You are on page 1of 31

CHAPTER 1.

INTRODUCTION

AUTOMATED GAS LEAKAGE DETECTION AND PREVENTION SYSTEM is an


embedded project. Embedded is the combination of both hardware and software. Hardware
in this field is electronics hardware whereas the software is the programming of the
microcontroller .After food clothes and shelter security is the basic need of an individual.
Here we have successfully implemented a system which provides gas security with buzzer.
Along with the buzzer a motor has been installed with the system to turn the gas supply when
the leakage has been detected.

COMPONENTS USED
1 Microcontroller AT89C2051
2 LM7805

Regulator

3 Resistors
4 Crystal oscillator
5 Capacitors
6 Transformer
7 Diodes
8 Transistors
9 Connectors
10 Gas Sensor
11 PCB developing equipments
12 motor
13) Relay

COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION

1) MICROCONTROLLER AT89C2051

Features

Compatible with MCS-51 Products


2K Bytes of Re programmable Flash Memory
Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
2.7V to 6V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
Two-level Program Memory Lock
128 x 8-bit Internal RAM
15 Programmable I/O Lines
Two16-bit Timer/Counters
Six Interrupt Source
Programmable Serial UART Channel
Direct LED Drive Outputs
On-chip Analog Comparator
Low-power Idle and Power-down Mod

TheAT89C2051 is low-voltage; high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer


with2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The
device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology
and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set. By combining
versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C2051 is a
powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution
to many embedded control applications.
The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash, 128bytes
of RAM, 15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analog comparator, on-chip oscillator
and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for
operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving
modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial
port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the
RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next
hardware reset.

PIN CONFIGURATION

Fig. 1.2.1

PIN DESCRIPTION

1) VCC: Supply voltage


2) GND: Ground
3) PORT 1:
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. Port pins P1.2 toP1.7 provides internal pull-ups.
P1.0 and P1.1 require external pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0)
and the negative input (AIN1), respectively, of the on-chip precision analog comparator. The
Port 1 output buffers can sink 20 m A and can drive LED displays directly. When 1s are
written to Port 1 pins, they can be used as inputs. When pins P1.2 to P1.7 are used as inputs
and are externally pulled low, they will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.
Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming and verification.
4)

PORT 3:

Port 3 pins P3.0 to P3.5, P3.7 are seven bi-directional I/O pins with internal pull-ups. P3.6 is
hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a
general purpose I/O pin. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20 MA. When 1s are written to
Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs,
Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of theAT89C2051 as listed below:
Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

TABLE 1.2.1

5) RST:

Reset input. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. Holding the RST pin high
for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.
Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles.

6) XTAL1:
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

7) XTAL2:
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

Fig 1.2.2

AT89C2051 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS:

A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register SFR) pace is shown
in the table below.
Note that not all of the addresses are occupied and unoccupied addresses may not be
implemented on the chip. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random
data, and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect. User software should not write 1s
to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future products to invoke new features.
In that case, the reset or inactive values of the new bits will always be 0

Table 1.2.2: AT89C2051 SFR Map and Reset Values

RESTRICTION ON CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONS:

The AT89C2051 and is an economical and cost-effective member of Atmels growing family
of microcontrollers .It contains 2K bytes of flash program memory. It is fully compatible
with the MCS-51 architecture, and can be programmed using the MCS-51 instruction set.
However there are a few considerations one must keep in mind when utilizing certain
instructions to program this device.
All the instructions related to jumping or branching should be restricted such that the
destination address falls within the physical program memory space of the device, which
is2K for the AT89C2051. This should be her responsibility of the software programmer. For
example, LJMP 7E0Hwould be a valid instruction for the AT89C2051 (with 2K of memory)
whereas JMP 900H would not.

