You are on page 1of 6

NARRATIVE TEXT

Narrative text is an imaginative story to entertain people (teks narasi adalah


cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang). A narrative text is a text amuse, entertain
and deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. Narrative deal with
problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a
resolution.
The narrative text short story is telling of a story or an account of a sequence of
events. One of the four traditional forms of composition (along with description, exposition,
and persuasion). Narration differs from exposition, which can also relate a sequence of
events, in that narration need not be factual and may be written from the perspective of a
character in the text.
Generic Structure of Narrative
Orientation: It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are
introduced. Sets the scene: where and when the story happened and introduces the
participants of the story: who and what is involved in the story.
Complication: Where the problems in the story developed. Tells the beginning of the
problems which leads to the crisis (climax) of the main participants.
Resolution : Where the problems in the story is solved. The problem (the crisis) is
resolved,either in a happy ending or in a sad (tragic) ending
Re-orientation/Coda: This is a closing remark to the story and it is optional. It consists
of a moral lesson, advice or teaching from the writer.
Kadangkala generic

structure narrative

text

bisa

berisi: Orientation,

Complication, Evaluation, Resolution dan Reorientation. Meski Evaluation dan


Reorientation merupakan optional; bisa ditambahkan dan bisa tidak. Evaluation berisi
penilaian/evaluasi terhadap jalannya cerita atau konflik. Sedangkan Reorientation berisi
penyimpulan isi akhir cerita.
Grammar Used dalam Narrative Text:
Menggunakan tenses "Past", baik simple, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect
continuous, atau bisa saja past future continuous.

Tenses
1. Simple Past Tense; digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan yang
terjadi atau dilakukan di masa lampau yang di sebutkan kejadiannya secara jelas.
Bentuk Nominal
You/we/they + to be (were) + not +

+
You/we/they + to be (were) + Complement
He/she/it/I + to be (was) + Complement

Complement
He/she/it/I + to be (was) + not +
Complement

Contoh: (+) The tree was misterious and eerie.


(-) I was not a girl you love.
Bentuk Verbal

S + V2 + Complement

S + Did + Not + V1 +
Complement
Contoh: (+) He prayed hard to God.
(-) She didnt believe that her idol had a girl friend.
2. Past Continous Tense; digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang berlangsung di masa
lampau.
+
You/we/they + Were + Verb (ing) + Object/adverb
He/she/it/I + Was + Verb (ing) + Object/adverb

You/we/they + Were not + Verb (ing) + Object/adverb


He/she/it/I + Was not + Verb (ing) + Object/adverb

Contoh: (+) I was standing there when you kissed her.


(-) You was not realizing when I saw you.

3.

Past perfect; digunakan untuk menunjukan perbuatan di masa lampau dan akan tetap
berlangsung ataupun selesai di masa lampau berikutnya.
Bentuk Nominal

S + Had been + Complement

Contoh: The road had been cold since the strange voice came out from the tree.
Bentuk Verbal
S + Had + V3 + Object/adverb

Contoh: I had decided to break my heart since you had a girl.


4.

Past Perfect Continous; digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan
yang telah berlangsung beberapa saat ketika terjadi peristiwa atau perbuatan lainnya di
masa lampau.
Bentuk Positif
S + Had + been + Verb 1 (ing) + Object/adverb

Contoh: Finally, you came to me. I had been waiting for you since two years.
Bentuk Negative
S + Had not + been + Verb 1 (ing) + Object/adverb

Contoh: The mother had not been knowing her baby. He passed away with his golden
tears in the corner of his eyes.

According to Anderson & Andersen (1997) is a diagram which consist of five


schematic structures of narrative text : orientation, complication, seuence of events,
resolution and coda.

Based on the definition above, the writer conclude that narrative scaffold is a
framework or diagram which consist of : orientation, complication, resolution and coda
to help the writer or student composing a narrative text.
The following diagram is an example of narrative scaffold adopted from Yangrifqi
(2008) in Fitria (2012: 3) :
Figure 1. The diagram of narrative scaffold

Writing With Narrative-Scaffold

Narrative Scaffold
Title: Why frogs and mosquitoes are enemies story
(Every word begins with a capital letter)
Orientation (Introduction):
Who/ What? There were Old Crab who liked to sleep, Frogs who made noisy, Turtle,
Firefly and Mosquito.
When? A long time ago.
Where? In the edge of a beach.
Complication (problem):
What happened? One night, the crab became very angry. He shouted to the frogs.
Why? Because they made noisy that kept him awake at night.
Series of Event:
What happened next?
1. The Frogs asked the turtle why his house on his back. The turtle answered that he
was afraid if firefly will set light to it.
2. The crab then asked the firefly why he did it. The firefly answered if the fire will
keep away the mosquito.
3. The Crab asked to the mosquito why he gave so much trouble to the firefly. But,
the mosquito avoided.
4. At the same time, the mosquito bit the king of the frogs who had first spoken to the
crab.
5. He jumped at least six inches in the air.
Resolution:
How is the problem solved? The mosquito dived at the king of the frogs. The king
angry then stuck out his tongue and caught the mosquito. That was the end of the
mosquito.
Coda:
How does the problelm solved?
Since then, the frogs and the mosquitoes have been enemies. Even now, mosquitoes
always chase frogs and bite them whenever they have the chance.

Then, you can write that schema in a story like the following example!
Why frogs and mosquitoes are enemies story
A long time ago, there was an old crab who liked to sleep. But there were some frogs
living nearby who made a loud noise. They kept him awake at night.
One night, the crab became very angry. Dont make so much noise! he shouted.
We cant help it, said the king of the frogs. Were talking about our friend the turtle.

Whats wrong with the turtle?


Dont you know? asked the king of the frogs. he carries his house on his back.
The crab then asked the turtle, Why do you carry your house on your back?
Because Im afraid the firefly will set light to it, answered the turtle.
The crab then asked the firefly, Why do you want to set fire to the poor turtles house?
Because the fire will keep away the mosquitoes, said the firefly.
And why do you want to give so much trouble to the firefly? the crab asked the
mosquito.
I dont, replied the mosquito. At the same time, the mosquito bit the king of the frogs
who had first spoken to the crab.
He jumped at least six inches in the air. Ooch! he cried. Dont bite me! Its painful!
But the mosquito dived at him again. He was very angry. The king of the frogs stuck
out his tongue and caught him. That was the end of the mosquito.
Since then, the frogs and the mosquitoes have been enemies. Even now, mosquitoes always
chase frogs and bite them whenever they have the chance.