UA

Then, the equation recommended for co-current concentric heat exchanger is;
c ,
h ,T
T ( T h , out T c, out )

c ,
h ,T
T
( ( T h , out T c ,out ) ]
[ ]
ln

Q=UA

The overall heat transfer coefficient equation is;


Q||
A T lm
U=

The efficiency for the cold medium is;


c ,
T c ,out T

c ,
h ,T
T

n c =
The efficiency for the hot medium is;
h ,T h , out
T

c ,
h ,T
T

n h=
The mean efficiency is;
nmean=

( n c + nh )
2

Therefore, the power loss is;


Power lost=Power EmittedPower Absorbed
Where,
h ,T h ,out
T
Power Emitted =V h h C p ,h

c ,
T c ,out T
Power Emitted =V h h C p ,h

Thus, the overall efficiency is;


absorbed
100
( power
power emitted )

n=

5. APPARATUS
Set of concentric heat exchanger, cold fluids supply and hot fluids supply and digital
stopwatch.