BRANCHING INSTRUCTION:

LCALL, LJMP, ACALL, AJMP, SJMP, JMP @A+DPTR


These unconditional branching instructions will execute correctly as long as the programmer
keeps in mind that the destination branching address must fall within the physical boundaries
of the program memory size (locations 00H to7FFH for the 89C2051). Violating the physical
space limits May cause unknown program behavior.
CJNE [...], DJNZ [...], JB, JNB, JC, JNC, JBC, JZ, JNZ
These conditional branching instructions the same rule above applies. Again, violating the
memory boundaries may cause erratic execution .For applications involving interrupts the
normal interrupt service routine address locations of the 80C51 family architecture have been
preserved.

PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM

1) Power-up sequence:
Apply power between VCC and GND pins Set RST and XTAL1 to GND
2) Set pin RST to H
Set pin P3.2 to H
3) Apply the appropriate combination of H or L logic levels to pins P3.3, P3.4, P3.5,
P3.7 to select one of the programming operations shown in the PEROM Programming
Modes table.
To Program and Verify the Array:
4) Apply data for Code byte at location 000H to P1.0 to
P1.7.
5) Raise RST to 12V to enable programming.
6) Pulse P3.2 once to program a byte in the PEROM array or the lock bits. The byte-write
cycle is self-timed and typically takes 1.2 ms.
7) To verify the programmed data, lower RST from 12V to logic H level and set pins P3.3
to P3.7 to the appropriate levels. Output data can be read at the port P1 pins.
8) To program a byte at the next address location, pulseXTAL1 pin once to advance the
internal address
9) Repeat steps 5 through 8, changing data and advancing the counter. Apply new data to the
port P1 pins. Address counter for the entire 2K bytes array or until the end of the object file is
reached.
10) Power-off sequence:
Set XTAL1 to L
Set RST to L
Turn VCC power off

Data Polling: The AT89C2051 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle.
During a write cycle, an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement

of the written data on P1.7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data is valid on all
outputs, and the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle
has been initiated.
Ready/Busy: The Progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY
output signal. Pin P3.1 is pulled low after P3.2 goes High during programming to indicate
BUSY. P3.1 is pulled High again when programming is done to indicate READY.
Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed code data can be read
back via the data lines for verification:
1. Reset the internal address counter to 000H by bringing RST from L to H.
2. Apply the appropriate control signals for Read Code data and read the output data at the
port P1 pins.
3. Pulse pin XTAL1 once to advance the internal address counter.
4. Read the next code data byte at the port P1 pins.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the entire array is read .The lock bits cannot be verified directly.
Verification of the lock bits is achieved by observing that their features are enabled.
Chip Erase: The entire PEROM array (2K bytes) and the two Lock Bits are erased
electrically by using the proper combination of control signals and by holding P3.2 low for
10 ms. The code array is written with all 1s in the Chip.
Erase operation and must be executed before any nonblank memory byte can be reprogrammed.
Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a
normal verification of locations 000H, 001H, and 002H, except that P3.5 and P3.7 must be
pulled to logic low. The values returned are as follows.
(000H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel
(001H) = 21H indicates 89C2051.

Programming Interface:

Every code byte in the Flash array can be written and using the appropriate combination of
control signals can erase the entire array. The write operation cycle is self timed and once
initiated, will automatically time itself to completion.
All major programming vendors offer worldwide support for the Atmel micro controller
series. Please contact your local programming vendor for the appropriate software revision.

Flash Programming Modes

TABLE 1.2.3

Notes: 1. The internal PEROM address counter is reset to 000H on the rising edge of RST
and is advanced by a positive pulse at XTAL 1 pin.
2. Chip Erase requires a 10 ms PROG pulse.
3. P3.1 is pulled Low during programming to indicate RDY/BS.

