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ew

zqTA $t g

f sfc

Ert

lnt &,fur nhi oo

leeaiure

//011

E ntltrcnrnenl-ql

t{t/1r!J
E
Sor,/ohon

SPRTNG zCO!
Tlt

afptctrt

s Sw b;rot

ha s

nale Fatlurf rqk oF

ar)

rofr

Organic

Curve C

pollution

oxygen profile. cr
sag clJrve

Minrmurn D.O.

CJ

>a

x
(}

:o
&

<n

.*
C3

Curve A
desxygenaticfi

-\.

---ra/ -,/
curve B
r*"#rrtiJ- /'/' t-\--?
Tir*e or distance

Figure 4 Generalized effect of organic pollution in the stream or river (single point source DO
Sag curve)

Multi-point sources DO sag curve

Distance
Figure 5 Variation in DO by several point discharges

18530 ESE Section

l,

Chapter

W'ater

Pollution

l-5

Exa,^
Tubrql sl1 l utll f,4l th A0 ft\au
&qlane
hrl o,lh notu
r vr {tou nk C0 tn il,z rtuer 2ont l . Ot
6 ry/L ,C,

rnluttrnl t44ask*ok1 froo QI ,


' 124, 6cc #/(6ov 24x 6r)t : f,,fn3 /t
(hbserve

/hqf {/o* urr& qre r"oyruerk/ frp^ ,t// b*t/)

00 ,^ p/usfr

Jolutnn :

lzq,dao-'do"

Cr-=

I *otk*bc CI ,

Z, I

yllL

2,1*rL

&r: I Sfr t/

Cz:6,0.,,/L

0z'20;7

4qss halaol(p, Q& {CzQr' C0

C,

Ar Ct r

CIrCu (lrrz t)t(z!t{it ZS


tr*zc = "f" ryl

Saturation

Do.
1

Initial deficit (Do)


c)

Deficit @)

bo

X
q)

ID

DO-io
0

Critical point

0X"

Distance

tc

-----t

Time ------+
Figure 6 Typical DO sag curve for calculation

Initial DO deficit of the mixture of organic source and river:

Do" -

Do,' l,kot:
'kr-kd' (.-oo' - -k.t) + D" e-*"]

(1.1)

where:DO, is saturated value of DO (mg/L)


I(6 : deoxygenation constant (day-t)
Kr: reaeration rate constant (duy-t)
t : the time required for the waste to reach a given location downstream (day)
The time (t") and distance downstream (x.) at which the oxygen deficit is maximum:

t.=-

k, -ko

kr rr
lni;[l-tr-

D"(k,-ko)
-*

KoLo

kd

l)

(r.2)

Diurnal variation in DO

Primary sources of oxygen in surface water are photosynthesis of aquatic plants, algae and
diffusion of atmospheric oxygen across the air water interface. The dissolved oxygen content
of natural water varies with temperature, photosynthesis activities and respiration of plants
and animals. DO concentration in a constant state of flux on a daily basis (consumption)

48530 ESE Section

I,

Chapter

Water Pollution

rL=

1,

, llt lt

n
,1
k,-ka (kd LL-

D, (k, -k"/\

#J)

fl

Lo: tnircl 6CI0 p{ #u wxh.tre o{ yollurinn fouru 4 n,rt,

bt

GtUf{t',
0-: l, I *r/J , 0A* ' 2,,01 f L,
ar= &,7^ri/s & 00r."8,3 ry/L
ftnr{ Ds = 1,1 ry/L

l,trY" Ealsn,a :

0* D0* r 0, 00, = Q 00,

\*
D

0, = CI* 0C"

rQ,00,

3 (l,lvz,o)r(flr gJ) , Z6,J//L


f

7h!- h,t

Do=?'l-76

dtf'ctl

'l fry

"l rg.Z

,{ d'rolued or,

''
'," '-

6uren tffi,te:
Fr =o

pufief gop ef ntyrr,*


1/w&orq&, fr ru,er, 'l-rl(

l-,; to,f ,yt/A, a- a,3,t


ll ld, M,,r,4(C,,
(ob/a'r,uil

U ti,yiL

,4^d

t,x{,{4t)'' r@z?
plp

h(

! -1/';'

tc:

f'" t'
..:

a,+l -0,7

'

I'
#st{w*r
Iri d{sn(

tL-

{t,

kr- kl

k,
.,i

KeG
''(P
'

tl t*

,WP

':

l,t(0,

+t

'/4
\

,l&
*,

Q,

f*r/
l" aWru

i
, of-r',,
wtiX
w(

r t-'I

U//

'!

O,Zx lo ,7

,oJ

=
t fll -

/:b7 /qy:

r)

i?-L,kT

0,3-/t 4 35oox Z+y Z"L7/ayt=61.it^

Xc^ Ux{,

k, = o +t /c/ ha o,z/o/ ,0,*)


( {.: 2,67 dorr (ob/q,rlil
q[a c/':/,
' 77',!. tn:lqe'o{' 0C

r/o^,1

tt rry,g-a-ddr,l*o/

Dou,{pori

-W'b

o{{fl3}^

*rywyt

"_nr)

r:ffe_b{

^ g,4lx

.l

6rr

/t

.""'
!^ . ^ ^
tl
I i4 tF,$,.a"4
k.t'{rd.t
r-'Y '!-' '+r.f j

rt'n)t-t

;;-i;tr,,'7

B. Sources ofnitrogen and phosphorus

Major sources of nitrogen and phosphorous are mainly from: (i) agricultural runoff, (ii)
municipal wastewater discharges, (iii) runoff from animal feedlots, ffid (iv) chemical
fertilisers and nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere. The household detergents used for
washing clothes contain large amount of phosphorous, which when released into water act as
stimulant to algal growth. The major sources that contribute to the N and P in surface waters
are tabulated in Table 4.
Table 4 Sowces of nitrogen G.D and phosphorus (P)

31.0

s8.0

1.8

1.0

Land

10.6

24.6

Groundwater

42.0

2.5

Urban runoff

5.5

10.0

Rain

8.5

r.2

Sewage

Industries

Total phosphorus is a measure of the phosphorus in mg of P per litre, which includes the P
bound to particulate matter and colloidal and soluble ortho-phosphates. Total nitrogen is the
sum of organically bound nitrogen, ammonia" nitrite and nitrate nitrogen. Effluent from
sewage treatment plants increases the nutrient level significantly in receiving water. The
standards for discharging into water bodies/streams are: 10 mg/L as total nitrogen and 2.0
mglL as ammonia-nitrogen, and 0.3 mglL as total phosphorus. Some recent studies suggest
that phosphorus concentrations in excess of 0.015 mg/L and nitrogen concentrations above
0.3 mg/L are sufficient to cause blooms of algae.
C. Effect of nutrients pollution
Nutrient enrichment can lead to blooms of algae, which eventually die and decompose. Their
decomposition removes oxygen from the water, potentially leading to levels of DO that are
insuffrcient to sustain normal life forms. Algae and decaying organic matter add colow,
turbidity, odours and objectionable tastes to water that are difficult to remove and that may
greatly reduce its acceptability as a domestic water source. The process of nutrient
enrichment, called eutrophication, is an especially important one in iakes. There are many
factors that control the rate of production of algae, including the availability of sunlight to
power the photosynthetic reactions, and the concentration of nutrients required for growth.
While the list will include all the nutrients mentioned in the introduction, the problem is
greatly simplified by focussing on the two that most often limit algal growth: phosphorous
and nitrogen, so that eutrophication of surface waters including rivers, lakes and ponds can be
controlled.

48530 ESE Section 1, Chapter

lf'ater Pollution

l-8

]*u = lotL

1,3

Tuhntal

6taa:

tidii,nl

rnilkttqler flo* = o'&#L


\Nilonr, rvtq.rJ (1nd) of ,fur/ngen = ls)&g//
Tontpn[n/pn ff niroryn bnc, ut ,tasfraq/ar' 7
,

(Bnw/n/,on"X ilow=
Uq(en/-ra/ron

lod

lso

: lu'lff/o*

or

lf0

bU

l*ete,6t*xfu

W-'-T

d^'i r?
:,,i'

'lsr,b,_b
td-,_rM, uhb
r
ol 0,{-3
+

f dhBOs

lwtc'
0"8 rT[Qoox {og

{i!tynV

-J

tOsL tU

q
I

: /,t7 ry/L

hnunhalon of nr*agen n

fu //,u ti lou'ur ilnai ile, o/ttcA*y< /*,/

lylduiy

is not' 6reodr1j

Z,l7rq/L
o{ s,g/tl7W

/lu. laqspwa/er ts

f/u lao,a

D. Simple phosphorus balance in lake


A..",s

un-:pticn erf

rl',u1

1-nrirccl

lalies

Q = phnsphorus
i''"

c{)ncentra.tiun in lake
= setelirrg velocity'

L n- Lu

'

Pollutants enter and leave the region at the same rate.


Total mass in - total mass rate out : 0
mass rate in - mass rate out - mass of P settling in lake
QootCpout - \ArCo = 0
Q,oCoto
Well mixed condition: Co = Cpouo Qn: Qout= Q
QCpin: QCp* vsAsCo

" {}ru

3. Pathogens

It has long been known that contaminated


contagious diseases.

water is responsible for the spread of many


It was not until later in the nineteenth century, the role of pathogenic
causing diseases was understood. Pathogens are disease-causing

microorganisms in
organisms that grow and multiply within the host. The resulting growth of microorganisms in
a host is called an infection. Table 5 provides an exhaustive list of pathogens excreted in
human faeces. The intestinal discharges of an infected individual, a ca:rier, may contain
billions of these pathogens, which, if allowed to enter the water supply, can cause epidemics
of immense proportions.
There are many ways that contaminated water is associated with infectious diseases. The most
commonly used system of classification to describe and track diseases that involve water for
their transmission is described in Table 6.

of

water quality for diflerent uses, with reference to pollution by


pathogens, which are indicated by the number of faecal coliform (a type of bacteria) per 100

Typical guidelines
mL, are as follows:

More than 2000


1000
Between 2000
1000
200
Between
Between 200 - 50
Less than 50

Heavy pollution for recreation


Distinct pollution
Moderate pollution
Slight pollution
Satisfactory

48530 ESE Section 1, Chapter

llrater Pollution

7-u/orta

I 1,+

k*_d4:-.._.**
ZnL*o= Zoxnot*,

:,

3(r-,n
T116O. M
At

flrnffu^
flwlhoruur
.,-'uiai{rq

d = (rc,'/s

fr^,

Vslfs

;T:;i;'[u

Motny's

'' 4r, ,n = (o*'/s x o.ot\g/4r(0 us-,t/t:r,tb*/4tgoov/,


6x to-6* /sx

(z ox tTt)* 2 = lZryu/
z7*g/*3 = o'o27 'J,ti

5oo

CF=

10.0s+ 12

7Iz *oil<,r,e/rf

ln

27,{ji,,{= ,rry /,iz

nfl,,wn/ Conu,n/ra /,on

con@,bqhon:
- t Pla$Aprnu!

Ci(arurt)
Qcp-,n:-Ci(aru,t)

I
/t

N{CJ

*k

tt//t e/

ArU'nlrq*on

: fio,ol
ol ((tt"oSr/2)
t0"0f *til = o,Zzo,f
o.Zzos

\-

0,220t

= tox o,ol t

0,ofx C/-,tt

l\uoe{a,e

Q;=

24t ,\9/L

aqfh/k wat/ewqb d,scharg< coa,w/rarto,t


o( P sno,aH l" ku tan 2,+l ry/[
Thus

lloL

/ PmAll"Yf'tr;fahffr

//Dl
SBt

/04

orCIJtCIt1 fnnt*a

- 44or( e(&tttue uK o{ #r/,/lz".t

^*

frr /r,r/

Jrso,ru..l

ota/ y{" e#/E*/

c^ le,/
*'isk*akt ,ttU{t{flgl
arcunc/ Al
JlVrl
PtverStan
o{ vu-.-/ttvvul1./r
Ul
of 0{rlrC4t/
l/lVv,
oucar-r

ttrl,,Tqfion

*rk fua/*,,Y ,b r&nou(

e Adnp,:ul ,
u*as,b
(,ul*yrftphwphoroul
/V&.

Teo,tfora,q

hn/rol

Harvashna o{

nzaJuleJ i

fic

lor k, //t , fv*r )


plan

B
- rlk chqnrr ca{ thJ,/r"ut /t pn'( /ora/ **0
w&G'{ cut#rr: )
-

-KeM

aqurn

/,t

/"/

ran

&fl,q b

/artnos&c
k-P,r,tl, n

ffit^

/ia/ can urak

d,rcqru

5,out-u/-

WlHgarboqe
Un/oIt

--tuqfe

*mdut'/y

's

_!-

wa/rol--e p&arn-acc4fr

Effed
-TffiJ ilrcatei

"P,

!*;

- hl4rnolt 0r ftnllnql- Cirmef


piler ru//,//ant
- -[oankru/
Grt /rrl^,rh
firak & ieur<

fr

'/erh

fqtn
lndtu/fur,

<50

ofet /o/lu/ro, lndra&i


Era/ bl,6n, //oo-L

-2 Sq/r(ac/ona
5D -200
- sl/qh/ fr//rflpn

e Andz.ak fo//qrlan
du/nd i,ttrhon
-'
? 2ooo e
Atag ft//urltrt
Loo ^ [oott
looo *2 0oo

cd/s

*u/ a/swr| q^whut


/vitrt lebre il4r- rbxr e{.cf pccu6.
\qEartUnJ

77,/-

/zlal bc'?
7^6,

t*lnrlt

budrx

Qaotrrtt of q

(TgB) af q rbnc:

DI TK)_DL

: Df = da,fy 4fofu o{ @^,


fr = rc-tYrlutll r{ /enn fu; lrtor exfrK
DL = ilr,f,1 lptJ of fux,o .g' nehbo/-r- .er
eXCr f10n-

&a^tb

SWfu

hsh ha: q

,os

daa

u"t *u hprt
o,/ 4q, rt r\u

[on

o{ Trq, ,fu t{ar/q inhile /J


t{a,/r/ lpll lJ o,-i{rq,
" M,a/ is #,!. rb/tt bb& bu,&n
a{frr
30 dnyi
W lo/al b,g l,rde,q ( t-sS) c{ q zbytc:

/ort,'t X

iy'

7-66=
7-88= [so6o

(f,|#)* DL

i*f

^ 3c(o or7;1

= 5,6^3

- {onra,/ /afian rcqutt,/


krft

fofr o{

/v ,

g94/}/JY{ Cwoy

g46atr f we

LCso

= /lu(til fo/,

U,nrso,?/ra/,on

nusQara4 1Y

tlrc /ro^d

ftxyolrrc

{haf

cf /ill k.r|

we/<
orqanulnJ
\r

ft^z)

- ,:i,, ,,
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anma/.t dunra

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ryodlb

?+tz-rh,rdaa/

Craf&,el eJfr*,/rt,, a{ #"2


\

h,,,

1D'l *or/ol fu
7

)'r

!aru1q4

[7,)

\
,',

.J

loo .".."!

:7/L
':

Jutilva
(/,)

7f

6+
4+,f
36,f

3i,,
zrI

6{t0lz
tdrrar,/t-q

fi*t h,g/t)

i'
i

j
i

.----/

/n Dtuxtrt
Ll)ro

Llnrta/tor,
.Sfe

cei

Grr,rua

tul
Ia/

6t,y1,ub)

tua/c)

[h,ak)

l/a*t/er

P6

zz

+r
lldoja,o

Tanur!
SlEc

rel

LDrr,

ht

itt

cr,.wtttla

ftQhon

bfrb^
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Sltbshnua
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# kcw*n latrcr) o{L u4
hea*1
CAzqtrai/t
rflar tbrr c c/wqttrai/J
0r .rrlar
wfulJ, Ves/rcta{gt,, 0r
t',lcf- be

fr Thtl< S,r

t,/i,r/t
til l,
r"ilrft (ilL"/

rr rtal,T :xfrt@
ocrttrr wu la k in fa#q-figu.t of

0r9a/tDnJ

.8iofl1

# llen / u

n ri;ffimY,fitr- :fJ

r#{

;::-

t'o Ao.r, fr,1

;ufutbo,ut n
@ryhtch
flter {htllla'l frr*l alt rtol k tyr,,t fu ceurc

/r"{ nb Aor*flrl
Aar*flrl
fiarn/1,,f affic,r3 aft- tonrcr*/ea{
bay ,elea;ed tnrb l/,,/ enitro",,w/

rq/6 ff
( tat'on:: ,/q ca, ,4U,

K antd

Qrtt t

qf,br
frrri qfi
frrr|

sdhrtt k) *a/a/
; Cl,5 brcarborta,b)

'ilrlsl,,ea/
qn/orlJ

*hr
fr l,tgor rnlacb clt ,ogta,bt/ l*/:
fr F{frcf cn rfu ,ltefi,lwn of

lulsla'W

urei

r Jo,,tra.4

e'fu/nc /owe{- plor/)

fr
Efrct'
'q@

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, ftlua fu /t'ntth cf o/q'/a' -/
tn il*

, rtd,ud, /rtlol,'ed lrygert


, tn

UtcK

w/abo/rttoX

akct

n *rhf

ft,L q{&@lrc

rl lo

l,{i * a/ler

/run - Elw,,

toa/,n

fu-er

(r,h:l

*eron

Stql a,t

h*$

- Srrllle

mb",ra

or f7nr{

fuluen(t

-,{ctl

aq,br
fu-","3?"lWy Bf

on

on

l,rd;
l1?/

fc6s & leqd ek

fish & *,cn*oC4qnrstJ


\'/

aTr,rcr/tc lr

fr

tqnt{tq of C,l fu
/fute

ts

ch

ant@l Clean,ll

o, peblk kachnt)

(,5and,7

turyp Nhcre ,n tb q /ank or /,fred ub wal< danTs

flolsnrt/to,n
g,,rar/,,t! af

&7q,,

Jal,dL

"l:ylql salio/: (ru) . J*:frn@ Solr/t


M) thsut,,ls,t,/:(ti
-r_

-t lo'\ /o-trun
(or

1ua^

lo-1*

d,i:ol,,ed

*l/e,

(pL) {sr/rW,)

lu*^r)

lltr'

[0, /o-t* tor*,r)

*, )_* loo$n

fut) 0/Au kU
^rkcry*la/<l b/$,e
W,ry)
Coloadrl

Sug,Ce/ 4nlr
(p*t krltu)

(zt/,

@u

swladd

oryun,,

Z Zg oft1aro

*azfl iniw/ti4
t g/

irtoryanrc)

Total solids (TS)

Total dissolved solids

p)

Total suspended solids (TSS)

\
,)

Volatile

Fixed
dissolved
solids
(FDS)

dissolved
solids

(vDS)

Figure

I Total

Volatile

Fixed

suspended

suspended

solids

solids

Ssst

(F'S)

solids component

rF uqkr lu ,*d4"/ e/et/r,uh


I _fl::,?
,f,r ,i /t* anat#irt0,;*;';,'irrt;r,l
A. rntroduction
A.Introduction
;;ffU,if"

2'1
2.1 conductivitv
Conductivity

sslr3

"ii,

Pure water is a poor conductor of electricity. However, when substances are dissolved in
water the conductivity increases in an almost linear manner at low concentrations. The
conductivity also increases with temperature; a 5oC increase in temperature generally causes
an increase in conductivity of about 10%. Conductivities are therefore adjusted to a standard

--ob,lth x
temperature, such

25, although I 8oC and 25oC are also used.

