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PART10:ENERGYEFFICIENCYANDSUSTAINABILITY


TABLEOFCONTENTS
10.1 Scope3

10.1.1 Applicationofsection3
10.1.2 Performancerequirements3
10.1.3 Standardsandguidelines3
10.2Mechanicalventilationsystems3
10.2.1Generalrequirements3
10.3RefrigerationEquipment4
10.4HotWater4
10.4.1Needforhotwatersystems4
10.4.2Fuelsource5
10.4.3Solarheating5
10.4.4Standbylosses5
10.4.5 Storagecapacity6
10.4.6Circulatingsystems6

10.1SCOPE
10.1.1 ApplicationofPart
This Part sets out requirements and recommendations for energy efficiency in respect of
mechanical ventilation on airconditioning, lighting, electrical appliances, hot water systems,
andotherservicesandequipmentinstalledinbuildings.
10.1.2 PerformanceRequirements
Servicesandequipmentinbuildingsshallbeasenergyefficientaspracticableandfacilitatethe
conservationofenergy.

Note:RequirementsandrecommendationsforthermalinsulationarespecifiedinSection10.4.5.

10.1.3 Standardsandguidelines

ThefollowingstandardsandguidelinesarerelevanttotheprovisionsofthisPart:

10.2

InternationalEnergyConservationCode,2003.
Efficiency Standards for Residential and NonResidential buildings (2008) California
EnergyCommission.
Draft Ghana Building Code Part 9.3 Airconditioning, Heating and Mechanical
Ventilation.

MECHANCIALVENTILATIONSYSTEMS

10.2.1 Generalrequirements
Airconditioning by means of mechanical refrigeration shall be installed only where absolutely
necessaryforhumancomfort,thestorageoftemperaturesensitivematerials,ortheoperation
oftemperatureorhumiditysensitiveequipmentorprocesses.
Notes

Spaces which require continuous air change to remove buildup of smoke, heat, dust or odours from
cooking, manufacturing, office machines, etc. should not be airconditioned but should be cooled via
naturalorforcedventilationwithouttheuseofmechanicalrefrigeration.

Toilet rooms or other naturally ventilated spaces should be located where possible on exterior walls of
buildings,providedwithnaturalorforcedexhaustventilation,andisolated fromairconditionedspaces
byselfclosing,tightfittingdoors.

Airconditioning should not be considered where natural air movement or forced ventilation will meet
environmental needs. Natural ventilation through properly located and designed windows and wall
openings, or the use of fans or other airmoving devices, should always be fully consideredprior to the

specificationofairconditioningequipment.Notethattheenergycostsforfanalonesystemsrequire
th
about1/10 oftheenergyofairconditioning.

Airconditioning should not be used in areas which are only transiently occupied, ie. For continuous
periodsoflessthanhouratatime,suchasstorageorrecordsrooms,laboratories,dressingroomsand
washrooms.

10.3 REFRIFGERATIONEQUIPMENT

(a)

Refrigerationequipmentshallbesizedtomeetthemaximumanticipatedloadcondition
andnomore.Unusedspaceinrefrigeratedequipmentresultsinexcessiveenergyuse
perunitofproductstored.

(b)

Refrigerationcompressor/condenserunitsshallbelocatedinashaded,wellventilated
location and protected from any nearby source of materials which would clog the
condensercoils.

(c)

Watercooledequipmentshallbefittedwithequipmentwhichremoveshardnessfrom
condenserwater.Theownershallbeadvisedastothenecessarymaintenanceofthe
watertreatmentsystem.

(d)

Defrost times for equipment shall be adjusted onsite on the basis of operating
experienceratherthanbeingbasedsolelyonmanufacturersrecommendation.

10.4 HOTWATER
10.4.1 Needforhotwatersystems

Domestichotwatershouldbeinstalledonlywherenecessary.Considerationshouldbegivento
not installing water heating equipment except where required for reasons of health, safety,
processrequirements,ortomeetdomesticneeds.Generally,hotwaterisrequiredonlyinthe
followingareas:
(a) Hotels/Apartments:Allrooms,publictoilets,stafftoilets.Notrequiredinbeachtoiletsor
showersorpublicrestroomsexceptwhereusedbyfoodservicestaff.

(b) Restaurants:Staffandpublictoilets,kitchen
(c) OfficeBuildings:Hotwaternotrequiredfortoilets.Useinstantaneousheatersatjanitors
sinksifwarmwashwaterisrequired.

(d) CommercialBuildings
(i) Withoutfoodheating:Hotwaternotrequired.
Instantaneousheaterrecommendedifhotwaterinstalled.

(ii) Withfoodhandling:Instantaneousheaterforupto25seats.Commercialstoragetype
heaterformorethan25seatcapacity.