Fig 1.2.3 Programming the Flash Memory

Fig 1.2.4Verifying the Flash Memory

Flash Programming and Verification Characteristics:

Table 1.2.4

Baud Rate Generator:

Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in T2CON
Note that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be different if Timer 2 is used for the
receiver or transmitter and Timer 1 is used for the other function. Setting RCLK and/or
TCLK puts Timer 2 into its baud rate generator mode, as shown in Figure4. The baud rate
generator mode is similar to the auto-reload mode, in that a rollover in TH2 causes the Timer
2 registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in registers RCAP2H and RCAP2L, which are
preset by software.
The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by Timer2s overflow rate according to the
following equation.

The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter operation. In most applications, it is
configured for timer operation (CP/T2 = 0). The timer operation is different for Timer 2
when it is used as a baud rate generator. Normally as a timer, it increments every machine
cycle (at 1/12 the oscillator frequency). The baud rate formula is given below.

Where (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L taken as a 16-bit
unsigned integer. Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in Figure 4. This figure is valid
only if RCLK or TCLK = 1 in T2CON. Note that a rollover in TH2 does not set TF2 and will
not generate an interrupt. Note too, that if EXEN2 is set, a 1-to-0 transition in T2EX will set
EXF2 but will not cause a reload from (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) to (TH2, TL2). Thus when
Timer 2 is in use as a baud rate generator, T2EX can be used as an extra external interrupt.
Note that when Timer 2 is running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate generator mode, TH2
or TL2 should not be read from or written to. Under these conditions, the Timer is
incremented every state time, and the results of a read or write may not be accurate.

2) POWER SUPPLY SECTION:

RMLT CONNECTOR: It is a connector used to connect the step down


transformer to the bridge rectifier.
BRIDGE WAVE RECTIFIER: It is used to give pure DC supply.
REGULATOR LM7805: It is used to give regulated power supply.

3) RESISTORS:

Resistors are used to limit the value of current in a circuit. Resistors offer opposition to the
flow of current. They are expressed in ohms for which the symbol is . Resistors are
broadly classified as
1 Fixed Resistors
2 Variable Resistors
Fixed Resistors: The most common of low wattage, fixed type resistors is the molded-carbon
composition resistor. The resistive material is of carbon clay composition. The leads are
made of tinned copper. Resistors of this type are readily available in value ranging from few
ohms to about 20M, having a tolerance range of 5 to 20%. They are quite inexpensive.The
relative size of all fixed resistors changes with the power rating.
Another variety of carbon composition resistors is the metalized type. It is made by
deposition a homogeneous film of pure carbon over a glass, ceramic or other insulating core.
This type of film-resistor is sometimes called the precision type, since it can be obtained with
an accuracy of 1%.
Lead

Tinned Copper Material

Variable resistor: In electronic circuits, sometimes it becomes necessary to adjust the values
of currents and voltages. For example it is often desired to change the volume of sound,the
brightness of a television picture etc. Such adjustments can be done by using variable
resistors.
Coding of Resistor:
Some resistors are large enough in size to have their resistance printed on the body. However
there are some resistors that are too small in size to have numbers printed on them.
Therefore, a system of colour coding is used to indicate their values. For fixed, moulded
composition resistor four colour bands are printed on one end of the outer casing. The colour
bands are always read left to right from the end that has the bands closest to it. The first and
second band represents the first and second significant digits, of the resistance value. The

third band is for the number of zeros that follow the second digit. In case the third band is
gold or silver, it represents a multiplying factor of 0.1to 0.01. The fourth band represents the
manufactures tolerance.

0 black

0 black

0 black

0 black

1 brown

1 brown

1 brown

1 brown

2 red

2 red

2 red

2 red

3 orange

3 orange

3 orange

3 orange

4 yellow

4 yellow

4 yellow

5 green

5 green

4 yellow
5 green

5 green

6 blue

6 blue

6 blue

6 blue

7 purple

7 purple

7 purple

7 purple

8 silver

8 silver

8 silver

8 silver

9 white

9 white

9 white

9 white

Fig 1.2.5 resistor chart


Most resistors have 4 bands:
The first band gives the first digit.
The second band gives the second digit.
The third band indicates the number of zeroes.
The fourth band is used to show the tolerance (precision) of the resistor