B. Method of measurement

Conductivity is the inverse of the resistivity. Resistivity is measured in Ohm-cnr, being the
resistance between two square plates each with an area of 1cm2, lcm apart (Figure 2). The
resistance is proportional to the separation of the surfaces and inversely proportional to the
area of the two parallel plates. Hence, the unit originally used (and sometimes still
encountered) for conductivity was the mho/cm, from 'Ohm' spelt backwards. The SI unit for
conductivity is the Siemen per metre (S/m), which is the same as one mho/m. As the Siemen
48350 ESE Section

Chapter 2 Basic Wlater and ll/astewater Quali4, Indicators

1-21

0r

Tutcrtul sJ 4,!-

Sa['

ho,/ Zcoa dael ou/ u?aal h


,Sc

f/,teg de,b o/t naf'arrccf FSJ Shp,uld

t00o

ry/L

T,4dC,I
fr fk(,n,/,on
weelytrf Ftrc <trhnd h *4rC lrq|/ tJ erfl,,u
6/

gbraark/ or scq /lered fu s,,.upnth/ nq,bna/t

es#,
4 L)
rn uf'r,r/b,
- /7
eTtLquq alJ
l'tccJslau
fuylua
- rrlnlt sya/k "fot
Ml es
"&
- Du,,rfrci icn' fe,tel
- iilarprc o,ilr, lrghl prte*n f ,crt
-ftQCfl7fl ln tt, cl'kr

T116,dt

ncLsffi,

(,t t U)*ff04tl@ Ay
ffi JaCl?-J'art T?'rbrClly, u{ntf
A
J^g
Qr"i^,
ryni-(Tr[-/nda;td
StL' tlt lL { dt{ilh/ ue,br
*,F*wre t rb'/r/y r,tn,t/ Gr0-,5/andarr/rzet/ ilrr1g
fnmQZrrV ar q rclerenLt
/,*-b,/,0 t7nt/ ruTL/) ur,U lurLrl,,terQr
KW,c

Set Fryu,e3 lap L z3

(ole

--t;

totaurcd hy
w

\-'l

pt{)dtd n

-i;;il";t'0".r'

alaortd fu dtsrlred sr&s/onut

Sour

Lrnhe{ S,nbilanaj
)a,tt( dzbns
Or'*oorlJ ek )
a

&an

("leael,

*arrt

h,l,eJ

ur,r&l

./',lu*qraryy

6n*, or Elac*uh

AXtfu4

,,.ailq (lr^4lt
LKtnrc
l-nduiTr*wl
irlrofnal mJW
trtnutT

Sellr*llh - bo*.r"

f rlfi foQ,

qu7{.in1,
dr7e,,

VCtr tolrL,j

nlOurj

F@Clor&

st'anda,/tZe/ lulo,"rl ra /errc k


ffi
(Te tl\': /,u/u:u/
*t'iVon'
r,,ln1,r,,^t/
/*,/,,nn'J'i,:
,-'/ ,?f/L
,,^n/,
-rfrq' blo't,r
[,;*1
unt/.(TCu^\
la/inMr*
f C/tl*7rla rtrFrk rais
e

1r'

Ey Jfet'tql , sVeclruplakwelpr klr/ryue4


v
lafrrtrr,,,
(obt//
,n,h)
lLtt4,*;f

cf

CCour fr.

kJ/

)\ut tt4

ffi
fr, /n/uo/ fu;n
[,
h, rt lh f,w /,tl
btolryrcrl' rtacttrns fr bntftfuenrl of wwrkaqrtsE

^a/a

W,#cal,l

sp, l,

il(leasuq

-'jornt'oai/ fi/uc,rj',\2fulanul
v
^g
(.a-Cina-a l'(

k raatse/

"

/ilgasu{t \u')/,
& oc/aur Ce${_tne pc?6y)tcJ i Gasft ltqatl

ffi,k

Wt''i?
*,tt, 4 u
.;l+,

u- tl,,t vu/unt

o,dtur frv(

*ar+trb

t orr/, fus)/t

*.er+r(-"t),6u
7nt{w,z a ZlonL rnurl',rr

fir
# fanfzr-atun
il
furl,/y furqnrlr
:Yqrqd^
'uvqlf,l^
ln

&. Ule|Kuuqkf

# h fu^fwttfre MCfteJeJ ?y,,L po bnun,/rq/ror


lnwq@

rt

, C,&'r,/ ba5,/s,-1r
h'rlgtcal c{gnCa/rrn

tlepl/ttlrc 2 C -f7'C
ftwrn'o//t,lc +?26"c

# Prqc/ to, rqoL uarqi *,tt ,b*,Wnhn


q(Lord,lg /r ilu frlo*,n3 6r*r:la
Ft=,Kzor PFzo)
d,=k,&trfurt eitl = lolbT
bra/or lt^fr*fure
T

,/ 2o$p'c

Ctwtcnl

^l

Wll

ccrwlton

lmq

- ftl h'+sh 'f il - Scq


- tnfoffiat" ut qlud

lneU

[oqgul+ho,1
l

rt P0: pcc,Yfufuo,t

"
'

.!

ffiffiroft"ths'fH

6,s-trs

nirthpO Pf/ = 7f-8,5


frr
:P[,' J[i,i#, r!# ;i: ;'b'
*

- fr{- anaerobtc /,NJhort

[lyte//ncqenrc rrachon) pH = 6,^f-76

?
'yH= S-f dowsht */n

i il = 6s:
{r-Jh*ab' iqnolrc /,k
h#= 6S- g,f i /ilarru aiuahc I'fe

eulfu

diminishes as the temperature increases, or a paraboiic relationship between temperature and


solubility.
Bacteria tolerate a particular temperature range. Mesophilic bacteria are active between 20
and 50oC; thermophilic bacteria are active between 45 and 75oC.
The thermometer is used for temperature analysis.

3. Chemical characteristics
3.1. pH
A.Introduction
pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration:

pH:

- log1g[H+]

The product of the hydrogen ion and hydroxyl ion concentrations is a 'constant' (which is
slightly dependent on temperature): [H+][OH-] : 1.0x10-14.

B. Effect of pH

pH is an important chemical characteristic of natural, treated and polluted waters. Firstly, the
equilibrium of many chemical reactions is strongly dependent on the pH. For example, the
solubility of many metal oxides and hydroxides is much lower at pH 9 than at pH 7. At low
pH, corrosion of steel or cement-lined pipes is increased, whereas at high pH scaling may
occur. In natural water systems, pH lies between 6 and 9 depending on the local geology.
Changing in the pH of natural water can have adverse effects on aquatic life. Direct effects of
pH changes include increased fish, larva and egg mortality and indirect effects include the
modification of the toxicity of certain toxic agents by affecting their degree of solubility. The
solubility of metal compounds in the bottom sediments or suspended particles also is changed
by pH changes.

pH control is important for many water and wastewater treatment processes, including alum
coagulation, phosphate or iron precipitation, etc, as well as for biochemical processes. The
following optimum pH ranges apply biochemical processes by various microorganisms:

heterotrophs: 6.5 to

A pH range of 6.5 to

8.5; nitrifiers:

7.5 to

8.5; denitrifiers:

7.0

7.6 is optimal for anaerobic digestion (the methogenic reaction).

Extremes of pH generally severely disrupt all biochemical processes.

Measurement

pH can be measured directly from pH meter in laboratory and field. pH measurement can also
be made in the field using multiple parameter monitoring stations using recorders. All pH
measuring instruments use a glass membrane electrode that develops and electrical potential.
A tlpical pH sensor arrangement is shown in Figure 1. An electrical potential is generated
48350 ESE Section

Chapter 2 Basic lIlater and W'astewater Quality Indicators

s1,2,2
A,C03/,(

= SXo^W

fll = -\ry [trn-sJ


=

]&**.

or pll =

,,s

l
ra$t

-tV(o'or)
,u

- 0M3 t loq io't)

H= 2. S3

= 2,53

= 6-+ oll-

hil'aru,nta/tan of o,aol #l or
n3/yl
"-U)

0lt) = to"r?

Ufr)= #'=D-tt

'

@-@0u)=L

frlka lrnt

kfrntttort^

or w;k*obr la
Mcapuula o(a ur#o
q Jtqnt(ican/

.Wslsbe, r'td-ir,#,ur/
ft/, c,han!t^
(;nitlrur *prd: , lt il.q wasuE cf' bnan/rqriant" of
\t'r[\/n40J ^ri-\
'i(h', ft,''
5! clt-)

lq
/ftartrp atil,t HCI /a
ftlknfi^i,t tt
^zas^,tl
#lka/,nifu L exfrelled
t:erl-qr
f
-valyt,
'af
^tfoyt
M W ,tntf
nq'/L CqC7s.

f l,enollh /ha,le,,

ollo

lr,fu (#f ,r )'/

(el- ftl =9,3)

nhl ,r!l/ol,<,hhuU
(tt lil

0lf

'+

t Cru')

ol/7 #( o:- r (c1' )

='hs)

'ftf'rffiu'{,f'cos

Sow|*t., QlLa/),h waturcs q,< aktlC Ay


.|ie,:
V,t"6tln mdrsrliql lryr4wqfu ,yh:,[h
utr&t dC','ortu, frr* bf,gl h/roriart uqlu,et,

llordruU

llarAntA" Catate/ prrrrar,l,4 l,i

Wq/h

ilu Sq/t o{

/,
fur1r/ l^WQ
/

fu^ ill wq,kr


#w6/lr fo,,Cnii'i:
.b,wryltyg"!::l.fry"4"Qrw,afrpfr7,
:/ton t:[ Scq/e iil borlzrJ,
tan/ntfiJrafttei

fr

fu,'

ncwha
l;rt'*

97fu-W,
-

Ai ,l/aowqur

tq#r Aad,lptl

3.3 Heavy metals in water

A.Introduction
Many metals, such as iron, magnesium, chromium, nickel and tin, are essential elements for
the growth of plants and animals. For example, iron is used in the formation of haemoglobin
in blood; magnesium is required to form chlorophyll in plants. However, some are toxic to
many species at concentrations only slightly higher than those required for healthy growth.

An unusual feature of metals is that many bioaccumulate in a wide variety of plants and
animals.

'Heavy' metals are those found in Groups IB to VIIIB of the Periodic Table of the elements
(see copy attached) with atomic weights between 2I and 84, but excluding the so-called Rare
Earth metals (elements 58-71 and 90-100). 'Healry metals' have a different configuration of
electrons than for the 'light' metals, which occur in Groups IA (lithium, sodium, etc; also
called alkali metals) and IIA (magnesium calcium, etc, also called alkaline earth metals) of
the Periodic Table. This diflerent configuration of electrons determines the reactivity of the
heary metals, which are generally more toxic than the light metals.
The most commonly occurring heavy metals are:

Iron
Nickel
Chromium
Copoer
Zinc
Lead
Cadmium

Fe

Ni
Cr
Cu
Zn
Pb
Cd

As

Silver
Platinum
Gold
Mercurv

Pt

Au
Hs

Heary metals are usually be determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AA)
method.

futeasu,twl+

uity
: hvnno nlvl
J

eryfurnev

ftllunrc ahsor ytwn

(+nl

48350 ESE Section

Chapter 2 Basic Water and Wastewater Quality Indicators

l 2 3 ri:i:r :;itri-{ :,.d+i:'i{:

I trfr:rn

I't SltL fr^d tl,/ equwa le*l oF each

'il,w/ea/ ru/ton

bnffia/row
equ wt'

of h 0 g =

+o

rizt!,'xtdb

(q.u*/ of cq'f=

ffi:#= #

ery w/- # r,lg*

eqv
nclL /no/'eW-

: Z?;+ + .1rTu =

e(,ytoro{srn=

#+ffi=W

bnd

_Lod Sk(: ,
Mlrc,ho,nr

_ ,oJ
rnto/e ,A
Zcqu

'dtu,t
o{ #",ldrs/y/J

(artan

fu* ry/L ?bry/[mt

30a,s/L !-r
v'v,"\)
@rr or (aC\t
r 4"';'{:i1l# = --'vt-

tt,,,g/L vcqzr
,4t'Jt'G
' "
tfry3/L &'r

@e4cazf
n 8E1:(,CqC,-!l

t2

4/q.,tlfr

i,gil srax P:/erCto, ,.7,*y/L sr'r as e@S

wv

{fu
-frWLr4

Cnlcolah

k t t t n - uf

bo,trr

k Aardw+l

ylql hor/,u/J : Juo,, c{ I'z Cru4ful cq/lant ul"el@


='30*q /L r
q+4
=

3,f nq
blJ g 'L
lL ar hC?t
n- +
\J

rylLryf

;Cal(rlrk,.o4:eM
-C1rt'
hnrt'tul = W(1r*6,arhfia*& Anc
'*i i{t,{ l+tO, = t+rz *Gxtt)u . ; lrqf 6l
-fr
wrale =
9,,,?f L l/C7r"
k eeftrh(0. --61,t,iy/ Kcr'ftr e@
b Kffi
rr
i

MOL

: C,U/L + 6/,rqg/L or equ) - 6t,s;r/r


t'l'

SJ4" h lrulak nolt u,40,,ry/ har/,qeu


Tn-corh,orrh. hacrwt = Tolil
S

ltqdnul

ffi,,,gtt

Lan/otu-M

-6l,f,g//

llaanlrl wqta/tow{

rte&Ct ul dslr*u,ot '

,drtc

( kanffif
U0)
k D,stolual c,rqortn
-CrV,p,t

* $1aclwntral

tltrnan5l (SM)

# Wr''&,,!,,W:,#''ft{f:f

)o

r/1,'t

rn

/ro,

:Jolued

4 st cooda

' ctcf1trr.l puflu#IY

{aalr

h fatarneb-a#eW ag

il;i:," "{o ,^taswr" p( fr-eL uxulwr? drslol,n/ rrt *a&r

If n ^tqJurtd ,trt ful unr/ oF *qiL.

D0 tl e ilertlwl

,fr; aercbic lilrYiialrc pna.sJet, nt

%yrt^ k(wnkf

/an*e''/ert

@:

DoU,)
0 flrT(r)
0,C
T=

[-:

lo'(

/)0='l+,6ry/L
Do . 1,2)',ry iL
1

T=20'(r 00,r,?,o7,ijtt
.0*{['t:toixtf Jaldt
Dcft) \
(il frr TPs'
/+/

(r)

7=

lc'c

6, LUtf = 0:.q /L
fr, lct 1 loJou

rl/1

h q/rrcrflu.ric rn*^

61,)

Ddtl)

yt//
Do, yr orfo//
0/t=

lt z>

/l\

rl(eq;utrc

w,nhlrr l-,]

--#x," rye** *,Yr#,C* f


--- /[tn wndtr;T /n

) f* trr Arird

taq

f^

wudu actd'c (d*/r*ru's


uv1'unlaf to D0 artgtrol!

/,eWt

afllrraila h rclalrrelrq ft/,


i
l(dtzd //ut
iidr)er
//n

wTlf
wgler, lkrc ,zxLl#olt
lxL,t#elr
lnir vq{e;,
ffi
h
vqfenc,l ualo
fu /tnlt
qll,qlw wn'ilttoit' & ilrrt ll, /) AlqU( 6 ondrtz(J
qllilM
acidtt tn/rft,nr fua [' rckqx/
I-'\CI fu4 ft
qtltwleil
,

is

'ob
fu tu

hg,fit'rilfM@

Cq

qirt?/t'J
*n/t ,{'ilx?O

Jz /J rntgJAR
D-trwqwd

'l,hrfi2| ( JCrun il,air/@a# )

)olqft(rr)

DilJplwel pyqq@

t$r onfik
q"0tkntv)?lgIp / ti,qJ*u,0/,k4, l/AL dow/1c furary
(wrii{he',tt'"aili/roi), n*ilet c,tfrt t,q/, aiqn
artrbrl
fr,/,t, blour 7V,t wt,C U Jarh/h" ftrlturl,ruuul
K6/

w /wrar/ Uon

6Mfinur,

fuL

(tlr,tl, 4 a nwrta,t q(

,rawt o( a *)x(d
'ur,rtd

tu,

gnCzing /il2,
q( aenbtcr
4,r
'qraCqfk nnanrt,Ur/,on lrlq' ^ frtfut/
frfuft,^!!,"if tr'
:gndattr',i
w,rlfiff. 1&u,nonwn L'urt
u
rorr
y Pnflu af
-gf;!''"on*"1
ni pinh'/u'q, (qr+

fo/u llrha,t

tm

lgrrr'

I c, r/, t, r,, /,s ]


Ty,L,alQ

i
@s-\/cr
+ bn!,fftu|

ll,0

mw badqia

oganrcJ^
/1,0) urfrrg, ovt//ilpn
{ rylt
'ogonlis (o^ft,
f z

(- j6rk
'-/
lJ - //r'0
(ortl]r0

0o
8

oD,

wrJtlrt- of

tJ (trt holrt

:T, u ailrf*n{ fua/,n

200c,

ox,

da

tw,

2,4onqcouJ /^q,H"{

0/]
!

tl andtzr/.
-trler

/J Qrfud fu ,Q//pw fial

dr*,qu/ ftcL)
goo I?rt

Ft"y-*d

Wlu*tan.fqo4w
r+'h,zrt

C0,

W rft lwl d,uoluel uxyry, 0)p) of tfri. t/, lakC

pffi1
lakr
lr:

+lc

d,

lrlp,

Voluw

W-of

*ilr d, luk/

wa:ku,q4w*,

rfuchoE

r{ W

wa:k,nqlar /m
oK

fiapr.
D

Do o{

(PP, -

d,

lafi,o, w

Cos)^

0f

F. '/A/ Cr lu/r an &cbr


= Volu^z ut od&wa{q- /w di luhan wrbr
vpfuw c{ wask*ak,

The tests do not follow balanced oxidation after the easily oxidisable matter is degraded
An arbitary long period of time is required to obtain results (5 days)

E. Kinetics of BOD

Biological oxidation is a slow process and theoretically takes an infinite time. The kinetics of the
BOD reaction are? for practical purposes, a first order reaction and may be expressed as:

dr, :
:,
dt

-kL,

(2)

where I+ is the amount of BOD remaining in the water at time t and k is the biochemical reaction
rate constant. Figure I illustrates the kinetics of BOD.

