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TABLE OF CONTENT

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CONTENT
Table of content
Summary
Introduction
Objectives
Theory
Apparatus
Procedures
Results
Sample of calculations
Discussions
Conclusions
Recommendations
References
Appendices

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SUMMARY

Acetic acid is classified as weak acid and is the main component of vinegar apart from
water. The molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid can be determined in this
experiment by using the process of titration with sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH. The
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experiment is conducted by standardizing NaOH first and is preceded by determining the molarity
of acetic acid and percent of vinegar. The first part which is the process of standardizing NaOH
solution is first conducted by diluting 6g of NaOH solids with 250 ml of distilled water to produce
0.6 M of NaOH solution. This NaOH solution is then titrated with potassium hydrogen phthalate,
KHP which had been diluted with 1.5g of KHP solids and 30 ml of distilled water. The second part
which is the step to determine the molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar is conducted by
titrating 10 ml of vinegar with 100 ml of water with the previously prepared NaOH solution. Both
of these two processes are repeated twice. Based on the result of this experiment, it can be said that
the greater the mass of solute in the acid solution, the more concentrated the solution become thus,
the higher the molarity and more volume of NaOH needed to neutralized the acid.

INTRODUCTION

Concentration is the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. A relatively large


amount of solute in a given amount of solvent is known as concentrated solution whereas a
relatively small amount of solute in a given amount of solvent is known as dilute solution. The
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specific terms that are used to refer to concentration are either molarity or percent by mass. Both
molarity and percent by mass can be calculated by using the formula below.

Molarity (M) = moles of solute litre of solution

Percent by mass = (grams of solute grams of solution) x 100%

(Equation 1 1)

(Equation 1 2)

Vinegar with the molecular formula of CH3COOH is a dilute solution of acetic acid. The
concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar can be determined through process of titration. A
titration is a technique where a solution of known concentration is used to determine the
concentration of an unknown solution. Typically the titrant (the known solution) is added from a
burette to a known quantity of the analyte (the unknown solution) until the reaction is complete
which is when the stoichiometry of that reaction is attained. The purpose of titration is to
determine the equivalent point of reaction.

OBJECTIVES
The aim of the experiment is to determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by
mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with the standardized sodium hydroxide solution.

THEORY
A burette is always used to dispense a small, quantifiable increment solution of known
concentration in the titration process. The volume dispensed from the burette should be estimated
to the nearest 0.001 mL. When the moles of acid in the solution equals the moles of base added in
the titration, the equivalent point occurs. For example, the stoichiometric amount of 1 mole of
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strong base, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is necessary to neutralize 1 mole of weak acid, acetic acid
(CH3CO2H), as indicated in equation 1 3:
NaOH (aq) + CH3CO2H (aq) NaCH3CO2 (aq) + H2O (l)

(Equation 1 3)

When the titration has reached the equivalence point there would be a sudden change in the
pH of the solution. pH in an aqueous solution is related to its hydrogen in concentration.
Symbolically, the hydrogen ion concentration is written as [H 3O+]. pH is defined as the negative of
the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
pH = log10 [H3O+]

(Equation 1 4)

The method of expressing the acidity or basicity of a solution is by using pH scale.


Solutions with pH < 7 are acidic, pH = 7 are neutral, and pH > 7 are basic For example,, a solution
having an H3O+ concentration of 2.35 x 102 M would have a pH of 1.629 and is acidic. pH
electrodes will be used in this experiment in order to read the pH of the solution. pH electrode will
be inserted into a beaker containing acid solution that will be added with NaOH. The pH reading
will increase as the hydrogen ions will be neutralized when NaOH solution is added. The solution
is said to be neutralized when sufficient amount of NaOH is added to remove most of H 3O+ in the
solution.
In this experiment, titration of a vinegar sample with standardized sodium hydroxide solution
will be performed. A primary standard acid solution is initially prepared. Primary standard
solutions are produce by dissolving a weighed quantity of pure acid or base in a known volume of
solution. Primary standard acid or bases have several common characteristics:

They must be available in at least 99.9 purity


They must have a high molar mass to minimize error in weighing
They must be stable upon heating
They must be soluble in the solvent of interest

Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4, and oxalic acid, (COOH)2, are common primary
standard acids. Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is the most commonly used base. Most acids and bases
(e.g. HCL, CH3COOH, NaOH, and KOH) are mostly available in primary standard form. Titration
of the solution with a primary standard should be performed in order to standardize one of these
acidic or basic solutions. In this experiment, NaOH solution will be titrated with potassium
hydrogen phathalate (KHP). The reaction equation for this is:
KHC8H4O4 (aq) + NaOH (aq) KNaC8H4O4 (aq) + H2O (l)

(Equation 1 5)

Once the sodium solution has been standardized it will be titrated with 10.00 mL aliquots of
vinegar. The reaction equation for vinegar with NaOH is:
CH3COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCHCOO (aq) + H2O (l)

(Equation 1 6)

Knowing the standardized NaOH concentration and using Equation 1 6, the molarity and percent
by mass of acetic acid in the vinegar solution can be determined.

