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CUFE, Postgraduate studies

2014/ 2014, Spring Semester

STR 614: Seismic Structural


Analysis
(Pushover Analysis)

Evaluation of seismic design


Historical Approach:

Vbase 5 ~ 10% of the weight


Traditional Code Basis:

Vbase Vmax R
Current Trend:
Design based on displacement
STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

Seismic Structural Analysis


Response
Spectrum

Pushover
Analysis

Simple and Quick

In-between the
two procedures of
analysis

Only consider the


first mode
Inaccurate due to
the stiffness

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Only concern with


the maximum
displacement.

Time History
Analysis
Accurate and
consider strength
degradation
Can take into
account higher
mode effect
Performance
Based seismic
Long Time

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

Seismic Structural Analysis

Pushover
Analysis
Capacity is a representation
of the structural ability.

Capacity
Spectrum
STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Seismic
Demand

Demand is a representation of
the EQ ground motion

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

Capacity Vs. Demand


As displacements increase, the period of the structure lengthens.
Inelastic displacements increase damping and reduce demand.
At the performance point,
capacity and demand are equal.
The maximum
displacement implies a
unique damage state for
the building related
directly to a specific EQ.

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

Building Performance Levels


Performance
Point

Operational
DS-I
The post-EQ
damage is limited
and safe.
Cosmetic
repairing is
needed

Immediate
Occupancy
DS- II

Life Safety
DS-III

Most widely used


criteria for
essential facilities

Collapse
Prevention
DS-IV

Reasonable
usable

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

Capacity Curve
Capacity Spectrum is derivate from an approximate nonlinear,
inelastic static analysis for the structure.

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

DS-IV

DS-III

DS-II

DS-I

In the process of performing this incremental nonlinear static


analysis, a capacity curve is developed for the building.

Factors affecting Capacity Curve


Lateral Load Pattern
Uniform *

f i mi

Equivalent lateral force pattern

f i mi hik
k

1 .0
2 .0

for T 0.5sec.
for T 2.5sec.

First (or any other) mode shape*

f M

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

f i mii
Spring Semester (2014/2015)

Developing Capacity curve


1. Develop a nonlinear computer model of the structure.

Dimensioning and reinforcement of the beams and columns


are input in the section properties.

Stress-strain relationships are input in the material


definitions.

Moment-curvature and moment-axial plastic hinges are


defined and assigned.

Soil-structure interaction can be accounted in the analysis.

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

Developing Capacity curve (cont)


2. Apply lateral story force in the proportion to the product the
mass and fundamental mode shape. (first mode shape load
pattern is used herein)

This analysis should include gravity loads.


The result from this step is the capacity curve (pushover
curve).

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Developing Capacity curve (cont)


2. Apply lateral story force in the proportion to the product the
mass and fundamental mode shape. (first mode shape load
pattern is used herein)

This analysis should include gravity loads.


The result from this step is the capacity curve (pushover
curve).

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Transforming the capacity curve to


Acceleration Displacement Response
Spectrum (ADRS)
The capacity spectrum is obtained by transforming the capacity
curve from base shear (VBase) vs. lateral displacement (d)
coordinates to spectral acceleration (Sa) vs. spectral displacement
(Sd)

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Pushover analysis in seismic


regulations
N2 (FEMA-365) and Capacity Spectrum methods (ATC 40)
FEMA 365:
https://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DHS/ARCHIVES/fema356.pdf
ATC 40: chapters 6 and 8
http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~p0saurabhrs/ATC-40.pdf
Capacity Spectrum is a method that allows a graphical comparison
between the lateral structural capacity of the building and the
seismic demand of the EQ ground motion.
STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Capacity Spectrum Method


Sa

Vbase M Total

M Total

Sd

roof

top

Modal Mass
Participation factor

m
i 1
N

2
m

i i
i 1

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Capacity Spectrum Method


Sd

T2
4

Sa

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Calculating the Demand using


Capacity Spectrum Method
The location of the performance point must satisfy two
relationships:
The point must lie on the capacity
spectrum curve in order to represent
the structure at a given displacement.
The point must lie on the spectral
demand curve, reduced from the
elastic and 5% damping is
considered, to represent the
nonlinear demand at the same
structural displacement
STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Fragility
In order to design a certain structure
to withstand seismic loads, the
structure is modeled to obtain its
capacity spectrum.
On the other hand, a specific EarthQuake ground motion (or a design
response spectrum) is used for the
analysis.

This is Not accurate


STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Fragility
For numerous EQ, with the same PGA, there is a lot of
performance points.
There is a mean (average) and a
standard deviation for all these
peak displacements.
In accordance to these two
values, the probability of
exceeding a certain roof drift
value can be obtained.
STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Fragility

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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Probability of exceeding Damage State

Fragility

DS - I
DS - II
DS - III
DS - IV

Peak Ground Acceleration

STR 614: Seismic Structural Analysis

Spring Semester (2014/2015)

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