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DIAGRAM ABOUT STRATEGIES

MAIN CONCEPTS
Mother tongue( MT):
Can use to scaffold Foreign Languages
learning.
SCAFFOLDING Taking the de message
comprehensible to bilingual people.
Can help to express in Foreign Language
(FL).
Need to follow the model of BILINGUALISM
ADDITIVE. (L1 + L2 + L3.)

AS A TEACHER
To planning the course:
Students can ask in their MT, and teacher answer
in FL.

Students need to know what strategies they are


more useful for them. For this reason, they have
known which strategies exist.

Teacher can translates some words, however he


has to identify THE MOMENT OF NEED.

In their process the students need :


(Naiman 1995)
Find a learning style that suit you.
Involve yourself in the learning language
process.
Develop and awareness for language both as
system and as communication.
Pay constant attention to expanding your
language.
Develop a second language as a separate
system.
Take into account the demands in FL learning
imposes.

The important isnt the AMOUNT OF TIME but the


QUALITY of this TIME.
Use content familiar doesnt mean simplifying the
content.

TARGET: Maximize understanding and achievement.


TRASNLAUGUAGING can have different meaning or
the same meaning of CODE-SWITCHING in some
contexts.
TRANSLAUGUAGING making meaning at the
shaping experiences gaining understanding
and knowledge through 2 languages.
There are different styles of learning (visual, extrovert,
abstract inductive, global, synthetizing and mix of
styles).
There are different learners strategies:
1. FUNCTION: want to learn
2. PURPOUSE: because you go abroad
3. SKIN: reading, listening,
4. LEVELS: beginneradvance

AS A STUDENT

Teachers use cross- linguistic comparisons so that


the students can see the similarities and
differences between languages.
Puts the focus in process. The students can do the
process in MT and then the product in FL.
(As time passes, the teacher should help to
express their meaning in FL.)
Resources:
SBBI: collecting of samples with styles and
strategies. It is organized in three parts:
workshops, practice in Institutes and 3 handbooks.

(Oxford 1990)
Remembering more effectively.
Using all your mental process.
Compensating for missing knowledge.
Organizing and evaluating your knowledge.
Managing your emotions.
Learning with others
Some examples of strategies:
OMalley and Chamott 1990
Metacognitive strategies: planning learning,

5. CULTURE: your culture. Similar between


languages.
6. AGE: your cognitive capacities.

monitoring your own speech, self-evaluation,


Cognitive strategies: note-taking, resourcing,
elaboration,
Social strategies: working with fellow students or
asking the teachers help.

Physiologically motivated strategies for salving


the individuals FL problems of expression
(Faerch and Casper 1984)
Achievement strategies:
Cooperative strategies.
Non-cooperative strategies.
Code switching
Foreignerization
Interlanguage strategies
Avoidance strategies
Formal: Phonological, Morphological and
grammatical)
Functional: actional, propositional and
modal.
Compensatory strategies to make up for a lack of
vocabulary ( Poulisse 1990)
Conceptual analytic ( breaks down the
meaning of the word)
Conceptual holistic ( tries for a word that is
closest overall in meaning)
Linguistic morphological ccreativity ( makes
up a new word by adding and appropriate
ending.
Linguistic transfer (uses a word for the first
language instead).