BOD remaining
at time t
Time, t
Figure 4 Formation of BOD curve
After integrating Eq. I with respect to 't', the amount of BOD remaining after 't' equals:

L,

L,(e-b

(3)

where [,u is the ultimate BOD or BOD remaining at time

lt
n

Lu

- L,

L,(l

- e-*

0.

(5)

is the BOD that is exerted at any time

't'

For the BOD test, n is measured after 5 days, so yt

BODs.

Therefore,

48350 ESE Section

Chapter 2 Basic Water and Wastewater Quali4, In4isolort

t-32

(6)
BOD. = L,(l- e-* )
The reaction rate constant is dependent on the tlpe of waste. For wastes which biodegrade
quickly, the value of k is high. The L and k values of some waters are given as follows:

Sample

Lu

150-200

Raw sewage
Well treated sewage
Polluted river water

i0-20
10-100

K
0.35-0.70
0.r2-0.23
0.12-0.36

k is susceptible to changes in temperature. The relationship between k and T is as follows:

kr kro7-t')
In general, 0:

0:

(6)
1.135 for
1.056 for

T:

4-20"C

T:20-30"C

8o0r"o
F. Carbonaceous nitrogenous biochemical orygen demand (CBOD) and nitrogenous
biochemical oxygen demand (NBOD)
Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand

CBOD is the oxygen demand only from carbon-containing compotxlds and not from inorganic
such as ammonia or ferrous iron. In order to avoid nitrification during the BODs test inhibitory
agents are added such as methylene blue, thiourea and allylthiourea.

Nitro genous biochemical oxvgen demand

in the form of ammonia and the oxidation of this compound requires


additional oxygen. The oxygen demand associated with the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate is

Wastes contain nitrogen

called nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand OrBOD).


NH3 +

48350 ESE Section

2Oz

----

Chapter 2 Basic W'ater and l|lastewater Quali4, Indicators

Tqhr,,

l*

LI
L

Do, DZr
F

I Cl)r,

!r,nr:
N
gQrp

7 [ ^2.r
3o

ffi
y:

BIDr

(po, - Oo) x DF
(Z

'futbrnl
-

u/fwqk

Bop

,-\Dfs 300'-

_/

t/t

3o

r-2 v) x to = rorytt
.,
'

--f
tt/trn4l&'6O,

!-.,

' SDry/, :
to

BCD Uqlap

nb/aM = 6oD/'= zzo^q/L

fr , F,rt/

L, ,fr, +lA Jonplz:


"f,rd
Sru Bob ' Lu(1-g-ur1

Lu

= BoDz

l-e-^r

Ltr( fr: h, =

trrd
B
"

ffir,;

0,3 c/-t1

t:7

w tt ndaP

llue

o,J 'krrg(30-zo)

sL=l,016

>" h; ="ffi:0;17+d'-t

,'r SoDrb = 3t0(l-e-o'ttLls) = 1f0ryj/L


t

The oxidation of ammonia is a slow process and usually starts only after 6 to 10 days, in most of
the cases. But if enough nitrifying bacteria are present, NBOD can interfere with the results of
BOD.

Figure 2 illustrates CBOD and NBOD

Where a sufficient number of nitrifying


organisms are present, nitrification can
J

occur as shown by the dotted curve.

o)

Nitrogenous
biochemical oxygen
demand, NBOD

c(d
E

oo
c

O)

Time, d

Fig.2Illustration of NBOD and CBOD


G. Typical BOD values of differentwastewater
Unpolluted natural water
Polluted natural water
Raw sewage
Biologically treated sewage
Septic tank effluent
Storm run-off
Garbage tip leachate
Oil refinery, food industry
3.4.3 Theoretical Orygen Demand

< l-2 mglL


> 10 mg/L

:150 -200mglL
< 30 mgll
:200 - 300 mg/L

:20

mgA10,000-35,000 mg/L

:500-5000 mgtl-

(thOD)

ThOD is the amount of oxygen required to oxidize a known compound by theoretical calculation
based on the mass contaminant in the water.

Tutcrpl s 1,2,7
CrlJ,,rCt

lru

r 6C, -

6C0, + 6 /lrC

n?J

oz

i12 q
l{oq qlutorc
nri,fi : 3M4 W
3oil,fi,iluure^uA

fn*rreA,ot 0c
j

\_i

Thu tJ

)u

Mr= i!frU

uqrrl 'lu 600 atglurnrc= lwh bvlas,rlaik

of Qxv(M rttuue/
tunryout./ l* rua,f-t'lb/ ralcq/afrCIn
Man/ rn tru walff
7h 0D = ff,o,ourt/

u/cnql

bMpn
baJd

rtl( na$

sL,2 8

2(0, +//*C"il//t
E;64 .rtu p{ ,7rr,,,,,4 [(cruoo,Ai = pn)+ (t^s)r (z*u)*/4. 79
g/,obi i*'& {;a Ir*rL ,{- ,iyr", (t tur)il =4& ,u*hq
Tlv-rcfrrer ;*/A: ;t
Wcry1/L g/yc,,rzr !&- ' lq,zv/L *w* t*lonnr*ri
C,H,ortl + l:{Cz

20r- /Vq-- l/,C + l/n,


E,acl,, nck o( a-"nprtrq ,<acfi wr{, 2 ,noleJ uf orygun
(2xZxlb '6y offit/^"k)

illls+

30ry/t

:,

7{s = 6u

ry/L

orggqn

,f

(/tnr,,rthl o*Aftft chrqd ilul wesurc


qyrco,
U
rtq,tutC, /v ,C/t!-,,r(ca/// prtdtze 0rJp4/( *q/7br prcd n
aa:kraaft'r
@q/L)
"b

f00;

;;"; -;H;;Gci r t/'# cc,*t,o+zc,u'


!

ru

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orqdn/(.?arlort an/a,f yt *qrbr

/rtz

\.,"

trffi"awz of CAD &.ToC fu^ 60D

&

COD

fu,bathcn q/ lCIaoT ,.', GiaeJ //a


lvhl C (a/l o7qner ordl,ze/ )

tl,l,efttd - t/-tJq ftdfrsur( CI(


[il,e,wt t Lal

qdohon urirq

d rch n rn ti 7Q (n d,b, */tg tetiA t, b)


'qwu&. *,o/t*r/

- qurcher

un* ,y/L h

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e

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60Dt

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12132

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a*cun

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tcD-/600r rrrho t rnthd//y

tYnfrnuo:ly

tu cq lculak/ ,f

firo,d,

If

60DiC0D

> 0,5 ; 'flt(. L,lqrk $ Consided Amde,r,alqlie

t,t frJlavug 6*J

ac;-a '{o;-4=\
til, lw/e
Io* 'ln,,tqk
.tv wtL[L'.
vYci, a/llo+-+@crnr(-M,n ull
M
t/,f
Ft tqltont ftrn
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At

6n^M+Mltt

Ar'fr,ficclip il,/ur -

(or@flhe* tyt fh.u Presen(L of a,.) i,lr,fi,nq

W',,

fu ar--+

bac/ertq

ilor---rt/g,

unt/tr anoxtC Con/t fran:

+ funr*ortrT .- hana ful lo wab enwronwan/


iot rtl*-sad,ol k {orw, /vxt(,
-,, //0r-

lm/

Essathc(l nalner,l
fro$oe
, [rufnfhrta/rpn
, 6qe babicl nfrnl
( n+>lc*qlL NC, -/V)
"
/uo,| diteale _ bluUA' Ulgrra /,pn sf SAnt fi 6/ rrt,#

d*ogffu*/C

'trlocd

p{

Au
- lwtwpn rqhon pfutun
*-t 6 nil ILUUl,tl
uwuqq(fT|ntr)
r
d
yi

;(fo ^*qb ico,"s;


fl*^,(I
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[/ exufr m waler tn {/w frllo,rr^ra 6r*:

/L- .

'2

J.

frurlAu
frrlAq

'breqq

m
r/p*n

- Eslen/,al nulrrent

i,, o I ry/

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tuit'

*,#inl

f,r Ealrupl,rartau

# Crl,ofhrtPh*/*t @n fr*

gfuffi,on

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wnilt frtwrn, {eScu &

sq

/b l,le,+l

Aw

k4

fndtutor
{ ea i,t lv cukcf
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flr,err
tl,L /rtJn

a c{

en

btt

pril,,tgurt

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, Esche,chu tolr (g blt )&

frua ha.c,lerrq
-a rltU":

((il *:tr/ cr f!a+,,!r;y(i


@l,for*tM
-f,ttalI ulr fir*t (f() ltoo*t (++ s'6;
Forco

: FS)/ioo,t

FS <L

ltq_t

: a,l- I

otll" daruhc arrtruqfj

2 l-Z

un cerl-q
Auwwn

>+
'lofar: t

Solu

l-toi

(,U)

rurt

,rilqlat

[en QrdJ

'^ok/L)

J ,*M ef

'wk

lL

pf

The chosen indicator bacteria should be: (i) easy to detect and able to indicate the presence of
enteric patho gens zed faecal pollution.
Two groups of bacteria are used for this purpose.

(i)

Coliform bacteria: Escherichia coli (E.Coli) and Aero bacteria Sp.

. If the wastewater analyses indicate the presence of coliform

bacteri4 it means that the

wastewater has a prolonged faecal pollution.

.
(ii)

This parameter includes two t5pes of coliforms namely total coliforms (35'C) and faecal
coliforms (44.5"C)

Faecal streptococci

Measurement ofthese indicator bacteria is by MPN method or by plate count.

The ratio of Faecal coliform (FC) to Faecal streptococci (FS) indicates whether the pollution is
from human or animal wastes (Table 5).
Table 5 FC/FS ratio with source of coliform

Additional informafion

Molarity (M) contains 1 mole of solute in 1 L of solution (mole/L).

Equivalent weight of substance is defined as the molecular weight of the substance divided
by the number of equivalent in the substance.

48350 ESE Section

Chapter 2 Basic Lllater and Wastewater Quali\' Indicators

t-37

lttlttata,

/4al<,

o{ 5 yg/t r-oncantrq/rin o{ /rrchlorrefh14-

s--J,TcE

*-b-M=W
Jt,.t
l0'*
lC'*]
|l3],5

Br.4l

lyh = t3l t3/dc ?x=


llkrnq{,,rc. ,a,uf/nd L
., = frny/y
uMabr/ bleqh/

Jubs/v"eW
jqLs/enu

u"egl;/ of
weu/d of flu
tri *hL Srtbl/aole

e%v

l/r5o+=W;ffi=
u;!,?i,^ -# =
rvqOll
=
^+r(
W

e(,it*/-rtG(%,
e4u

i'l

attila.

d,uiCe/ bg fr,e naonfur

equw{o(

-t+b
e$t/

w=#=H

{ Qgtenu6

COz

(zliL

ffCq

z'qy 2A"
-= eq,v
= tz+nolp" +'';nm

s.8or67t1

rnolec,tlar

o{

egur'n/a,/

l/o*elt

hddr/,
Irh

AfA r-yu1o

tL

l,/ (pnhnt

'{r)

(g /ir,

I/a

lrok

HrSL+

T^'W

H,JON

x eLu

lW. +=lM
x'\ tnolt
L

I^letlLl

tl{t

r .24r'

= 2?u

r?/v 2//
=

o*M 'fuq/wr,|

,trul

F,rs

'/U= M

S],2,Jl

al nl't 0n

IA

I tqu,walenl- 4gt / o/ Jo/a/e /*

I rr,",

ryMq/tc,., tn onqk,

rnyt,

cerlJ

pro
{rtof
# U S<d /v' r&,*ov
tqq{" ltltHtt
rq,tr
farl!,
UtT(4 arL--_
4< -

4 *qt,b*n*,

harK *a{e, r I -f,a#1 qJ lryt,


r

# fi'pukcl yu*yt ,tr frcrl,fqk o/n' Jultrcgaert/ lear,*r*


pncJr$
u,{

+ (Wic/re&{

or bar roda,t

@A-

sffitsif,*td

qJ:

f t x'ed S,crty'n

Rach,r &.

bar

Scrwns

flow,nq

St,<l,,tyt:

rn

iup Sln jrUrt

/^uh s(ru,/'?J

, F,,,2 bel/ CIr wd,uo, ful/

sara4'L't)

J'cranMr4

bAr J C/<et1
e l-trtl- fiu<eru: 1,9- l3^*' oFuMflJ
*, /koilan Scr,ent: l3-2,9w^ Wn)rig-f

-r- CuorS< 56mn{ :


-,,Wv<-rnryh

ruu/ontt
-

3Z-

loo.^

o/xnvg3

twaX

nqkrql

0rrert,nqt C,+- lo^-,

*t//rrio/tco/! Clr**d
kodlasr
kaC

los:

, Cle,t

Ck qnt,

/hn,qh

,:";;W

of Scru.frtn

/4,L Sqtut
"lTy

alt &uwrcd

wl{t-vt,zth

sial'". At' ry (h)

cf fio* t'nrEA Aor


[6gutt , ,/J

V= Ueiocifi

ap/troi&, Yelocib
AmurC, yn/s

V=

'"

./l*

fl: aftii,w7,rn ,/*u ,b


wavrly,

n/t"

tel

T,
3

k,en

//lr;*tt

/,4rcnsfra,wt

pla+Tl.
e
I u { r'in(L( tltclbl(j
,qquqftc flart
\o"ove
futre,,qpyfh,L
*^&. ltLt
"'{a,,tl
"'{a,,,tl
u#'re
u#'rcjtyttu
, Tc lncrtay
tntrtay
tll/rr,hoh
l/rr,hoh
(.

- bfT; , a'l- Cia

__

^-, 74il

ta

JI

g;yx it )rt 4
.J'

or
I

tuov,rtt

7-bO w t uuqt

,y
Ftly

,'r
eilr

r&qcu)nS
,fc;eg,rl

qll a'.tqqe
-'t-t Tart-'tf7nov(
4tc
4/e eff<e*
efftcf gn
l/rrq en /c
4 Crst,c lrt'ed Ju t/s
9n lnzfQQItc
tqz iltc /Drqfiniq
,lf,q, ,q,I,,g orrt
lt,olo
-?
]'t ltrolr
-.-- Nwc{ ulu l,ql,r+ h l,*,}''
vfa f4
!
l,

"u

-) br*ol k aosLibL],/uk frr


-{ loccqlqf

{,

1,,

,/r

fCIq,
73t'at/et '*/

/+tj)

tDn or du mfrcf ron

,ffi,W W t t*yl rlrt rr.'il'b,f,;4tukd kttl a3i't-30/e fr. hnd ln'3</lur h

Ht b, tn t

luVu-

Flp ct.

Cru,

y6 y3i0a
(oala,lql-ron- n,r-

fnry

M yh4ch

atlMrl

Ti@fyTrl/h,t,@,t

f*

k,,b*W4(

JlyengJ4

ot*fu

r!/f,U
trluhT,)

ttw
C 0q4

frea

*fum,ntqtvt 5ulpto*-

p*4fut @
,a/qhon

il6rf "#n /anlc


/,"1,//i Uv to//or/

U!

lb

":lo

cc w lrr

/ro*

Ffbcl ne M,tJ
t lL
qg(./ lanf
fyft
tu
lanf
4
dr,r<
bgq*
p l-l''
' (kttrac/ffu*tcJ, of I

,trfnrr. Cltar/<

ek"-

k,g

ize-,

lili q,n-fu.
r)
(

lch

uI

ze- H,irrlq
9

tqi,*rm,

,r"rle

trtt
int,l,,r/t
t1- lax t( ('rt1
lac{ n4 b.S-u$, ch)
(art)
-'' ltlC
laly
ry
*lu ,iu4#d'l rnigr- n,
ffl-rc/,,l,lt/4
n-fc l,,b/,
L

->

ttrt

lht- *rt\tr

fr 20oc

r)v1- p rDd Ll C lJ

fil

tor) U le#

ftLU/yt
lr"l+il4 i nw*bno,
hpicf chtu^ftqf hrwrlq'[
o/' *q lor nolecqlr.J preJat t- UANCJ
g,5ewrii,lp
c/, al,'t"lpn
frr*- of fc
,iultply{ d liq,trc/- '{7t
ott/ronJ
So,ltl /to,t uyJ
UL ?h l/tze
[an @ntFAhon (ouoye @nt^unt
rC
ql- low
qf
/unrerq /u,r-,
helo,',t il
fLlrtt hilhta
lo* "lWpeSq
)
Salrt lto,t ls g du-re Qrn
/r Jol,t tia,
/,,q,liT'/,,
l
{l{utrn
*,
'
LNWtlt/ttL,rtvt 5,, l,

"

ha,

? flt,o( 3't fui,{ ry

fr 7ry a{an W

eKlt4ttiue
I

M
G

#lzhein4prt dr:eqrc

Der^u{,i (wq/-r

etlttrpmeg,{ h4qJf,

efla
kt

used

n //u

fuz fn-

/J,

/4a* /rfar/

6r*

olerq/ioa Of Jornz
&/unmuw)

lhrcql lo aqualrc lr{e

r.*-_t

qr k:

Floc

fr I o z4frsttzc

*grlqrton

WTrt,n

f'0,qls
o{,z.kt ,r,/tg,
aro/rwwrn
roryy/?/ t/rr,fr
4;
'/(rxrn!
'tfit3
fi/ar,nU &^/,nii,
x tnct Lonc4 if t 1rtJ ft3 *,*,ng w/hUnb)fr^,
,ry,yt/roru

t.

fl

/t4 r

/ru''nt-t&/{
T:l f

tu I opa{aftn

fun/r

*ort

*ialtil lk/x/{tJ '3c,!60 wartc/j tlt


,5iaw w rxmQt

10or1en

TUpr(ol

Exqwt

Floccqlqha, tn Lo* /urbtol


tn
nqh4fu{
"'y';"(olff

wqkt

4 te/1/t

recy//qk
ollotdt
frt@fl)t

Sweef

Flocc'a lahon

fliu,n darc

@l Exa* tk F{x"c

urh/
-+

ru)':
ru-o:
e

wr+

#t
Alz

4rlsoryfton

o/rs lqlil/zn

-!