APPARATUS

3) pH meter to read the ph of the

1) Retort stand to hold burette

solution
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4) Burette - to place the NaOH

2) Beaker to place the solutions

solution for titration

and chemicals that are used

5) Weighing machine to weigh the

7) Stirrer to stir the acid solution that

chemicals in solid form or materials used

is added with NaOH during titration


process

6) Measuring cylinder - to measure and

Chemicals:

transfer the right amount of solutions

Sodium hydroxide solid (NaOH),

needed from its actual container into the

potassium hydrogen phthalate granules

beaker.

(KHC8H4O4), vinegar, distilled water

PROCEDURES

Standardization of Sodium Hydroxide Solution


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1) 250 mL of approximately 0.6 M NaOH solution was prepared in a beaker from NaOH solid
2) A 250 mL of beaker was weighed and the mass was recorded to the nearest 0.001g. 1.5g of
KHP was then added to the beaker. The beaker that contained KHP was then weighed and the
mass was again recorded to the nearest 0.001g. 300 mL of distilled water was added to the
beaker. The solution was stirred until the KHP solution had completely dissolved.
3) This solution was then titrated with the previously prepared NaOH. The pH of the solution
was read and recorded with every 1 mL addition of NaOH.
4) Steps 1- 3 was repeated to perform another trial to standardize the NaOH solution
5) The graph of pH versus NaOH was plotted. The volume of NaOH required to neutralize the
KHP solution in each titration was determined from the plots of the graph.
6) The molarity of NaOH for titration 1 & 2 was calculated
7) The average molarity of NaOH for titration 1 & 2 was also calculated. The resulting NaOH
concentration was used in part B of the experiment.
Molarity of Acetic Acid and Percent of Vinegar
1) 10 mL of vinegar was transfered to a clean, dry 250 mL of beaker. Sufficient water was
added (100mL) to cover the pH electrode tip during titration.
2) For every 1 mL titration of NaOH into vinegar, the pH value was read and recorded
3) The steps above were repeated.
4) The graph of pH vs volume of NaOH added was plotted and the volume of NaOH required
to neutralize the vinegar in each titration was determined from these plots. The data was
recorded.
5) The molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1 and 2 was
calculated.
6) The average molarity and average percent by mass of acetic acid for each titration was also
calculated.

RESULTS
Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution

Results for titration1 and 2


Volume (mL)
0
1

Titration 1
pH
4.08
4.37

Titration 2
pH
4.11
4.29
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Titration 3
pH
4.08
4.29

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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
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4.58
4.66
4.83
4.94
5.08
5.19
5.34
5.53
5.68
6.12
10.93
10.96
12.06
12.18
12.20
12.26

4.40
4.63
4.77
4.89
5.06
5.17
5.24
5.49
5.73
6.11
11.06
11.87
12.13
12.24
12.33
12.37

4.46
4.65
4.94
5.01
5.14
5.18
5.28
5.41
5.73
6.02
6.78
11.52
12.10
12.19
12.26
12.30

Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 1


14
12
10
8
pH

6
4
2
0

Volume, mL

Graph 1-1 Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 1

10

11.18
mL
11 12 13

14

15

16

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Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 2


14
12
10
8
pH

6
4
2
0

10

11.18
11 mL
12 13

14

15

16

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Volume, mL

Graph 1-2 Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 2

Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 3


14
12
10
8
pH

6
4
2
0

Volume, mL

Graph 1-3 Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 3


10

10

11

12.04
mL
12 13 14

15

16

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Titration 1
96.683
98.186
1.503

Titration 2
99.353
100.855
1.502

Titration 3
96.262
97.762
1.500

neutralize the KHP solution

11.18

11.18

12.04

(mL)
Molarity of NaOH solution
Average molarity of NaOH

0.6583 M

0.6583 M
0.6424

0.6105 M

Mass of beaker (g)