For example, if a resistor has a colour band sequence: yellow, violet, orange and gold
Then its range will be
Yellow=4 violet=7 orange=10
=47K 5%

gold=5%

4) CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR:
It is often required to produce a signal whose frequency or pulse rate is very stable and
exactly known. This is important in any application where anything to do with time or exact
measurement is crucial. It is relatively simple to make an oscillator that produces some sort
of a signal, but another matter to produce one of relatively precise frequency and stability.
FM radio stations must have a carrier frequency accurate within 10Hz of its assigned
frequency, which may be from 530 to 1710 kHz. SSB radio systems used in the HF range (230 MHz) must be within 50 Hz of channel frequency for acceptable voice quality, and within
10 Hz for best results. Some digital modes used in weak signal communication may require
frequency stability of less than 1 Hz within a period of several minutes. The carrier
frequency must be known to fractions of a hertz in some cases. An ordinary quartz watch
must have an oscillator accurate to better than a few parts per million. One part per million
will result in an error of slightly less than one half second a day, which would be about 3
minutes a year. This might not sound like much, but an error of 10 parts per million would
result in an error of about a half an hour per year. A clock such as this would need resetting
about once a month, and more often if you are the punctual type. A programmed VCR with a
clock this far off could miss the recording of part of a TV show. Narrow band SSB
communications at VHF and UHF frequencies still need 50 Hz frequency accuracy. At 440
MHz, this is slightly more than 0.1 part per million.

Fig 1.2.6 Crystal Oscillator

5) CAPACITORS
A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of
conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When a potential difference (voltage) exists
across the conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and
produces a mechanical force between the conductors. The effect is greatest when there is a
narrow separation between large areas of conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often
called plates.
An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, which is
measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential
difference between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount
of leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the
dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage.
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of direct current while
allowing alternating current to pass, to filter out interference, to smooth the output of power
supplies, and for many other purposes. They are used in resonant circuits in radio frequency
equipment to select particular frequencies from a signal with many frequencies.

Fig 1.2.6

Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. A dielectric


(orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance.

Fig 1.2.7 A simple demonstration of a parallel-plate capacitor


A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The nonconductive substance is called the dielectric medium, although this may also mean a vacuum
or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is
assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence from
an external electric field. The conductors thus contain equal and opposite charges on their
facing surfaces, and the dielectric contains an electric field. The capacitor is a reasonably
general model for electric fields within electric circuits.
An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of
charge Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them

Fig 1.2.8

Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor, causing the capacitance to
vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:

In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor
causes a voltage of one volt across the device.
Energy storage
Work must be done by an external influence to move charge between the conductors in a
capacitor. When the external influence is removed, the charge separation persists and energy
is stored in the electric field. If charge is later allowed to return to its equilibrium position,
the energy is released. The work done in establishing the electric field, and hence the amount
of energy stored, is given by:

6) GAS SENSOR:

The gas sensor module (MQ-5) is used for gas leakage detection in homes, industry and
vehicles. It detects gas as it has a fast response time once it gets pre heated measurements are
almost instantaneous. Note that its sensitivity is adjusted by potentiometer. It works at 5V.It
is compatible with all the ports.
Features:

High sensitivity to LPG, natural gas, town gas

Low sensitivity to alcohol and smoke

Fast response

Stable and long life

Application:
They are used in gas leakage detecting equipment in family and industry, are suitable for
detecting of
LPG, natural gas, town gas, avoid the noise of alcohol and cooking fumes and cigarette
smoke.

Specifications:

Structure and configuration, basic measuring circuit

Fig
sensor composed by micro AL2O3 ceramic tube, T in Dioxide (SnO2) sensitive layer ,
measuring electrode and heater are fixed into a crust made by plastic and stainless
steel net. The heater provides necessary work conditions for work of sensitive components.