)ar kst
FFf
'Twrbd,

op/rrw* dpt<
,*lu,n dorc

/rurt

alM

rr,lrcrn pH, tu Iptrurt c ae d 0,Jon),


r

ffi,ffiec{tuakd SJrea;H, l,q[/4


\r

ll-^htu nz:Eq

t,K.

tolaulrd ,.ualrr"

,,fr fu,,

(urh? chqr% rt urnb y,il, ,frcrt//qkJ

l,tr{ft,{ff#[,i/or&

lar,Va, rt ilp'ntq' {locs crhrc h cen


,;:
lprpduc,nJ
;el-lle {'a#

n.4

g) g+ co( gr/ n?crt ltfre ac/r,#, i (i il;


6i,
'tlfifa%H'
*
f
#J#l,,'ta
#i##,,',fl
r,,fr,,*rl,a
rfirffi;fl,?
tt
'

W
Ure,

Ftl W

a',*; rtun-tontc' l( Jlgll

tl

qrtt,nlc po$nen

Different amounts of coagulant are then added to several (typically six or so) new samples
which have been adjusted, if necessary, to the optimum pH to determine the dose which gives
rapid floc formation. Using more eoagulant than this optimum may lead to /ess successful
coagulation or weaker flocs, because there may be too many particles with positive surfacecharges, which then interfere with coagulation or break down weak flocs. Using excessive
flocculant is also uneconomic.
The pH of the raw water and the dosing rate of the coagulant in the water treatment plant are
then adjusted on the basis of the jar tests. Adjustments may be necessary even more
frequently than daily during heavy runoff when water is pumped directly from a river. These
adjustments are generally only for the dose, and possibly to the amount of coagulant aid (see
later); the optimum pH is generally well-known, for a particular source, as a function of the
time of year, flow rate in the river, etc.

of coagulant between 5 and 50 mg/l are typical. For a plant throughput of 10


the amount of coagulant consumed is therefore typically between 50 and 500 kg/day.
Doses

ESE 48350

Section 2 Chapter 2 Conventional W'ater Treatment

Ml/day,

2-t3

*l -stw{.sW ffuli, f,,l[,i

rtut

t:l

Fty,,t,c ry o/ru1'1,n slw* d*uq'l1,f,Tgl


@) fun
'Sirt&
^W
Q= 2,SrtlLrt 2,}xlc, t/d
=

Tofal a*orrtl- oT alun rtqurrrd =Z,fxtluL//r

g,r,g/L

: J l.Z yxt0" ,y fl

flJ w ltr.ed /, know ,f*g

Ti,zrkq

ff

a*oi/' ,7;E;'

hour, lf wr/r: owt tc bL,,


F st zr
@/d x ld /z+ h = tJ b/rt_
(b)Trrbidr ly

requrfrd

Sr'oru

frr

,rftwert/ /vrbdrrh fu*t //d {t qure '2of ttTU


frntrl f*akd *a/q -lu.bi/i6 fuw l/a fri* =4,2ant
cratcyr= 205--/t, Z
Thz /rta/*rrf /
xloo= qZqt/,
"{fi
20r
W opf ,rwuw f ll = 6, s

@) fieqwrt,w,/ C glun

dg,l "Jt,zr$g/d
rc
tonc. of (linn. Ltf. ,*lr/,,,a, 700q/F= 0,7 kq/L
frr gi,Zr hqid
I{ <aah f{tn twt $+c

f*t

,^i''=-$"ttdr

+t|Aq =

il,zkq =

$ l, 7Y6 /d

/l

gp$*s = xL

x= qh6+L

Ftna

I r a,^ r {a'/r hb't Pafr ' I l'

{laai

/ar{

_&r( ,, / Cw,rttrc,b, uftIfrrf:U


-litratfrlllrrf ilu. ra,ut't,tq/e,r q: ropaflrl foJt]kJtq or,/tr
n

AJ

lo ,Es'lt,b,firc
WgQ

ftt tolardql pa.ltfu h,eut'rrolse //,u

/tve charll

arourtd'

//tt tollard Surhu ) /nqu

/-

': {X,,ff;t Y!,ffi!,,^ ?f ,qh,e ctuwrul unrrtrw!

T*1etl at wyi/ *w;buleotl zortz t a ,^ ,


.* T;r way1J of raVrd *,xnq' bdrq'f/c 4//gc$gn@ll
l|,'tolr,tilc
rntxtne , *u{rroilo^ral dr* fo #rz abser)cL
u*
nr-/

o@

/uaxa tr( u tre oopyt /


- /tle zhar{u"l wt,11v1E; fu pre *rdt Iq ukd
iF

'

ln uhrilt /-,4/chi n Q
-74nryrzq
q@rygqrk
tnJlid a2Arlqqrk plp
Collid
,nhp /arper
1arqer dumy'r.
dump5.
Ftortulq,F6n lJ a yroa.;t Tt"d

w *arbr *er//ruoe/ fr,

o{ mt'/e 6,le"d co/lodal


qggrJllrn of,gy*ry
(Qt| o c6{J/(L/ ftnCIuecl
fl)r2uqn
tttlifll
iLtfrl, y'h,/h",{en
tarf
g/
ilil,iln,
,6e ,,tn{,ly f rny4 f,
Swbse

!:"{rm /f{*,,/

lrW
* uraru

fr

melh

dt

k,/,dh

lrm

nu4 f ra

Lna/ron o( Prr/-ickl

lqr/rulu ton/acf nqelA?r b fu*,


({lot:) urtrlj exlr;rtal ,wx,rtE

De:iq'btlrrcd

Wpqht

%draulrc : fia#luhne
W

Yqah

llt chqlttetl; Fa/Ck r''rlrrb,/LL, /{a/e/b

peir n fuostCpnfipn sfKq, 'td ruxtrt


"lw
rwprhn/ /oiyn pan^deo
rl/iNna inlonsifu

@q;tcft
vfi
-

ito*

'na flw(.

n't

rapial H,ufi/tq

m {licculahof

T dura/ipn fr,' rnpd rnNrtq

ffi/rn='#Y'k#il,^

$ urttxty

i,tbriy of ttuld (to,s/,0,'orPo I


i=
'C= veloc,fi
(S-2
^6radruf
V; Volvl,nr"cf *ob, r,t= {/r* n& 6t/ix*nU fiw
ft kc)
,

t tqn
0uu

funs

tdtrahan

rn tXt

I
6'
fr
nxry ,te/ur,fu
ra/id
/"^e
=
' nluih)
srndiul- fu,trq

Jitrtrhr 1,, hyyhor

{ l/u G."

firilocrqlol*
i
,
lqt'pn f,^z rt 6n= gn d,,e4/ velx.ifo

Wcut
Gi,k' (d,,untro,

less

yon*r*) 6n fu:/er*,ru ir*be{ of

bll$tunl

\fhnu',n Geh : S'i',rt(jJfrrl {luailqf,prr


fgptal Grlr valtte 5 loL lcr

(s)
f,w
/r
rewaral uajgwlrho,

hn{qut
Low
lh

lurbrdtll, tolrur

gh hu.b'

{on

cl r /3 ; Jtl,

dt

,+*o,t,rj hot/MU

Ge(s*)
zo-7o
5T

- IJT

i 3o*3s6

Grf'
6Aroo8 *ze&\, occ)

forooa^ Sqooo
/Q?roos

Lloaroot)

For flocculation Gl is important. The other important factor is Gitr. This is proportional to the
total number of collisions. However, it does not mean always that higher the Gitr, higher is the
flocculation efficiency and larger the flocs. There exists a range of Gitr value above which the
flocs may break down. Table 5 gives the typical G6p values for different tlpe of waters to be
treated.

Table 5 Grtr values for flocculation

For waters with low turbidity and high colour


For waters with high turbidity and soiids
For removins hardness

20-

70

150

50

130 - 300

Power consumption for paddle type flocculators can be given


P

where

b!

:1lz CpApV3

P:
Co:

:
V:
:
A:
p:

60,000 - 200,000
90,000 - 180,000

(3)

power consumption, Watts (W)


Coefficient of drag
1.8 for flat plates
velocity of paddles relative to liquid, m/s
0.75 x velocity of paddle tip
area of paddle, m2
density of water, kg/m3

ESE 48350

Section 2 Chapter 2 Conventional Water Treatment

2-16

tonq

,,2,2,2

Its+11
i

",ffi-*
g: ff00 S-L

: ]ooL/g X3tu . ?ocot z

M
ffiuxlooxp*1

1*3
'

tF I l]/. i,7 +4 kW
576 kW* 77,21 H P
I
I

s 2,2,3

tlalwuu:-- /XzXb:
l4n'lP
Zlzx6,2J*
,',Fr#r:,hy,fu!,=

of {lorc,rlqrbr hn&

x2^ wtdtr

6, lory

of //u mpler = l&


;peel = ruirpr: @g/d* = , iltr3ssr/: ., '
: o,? x fu,rs!3<ft)'x tpoo &g/^t
'=

31ff

0'7

Ul

3qrrw &

T{

io xtoiyzq
^''.fls

f1=

G,=

Dr,r|

lwr b,d Walers

hu

: /25 rt

(locc, labr'/{.Jutlqbk

6U*

Ittnal
Q:lz

ft: lot
lr=

Flocrt'rlqrhr

6{ rt= th0oo

AIILD

Glri)=

3 A srrt

G{r,
Gl-f : Polooo = Gx 3c f i;tr,s
l|-/000 = 6xl?s

tlrl[uww
,uerf lv

Mlu*'"
(raPid)

Usl,a,,w'

rca

/0oo

,', G: tO)aOa/0
o,

lboo s-x

(r= ff .ffJ *I

:-

anU

rlz"'.to'1
86+ OCI s 1,

ld :

l,Jg{,8ts l, +*3

thnw-d- t, l^?4
W'',
t^ i

il rtabL /d fSfi a,n r 6ot/w,, = Zfo,, 000L '

ZSDns

fr+oo std

(trt,,t*klrcl

(loco) "x

lovlo-, l,$ p,n' = lhmo wqlt

lf'(

P. f"rr ts) ) tox tc-3r2n,,3= Z 7+ w'dfu


[c,

/]f

tll

5. Sedimentation
5.1 Concept
Sedimentation is also called clarification. Likewise, sedimentation tanksibasins are also
referred to as clarifiers. The basic mechanism of sedimentation, as is understood, is settling.
In water treatment, settling processes used are:
. Type I: Discrete settling: to settle out discrete non-flocculent particles,
. Type II: Flocculation settling: to settle out flocculent particles (colloidal particles are
agglomerate by the addition of chemicals and then allowed to settle), and
. Combinations of Tlpe I and II.
The movement of a particle through a fluid under the pull of gravity is governed by a number
of variables such as particle size (volume), particle shape, particle density, fluid densif and
fluid viscosity.

The settling velocity of a discrete particle in a sedimentation tank is given by:

,r -

g(

p,- p,)dp'

where,

V.
de
p,
pr
p
g

:
:
:
:
:
:

settling velocity of a particle, cm/s


particle size, cm
density of particles, g/cm3
density ofwater, I {cm3
viscosity of water, 1x10-2 g/cm.s
acceleratoin due to gravity, 981 cm/s2

This equation is valid for laminar flow where the Reynolds number, R" is < 1.

R,=

V, P,d
o

p
5.2 Design of a sedimentation tank

(s)

Sedimentation tanks or settling units or clarifiers (called in Water Treatrnent Piants) come in
different shapes such as rectangular or circular (Figures 5 and 6). The settling unit is based on
the size of the critical particle to settle. SufEcient time is required to be maintained in the unit so
that particles of size above or equal to the critical particle settle down.

ESE 48350

Section 2 Chapter 2 Conventional W'ater Treatment

2-17

'qd#e {locc
1o

s-t -

3lt-l

6os

Ltut Gr

tlLarc 6r
LNW G
/40,< ,tlriln!

LeIJ

t'lort pou,q

LeSi Poblr

Jnoall'/aoil

Large tqnk

lfyt,T;
t'n/nng

twai ge' ="fuo r fur:r)fj = 6qf'

I awM"l/ j;W ffiB{? mf-b


,oqr+a
"

- ffi uikq h ;;" ;7 paA rc,lu

M,w *

Vo

!, hder{ (ntflw, Df = volunz /ilr*


(

rypiul

o,

*/d

0r iurhq l*d,ng

,);r!,frrra*o
r-'

n/< (tt ),

/trrfru
o{re/*/,y

v,4"='f'li*,ffi'fii)
'

vqlae :zh)

7, fu+4tlt* r,/k
rryt/ nr,d

rq,b.,

w h, tlu o,r{lo*

[+t) --4/ gt
,r{acifo of cnfrcql

nk lA

betl- teltl,nq e#'rcienat : t/q:/s

Qftcol u,ilae = loo*Y/*',/


J We,r loadmq ftvb LULR (*'/r d)= A/tWLf(: l2t!Soo^3/rr,/

+, lkrtzonhl vr/eul,
tln or v,/ (,,0,/ *1 / o, t l/llh /'i{;tr%,,'#;' ?n%r
kt,,gp Un <kouf ve/arfor l/c," n0 Juurnq ycur! ln l/"
Stl-vl,ng l"trtk
p.b ,6/f

[/,:{UO
L-t

Ptl,wet

F, fl*rqJ

wu bqo6

i
I
I
I

i-

/"

t'i--. :t-"

r 6,

.9

{low = 8o
f,:,ii
in
ffi{ffi
frr frqk

;y#'!

*'3/'

c fgircol ualw = looa3/,nz',/

+-.
t
t'i.

,.

'

1-

.:

Vn

.tr,

aVc

v \tt/ wt
*r/a,/
Wtn =_ ILJ
ILS-,57I0
/W1,"0/

o trteYtnor' i/'i'oo^t

wfi
/*,/"/4qfur/lpk
q gn/h
ryl

Ji./k rtuh'gla,

$at,i )

rl
i

DT:

1.5 to 2.5 hours - based on average

flow (['pically 2 h)

@) Weir loading rate (WLR)

: e/L, mt/m.d
: 125-500, mt/m.d
: a maximum of 300 m'/m.d is achieved by multiple weirs in a simple rectangular

basin

6. Water softening
6.1 General
Hardness is a water quality parameter which is a measure of the concentration of multivalent
cations. It is in fact the sum of all the multivalent cations present in water. For most waters
this is simply the calcium plus the magnesium ions, expressed as CaCO:. Problems with
hardness in drinking water are:

o
o

to form a precipitate with soap, thus reducing its effectiveness to remove dirt;
to form scales in hot water heaters and reduce water heating efficiency.

Hardness is often present in ground water due to the presence


classification is given as follows:
Table

0-75
- 100
i00 - 300

75

of lime stones. Hard water

Hardness ranges

Soft
Moderately hard
Hard

>300
Cations which cause hardness are:
. Calcium, Ci* and
o Magnesium, Mg2*

Anions which hinder with cations are:


o Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

o
o

Sulphate (SO+2-)

Chloride (Cl-)

Softening is practised when the hardness of water is not acceptable. It involves either adding
chemicals to precipitate calcium and magnesium ions or to remove the ions by ion exchange
process.

ESE 483s0

Section 2 Chapter 2 Conventional W/ater Treatment

2-20

2, 6- kc/o*qalrn

6, l-to,t aitwmp/ton lr k ,fue; ksar ve loufu


hrt zonl'rl ,u/o7b^, Ur,,rV6 {u,y, uelaclfu siau I/c tr
gJivurrt, fi,rtd /, ,& tot ,ruft bril,
"Q
='z'oxton''U/ ;;';oxto] uJ //,
- zol,t['i7t/*',
d' ,n (/c
- r .^ )'l/ii= Jr;
/-l,e Sur{qca drffr, 7fu : d/h 20,r to'/Sr =s7t f ,,
l:ffitr"Find
'n& |irtc.(- L: tl0 = Zil fr A ,LxW f *,{r,,n
ZulL ,ri*,77 rrrfu
+ rtt : (7V',2
, 5,7!,2 mz =
,' , Iil= f7 l' 2 / z) .o''= ll '( n
=

'

lrn

14 wtJ - xrr/ tonql sftq =41. Wx ll

lkn zoil/al uelocit! ^ & /4,

= 16,f

* Y3,6*

: Zur/ar/d';' W'
: Jzf .dZ *ld

0r 3,80+ xloa r/l or o,ff


Uw

= 0,38,nft

& Vt= 0,67f Q*lJ r'

^/l

Jiorct VdrUc, n0

Smttrryy lcc(rtl) Jo ll^t qAo,K a$un/ron tlflrJ


LW--2"
y= Tvl/

fio#utn

Wa

lnesj + n

hardrtes

til-,o^s

rurkpln

Calctulx/) , ( elt+

nVnt

wh

ii *c"aiA,b,,ta,b

hute hurdne'J-t srti


&

n fucarAona./c

zf

*&r

Ca/rBn:

art:

c03-

tk*ouql tile fu4i t


*+ Linz-Sodil 4/t hod
Pr in

A hcc, lafr

(t

(eatpn

' !-. Ltn(-..= C2t


2, Lt,u

k1lr'g ll

Hc?t

i t,i-'4/g'r l, A n*u,,r/
4" bu,u' utgu,rd

efw

0r

ryfttY)"

For non-carbonate hardness u'ith calcium:


CaSO+ + Na2CO3

=+

CaCO: + Na2SO4

For carbonate hardness with magnesium:


Mg(OH)2 + 2CaCOt + 2HzO
Mg(HCOr)2 + 2Ca(OH)z
For non-carbonate hardness with magnesium:

MgSOa +Na2CO3 + 2Ca(OH)2

Mg(OH)2 + CaCO: +Na2SO4

For excess lime removal:

-+

2C4OH)2 + Na2CO3

CaCO: + 2NaOH

For carbon dioxide removal:

Cpz

+ 2Ca(OH)2

CaCO: + H2O

Softening chemical dose required to remove hardness is shown in Table 7.


Table

Softening chemical dose required to remove hardness

Non-carbonate hardness
Carbonate hardness, Ca
Carbonate hardness, Mg
Carbon dioxide

0.74
1.48
1.68

0.56

r.12
1.27

6.2.2 lon exchange method

Ion exchange can be defined as the reversible interchange of ions between a solid and a liquid
phase in which there is no permanent change in the structure of the solid. Typically, in water
softening, the water containing the hardness is passed through a column containing the ion
exchange material. Generally, the ion exchanged with the hardness is sodium and if the cation
exchange sodium resin is represented by Na2R, the R being the complex resin base, the ion
exchange reactions for water softening may be uryitten as:

Mgt* *Na2R

z-

c** +NazR -/

MgR + 2Na+
caR + 2Na+

These reactions are reversible.