Mass of beaker + KHP (g)
Mass of KHP
Volume of NaOH to

Molarity of Acetic Acid and Percent of Vinegar


Volume (mL)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
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Titration 1
pH
2.73
3.29
3.56
3.83
3.94
4.11
4.25
4.35
4.48
4.60
4.72
4.85
5.04
5.15
5.29
5.45
5.75
6.42
10.79
11.20
11.54
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Titration 2
pH
2.7
3.29
3.62
3.82
3.96
4.11
4.22
4.33
4.46
4.60
4.72
4.84
5.02
5.12
5.25
5.42
5.68
6.85
10.79
11.24
11.53

35
37
39
41
43
45
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11.70
11.82
11.91
11.97
12.03
12.05
12.06

11.69
11.79
11.87
11.93
12.03
12.06
12.09

Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 1


14
12
10
8
pH

6
4
2

29.13
mL
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47
Volume, mL

Graph 2-1 Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 1

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Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 2


14
12
10
8
pH

6
4
2

29.04
mL
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47
Volume, mL

Graph 2-2 Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 2

Volume of NaOH to neutralize vinegar (mL)


Molarity of NaOH solution
Average Molarity of NaOH solution
Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar (%)
Average percent by mass of acetic acid in

Titration 1
29.13
1.871 M

Titration 2
29.04
1.866M

1.8685 M
11.24

11.21
11.225

vinegar (%)

SAMPLE OF CALCULATION
Standardization of sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution
i)

Calculation for preparing 150 mL of approximately 0.6 M NaOH solution


Molarity (M)

= moles of solute
Litre of solution

0.6

= moles of solute
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(250 X 103)L
Moles of solute

= (0.6) (0.25)
= 0.15 mol

No. of moles

mass
Molecular weight of NaOH

Mass

= (no. of moles) (MW NaOH)


= (0.15) (22.99 + 16.00 + 1.01g)
=6g

ii)

Volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the KHP (by using the data of titration 1)
Perform interpolation:
7 10.93

= Vol 12

6.12 10.93
Vol
iii)

11 12
= 11.18 mL of NaOH

Molarity of NaOH
Moles of KHP:
1.503 g KHC8H4O4

1 mol KHC8H4O4 = 0.00736 mol KHC8H4O4


204.2 g KHC8H4O4

Moles of NaOH required neutralizing moles of KHP:


0.00736 mol KHC8H4O4

1 mol NaOH

1 molKHC8H4O4
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= 0.00736 mol NaOH

Molarity of NaOH solution:


11.18 mL NaOH

1L

= 0.01118 L NaOH

1000 mL
M = mol of NaOH

0.00736 mol NaOH

L of solution

0.01118 L NaOH
= 0.6583 M

iv)

Average molarity of NaOH


Mave = (M1 + M2 + M3) / 3
= (0.6583 + 0.6583 + 0.6105) / 3
= 0.6424 M NaOH

Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar


i)

Volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the vinegar (by using the data of titration 1)

Perform interpolation:
7 10.79

= Vol 30

6.42 10.79
Vol
ii)

29 30

= 29.13 mL of NaOH

Molarity of acetic acid in vinegar


Moles of NaOH that reacted:
29.13 mL of NaOH

1L

= 0.02913 L NaOH

1000 mL
0.02913 L NaOH

0.6424 mol NaOH


1L NaOH solution
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= 0.01871 mol NaOH

Moles of CH3COOH neutralized by moles of NaOH:


0.01871 mol NaOH

X 1 mol CH3COOH = 0.01871 mol CH3COOH


Mol NaOH

Molarity of CH3COOH:
10 mL CH3COOH

1L

0.010 L CH3COOH

1000 mL
M=

mol of CH3COOH

0.01871 mol CH3COOH

L of solution

0.010 L CH3COOH
= 1.871 CH3COOH

iii)

Average molarity of acetic acid in vinegar


Mave = (M1 + M2) /2
= (1.871 + 1.866) /2
= 1.869 M CH3COOH

iv)

Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar


Mass of acetic acid in the solution:
10 mL CH3COOH

1L

0.010 L CH3COOH

1000 mL
0.010 L CH3COOH

X 1.871 mol CH3COOH


1 L solution

= 1.124 g CH3COOH
Mass of acetic acid solution:
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60.06 g CH3COOH
1 mol CH3COOH

