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ABSTRACT

Experiment concentric heat exchanger is conducted. In this experiment, the

objective is to study the working principles of a concentric heat exchanger operating

under counter-current flow and co-current flow. Therefore, we can study the transfer

of heat at a different temperature gradient. The concentric heat exchanger is an

apparatus that was combined with thermometers and flow rate meter. Therefore, the

temperature can be controlled which is indicate TT 1, TT 2, TT 3, and TT 4 and the

water flow rate (hot and cold) is adjusted based on the requirement that we need

while doing this experiment. For the counter-current flow and co-current flow the

experiment is divided by two sections. The first section is we constant the flow rates

FT 1 but the flow rates FT 2 is changes. While, the flow rates FT 2 is constant but the

FT 1 is changes in the second section.

2. INTRODUCTION

A concentric heat exchanger is a device that implements the thermal energy

transfer from one fluid to another at different temperatures and a solid wall as a

separator. The types of heat being transferred in this experiment are called countercurrent and co-current flow of concentric heat exchanger. In a counter-current

concentric heat exchanger, the cold water enters the shell at room temperature while

the hot water enters the tubes in the opposite direction. Thus, the co-current

concentric heat exchanger occurs when the cold water enters the shell at room

temperature while hot water enters the tubes in the same direction.

transfer in a systems with different geometries. There are few variables that can

affect the performance of a heat exchanger which is the fluid flow rates, the inlet and

outlet temperature of the fluids, the heat transfer surfaces, the physical properties of

the fluids, the physical properties of heat exchanger and the ambient conditions.

3. OBJECTIVE

The objective of this experiment is to study the working principles of a concentric

heat exchanger operating under counter-current and co-current flow.

4. THEORY

Heat exchanger is equipment where the heat being transferred between two fluids

that enters and exit at different temperatures. The objective concentric heat

exchanger is designed to remove heat from a hot fluid to a cold fluid by the relation

between fluid motions. Thus, there are two different flow motions in the concentric

heat exchanger which is counter-current flow and co-current flow. This flow is being

used in this experiment. In counter-current flow, the cold water enters the shell at

room temperature while the hot water enters the tubes in the opposite direction.

Besides that, the co-current flow occurs when the cold water enters the shell at room

temperature while hot water enters the tubes in the same direction.

The overall heat transfer coefficient can be difficult to obtain experimentally but it is

important in heat exchanger analysis. One of the most common, the heat transfer

coefficient depends on the wall conduction and the fluid convection resistances which

it is take places on the surface of the heat exchanger during system operation. In

order to find the overall heat transfer coefficient for this experiment, the equation is

shown below is used;

Q=UA T lm

Q=UA (T hT c )

Where, the Q is heat transfer rate. U is the overall heat transfer coefficient, while A is

surface area of the heat transferred. Where the

T lm

difference is used to express when the temperatures at the inlet and the outlet for the

hot and cold fluids are readily available.

The derivation by using the log mean temperature difference analysis, we find that

T lm

is equal as;

T lm=

T 2 T 1 T 1 T 2

=

T2

T1

ln (

)

ln (

)

T1

T2

h ,T c ,out

T

c ,

T h ,out T

h ,T c ,out

T

c ,

T h ,out T

( ]

ln

Q=UA

Then, the equation recommended for co-current concentric heat exchanger is;

c ,

h ,T

T ( T h , out T c, out )

c ,

h ,T

T

( ( T h , out T c ,out ) ]

[ ]

ln

Q=UA

Q||

A T lm

U=

c ,

T c ,out T

c ,

h ,T

T

n c =

The efficiency for the hot medium is;

h ,T h , out

T

c ,

h ,T

T

n h=

The mean efficiency is;

nmean=

( n c + nh )

2

Power lost=Power EmittedPower Absorbed

Where,

h ,T h ,out

T

Power Emitted =V h h C p ,h

c ,

T c ,out T

Power Emitted =V h h C p ,h

absorbed

100

( power

power emitted )

n=

5. APPARATUS

Set of concentric heat exchanger, cold fluids supply and hot fluids supply and digital

stopwatch.

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