ESE 48350

Section 2 Chapter 2 Conventional Wtater Treatment

7 ralt be ryKl $r dorc ga/culartr,


SalL Tqi|
calttawt
nudl:

tffo/t

o{

arbonak l,nrdru'a

(ro{^ 0,16) *l/L


t/

7oy/L

0{

oF

cao

' sbdL o{ ko

nyneltun rarbonqlc lqar//Mil nzedt'

(rcot,t4v/L = 16U/L o{ ho

fr. rnaElllltuyn ru*c'nl 4 ciltr


c//) et/|^n,U ;a,y/t h ra# tu
tl

I 0 tnl

ro

Q/,qr,

(ra

rs:6

rdry/-ldzry/L

y/L ,{' [a/ciu* l]ol)arbpnrl /tar/a/,/,j wzdJ;

(rcr

tn6)

ry/i

eI tlaCcr= s3ry/L ef sda arh

Ion
kfr
I
i

Q SOI/

ionr be/*eu,

ft

Qaanry

a lryurd,phare ln yhlfu'W ti

tlt lU Slruclwrt of il,! Jold


'..

I _.*

atcurnnq C/ayI
ReJmJ

h//r/

zeofi$t

t',r{tua}
col,/r11

Egpatt

(tao)v
0 fra =

np

pmarw/

For the softening cycle, the concentration of sodium ions is low and the reaction proceeds
from left to right. The Mg and Ca ions are trapped by the insoluble solids and the sodium ions
are released from the solids into the water stream. When all the available exchange sites on
the resin have been occupied by Ca or Mg, no further removal can occur. In practice, an
increase in effluent hardness occrrrs before complete exhaustion of a resin bed, and the
softening cycle then ends. Figure 7 gives an illustration of hardness removal in ion exchange
columns.

5slsr$tion

ol lon

Excbanee

Marariil

I tlTle

Figure 7 Illustration of hardness removal in ion exchange columns

To achieve regeneration of the resin, the sodium ion concentration is increased by the use of a
sodium chloride brine (about I0%) to soak the solids. The reaction is then forced to go from
right to left and, after the excess brine has been rinsed away, the NazR is in readiness for
another softening cycle.
Ion exchange resins are synthetic, but naturally occurring clays called zeolites are also useful
to remove hardness by ion exchange. When synthetic resins are used virnrally 100% of the
hardness is removed. However, this is not essential and therefore it is necessary to bypass a
portion of the water and then blend in order to obtain the desired final hardness"
Hardness desired

%Bypass: (100) x
Hardness

ESE 48350

initial

Section 2 Chapter 2 Conventional I4ater Treatment

2-23

,&c,cho,
'W/p^ exManyd *,il, gu
&entrollq
hordqes
tJ spdiad ro,rr
*- tr (ral,w
c,{ftCI{t IUlAnN
Sodruq, fV,Itt4
exghalry )Wtary
runrt lJ
rJ f1.l
ttprene{/)kC
b
whert
ruin
rc,,nplu
/l/ctr?,
K u Pu
batz:
l\tlt' Y,,fa,fr e lh R f2t/at

[{

d'ot- ltirp

cnd

KeJtn

rt

&K tz,ua+

exhautW^if
'(, ts rrfttftffc,lk/
y. la(

tlItng |urlablt clwmta/S

l)

Trlortal SZ2,f
6iven : & = l/t/tt D llarrtr,tJ intlwf
/L
,
,1700 w/
\
ftarCnzU fui,tr/ . foory
r:
So/u I nr,:
tuf74{ 6tyn04nf 0f
*ql#, lp fua,bd' ltarltD
o{ itVcli

/L

,,

Wtup*f
lx)o'L//
=

Sirttl,

7r of

= l-x ic',n/d,
% 69faty=

*qlu h

]pil^

/,
'n

Ll4

in t t'tq

tte fupatx/ = (ipc)x

W-_r+

Tu,'fr,,r
4t/an*h ;i'-f# Uniprsre-r
hro{rgh ftu torr' exiltil*ge SgJfur,

'

( l- 0,7t +z) xJ*

tpt.t//M

s 22'l
D(Jtf n uo[ww

tf ,uJ,* = 0,1w3

f-!t\",, ::fft'iu,.;;, ff!;', ^ r, . E z h:I o/^ A,,,,/,e ir


Slr,p t: hlcqlok /D{,tl Ear/ruu lbk ,t*rrr/

W0 fnYi =
Tfi^onfnrc

ffi

too,

30,3 6f,

rzo

^t

.=

wa/ar rb b /rrq//
( t-b 3fi6) xz ooo L/d
lS1z, f L//

s*oii{of

'

Cone. CIf horr/rWU ,b be rewu,,e,/= tnt/,nlho,WrW=ZYa-glL

Tobl horilWa

b( rens,rc{ = l3/Z

lD

tr L/C

yZfhyq/L

: 3gclqf+ ^Jh/=0,3{U//

Skpz' Tw /r,tq<rorf,pn

t)iir*W*; fil4tuqhea&,dn/, ftyn,r7U


ir
ffi't
pf harifrtis (an k rtrvtoued fi, 5.7/0 3fJ-tAa,r,r
SiB, t /

/nhes

14' 6

Ng ene rq *r ort

da,yJ $e frre

,A/ ftStn rurdt

an- fart{tca/nn PruW

+ Rw,t ,utqlgr u larcd l14n@ a 0our0b8 rnza{turn


fa rtnove undtt,rabk pl,_ysYral,, ofizan rca/ fr b acbrolg iklt

+ S,ufrvrtfud f, Ottorc/ql walle' 0r( rervtorrd ilue /a


fill' Slrq,,1,y /lcrt%tmg qchc,rl CI( ffil pawruut! nCrulm
a Sadz{-rc: & ,o{il.{r rntw0{!c//)t1/''rJ aho ort rcc/wud
by {tt,t a cl wn o{ /-lu" wdra,n
f, I kq/ror1 kohnoloctqj nrt classtf ,et/ wncler fi*c
ha)or cdJeqorqJ,ttnm{f q Slow Sq'd F, lfra/ron &

wwft&ffiy!
wtodL

Cf fr lTfQn2r)

f.

n{ Jlaw

+ $i^fkr,roffifr

rclr

*,h lwu &fifql rw/


+ wll'hn f/u rcpal,lr/rc: p{ /pcal ffimrnwnihu fo
rnplernd; Bgr6/e fr manlanr , fr

* )*bk f0 brytq Siwq/tanenL,lJ inproue,rrml lb #u ra,/


waler w,,*lt fr:prc/ fu lotouq

Pct'ffiq

ic pgd ',

hrrb,/,U bg-dnku &

.2.2

Rapid sand filtration

Because of large land area required for slow sand filtration and the cost of cleaning, rapid
sand filtration was developed which uses much higher rates of filtration and less land area.
Typically loading rate of around 200 m3lmz.d is adopted although rates double this are
sometimes used. Figure 11 shows the general arrangement of the elements of a typical rapid
sand

filter.

FiltcGd utal ou:le? J

9 General zurangement of a rapid

filter

The main components of a rapid sand filter are:

.
o
o
o
.

a sand bed in which the filtration occurs, called as filter medium


a support for the sand bed
an underdrainage system to carry away filtered water and to admit backwash water
(and air for agitation, if used)

inlet for water


an outlet for used washwater
Ern

In normal operation, the inlet valve and the filtered water valve are open and other valves are
closed. Water enters through the inlet valve, passes down through the sand and underdrain
system, and out through the filtered water valve.
ESE 48350

.Section 2'Chapter 2 Conventional Water Treatment

2-26

De,na,h o{ Slo,u Sart/


rg

h caf tftr I

t ller

6rf( Qrt@/ extrn{tft

rpJ

'S/ndi{ure)

four n
I
- foo7
_farliilrU ryoual w,flt hgl, furbi/
-* (oofCkanvtq"h:l
co

oua

tn

florcrrl ft+p W)

Wh

,44,r&.

Eox&1600
26oo

Urcd

m lf& {tnol

# nwra /tprt

th of cft r tah of D(
l6h ilCf * ft, of. /)fr
2+t, o{' CR
J :;ftp tn #U rrtut)tcfa/

Clar'1fia1nq

wakr /rua/wen/ Pbnft"


l/yk; Il l4u riltu *r'b het 7furbdr/rl ,, evu*j o{10^zo
mJ fu< rapt/ f lk'/^ wrt/qJbe pni,rld *,fr e$iaort/
{tocti,t i q} nn' &, *r/torm/'vhon
frt /rtal/r,!,r)/ u, ft.

Coarser sand is used with dl0 between 0.35 and 0.55 mm. During the normal operation of the
filter, the material that is removed from water is trapped not only on the surface of the filter,
but throughout its lenglh. Once the filter bed is totally filled with trapped material, the water
filtered through carries the impurities with it. At this point the headloss also increases to its
maximum limit. This is the stage when the filter is required to be cleaned which is carried out
by backwashing. Normal operation of filtration is stopped and backwashing is carried out for

few minutes. This switching takes place automatically.


Backwashing of filters is critically an important step in filtration and carried out by a upward
flow of water and/or air
Method of backwashing:
. drain the water to a level about 150mm above the media
o surface washers are turned on and ailowed to wash for about I to 2 min (to remove
mud balls)
o open the valve for backwash u'ater and allow the bed to rise above the level of
washers

o
o

allow filter bed expansion of about 20-30%


baskwash rate of 36 to 50 m3lm2.h for 5 to 15 min is used depending on the deposition
of particles in filter bed

Stratification is a major problem of single media rapid sand filters. Therefore dual media
filters are also popular in water treatment.

t,7

8. Disinfection

Disinfection is a process by which pathogenic (decease producing) organisms are destroyed or


otherwise inactivated. Although considerable amounts of pathogenic organisms are destroyed
and/or removed to a significant extent in the course of a number of physicochemical water
and wastewater treatment operations, including: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, limesoda softening, and adsorption, additional process is used to affect total removal or
inactivation of pathogenic bacteria.
8.1 Methods of Disinfection
The disinfection process may be accomplished by a number of different physicochemical
treatments including:
. Chemical treatment
o Thermal treatment
o Radiation treatment

(a) Chemical treatment

Addition of chemical reagents is widely used. Economic feasibility for treatment of large
volumes of water is the principal reason for employing chemical reagents almost exclusively
for the disinfection of municipal water supplies. Certain heary metals, mineral acids and
bases, swface active agents, halogens, ozone and peroxides, and permanganate are all used to
ESE 48350

Section 2 Chapter 2 Conventional Water Treatmenl

all

2 2,11

0,

lyq2

2ryL

/)er Aauir. 2,27/2

flwan

fttrylron /ql( = ttU/zlt 4,tt/h/t


':r'::r=
qrtr rtettutd= (2 zz/t,
{-r l{ertnr

#,,#i= #i/b
t,
4c4hq

2s/2

/il|/A

+) Aq

C,0C

I{ t'w un,h 6ft Nrffti;"A uni Aat an arcq of


4o +/z = 20,znz,

isl**z

*nsh,r,g /t^ep{Woyt(wfu,,,W,u/, /J, rynily


,yrl,m3l nzre fr't, ad/,,y
fra
\J

g'f, t

J
!:y
Zo,zr,:
fl,tq O{ 'vfu uui, = 2ilZt(Slae x20,2)
=

20,2 l-p,606

" =/o'{06*"
Ealh {t lrbr = 6rr 3'Tr"Size

Sfr of /2
ie,i of

Goal -lT
dtrMfrc/ar/ Jnau/

+ TbttC n4Kr0Wr/rt,S*J a:l'torierfrqhWs t el/ h/o* ,t&e


laxrt lttitholds /i hu^ans & qnmalJ
* fr:t r,ak ,{ k,I_ ,
, ,t

"-

fu

rUnrilt of ryQnr1a1

prcyen/

J,atrbn
tr)
alulrtbu/t'tprt
//te
-11
-'
'''
'1
-!
* /rodurrc ilO pr

nm,,nffin/ pf Aarnfr/ fu-pro/ach


i

''
:
o{ Zryanr:,n)t'
Rok o{

/l/+, /Yo e-kl


/V+. f;ut*t bo" o/ ut^g ontfil tl /
-OrEArttrnJ

/,ru tt f

qt' /.p
o/
F k= rq/< bnrtl.rnf c*amc/u,srtcs of
tl/s:A/u,,,rkn

sg*hw,

fu nrqa4ilnr,rUa
'

fr failluAe a{' /uirfrc,bn/ /2,b.7,,,2t/

ngff1s11av7

tl/rl('

lq'btdf ,{rf fr, ,tt,s *ro/ ugqnnlnJ ta,l/ rc/ue Pu


o{ ktlY

o{ DiJ in ,&r/-nr/s
o frt-ffibii uz ( Chlonw,qq,r;W
(chtonrq 7
(fltcn,,,a
i^io,r,a)
f q'^ion@)
o
CLtlirai,ru
C;ttirai,ru
-

-*

Chlortnz (rcxdz rcl0r)


*-? OZorA
U-V -,rrod,qhen

fi;

frfrcAtrr,

rbr,,fnPct)

Chlartn(,

ffif

chlartnzfif{,aakl
cl, f lJzfl -> lf?cl + ltf + ct-

Hocl
lfCc-t

+ H'rni-'drytfrc/rrq

fr 0ci- art-

tonJ

tl-hci- tJ wort efrctr,e t,^iorta/

---#

h OC/:

,IUlx(ant

* g*pl(tudtng

Persulonl rr"ilnal
* Lona

h,ltou ff

ut<

ffifiu_pntluct
fr qik k
rto$J/e
i

odBrr-probleors

*i[ i{l *w:

f c,hlorrn*fton

Di sinfecti on By-products Formation

The free residual chlorine rapidly and indiscriminately reacts with many substances in the
water including microorganisms. Chlorine readily reacts with organic compounds resulting in
'trihalomethanes (THMs)'. These THMs have been found to be carcinogenic in nature. Some
of the example reactions are:
RCOCH3 +3Clz e RCOCC13 (Trihalomethanes) +3HCl
RCOCCI3 +HzO <+ CHCIr (Chloroform) +3HCl

to the potential danger

these products pose to human health, there are standards


various
water
authorities around the world. For example, USEP A has set a
formulated by the
maximum limit on total quantity of THMs as 100 pgll.. The THMs formation can be
substantially reduced when the application point of chlorine is changed from the head of the
plant to postfiltration. ln addition, improvement in the application of chlorine with minimum
leakage will further reduce the THM formation potential.

Due

ESE 18350

Section 2 Chapter 2 Conventional Wrater Treatment

2-32

Tblrl^ Cllartry, furnaucl = 2 ,7 12 = +7 ,gt//


//r Q= ZtrlLD
x4,7ry/L=
fatrt p*tqi,u rtq'fud por dg'2xtlnt/d
\-/
1, b

Ca

xtoorqil

(CCil'

rtnourtl

'.

oi

. 4,h fuq /d

+p r:( iQr 3e s)x2 = t+3; Ciz,

hftd)' n'tr:fftkq,6)
: l{,qj kq

7l

lli
/c/

hfnal q^port= lr %/o,vr Ytf 13 Ul/


(hfonnw

(tu
I

::,,{f-:;:;l,rf,, of

hJwnnq 3r,rf 0l Cl u a,atTaAh


74,5,1 of (a1cl qaarhfo
= /s 7.(,r (z+,r/Es r) = 3j,t4 t q//
/ltaK/rc(r,trd
'
g j, t+/p,f[-'
g3,
r+/0,w-'
twrc"Yfu*an/'
/t/qrefilrlrtno/'
il- i,,*,"
i2
ifl
cur
|/4,''
r p^*icii
n^ntcii
rr
r
*,- ;"tl
t
hi,
;"t/
/t b,'

8l*q/d
33
"An*i^q

ry3+hq/d
:Auk'-solrtfiort
a{ S,( ,l/a7cl h fli c/t/prttw
-a*oui/
nr=3nagil
splu /r pn = (srU/d
;lrl;;s %;r,"'
F,

'1,;

o,

b{pth/

f n*

ftJg,r*,rq iloq/ Sind( Sulu/,p,,t *,/l k prepa,r/ lnu q


dor, vflury^ qf
rrQbprw ltolil,nj t'totft. lfflo/z =34cL=
c{+*}" (e trxo,8x o,lts)^ t

lf

\irupttsiryni

of il,z larl (an fu f2ow^ r f7e*^ lSttoa*

. #d vqt)

{a! " , o{ Ch larqln,ne

-({fiiiti ;#*
f;,,%
hn

n'#

Elun,rqkt cer/a,n /aJk fr ccdoir ondr fipnt


aJsoc akt/,o,/h llrtnri^e
*arb, durhAulprt fgJfui
-,lrlprc
e,&ltrt Tabk ffian CAlortnz
r

Wvr

ChlortnL

Qr4moryq

qr efF
ln luct'rraf,nq
- lctertq,
$,qW
er'tu5e) & nrdq
fry,e

bacf

l/e14 p1'oc/au, Clalorrrqld pheno/:, whrchrfliue)


- f,),J#
'fD wqfea'
t

-:44e,,1 plodyru. goJ /uJunlf hqzrrdJ Stwttla, ,b


/-/,rr{ of Chprms"
(,,1nloqfrglbd,dosrye
dMwonrQ coqld lead
ilnlrntfrolkd dwwe e,{ clunwonrl
lD nt f rt ti cqftcrt Prcblerrts
*,'Tahes lpice,.
ilaala chlorr,rr< 6re-{prtrve

o{

hip

rSt{)

fCC

Clrlonne 0ia

Aer,

wtor{ efftcirae din{ecfunf


W
e tlerq
h,ah

oxtc/t

a/)q tou,er

&

ilal a lpt, reqchpn hnae

,, t t; r t,, / t ,
- faFrns rcs,d,at,b fr,r,ier/ fura,rgAor/ fre /,t /rtb*/ian
fr:Ua{o,xgondt')
rJ

ftWlm

J' ,ilon e f{ec/r,,c a/ p,l f ,r-- ?,0

i:

e lrono/ei lrfter ,r'r7-/ilron' fr tlxqula/iun, afrfia/ly


whon co/oured com/o"unCt qrt preJenl u rouv *o/er
L,*,^/ed /artCucrt fr, frr*qho,rt 0{ Trthq/one&Ene
(
ilual Kci,tr rnfu Cl/anqe
ltt(s) d ollw, g'-prdur,tt
\-/

& 6llloranne,
pernerrh

uhlan/
on/,qll,
tosls
"t,y,/**/
tunparrd ,*ih'chlo@Fniil iW,k
rcA/ fr

flrc bq-produob Ulcrqle rt cfihrr


n'a, be h"rtc
:-> LOnlqCf
qcilf/lL )At
& U(
tofiaZt''befiyee^
sufuhnul
d,o.11c& u
c^trlon1e 6{/CI,Y/C(/L
O(Truezan L/4tnf/4,s
ffinrZ
li,tch a: ,i"od rltau leqd h ftlf -rqrr/,Tn
tilnri {actinfiftr,p;u,f qi ,{licilud rt are
9rh
ieC/ /o co/ros{on'
coYrosioo't
Srb
iec/
'-ilp/l,c'r,lrun
i
lJ i+t ll l,o,r/rd