10 mL CH3COOH

X 1 g CH3COOH solution

= 10 g CH3COOH solution

1 mLCH3COOH solution
Percent by mass of acetic acid in the solution =

gCH3COOH

X 100 %

g CH3COOH solution
=

1.124 X 100%
10.0

= 11.24 %
v)

Average percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar:


%ave = (%1 + %2) / 2
= (11.24 + 11.21%) / 2
= 11.225 %

DISCUSSION
The objectives of this experiment which are to determine the molarity of a solution and the
percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with the standardized sodium hydroxide
solution had been determined. In the first part of this experiment, sodium hydroxide is
standardized first before the second part of this experiment is proceeded which the molarity as well
as the percent by mass of acetic acid is determined.
On the first section of this experiment, sodium hydroxide, NaOH which acts as a base is
standardized by the process of titration with potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC 8H4O4 or jotted as
KHP which is a primary standard acid. The change of the pH value during titration is determined
by using pH meter for every 1 mL addition of NaOH to ensure that more accurate result is
obtained. Based on the results and graphs, when the pH level is 7, which at this point the solution
is neutral, the average amount of NaOH needed to neutralize the KHP solution is 11. 47 mL.
The second section of this experiment which is to determine the molarity and the percent
by mass of the acetic acid in vinegar is conducted also by using titration between NaOH with
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vinegar. The vinegar needed to be diluted first in order to prevent a very small titre, which will
then cause the results to be less accurate. Both the molarity and percent by mass was calculated
using the average volume of NaOH from the first section of this experiment which is 0.6424 mL as
well as the plotted graph based on the results from the second part of the experiment. From this
experiment, the average molarity of acetic acid in vinegar was 1.869 and its average percent by
mass is 11.225%.
Vinegar is roughly 3%-5% of acetic acid by volume. However, in this experiment, the
calculated average percent by mass is 11.225%. Although the amount can still be considered as
relatively small but it exceeded the normal range of acetic acid in vinegar. This may due to the
errors while conducting the experiment. The experiment was conducted by using burette. However,
there was air bubble trapped at the tip of the burette during the experiment, causing the volume
reading of the NaOH to be slightly incorrect, hence, affect the related calculation.
The significance of percent by mass and molarity of solution in this experiment is that it
tells whether the solution is either diluted or concentrated solution. Hence, the acetic acid in the
vinegar is a dilute solution as its percent by mass and molarity are relatively small.

CONCLUSION
The results from the first section of the first titration of this experiment show that
the volume of NaOH needed to neutralize 1.503 g of KHP is 11.18 mL and the molarity of the
solution is 0.6583 M. For the second titration of the experiment, 1.502 g of KHP needed 11.18 mL
of NaOH to neutralize the solution and the molarity is 0.6583 M. While for the third titration, 1.5 g
of KHP and 12.04 mL NaOH is required to neutralize the solution and the molarity of NaOH
solution for titration 3 is 0.6105 M. Thus, the average molarity of NaOH solution is 0.6424 M.
As for the second section of this experiment, the first titration required 29.13 mL of NaOH
to neutralize the solution. The molarity of the solution is 1.871 M and the percent by mass of acetic
acid in the vinegar is 11. 24%. Meanwhile, the molarity and the percent by mass for the second
titration are 1.866 M and 11.21 % respectively. The volume of NaOH required to neutralize the
solution is 29.04 mL. The average molarity of NaOH solution is 1.8685M and the average percent
by mass of acetic acid in vinegar is 11. 225%.
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As for the conclusion, it can be said that the acetic acid in the vinegar is a dilute solution as
the percent by mass and molarity are relatively small.

RECOMMENDATION
1. It is better to use both indicator and pH meter. This is because the indicator such as
phenolphthalein will change the colour when the solution had reached neutral condition
rather than using a pH meter alone as using a pH meter is fairly tedious and it will turns out
unnecessary. By using both indicator and pH meter, the result would be more accurat
2. The swirling of the solution should be constant while adding the NaOH in order to ensure
that the NaOH is totally dispersed.
3. Ensure that the position of eye is directly perpendicular to the meniscus when reading the
volume of solution to avoid inaccuracy.
4. Ensure that the tip of the burette is filled with NaOH so that no air bubbles are present in
the tip.

REFERENCES

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Chemistry Laboratory CHE 485, Laboratory Manual


Experiment 1 Determination of the Acetic Acid Content of Vinegar,
http://wwwchem.uwimona.edu.jm/lab_manuals/c10expt1.html
Acetic Acid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetic_acid

APPENDICES

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