(e) IndustrialBuildings
(i) Food Processing: Hot water not required except where desired or required by
employeesforpersonalcleanup.
10.4.2 Fuelsource
Solarwaterheating,recoveryofheatrejectedfromairconditioningorrefrigerationequipment,
orrecoveryofheatrejectedfromcombustionandotherheatsourcesshallbefullyconsidered
fornewwaterheatingrequirementsbeforespecifyingconventionalwaterheatingequipment.

Notes 1 The engineer or architect should demonstrate that such means are either technically impracticable or
financiallyunreasonablebeforespecifyingconventionalequipment.

2 Conventionalstoragetypeelectricresistancewaterheatersofgreaterthan20litrecapacityshouldnotbe
installedexceptwhereotherfuelsarenotavailableorwheresafety,forexampleinlocationswhereopen
flamesaredangerous,reliability,orprecisionoftemperaturecontrolisaconcern.

10.4.3 Solarheating

(a) Solarhotwaterorheatrecoverysystemsshouldbedesignedandstoragecapacitysized
toaccommodateanysubstantialhotwaterdemandswhichoccuroutsidethetimethat
thesunisshiningorduringthetimewhichhetrecoveryispossible.

(b)

Storage should be sized such that the solar or het recovery system is capable of
providingatleast70%oftheaveragedailyhotwaterdemand.

(c)

Pumpedcirculationsystemsshouldbeconsideredforallcommercialsolarwaterheating
systemsexceptforsinglefamilyresidentialuses.

10.4.4 Standbylosses

Self contained storagetype water heaters shall have a standby loss not exceeding the
equivalentof43Wattspersquaremetreofsurfacearea.

Notes 1 NewlypurchasedtanksshouldbeoftheEnergySaverorenergyconservingtypeprovidedbyseveral
manufacturershavingatleast65mmofhighdensityfiberglassorequivalentinsulationwhichallows
reduced standby losses. Alternatively, standard type storage heaters should be provided with an
insulatingshroudoftheequivalentofatleast65mmofblankettypefiberglassinsulationinadditionto
thestandardtankinsulation.

2 Storage tanks greater than 450 litres should have an overall shell thermal resistance (R value) of at
2
least1.76m k/W.

10.4.5 Storagecapacity

(a) Instantaneous (nonstorage) type water heaters should be used whenever possible,
especiallywhereprojecteduseislessthan150litres/dayandpeakflowsarelessthan0.1
litres/sec.

(b) Storage water heaters using any fuel should not be used except where high short term
demandsexceedthecapacityofthelargestrapidrecovery(instantaneous)unitavailable.

(c)

Storagetemperatureforhotwaterusedfornormaldomesticpurposesshouldnotexceed
500Cor1200Fexceptwherestorageisundersizedduetoperiodicextraordinarydemand
orwherespaceislimitedforstoragetanks.

10.4.6 Circulatingsystems

(a) Pumpedcirculatingsystemsshallbeemployedonlywhereabsolutelyrequired,suchasin
hospitals or large apartment buildings occupied fulltime with roundtheclock demands
wheretheeconomyintermsofreducedwaterwastagefromavoidinglongrunswaiting
for hot water at the tap outweigh the heat losses from piping and pump electricity use
resultingfromcontinuouscirculation.

(b)

Allbuildingswhereconsumptionismerelyforperiodicandsporadichandwashorcleanup
should utilize instantaneous heaters or small storage tanks at each point of use, rather
thanacentralhotwatersystem.

(c)

Temperature:Circulatingtemperatureorthethermostatcontrollinghotwatercirculation
pumpshouldbesetnohigherthan500Cor1200Ffornormaldomesticpurposesexcept
wherespecialneedsrequirehighertemperatures.Storagetanktemperatureshouldnot
exceed1300F.

(d)

All circulating hot water piping or noncirculating systems with a demand profile which
requires that water be maintained at elevated temperature more than an average 6
hours/day, year round, shall be insulated with at least 20 mm fiberglass insulation or
equivalent.Domestichotwatersupplypipingshallmeettheinsulationrequirementsfor
pipeinsulationspecifiesin5.503.3.

(e)

Timers:Wherecirculatingsystemsareinstalled,ifusageisnilduringaperiodaveraging10
or more hours per week, a time switch should be installed to automatically stop the
circulatingpumpduringthatperiod.

(f)

Combustion efficiency: Combustion devices installed to produce hot water for any
purposeshallhavearatedcombustionefficiencyofatleast80%.
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Notes 1 Newlyinstalledcombustiondevicesshouldbeoperatedbytheinstallerunderconditionssimulatingthose
ofactualoperationandacombustionanalysis,andthedeviceadjustedtodemonstratetheactualonsite
steadystateefficiencyoftheequipment.

2 Atmospheric natural gas or L.P.G. burners shall be exempt from the combustion analysis requirement,
however the installer should ensure that operating pressure and air settings are within the
manufacturersrecommendedlimitsforlocalconditions.