)zone

Kru(h4

Wrofu@uo#ase)
<-- Og
o }zf

',/an

/aa

pndut (aJ"/]o

/ak & pdattr

\ no Prordw p(yw rb /ne *ale-r a fler^ Ctutfic{,rg

Cherntc1t are r?ece|Sarq


---+' l/p
Keac/s rradr! hrtill oll ofirn,c mal/<- ft renaveJ
li

ffltn,

"- lttost oF , U(

caq ,!/,40
(utg undesrrabk ruidudl
qqune

,nertb

of

ole

m uva/r4,

efficK

auudtg
\

Dzone

nql fu ultce,tfra hon &,


/0flc
ex pyJt f(- fr oue ) . "
*,fr
v uaf,rC
/
r hgl,
.,?ll- of, eonqlrort ts vuJ
/

Ulort,,taho,

Iq J lq /b/, unJ qre

gr*ery thui

leir'

failer to*g/rcak/

tJ prctat'/ in f,r/n6w/pn
orlch/orrnq/,o,

:.rttrc,i,,
Jpeciol *,r,A deure: c{rt rtecalSay

w &, /4eufi,e,

* l,

irld,

"
e Su)/qble'in7 for ftfnf *,#t,e"{opec,b,
i/p
7A /10,000n3/d
f ,h

.rl

bun

1f

lv

lv/tJvv

| flr, ahe"e
frfrert

Ioohr

*
t/ /r,
LWt
W',r!fr;W
fff#Mr'Wfn
*peroxtde:
Ut/ *ifu o"zone or /rg'/rogen
;'/
ffe cftu ln dynrilyy
co

urganrci

'o,nr| o{

wllravnlet#
lrr ac/tqlt orl
Lhlvrtrw
ol r oxrdf-

Chlorqnne

/no,^

l,

To*rr/

Dutrfrclar/

To*or/ #u
0Zoue

#u.

a/uf flu wh, *ta/"*/pwa,tt

*fo/ nlnlg ,s/ef m n// frea/*a/prawJsu

fu m/

0f

fu

wn/er frto/unw,/poruotl

lrtor tb {, llra/rpn

kilnplrcl

h*r/ fu e.d f

Secondarq dtnfec/an

{tu frilM ffr q

vrau ,*(i1!'lr#,
ffi '*"kttow'4ht

lz

QM,

TuMiPot/,&r
/llon
t'anm4
"lontrorth,r*,
Restduql J

ft,eh
Lnu.t

tl,qh
Veu low

fsssrble

f wposs$h

Cl0z
lhslt
Lourl

fossthlz

(l,,larq^,r,2

Lqij
/U,0e

/pssblz

d,srn{icfton /ou.r'/:

f ou'w of
kt ll,r,q or
Mt

acdurl,n,

.lJ

qufen

ct

T///tot frrkqfro,

hlalle p//
(a* *rrler
4uqlly

tlryh

vryh,gh

Wh
s-l
,Mralwale
Lo,,v

l/,

t ijh

Le,A

H,gd

Le Jl

6-g

(,f-1,0

r-1

Low

Aoclqa/e

lltgh

Vsruh,ql')

#'gh

na,/wqk

* hu,*an &, olo,*ril

wtts/,J

- ln rlusir Ml wajie wqle(


* Sfirn woler rundf ignum/,n ler
utaj/e

JICqI

T"*,

'w

Mfi l/ral,ort

re ve/t4 ,*ffiuT {ao/prl

ftr

*utkdd/fredrgrtprqifrtrei i
ni,
fr Tr,,frefu- rftrec*'Chwta/ rmchonS ftJio/oqu/
'

aj

* Joldt i,noh Ts{ YSJ fr te#teaile Jtl,/t- a{fer/


he ofaoho, ,f,sizrry1 f frcalnen/ urth
&e

K:q

nqf%

I con

6i

of mt/e wa/er

S) 0i/ t greale,
&rboQydrqfe5,
"fr
:rpt/rc,&t ,"# ggq,c*,
g"Vci/lura/ cheirul
rir{ar/a/) h , gok,rs,pt'hc,o/es
tlrla{,le
horc (henrca/s
n$ fr
q/, nafrtarb
pd
na r natu Pry,
hotqaui w,#ert' luch -aJ fuerrvppfu/,

9rya1uc

J,to{t

ogan,c

tg a/?/C
an(
tlt P/4

lortM

GqsJ

:udn

aJ

502

oftf

t #',

Qzt il.S, C//u

po/lufan

ewcal tunillw^
I,rt c/ot,)Ahc faw Lv
{lqflcq,

welef

fr #**orw nftngffi: /2-

rr/'L

,f,
fr 7rEa/'ttc rttfrogu) ! {- 3f ,gft

(iloler*,,t(d fq
fy fu,+tl
fu,+il Ai{lrlah
Q{o/er*,,td
{ie"l,/a\l

fr Typicol pwVtorws' zJzoy//


7Vn

ninp^ ffk,l) arrfisu)

f n wailu,zle, lJ vog ,*Vu,h, t


/
e/ptticql /rrqlu,er/ pnajj.l

rq/,p # C,,l/

frr b

* TEFrcoliffcP/7Y/l = lc0 /t/


* 6, Je#led ltlnay #'iuu/: 602fl//f = lo0/l/r
1

Erolwrwl charqc

tJf lcj

wa

ng i9, f{o

Z 0q) nrCn_fcafl(

plaotTff ait*a7,
rt u,rtr,
wlrkurapJ
\
tJmS (ficclrr rq, prDrbzod- beref,
#7 flos
4osi lnlcroorSqn
Ui;,-;"
l, o I g rcql,/rrfll**/ pryestes

irl

#Sonb fqftrlq""/c ba'de{tq backrn,


'\-/'/i
'/ frfyl{obzoq

tl*rwJ&J * ft4b/tC Unerfl


tl
,lti

t(

Qfilr bacft rte :


cq

I fu/rforr,,t

* fr"cal hlr{or^ GC)

* Fect,l

sirr.f tocncci (

fS)

I frr

&

k*rorl E#rcien,(ieJ
frtnary

farqncleo-

lreaf*/r,l
8op

,o-7c7,
20 JLF,

NAf

lo-in

5s

o{

vdr

Mur J

'J o'f

tfrafure*l

ut lec/wrt ndet
kto,rc/ar4

'(tufnoni
ffrruuuAl

trcafM,#

lerhau

/r.qt'frrl

li.^302

6o-fok

orilo1

fuz Se*qs(.
fr ku*
rt kwnge-u {,//e-nd flira,tqh fir,z Scrcgl!,tb hke u,u/ sald

*t/k;

Surh as lapq Yofrb" f,N & p/athc


kaug yorhpfu l,he Sind (co/lr/fr,/) :,r/? lh ilu Ao/,6^ 4
Qrt ftoinoveC
/lu Sc,,raW.
Setuage fulr4
tn/a
n fuz
frlr4 frpu4
fu ru
{0u4,(tq///
Jlu,
wq;k (rq/le/ JluCe
h,ahrlnr wask
llerc h,arrans
llere
lu

orls gr,fre (ca/led Jcu^) {loqt'


{loit

md

'* I,,)valwS
-">

c>

6o

CIlb

lo 7r )J

^seflh,g
KUlto uq /

o{ fr,

?b

tcls

U helt ulw fqf,an

zo_307, 80 D remottql

I
(f,/q//Jtnl

l-u f{o* ft#rc,ryfu of

0/rVJrb*A/

6r
eDL

lhntO,t,el

ffiek
:

,7 0,2 M/,/)

Tarl,Cu

Speci{rcgrou/fy

+
e eff rcien g

>2,$r
orr/l h.

a/

/r,a/)

J#Jrfu *,1 rtdud


*-? frcquu|i, of cle\nmq inut wnft- htgl
)rrr.all
ll fr,rt 4,1, cPt: fr,il,
+ \rerq
Gr,f
, fiitqd( k./t'lmq ^ ,
,itft/ust
#
of

.b,y1fag

uU

rb unlro/

fiu,

ve/oerfot

* Sftrnl {lp* gn/-cha*fua tfo er o. bb4 ngc,,hnntCr/


1w114rtJ

onsttn/
F[o,o'
(Tq

uelo ct

hr honznn,bl ilow,

6rr/ M

,eloufu = o,zS- fu 0,3f n/:

prtal

d,ltilt

uqiile = 0,3

,/s )

l 6, s6[dl'"nflqai duhb,r/ront qa,b,4 q4d

-'+ LtK ,f ftcrcl wuf Secfions qlilw #lutn/

+ h fernou& q! gn/ 7art'rc/u >c,Z,ua , A:


; /; rttqn or'lin6 o^ih"lrt suspmCp/,p ftac fb,u
Le,nril o/ t n cJtanoel
reeunl bg H,e S:e#l,U
@n
yclocir!
t

rq/e fr fue rlanber o{ c/ranne/r


$t */1,e
of csn:kn/ uelocr &n/ Clrq*

-goru,^ned
Pe

j&kcf Srnn
Srnn

//,"r

t,$rt t /qtrl 4Z-

la/t
CSlculqh
2r,t47ryj
U t1e/011fo, t/j
ic(cr bFSa
JurtqZ /ocr/gr rerL, U,
ffitri rdyr^
ryplca/ !,"rr'/a,
- l*lffnffiltila
tlbn,,o,/ t urQ,t nil
Sinq- Un 6" LpnJ funt fi-V Df .
Au l/,
2
\uerwd b
:/ow
* )c
: g)uer,
/fL
rene
U
-

iltlw

Thus, when the flow varies, the depth of flow varies changing the cross sectional area of the
chamber and keeping the horizontal velocity constant. This is the main principle of operation of
horizontal flow or constant velocity grit chamber.

Although the grit chamber is designed

as

paraboiic, its construction will be trapezoidal shape.

Desisn:
The design of the grit chambers is based on the settling velocity of particles of critical size.
Because of this the design follows the Class I tlpe of settling and Stoke's law (Section 2,
Chapter 1).

ln general,

Length of the channel in gnt chamber is governed by the depth required by the settling
velocity and the cross sectional area by the rate of flow and the number of channels.

Velocity of flow is controlled by special influent distribution gates and use of special
weir sections at the effluent end.
ign criteria for horizontal flow grit chambers

Detention time, s
Horizontal velocityo m/s
Settling velocity for removal of:
0.21mm material, m/min
0.15 mm material, m/min
Headloss in a control section, noh of depth of channel

45-90
0.25 - 0.4

0.9r - t.26
0.60 - 0.90

30-40

Disadvantages

.
o

excessive wear of grit-handling equipment

necess0 for separate grit washing equipment

(ii) Aerated grit chambers

.
r
o
.

Overcome the disadvantages of constant velocity grit chambers (e.g. minimum wear and
tear and no washing of grit is necessary).
A type of a spiral flow grit chamber
Designed to impart a transverse rolling motion to the flow.
Air is injected at a contolled rate near the base of one longitudinal wall of the chamber.

48350 ESE Section 3 Chapter

Conventional Domestic W'astewater Treatmenl

3-5

,ata,-w

I 5,3, l, l-

{^on

llqrly&

0= So.tfrltp
SMq )Wk* u Taole/, Q= solz: !S/4LD

nrd Vt),u!t!g furfru. loadrg rqrb


W
SLP:
*J/ra-(
Stn,t

o,CIozf
Lgxt7?

q:

m]// = 2,ff , %
= /.{7/o,ooz7'

Jurhu araQ:

V?7

nt

.Qef l= F,nrd 4.
Q: 2,8f n%
Srodc(-

t* tJ parobolc ShoK,

0 2,Ya
4e=+6t] k =ff"=
t=f'63a'
gintL

:fin

l), /"=

*,,

' 2,8?r'/sr 6ot. l73.furJ


De4lb=#=W=o't7*n:H

llolant. = &"x D,T

@
SinQ.

5ur{au ?rta, fi: LX6: ??7*' .


cros:J*Sednnal aretv 4, = z/3 @x//) = fr l3*u

lf: 0,17+

,'o $= 3x ?,63/(2x0,17il'83^
/-: qq 7/s3 = lz^
At

83n) fi=

0,llw

o
o

Helical flow is permitted by the rounded comers of the chamber cross-section.


Grit collection and removal is facilitated by sloping the tank floor - to allow grit to settle.

OUTLgT
CHANNEL
{no! $otml

Axrt

rrigh.nl Et!

rlociry

{rn&}

I-..<i-IIn

SUPFLY

To DIFFLc

Rs

Figure 3 An aerated grit chamber

(iii) Design aspects


Table 4 Tlpical design information of aerated grit

Detention time at peak flow rate,


min
Dimensions:
Depth, m
Length, m
Width, m
Width-depth ratio
Length-width ratio
Air supply, m'ltnitt.t,
Grit quantities, m3[\4L

2-5

2.1-4.8
7.5-T9.5
2.4-6.9
1:1-5:1
3:1-4:1
0.186-0.96
0.0a37-0.2

1.5:1

2:l
0.3'

0.015

(iv) Methods of grit withdraw


Method of air lift pumps, centrifugal pumps and mechanical scraper systems which are either
screw conveyors or continuous chain and bucket elevators.

48350 ESE Section 3 Chapter

Conventional Domestic Wastewater Treatment

3-6

,1 t&a*/.r
+ /Atllo0 LutXJh
ua( p7-,9
l"asttng
r/t lJ
neZesay, r
tJ ilecuJq/t4
o{,Sfl/
r"of lutq wofron h"fl4!" {ldw
- fr /-ran:u*rc
J
/J
inFckr/
- 4rr
-? k

l*,&tt,t ilo*'

77,/- raq,ntd

o{ flie chq*kr
fut/ .9olleltpn rt re*ouql /J {ac,ilknb/ bJ
\r :/rf,rr *Je
corrqes

-la"il {loor- /D c/lo* gr,/ h se#k


efutrpL

he lep{

SW l. , )e,/ernne

I hr'of
A=-0,+Tm

UJ iinol

q fta k

i* Z

"- Cq lc,"t

la /e /4e

f,uo Chaqb(r5 wr/l

t/riuie;(/;44

k
,f

howr/g

{low A

3,0

vrlu*e cf

il,

grt/ cha*Jer

uled; fuat , frr. "encr/t un t I

tf rnun{6os/*,.)

+ 2:

l|z7rY

=QX D,T

ilt.g {,r.orf a rtc/artg,tf /nl C&oter


a,{' 3-, & uie q ,/eiil,
a,{
,/eiil,-- fu- top/ fr
/arc
,frcr//ry'
(f,/prcr//q'
(f,/
,b z.o;t)
?b
Zo;t
rqf,o of /,f
|rP il,,= 3- .r l,,f = { ,J t'n
r/(+s- y3r)
Luo,//4
-r./y ru/ fy/ = ialu,'u /,filcfh rw,rffr )-- /3 7 z*

Sltf 3 :

Wt

= l0,z m

*,dh
;l

fauh p{

//te

t*n

if|/

C,'frafuu hqi q Srze e{3*r4,5^

X I 0, 2o*,

ffi3yx*,r,,7;i#e;ffided
{uzobd
frt

boll

==

i #, ;'/i,

r^

) i o,

i,

%rgf,*a/e

fut averaqe isla,nc o,{gi,/

ftslune t2.4^L/rr' o{ ,qr// prrc/wuC


Volu*< of ,qn/= 5z,4 rY/rt'x u,+jf^rl x S|truoCd

: lffO,ood ^t/d

= l,QXwrJ/d

Three

k,n$

f,tq/*att

kd*w/ahon far& M u/ar/e*q,br

(q) h,*on4 fed,* a,t1afion /ant

(g).kronMry o,
'A) grpyt
i

iinl lCrmenfirtr, kt,k, aC

fr S/a@c cort(en{rq/ron

frift,ena o{ sud,n*,hhun m wt/e,r"q/w


uta lr,r freq twent ]

lnr/*u/ fun

Va7ffi\leJ a lgrger

fli,ttr: /yf!:#,,h /, q, h,,At


#;'
fwh,!
(;r{;;;:' ru,r-e
i;iil"{Ao,

W
*uiro;ll;-

_fro^ iuo/er iCnen/a/iun hnh:


Iiud{' iw, tb be ,e*i*{"iorl,r,,tout
FS'
,

hep/-rc'

fu;l

iu:puriiT

Co,'to/,

ly hpreue"n/-

ftort

rntler^

frdrw

r-:,-..'
'ff i*T'ilol"'i7o,i @
u /u a4 /

d{-ee/

fit,rchortofJzoneJ

tue

/n c a,ru

4q ty",t,br

boh hartz,/4h{ /
Wfl*,,r*Wfu
vr,rftcaft,t acroiJ /fu h44
& 0u:ilii.'/ore: ln u,,/,,ch'w,t,4, {k*t uV*ord/ pler
ffir
*Sfiige 1ilG; TltrJ z,une lJ ex*r,/z/ fri^ he br/fu^
tul,yti pboue he {9raffi
^W
#&
'J

#tu

of"

fonfr

4. Secondary treatment
4.1 lntroduction
The main objective of secondary treatment is to remove most of the fine suspended and
dissolved organic matter which remains after primary treatment, so that the effluent may be
rendered suitable for discharge. In many cases, reduction of BOD to below 20 mglL and SS to
below 30 mgL is acceptable, and conventional secondary treatment can achieve this quality.
second objective in some cases is the reduction of ammonia toxicity and nitrification oxygen
demand in the stream. This is achieved by oxidation of most of the ammonia to nitrate drning
treatnent (nitrification). Nitrification is possible with aerobic biological processes if they are
operated at low organic loading rates - hence the units must be larger than those which would be
required for oxidation of carbonaceous matter alone.
Secondary teatrnent of sewage is ca:ried out using microorganisms and thus it is essential to
understand the basic biological processes, biodegradation and the biological growth curve. This
is essential to understand the various aerobic biological processes used for secondary sewage
treaffnent.

Conventional sedimentation, the major process in primmy wastewater treatrnent, normally


removes 60 - 70 o/o of the suspended matter containing a certain amount of BOD present in
sewage. Discharge of effluent of this quahty without exceeding the assimilative capacity of the
receiving environment is only possible where very large volumes of water are available for

48350 ESE Section 3 Chapter

Conventional Domestic l|'astewater Treatment

3- 10

/r r, nl S 2,1,3
=

Zf

ooo

-kdt*eo/ahw

*3il kf#.