The enveloped MQ-5 have 6 pin ,4 of them are used to fetch signals, and other 2
are used
for providing heating curren

7) MOTOR:
Motor is a device that creates motion, not an engine; it usually refers to either an electrical
motor or an internal combustion engine. It may also refer to:
Electric motor, a machine that converts electricity into a mechanical motion
1) AC motor, an electric motor that is driven by alternating current.
Synchronous motor, an alternating current motor distinguished by a rotor
spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating
current and resulting magnetic field which drives it.
Induction motor, also called a squirrel-cage motor, a type of asynchronous
alternating current motor where power is supplied to the rotating device
by means of electromagnetic induction.
2) DC motor, an electric motor that runs on direct current electricity.
Brushed DC electric motor, an internally commutated electric motor
designed to be run from a direct current power source.
Brushless DC motor, a synchronous electric motor which is powered by
direct current electricity and has an electronically controlled commutation
system, instead of a mechanical commutation system based on brushes.

Fig 1.2.9 schematic of a DC motor

Fig 1.2.10 DC motor

8) BUZZER:
It is an electronic signaling device which produces buzzing sound. It is commonly used in
automobiles, phone alarm systems and household appliances. Buzzers work in the same
manner as an alarm works. They are generally equipped with sensors or switches connected
to a control unit and the control unit illuminates a light on the appropriate button or control
panel, and sound a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping
sound.
The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that buzzers made when they were
electromechanical devices, operated from stepped-down AC line voltage at 50 or 60 cycles.
Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarms, timers and confirmation of user input
such as a mouse click or keystroke.

Fig. Buzzer

Fig Electronic symbol for a buzzer

Types of Buzzers
The different types of buzzers are electric buzzers, electronic buzzers, mechanical buzzers,
electromechanical, magnetic buzzers, piezoelectric buzzers and piezo buzzers.
(i) Electric buzzers
A basic model of electric buzzer usually consists of simple circuit components such as
resistors, a capacitor and 555 timer IC or an integrated circuit with a range of timer and
multi-vibrator functions. It works through small bits of electricity vibrating together which
causes sound.
(ii) Electronic buzzers
An electronic buzzer comprises an acoustic vibrator comprised of a circular metal plate
having its entire periphery rigidly secured to a support, and a piezoelectric element adhered
to one face of the metal plate. A driving circuit applies electric driving signals to the vibrator
to vibrationally drive it at a 1/N multiple of its natural frequency, where N is an integer, so
that the vibrator emits an audible buzzing sound. The metal plate is preferably mounted to
undergo vibration in a natural vibration mode having only one nodal circle. The drive circuit
includes an inductor connected in a closed loop with the vibrator, which functions as a
capacitor, and the circuit applies signals at a selectively variable frequency to the closed loop
to accordingly vary the inductance of the inductor to thereby vary the period of oscillation of
the acoustic vibrator and the resultant frequency of the buzzing sound.
(iii) Mechanical Buzzer
A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer.
(iv) Piezo Buzzers/ Piezoelectric Buzzers

A piezo buzzer is made from two conductors that are separated by Piezo crystals. When a
voltage is applied to these crystals, they push on one conductor and pull on the other. The
result of this push and pull is a sound wave.

9) DIODES:
A PN junctions is known as a semiconductor or crystal diode.A crystal diode has two
terminal when it is connected in a circuit one thing is decide is weather a diode is forward or
reversed biased. There is a easy rule to ascertain it. If the external CKT is trying to push the
conventional current in the direction of error, the diode is forward biased. One the other hand
if the conventional current is trying is trying to flow opposite the error head, the diode is
reversed biased putting in simple words.

Fig 1.2.11
1

If arrowhead of diode symbol is positive W.R.T Bar of the symbol, the diode is
forward biased.

2. The arrowhead of diode symbol is negative W.R.T bar ,the diode is the reverse bias.

BUZZER

POWER
SUPPLY

MOTOR

GAS
SENSOR
processor

Fig 1.3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM