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Introduction to the Unity Interface

This tutorial will introduce the


Unity graphical user interface
(GUI).

No prior knowledge of Unity is


assumed.

Time to complete: 1 hour.

Author: Graham McAllister

Contents 1. Aims of this tutorial


If you are new to Unity this should be the first tutorial that
1. Aims of the tutorial you read. It will explain the key sections of the interface
2. Screen layout and describe how to create basic game objects and
position them in 3D space.
3. Finding game objects
To demonstrate the Unity interface essentials, we’ll
4. Creating game objects
create a simple scene which will allow a character to
5. Navigating the Scene View walk around on a surface.
6. Moving game objects Note: any text that requires the user to take an action
7. Game View begins with a ‘-’.
8. Resizing game objects
9. Using assets
10. Adding Components 2. Screen Layout
11. Duplicate Before we start, let’s make sure our screen layout is in 2
Split mode.
- To ensure it is, select Window->Layouts->2 Split.
Your view is now split into 5 main regions:
1. Scene View - for placing game objects
2. Game View - this is how the game will look when run.
3. Hierarchy View - this is a list of all game objects
currently in the scene.
4. Project View - this view shows all assets that are
available for use (like a palette)
5. Inspector View - this shows the properties of the
currently selected game object.
3. Finding game objects in 3D space
- Start Unity. We’ll begin by creating a new project.
- Select File->New Project from the main menu and give the project a name such as “GUI
Tutorial” and click Create Project. Unity will now import assets (e.g. audio, textures, 3D
models) so they are available for use.
Once importing is complete you will be presented with your game world. At present the
world only contains a Main Camera (this is default), you can see this listed as the only item
in the Hierarchy view.
- If you can’t see the camera in your Scene View, click on the Main Camera in the
Hierarchy View, move your cursor so that it’s inside the Scene View, then type F (frame
select) on the keyboard. The Main Camera should now be at the centre of the Scene
View. This technique can be used to find any game object.
- Any game object can be selected by either clicking on it in the Scene View or selecting
it in the Hierarchy View. If you click on an object in the Scene View, you can confirm
that you’ve selected the correct object as it will also be highlighted in the Hierarchy
view.

4. Creating game objects


Let’s add some game objects to our world.
- Select Game Object->Create Other->Plane, this will create a plane (a 2D surface) to
allow our character to walk on.
- Add a cube to the game world by selecting Game Object->Create Other->Cube.
- Add a point light by selecting Game Object->Create Other->Point Light.

5. Navigating the Scene View


You can look around your 3D objects from any angle by using the following:
1. Rotating (Option+LMB)
2. Panning (Option+MMB)
3. Zooming (Option+RMB)
NB: The Option key is beside the Command key (the one with the Apple logo on it) on the
Mac keyboard, L/M/R MB is Left/Middle/Right Mouse Button. It is recommended that you
have a 3 button mouse.

If you only have a one-button mouse, or are using a laptop, you can still navigate easily.
Firstly, click on the hand-shaped tool in the upper left hand corner of the Unity GUI, then
the following can be used:
1. Rotating (Option+LMB)
2. Panning (LMB)
3. Zooming (Command+LMB)
- Try this now.

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6. Moving game objects
You can position any game object in 3D space by using one of
the following:
1. Move tool (W on the keyboard). Selecting any game object
then typing W will display three arrowheads, one for each axis
of 3D space. Red is the x-axis, green is the y-axis, blue is the
z-axis, i.e. r,g,b, maps to x,y,z. To move an object, click the
LMB on the arrowhead that represents the axis you want to
move in and move the mouse as much as appropriate. As you
drag the arrowheads notice the object’s position values in the
Inspector Panel change also. You can enter values directly into
these boxes also (3 boxes, 1 each for x,y,z values).
You can also re-position a game object by firstly clicking on it, then move the camera to
point towards the general direction of where the want the object to move to, then select
Game Object->Align with View. The selected game object will move to where the
camera now points.
2. Rotate tool (E on the keyboard). Selecting any game object
then typing E will display the rotate tool. To rotate around an
axis, click the LMB on the axis of choice then move the mouse
to rotate the game object. As you rotate the object notice the
object’s rotation values in the Inspector Panel change also. You
can enter values directly into these boxes also.
-Let’s try a small exercise. Move the cube (move tool) so that it
is outside of the Scene View. Use the Frame Select feature
(click Cube in the Hierarchy View then press the F key) to find
the cube again. Finally move the cube back so it’s close to the
plane.
- Move the point light so that it’s above the cube and the plane.