Svn

: Lyhw3/*",d

/'r=

#-

o{ uch ln &
6rffi/ 4s. Zrooo/4o = 6zgn'
t\

l) hr

Lrr6{41*,

fuq4

dncn-ilonJ

u7r

+
"'Jrd:'62+
.'\
tl/ lTr lquatr hrkr Lxw= 62r

E+

=f,tr&u

28,2,^

a. L:SZf
f= tlrzr = f:7fn
iiiil fr, *hyttlar /anfr, L:W = s:1
wherc

,,', L
,',

L=W

ooL

=gw ,', Artat 3tv yW. ?


f=

3yI+,+ = 1r3,3u,

W=

{zr

14,tta
=t+_rp

WL = ZSm

2;ooCI lz

r,

frr ctvr4lar funk bt/L: 2rrr


,,, wLk: zrb;;'\i7"*kV

it l =3gz -s/-,d *;Xt

frr rcct'anqular rhrfr lJ/. /1,4^

,', WLK =t?faoo/t4,4' rc6-^fu/-

(c)o)ls

fhe k/LR lr

AU( fir
dumn
&#PoM

r/ r:

{e ftr,aile to uJe
( il In or,ltr h rcdu,uz. tqe WLK ln Jguatc 0r
-

cfarqtlla, /arfr ( ln utJe, qnu LvrnLl hare tb wle hete


lac(t,a-{ q{ qaLe rystrtq//,ynt ), t'/ ,it lWlk ,rb
tntTaK fhe u/e/- lutqt{/) bu ^, y tqu/ftr tilur(
re

ulorwl 5:,1,+ -kd,*uhj


Sirrq 1 kr-lery,we //K du 7n flo* &
{= ( lqoras/rzFW
=

3(00 mt/d

',tk Sun
cFR

= o/4,
.., r t._t tvl ,/.

h*f u/e delon/,pn hoe t


Tarlk Volawre W 6* x z4n x 2 l- lA

Sl-r7,?.

: 604, {t= U/q - eii ;*s:7 (sfoon'/d)


3

0,tfld

= 3,f h
(nmfu

b
Uu,=

Q/4,

lt

:rtff;'/'/

= o,Z7f

Slef

fior12pn

hl

velocr

/( 6,v2,t^)

w/,,^

s (b* ',': Cu/lej arar /md,u ra,t. lt/Ltr

wLK= 3foqry:/d f(A^xs)


= 2ll ,t/6',)

3 wr{h

W**

wer

T,a/crwl s 3,1,s
qreq(n) rcqrarcl u,& a g0*(d)
fi,
M[wtnfale

r-

LC
tile ndrw: o{ fue clarrfier
n31h',d)

fl. zrr'= Q /+o

Wlz hwguk ts ye4r l*Vfr F zrrr)


zT= Q /sdo r3,(*,d )
\-

fl:

0r
7207rr

^fir,d)

W{o*puk r ly

Solurg fue equaltprt rt

720 rrr [^3/(d,-)]

f: lf*

/(+o^t/r:dD

S,bV:

Trt-q/nrn{ - lal}trtq co,trt'wtg Jfuw

* Pnnau e#l,arn/ flu,rrs, r,,t/o /vrfrs rt,qood laclu,q


qrl'/J*

nal-unll,l frch //te w,ztk*i,br


l,aud {lo*i uh Jedrnu,/q//r/) hrhr wlere nortpw{-f,cla sellk on,he bor4on frr Collechon

*fi,

fitofTgtulce(lj

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,-Fla=ls

48350 ESE Section

Chapter

Conventional Domestic W'astewater Treatment

3-

l9

-4{/ iln/d

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i!

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AS

TK'd

xtcs (bBoD/.,4

5. Tertiary treatment
5.1 Introduction
The conventional sequence of primary treatment and biological secondary treatment normally
removes 85 - 95% of BOD and SS. Although it is sometimes possible to achieve effluent
BOD/SS concentrations less than 15120 mglL from a well designed and carefully-operated
secondary treatment plant, it is usually necessary to provide tertiary treatment if a consistently
high quality effluent is required. It should be noted, however, that the aim of tertiary treatment
is not to produce effluent of reuse quality.
The main objective of tertiary treatment is effluent polishing which includes removal of fine
suspended solids. Because these suspended solids are mostly organic, their removal results in
a reduction in the effluent BOD.

A second objective of tertiary treatment is disinfection, to reduce the concentrations of


pathogenic and indicator bacteria and other pathogens which could be a health hazard to
downstream users.
Tertiary treatment mostly involves physical or physico-chemical process. The main treatment
systems used for tertiary treatment are:

r
o
o

Granular bed filtration


Disinfection
Maturation ponds

5.2 Granular bed

filtration

Granular bed filtration is a physical separation of suspended solids from secondary effluent.
These filters range from slow sand filters to rapid sand and dual media filters.
The filters are made up of a filter medium (e.g., sand) and the operation of filtration involves
the liquid passing from top to bottom. Separation of solids takes place within the surface
layers of the filter and thus called in-depth filtration. Once the filter is filled with particles, it
needs to be cleaned which is carried out by backwashing the filter. Backwashing is done by
using a combination of air and water in an upward direction to normal flow under pressure.
The backwash wastewater is then returned back to the iniet of the wastewater treatment plant.
After backwashing, the filter is once again clean to carry out the process of removing
suspended matter.

48350 ESE Section 3 Chapter

Conventional Domestic W'astewater Treatment

3-25

Tutcrtq
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MAr- rk/l

*,ll

/L,/r,{,", q{uLuJ uw Jfuu frer< fr,e J/u/qe qqc


Slpuld fu"rna,r/a,ied greob har, 3 '7Uauts'"

A,

cql

Jnfla*,

fnar 6, nir,
lwb,c

Kerno,nl -'fugruit1 n '*'w'Yy


..,.

gionfier

lnoxt

Qfr,n iludge, en*s

*\ :

_ -:-.

.ti.

i,r.:iI.i..i!

E#/tre"/

l/'wk rtulK
*
/fl
VuaS

fr-noxtt [f,enkc

(lartfrzr

@,rys@rtqyrt-

y8w*t

',

f,ed Ludz*- Efrtry,

lnerl fr, nirryo

rt*oual
---._

- ChentcailE j,tuod usry?


\/ ,////t/t
r,,in hh /(
q

#-1,,'w,,

*-}fiwwl
hiilwtcql
Clw

lrtw*el

't( clf i tqfi An

Lt

Cl,enrc,ils rnuld

rtren

q{t i

x o, trun tal!) +

UW trnport'-anf

fu aldd al C#'rnl plow

;"/r,;

-r

tb'lt tnnu (lq,r{rc{ {ft,*art: frcplla/lu,)


fnt ile 'awiton bwr, (Ji*a1/arr/ul" prec4ilartin)
/+ffur A,algrc,ol /rcCacq/ kwi peciyila/n"):,l1gA tosi

l{ encourLered

fo, ^

lW,

'

,, t$r fhol, ,u r fenu,n/- H#:

ffiffiffi
,ir

Jfr

fitq,,tenultq hq/p/, ftauhr

n,

*r*/

turo(rc
-

Bt

sfura_

t ft Cg\D

w,llrt q /ltn c)/)Je{u,


finq O{grlntc NqJ

ftlsutn

h!r+

/tue pullw /an

tuell u,rcd lafre, no &uapoura/tort

wqlT loset

luytwl

Rq/u'" 1a/pu/ nl+ hlu^Rqk

djC3= C*C* +
,ql, h'/rl)
(= fuwlrq/ru fuq/L)
Q= F[a*

J= ttreqn

/qle
[4/= waJlu durhdruz lp lqle
V= voluw o{ /ohg'(*t)
floutrno

KCU
',..',

YD

k: |lrcan ,& uta:kj ,fqchyt


i

or

rq,b (ae#)cre*/

u-1

TUTORIALQUESTION-APOLLUTED

LAKE

WITH

NONCONSERVATIVE POLLUTANT
Consider a 10.0 x 106 *3 hke fed by a polluted stream having a flow rate of 5.0
m3/s and pollution concentration equal to 10.0 mgtL. There is also a sewage
outfall that discharges 0.5 mpf wastewater having a pollutant concentration of
100 mg/L. The stream and sewage wastes have a reaction rate coefficient of
0.20lday. Assuming the pollution is completely mixed in the lake, and assuming
no evaporation or other water losses or gains, find the steady-state concentration.

TUTORIAL QUESTION - THERMAL POLLUTION IN A RTVER

A coal-fired power plant converts one-third of the coal's energy into electrical
energy. The electrical power output of the plant is 1000 Mw. The other twothirds of the enerry content of the fuel is rejected to the environment as waste
heat. About 15 percent of the waste heat goes up the smokestack and the other 85
percent is taken away by cooling water that is drawn from a nearby river. The
river has an upstream flow of 100.0 m3/s and a temperature of 20 "C.
a. If the cooling water is only allowed to rise in temperature by l0oco what flow
rate from the stream would be required?

b.What would be the river temperature just after


water?

it

receives the heated cooling

lkase No'le: The Luerhons fran

Cqn

do lhese Utelhon!.

7'a'lortal

o,rr

-4 lullrld

e ,o,il

Q l/oltan.telrqh&

/-qr/-

Q* = 0,9*3/

C*: iol,orry/L
Lqk"<

Iylto,tnt,rtJ
vn

(fu

"

(/

io,o'Yto6r?

oulgay

K= a,zo/dE

S,rrrtt/:

C=2

->
G'l
Q^t
rt5Jwwtma

'ilia/ n^rlplg ft ,trfJqn/nr?*, eun(/ ,,frcof, t']

lwol,
lt,uo lq{e
lqte uplea
il,w.

W;/ ilre toiculrolron ,il,U,e /a&e C

4 , h+ ,hwe.qJ
tlte- lqfte , L^ ,

fue uncwttra/pnt

,nkf

ffirk:_Iu
cq4

u/

ol ile inm'l*nry

KcU (Pee

t/l

&t Ci + 0,^,C*
0,su3/s x /00,0tuql)lpt
M't/L +
* 0,5a,3/-l
L/n
'-)tpt L/nt
ffi*Wtu,oty/L
t-a

, O Xt7s,,y1/t

(','/-/u/

ro /e

&rG:

(ot+CI*)c
= G,i so,r) ntft x Crq/l
\' {lat L/*
f.l xlorC
=

ryk

ilrtov rqh= lrcu= g,2o//

{ Cnq/L (rc o ruf, t.


z,+/1

/d xS|oo s/Ar

so laxro,: (:Af$'rV{it
(:

lxos-

ffi,

lo3

'Lh

3,

xro'c,

=zr drr aY

f E9/L

Zr/ , tnpilut rn,4ol,4,nq nonffil)lfr lq f tue polla /artt


Slfrtlq -Jlqb W {e*{ ;;;' ;tnd
tn 6srplelr/q
^,rC,
lo,,o,!q!yze (,variefu o{ tdtnwanly daan/erC ,q/er
pollu hiin problent
T

d,Zq l,

-Fl
1La

t0na

ot)

- 7ha*ql

ollu

/ton k) e ftur

finrc la00/4W rryou,]t anufl,,r/ pt fre pnwr deluered


!, /fr, ft* / ,!,1 ,fwe/, ft,e lh/ql rqk s/ ,,Jrrcil atrgy atnt

@)

fl,te /ower

plMt'

Inpaf pnwr

is

= \uf ''t /a*er- = l\IArl/i hlu


@erg
t/s

- g ooo fulldt

llloftre ltte iaitcntr on fue ,rp,,rt ft o,afua/ 'Qf


!ilwer

tn /ile

pf rcduq , <qutl /iur, f, Arh' treep ,?ac/, fue f/qru,[


fnr,rU Xf urerqq, t tJ [ywnon'tb uke ll,ttU fu
hernql ryouur"'& /l/fht"

6r elecfrral fu,,o-r

/Afql loJIeJ /D fue holil4q wq/er rt S/"(j( ctre


lherthre 30eO //lltt/- /oalrtlll/= Zolo.4lw. Of #ta/
2ffiot{ltM,

Slqdt

lpJJel

CI,irxzcxx.= goohw+

holqrf laJr,e:. 0,{rx Looo= tV Do&tWt


l,ezd tAfqle{ lo ,u*pv- lTCo ttrlWt
&T= lo,

0-- r,6ca

fo*

qt \'{,il

${o* Rqk,

ln3 = I codng

(q) frndmq /14/- bolutq ,oolr naded fu re*ave


"

ilf,t Y,h,#,h :'olffYlw : ffif frb !t,


t#fr{f
m shrC
fule o{
owqgg

C,honge

tToo

Atr+=Mr +lf+ Ifig'C iiiorx*t'v1M(ro'ft)


t700

ftl=

41lt+x p,o

or, ,Jirtt!-

rt, le

xto*'l

= 40, dxptb/

looo/1. , egua/t

[ 40.6il'/l

/rJ a/ aqh
,

{il T, f,^d ftN il&r /arwd /urc of fue riuq tie (qn

use l,7oo trlJW br,lq'rc"/easd ,,h /4/E rrie4 rrlrrcA


QJan hqi q floi nE o{ loo,o ar/t

Rsk o{ thonge
tlronge /rt fhr"'l tutrJJ
AT=

t7oo,a4La/x(M
too,ows/3

So

U@nT

trdns#

rto'$/*i X +lrq I/4g'C'

4'

fie le,rltrofrr,re ol fue rtd,q -will ie

eledqlul 4j'

If
*

lfie cqlula/nnJ )u/ p;fir*e1


tr) lfie frlouy filtre oi
'i

7],L M,alh o{

qrc Shob/{)

fr#F'gi^we,N

X#kr

Uolnq

0r-,

n
Qs:

[0A,0'n4?/J

Ti = 2o,ooc

fircoffi
=*

*a/"r

lTooh W*

40,6rtt

= Jo',oT

fl5: l00,org
fs= Z4,l 'c

# ,#srr{a(z, /hqurn?ort Wsed momfu h ,*^uye


try*[
fr
: n;4 ar lhwol

qllu'tha)ze

elanat

6,^L: rut,rqled hrbon frol wnd, (hareogl


iJ:
h, '[lsr

4 fur

Q,"

prilfofhoc ,b Mz furha Qrw

adtorfu]

lq/: otofor/ronal
weioll
---l,ft
-h trw molewbr Miqhl o{ fre aCtirbaol
aZtiih/e" Pl'u,rl
/s/tud:' ut't 146 fure
_aclrori\on lnclraalr Wlfi dCfa:e fi f//

;(

nfr,

- ifur , 1,, Eq,,r ''

Lrnqffir io/1as,'ra

+i
/f/t

abC" -\- Cq - = C* *
4 Tq6
J-

Tre;=2w

equrl,Jrtaont tuncu,sftahon of nlu/nrt


'
X- (,.G

Whae G

#^

inttrqf (onq@/.o/m
6,I
-q,
b= toil/ortt
l,ch lso/r6*,
F'tu,ec/"ff!'
='
;: @ = t,rt (

#:

tT)

r ff),^ ((,)

rt ntt, [onJlanlS
X/tttt = MaII of adtor-bqk a/lor\ed
waj! B( dtorbarl
K,

re u,i

kinqkd
-

Ca'bon

brynayt MqlertqlJ I ltfoad, fu|, (N,nr)u/, alwuod,


walntat hurlll otc
, -

i ',

frco. al

=lffiW{ri'#h%'H'ptc)
qc/-iuqkd turban

fu.ttuakd hr[o/) (Gfuc


(arbon Re nner,s/ion P gqdt
coovartl

,*ql uu,l

Keu,N-

brie"

ftJ;,ed

m:

s$artr/rort
ffit
fr ,flqiie'" ,sl;gtvoi ,,v,thr iupplrci
t,rt

q #ffruaktl Studge fpur:,' )iikq/ o{ Iuondng

0,1,

Cbrt

fier

gruse remuuql

a{ {loo,/al,ort
e/rhd,C

unt .furftru

ot @uted ty:
.-

or ,ofrcpail or

A
rr1"eY{rry of q4

,/g fire
r

'"/,,
relearc of &e
frlh,r'd
ri,
b
prJIwK
A iiilt t< o,, ( tnq" br/tk sir"t - aerq/,a qf
Qf mos/herc preJJare

#W

tqkC

,,'qler

p'rshrpC

fi ft,m releoleo/ tnla q/woryAerrc PeJItlrc b,heu) ,taile/


{lolql-rM /qntA
fr lhq reialb la h( rekate # q. luilla & &rg fre
parf,cki h lhe hp qs or 6,abJht lwnue ul

?b

f7,/,#ffi,trq
l
'|jur tJwq un t'

E#laen/

hmolue/ 4,r Flolq/rcn


' kagn
Lutgn IM

- Pr{lJv,e

r*alrr
- ryno,pnt M ogrllC
* Sur{au ffeq

- htflt

#klrqnkt/er,q
,^i.l *
'
o,oor^
-* H,, fu soldt rqlto (,+/!)
Sutr{qu lood,^q ra/e ( f'tz
J

0,060

^/h)

.t

-t

nL/W

POLLUTION COI{TROL
& WASTE MANAGEMENT
Wenshan Guo
BE(Eonor) PhD (DEnvEng) MAWA MIWA
Environmental Engineering R & D Laborapffii,
University of Technologt, Sydney
ffi{ )

Y4/

Solid Woste
Moteriol thot is in solid stote, which hos
no..moteriol, economic or enerEy volue.
Edmmonly colls gorboge, refuJi or trosh

TypeE

of Solid Woste
*

Municipal

& Industriol

Elements

Hazordou

of A Solid Wqste

,6j,

@
/tAonogement System

Solid wqste hondling and storage onsite

Transfer to centrql storogE focility

ition

Physicol

e Moisture

content

The moisture content of solid wostes usuolly


is expressed as fhe moss of moisture per unit
moss of wet or dry rnoteriol.

(w

- d) ,!oo7o

where. M = moisfure contenf, 7o


w = inifiol weight of sample, kg

d = weighf of
105"C,

kg

somple

ofter

dryiff-ffi

ry

:!i:::i:-

Chemicol composition
rlnformotion on chemicol composition
importonf in evoluoting olternotive

is

processing ond energy tecove?y options.

"i"If solid wostes ore to be used os fuel,


following flow properties are to bi' - determined:
.j

- proximate onalysis (moisture, volatile


motter, remoining C contenf, osh)
-fusing point of C (1100 - 72Co"C)5;5
- percentage of C,H, O, N, S ond ffir,{^
- heoting volue (energry value) Y

Typicol ene?gy volues, kl/kg


When typicol volues ore ovoiloble,
Dry bosis:
kJ/kg (dry bosis)

kJ/kg(os discara.4

r';ffirr."