7. Game View
The Game View shows how the game will look when run (complete with textures, lighting
etc). If you cannot see your game world in the Game View, it’s because your camera is
not looking in the right direction.
- Click on the Main Camera, you will notice an inverted yellow pyramid wireframe coming
out from it. This is known as the camera’s viewport (what it can see). If the viewport is
not pointing in the direction of your game objects, navigate in the scene view so that
you are looking at your game objects, select the Main Camera then select Game
Object->Align With View. Your Game View should now match your Scene View.
You can also manually adjust your camera’s settings by either using the move and rotate
tools, or changing its transform values in the Inspector View.
You may also want to move your light to give better aesthetics.

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8. Resizing game objects
To resize an object firstly select it then press R on the keyboard
(resize or scale tool). You can visually scale an object by
dragging the square block at the end of the each axis, or use the
Inspector View to type a precise value in.
We’ll now resize some objects in our game world.
- Select the plane and set its x and z scale values to 10 in the
Inspector view (the first and third box, as the second box is
for the y value).
- Select the cube, resize it along the y-axis visually (press R
and drag the green square upwards). the cube should now look like a pillar.
- Rename the cube Pillar. Do this by selecting it in the Hierarchy View and pressing
return to enter the new name. Remember it’s best to ensure game objects begin with a
capital letter.

9. Using Assets
Computer games are created from 3D models, textures, sound files, game code etc.,
these are called the game’s assets. Unity comes with many assets shipped as standard
assets (even more in the Pro version).
We’ll now add a character to our game world from the built-in assets. In the Project View
expand the Standard Assets folder, then expand Prefabs. A prefab is collection of game
objects that have been pre-assembled into a logical grouping. You should see the First
Person Controller (FPS Controller) inside the Prefabs folder.
- Drag the FPS Controller prefab into the Scene View. Notice how the Game View has
changed, this is because the FPS Controller prefab comes with its own camera which
takes precedent over the existing Main Camera. Make sure the FPS Controller is not
caught in the plane, move it so that it is above the plane.
- Delete the Main Camera as we’ll not need it now (Command+delete). The Game View
is now what the player can see in-game.
- Start the game by clicking the Play button in the lower left hand side of the Unity GUI.
Notice the screen stays the same, so you can see the game in the Scene View and the
Game View. Use the cursor keys to move the character around (or W,S,A,D), the
mouse to look around and space to jump.
- Stop the game at any time by clicking on the Play button again.

NB: By pressing the space bar while the mouse cursor is inside any of the views (Game
View, Scene View etc), this makes that particular view expand to full screen. This is
useful when making adjustments in the Scene View, or playing the game (Game View).
Pressing space inside the full screen view returns to the previous layout mode. Note that
this feature does not work if the game is currently running, either stop or pause the game
first.

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10. Adding Components
Game objects can have a number of components (or behaviours) attached to them. By
clicking on any game object, you can see the attached components in the Inspector View
(e.g. Transform, Box Collider).
- Click on Pillar and look at its components in the Inspector View.
Let’s add another cube and add an extra component.
- Add another cube to the scene (Game Object->Create Other->Cube). Rename it
PhysicsCube in the Hierarchy view.
Now we’re going to add a Rigidbody component to this cube. The RigidBody component
allows the game object to behave as if it’s in a world with gravity, i.e. the object will fall
downwards until it hits a surface with a collider component attached.
- Making sure PhysicsCube is selected, select Component->Physics->Rigidbody. This
adds the Rigidbody component to the currently
selected game object. Notice that in the Inspector
View the Rigidbody component has been added.

- Move PhysicsCube so that it is above Pillar but
slightly offset (see Figure 1). We want to set the
scene up so that when we press play, PhysicsCube
will collide with Pillar and fall to the ground.
- Press Play, PhysicsCube should collide with Pillar
and land on the plane.
Figure 1 - demonstrating Rigidbody

11. Duplicate
Duplicating a game object is one of the most powerful features of Unity. When duplicating
an object, all features and behaviours of the object are also copied. It’s a very fast way to
create complex scenes. We’ll now add more PhysicsCubes to our scene.
- Click on PhysicsCube and press Command+D (or do this from the Edit menu). Notice
an extra PhysicsCube entry has appeared in the
Hierarchy menu, however you cannot see it as it
has been created at the same position as the first
PhysicsCube.
- Move the new PhysicsCube by selecting the move
tool (W) and move it upwards (y-axis).
- Repeat this process so there are now 3
PhysicsCube game objects (see Figure 2).
- Run the game and all 3 PhysicsCube game objects
should interact and behave naturally.

Figure 2 - using Duplicate.

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This tutorial has introduced the fundamentals of the Unity GUI. You should
now try the scripting tutorial to look beneath the surface of Unity.