Dry osh-free bosis:


kl/kg (dry bosis) =
kJ/ko(os discarded)
'""
'100-%osh-%

6$1 Exomple 1: Estimating the moisture


=jW" content ond the ene?gy content of o
solid woste somple wifh the following
composition

Componenf

Percenf Moisfure
by mcss,

content,

EnergY,

45
10
10
10
5
5

6
5
2
60
20

15,750

7o

Poper
Cardboard
Plostics
Gaeden frimming
Wood
Tin cans

l"

kl/kg
16,300

3?,6@
6
1

"70

ar

1" Set up o computotion foble to defermine


the dry moss of fhe solid woste sample
(Bose on 100 kg somple of wosfe)

Component
Fo{ wostes

Percent by
moss, %

Moisture
co[tent. %

DrY moss,
k9

70
6
5
2
60
20
3

15
45
Papet'
10
Cordboord
10
Plsstie
10
Gorden tPimming
,i
5
Wood
5
Tincom

4-5
42.3

9.5
9.8
4.0
4.O

i#r

4;"i{;

ixltrF
-

tsv

U-O,7)=.?,?

+rxu-bat)= u7,3

==fU^11
-=

v'vjt-

-l

(t
= tox -0,o2) =

,a

1, F

4.9
79.0

2. Deternine the moisture content


iAoisfure content

rloo-79.0)r1OO%=21.0
fOO

ii:: 1) ,: /@

/
3" Sef up o computotion tqble to defermine

the totql energy content of the solid woste


somple (Bose on 100 kg somple

component
Food wasles

Poper
cqrdboard
Ploslics
Garden trimming
wood
Tin core
4.

Determine fhe
Energy

by
moss,%
15

Percent

45
10
10
10
5
5

unif enery

content

EnergY,
kJ/kg
4,550

r6,7n
16.300
32,600
6,500
18.600
7oo

conte
=

!4,740

of woste)

Totol energY,
kJ
69,750

753'799 <*'

OR
1,,?
i
I bt

-7
r--'
,' /, c j1!-I
--'ir*"i[7|o= lS3lfo
tu-''' **

163,000

32

326'000
55,000
93,000

{}g

-r-

r. ," .')

3'5oo
-1,4r4,OOO

,6;1,

&.

l;-

q\r)
tI
I _/*

kJ/kgry
3

L*

,r.,

t+7tr7 blrs

5. Determine the

bgtit

eneegy content on o-d"y

o) The moisture content of the waste is 21.0%


b) The energy on o dry bosis is

kJ/k9 (dry bosis) = 14,74O

18.658

toff}S=

6. Determine fhe energy content on on csh-free


dry bosis

;l filx":f ;T"ff1;.:"T:j,lq\
kJlkg (osh - free dry bosis)

ttunl

,#

=14,74Qt-#-t-=le.r

ry

S,

?J* #'#5

* C,76

:- l- 0,2 .&

: tqqll/,,,/9
-

When typicol ene?gy volues


ovailable

lr\dified
KJ

not

Dulong Formulo:

/ K9 =

337C

* 74t9 0r -

$l

* 935 * 23N

Where, C, H, O, S ond N represent percent by


nass,

5 ond N :

To

consider

5 ond N for

eneeEy

colclKs

Other elements hove very less/no energy;.{^?',


volues

--\w"

discord

them

(>

content of q solid woste somple with

t-Fe composition given below

Conponent
Moisture
Corbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Sulfur
Nitrogen
Ash

Moss, kg

?O.9
34.51

4.58
30.00
O-

w{

13

0.43
4.47

1. Convert the moisture content to


hydrogen and oxygen
a) Hydrogen = (2/18)x2O.9 kg = 2"32 kg
b) Oxygen . (16/78)x2O"9 kg = 18.58 kg

2. Set up o computotion toble to determine the percent


by moss of the solid woste somPle
tlAoss, kg
Component
34.51
Carbon
4.58+2.32=6.9
Hydrogen
30.00*18.58=48.58
Oxygen
0.13
Sulfur
0"43
Nitrogen
Ash
4-47

Percent by mass,

fi

3. Estimote the energy of the woste


/

Kg

337C

t4t9H - * 93S * 23N


3)

ssibe.sl + t4Le 1t.. -

ffl

oc

$,ab

'j(":+r

KJ

x\

3+"s t

* e3 (0.1) + 23 (0.5)

= 72/33.t+.1,294.8 * 9.3 * 11.5 = !3,548.7


Computotions such as the obove ore

especiolly -

importont where the tecovety of eneegy


woste is being considered"

froffi<ffi
\i-qguli

Foctors thot must be considered


The effects of storoge woste
including biologicol deconposition, the
odsorption of fluids ond the contominotion
of woste components

e The type of contoiner to be used


depend on fhe charocteristics of the solid
wosfe, the type of collection system i%'93:Q'\
the collection frequency ond the spocft.i"
qvoiloble for fhe plocement of contoineqS-y'

fri:rtr

rro wlq

ull:i."(

i*

;.1*::;;':ri*iiiiig1::tifi:i7ii

i:=,?1i.];;ir<lt il,:

Foctors thot must be considered


The container locotion
deqe.nd. on the
lWe of dwelling or commercicl
ond industriql focilities, the o-vqiloble spoce
ond occess to collection services

Public heolth ond aesthetics


including vermin and insects thot often serve
os poten?iol diseose vectors, odors ond.4#.
unsightly

conditions

ffi"j
\_i/

{ot,l
A*1E=p,#

The collection options ovailoble to o


municipolity for residentiol :

*
*i
Sohd

Curbside collection
Drop-off centers

W then is token fo o moteriolfocility or to noteriol


lro nsf er. stotions, wh"r"lfrffii",.E4:"sorted ond
's
processing

separated

qy

Wnile"

Bosed on the operotion mode, collection


systems ore clossified info fuo cotegories:

Hauled c^q+ainee.eisnns,(H): The


confainers used for the storoge of wostes ore
houled to the proeessing, tronsfer, or disposol

site. empfied, cnd returned to either fheir


originol locofion or some ofher locotion-

sqltoiner svstems.(SCQ): The


A;Toiners usea-forlhe storoge of wostas
i".oin ot the point oi!"n".oiion, excePtdf,A
they ore movei to the curb or ofher locoqfn y*

:*i Stqtionary

be

emptied.

"-

Hauled contoiner systems (HCS)


Piclop loodcd

ontoincr
I

Tilck b
dispdtuh

lhtioh .nd of doily

Mi,

t2

l
I

tl

Trcnifcr stqiiot
disposol situ (

solid wosies
]L

ri
i

Stotionsry container systems (SCS)


L6d dnbnts fM
solid w#
piclop leaiion

contuin"r{s) ot Piclop locotion


inb collcdion vehiclc
Driva to neat @niqincr

Etr?iy @llection
vchicle fm
dispolch siolion _
beginning

doily

Mto

loodcd
collecnoavzhiclc

of
/

(s)" tr
Orive .frPfy
collestion vehiclc b
b.ginBing of nf
colleclion dle or

retun to di+dtch
siotion - end of mtB

h lodtion whcru
con*nts of vahiclc
will b9z@(

,/
/ -/

Tmnsf.r shfionor di+6cl

sit

: resideniiol wostes by council/confroctors

/tr t\

{eHtd;Y__y

J1

ift$N:ltFe'Ef'
Tronsfer and tronsport operotions become
o necessity when
! Houl distonces to ovoiloble processing centers or
disposol sites increose so thot direct houling is
no longer economicolly feosible

The use of small-copocity collection vehicles


(generolly under 15 rn3)

F The existence of low-density residenfiol service

The use of o houled contoiner system *td


relotively smoll contoiners for the collection\f <vy
'\wosfes from commerciol sources

::::trlr

.;

tl:l:::i:i;r:iill

,,1;;:7,:rii

l!

lfLr {\\rLrrr

ilifi?T,WH##iBi
.. ru -- -.-.----a-;- - -----t --,".... "s:
Unit cost of TS * Cost of houling lorge trucks
VS

Cost

of

houling directly to the londfill by smoll trucks

Tronsfer stotion cost

Oi]i&

ill:aosf

Cost of using lorge trucks = Vehicle depreciofion *


Fuel cost * Driver's solory

I'l;ffi

ffi ;l1,'u:c,fltu-,9,'ur,.f ,lft,


i; is to be on the

houling route

A = Cosl of smoll vehicles, $/m3'km


T5' $/rn3
g = O & M, depreciotion' iooding & unlooding ot
vehicles'
$/m3'km
Z = iott of houling lcrge
ond rs' krn
; = ;;";"" i"i""nlollection oreosite
(DS)' km^disposol
&
V = Oi"ron"" belweenT5
oreo & D5
collection
between
disfonce
i - ili"*r
Cost with o transfer sfotion'

T=zAX+B+ZC:t
Cost wifhout a tronsfer station'

Tr=ZA(X+Y)

If

#\
ry

T<T1, then T5 is justified

ExomPle

4:

Economic comPorlson

of ronsPort olternotives
need for o tronsfer
After initiol economic onolysis for the
^'.;;t*'ft;i,'ile fotlowing-station
costs hove !""n Iouno:
-'-roifit"a
."

iost for tronsfer

(including depreciafion):

.ffi,+i.
ii-G&l

ruv
sov 100
rirc ot
of soy
for c specific time

r"i.itii! *,t -.flH:Tl.;"r.r"i

(b) Varfoble costs


minutes:

"""-'--cost of

$ 6/ton
= 5 zlto'l.

using smoll 1rusks =

Ii"i ii *i;g lorge rucks

ony truck is 80 km/h'


(c) The overoge oilowable speed for
driving (WDaK
nound-trip
versus
(i) Prepare o plot of cost
ond determine break-even time'
S*v: ;

If the
"Y'rrg,' i:ti}i"
' i)'o""o
r/u
and the disposcl site is
rou nd - trip

(i

t+'1&

6IJ

1-

Pr^epor^e

*'l;'Ji:'":ml9'
Km' q r' rr'Evv-'
rs

in
a plot of cost versus houl time
dLtermine breok-even time'

ti""*"i""a

a. Fixed cost for tronsfer

stotion

Costlton = $ 4.5/ton

b. Voriable costs ot

1O0 nin

(1) scs

Cosflton = $6
(2.l TronsPort sysien

cost/ion = $4.5*$2 = $6-5

z'' Bneakeven time = 113 min


driving distance = -i*-Jr""i +irne round-trip
.S:,v/
80x113/6O = 150.7 km
Sin"a ti5O:i'tlO km ';,TS ls'neededt

' "

'

ft

,Ii

,'i:{,,.

^l

""

t)
ll l.',
lt -,'

'(

J.i

;:i:ielrr,P

1. Pr.epor.e o plot of cost versus haul time in


minutes ond determine break-even fine-

tta*rnl Keiouent

{it,l,ht
n lfre

h ' i,t colterh* Puutti pnr'tle/ & fuq.


t{w< sf lwrrw S"f'ary/tm '4n L6,qjk
har {//t
lnat
artc:{ryyg, fu.frrc- frachrna
J
60

E0

100

Time (minues)

Processing Technologies
Processing technologies ore used to
& improve the efficiency of solid woste
disposol systems
' to recover resources (usoble moteriols)
'to prepore moteriols for the recove?y
of conversion products and eneegy

Importont solid woste processing


technologies include: compocfion, motg@
?ecove?y focilities, thermql volume ffru; j
reduction (incinerotion) oiJ

"omportinf,-9

n
/t* = fa,r*a*; b//a,han *
J-luraW +
iilj/r,bof/rprr Wk*, .
/rtaft,'rot/
t poit of a fn t lqll*, . PpE = Iyri/l g,J/tut h freqf
,

,/s6re t a,b. "^'F-o ltrp /u/rrburtn


Salen /n q house/toH
t' Poytt qf uK S,gfil*n= P?U. S*a/yrrrrt*r rus,bl/ey'
fnt'tl,ltc4ql iua'/u

.)uJt^behr-e wt# /i uled


d Ptfrre. wciln, l,o///er

\wk

(r/aj/en',?rbr Trcaha?o/

fr wojFwqlfr qu?r?tt

j
,,
aJ*tlalk

poten/lql aspc,rt
h

iaod rted

!,1)"e
n Coh/ttniw- lvrryrt,[crt,tq ft ma,rlcnartce
D Elarft wqlr.{ 0r fir/,di = lreq/d L/r:)/)s pil
p proper

tuunpoJ{inq ht

,rfrffi

lell e,t,

rb,h/+ or

us,ry wel /anC:, a rra,bl gr,Q*q


d
tffi;frfrecr/

hipn,f ,o/aig ailo i &t ,,,tu,


kue/;
lfrf4^fi/n',aSgr*d
fuhw Eroa,r/ /,Yd;
uJirallq
uty& lpcqkd
M Sold: Jellk h"rhre lohb- o(,",zU" rhod wher<
ii-/ha/tro

A;e:

cc{ttrnulah

aerob,olb duoay'td 6rnnq Jiad,]e fuql-

ql lfiz aifrb*"cf

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fue

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d*trsnuJ 6/J' rek/

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pornt'

of v@il"

tuif

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/bn6 lb Pury
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r
frt lir{ltr .lr"q/-iun/

fanreler

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/ 9l

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rt ln rnoulftg, /ar&
* Lo * r ttit'u,o*ure.* eFffiJ
rt to* ertryy ,tqlttrewat/
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t'=

otffi*

w dtu@

duflal'

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sq, I adsoryhol
i^W
fgl/*
'Ca,cfalt,,r

fr

I appkehon,4 /le

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firyaeCfu, 0f fut swl" ds*plrro U'lerefres'w/
qJY iJd

tunfawnn,hd w,

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* Pr6

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(nAU

rhn{ oi rotuFarfu,ffifrJirrylarrb
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atnaerubtc Undl/tartl
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i-qqobL

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of antdlil( rra#er

{mlryj1al prilwn nlrtu kand


lil,ryt, cr,'vpr/*eil/
StaN , CIr
,
q
qeroh,('
',

ilu/ge

+ i{+/i,;'f of'

//)

clurificahon

Cha,nw

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PI
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s
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fr leit, Fottlrftql ,frr,adye$e, t;p*-fn dfu/h
'lJ,C,'lrpar

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* fteq.u,rc ,Kgqlar nanferqltu.


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# /rrdu{rq% dm{erho, o, drinfrc/rpn
" - pat
E
' -i' h,/ur"
i
PoK hrqlila

Ai"f,ffA

rtikl

fffi:lf

''
areq ,g k requrrC 6,,/ripota/ of

s fregular Aoux occufa{,on ls reprnd


hPrrcil lnu

fla,

lfie /aprUl a,?cr/larV J',$lont

on-tile wJtbw,rrhr
tncludz,:

* tilircutafryg iwi,q 4rC i tti


fr hu I'l-ruckr{,,,n /lq,rd s't s/r* I

Jautrl

^rrrr/

- Jand fr lk{-r

,leu,rzt

k,+rrn)

Iryrrr
:q*CI!

u F, ftaq

afubtC

fi iyerrdu,tQeJ_

o( /ile edua
e
# lt'gh,%alrg
,r,si
Useq 't'a r^p
in4rrsu fr */ud fue l,rt & e#c/l'enelj af
A li:s(4'fa
fr
I ao,d applio/ ron y$/e,,)'

fr lO* {n qnrsnfur}(tz,
rt funfwv(/'iiilroe urC

Y/ff ofrrqfton
',"^f '-;,/r"J
Th /4e

on

-W*r

,h44

U/e+ lrudt
rtfrucko( t sl-/andt o,t furnale-bql/f wefland{ tuttvt
fur&u /rt!/ rtezg fre
lnbk nears- /D
5qlurotd @d, f,qrt fir,ng\t' rq+
i\,ils ,-r/u

irlo

f;lh

l/*

0{ l-lrye wnr fr Aa wd/er-tokraqt' flottb rt


vgi+q{ton gnwl)s wer il-

Can:truckC ilre/lq'dt

Coa

hue Se/,"w*

qJ

dJ

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{rnfr

ft fr{- bt&- uf

w,a/&{,

TVK a

*:ljy t tl i' l#lf

aaloarct
1,y,,
a tt 0n fl ff,qn lqmhan
ot't'tte eF{/-,aen/- fr fu,rdl,

ffi

e, Je [oyy/h

nclfi/rpn fnrn fue Jun.


nStrrack,

{lo,r,ielloud: /Qu.Jg.r/w tuy:iJt o{ _


,el /nrchzi oF a/7eaif 3orn'
u/nffu, 5sil/lefrarkd *,fu lq,l ipo , , ; qril/hqq b

Subiur{au

a eqw'l,fJ I ry * W-wa:frffiyjA
t/,t': pn{-w;eqlb, kt/, haurnq csn/ac{ ,rt/h rtn rsd d*
oF l+;y fl::!, tahl,(. {10,,;"y1j f/,foqg( ilu,sffit5 n olt
E han

as'/e*ltJar

''1"

.j

fiE f?eir&rCIn *UQ,f


Pql fr (foft) - lJno ,t/qo
i'(rd,) - ti;r;i,{, u/rrcls tfq,b,ryzn/- lJ
ffi'eacla qufltd, (sqaetfrunt n h,bl)

ffi

f^qvoqT

(zot)- #nt*qnq 5queshont


Jf

- kl lcu lohrq I quu /ior1'

frqll frrr/;r7rl'r,qb fr
Wrfurcr
t
I guefi onl
'ftr

lurt ql

/ rt

!/

tt i prt o

(tor) -hlar 6*4y-,f,tt*r,rq +


.\_/

flUe!fl0/)J

ffi

oqJ"let Aas oltl


dttWl{ioo g* l0 mal'i

& qh, n Jdtfi

ralc'{lah*

wa:lq wrt//,U gww/an

wtt{ttwtfttc

+f 7, t/) $rql EXo,

tt,*qLLJ ln'tAl'Y hl+{


The,<

wtll be q lo'/ quaftrn tn //4e frral e{qa 0n frlqrt Eradus

nrl- ,{
',ntd

Enurortnathl e, Sqriq/to/) Enqrneert4q. UnldeYJ*


Senctl-er eYorn, ft w,ll rt4,qua an "e"s[?q'Sfrfu onJur
&,fr^ bpal
Yo, th,uld be qwori of th tgutah,L hlE
(AUrfonmertlal t^paoh oP Eigtrtzernq fAgA m,{ueraf
lermJ. Tlrc't wtll no/ k ang"rle/ahbY , ca[u lqhVfi
qm il l0 etsui guu unJrrsland flR-[EIA I

ru@/-t

=r

Rev tsron

}uesftons

qx 60il*
Ualww,-

Calculate the diameter and depth of filters


for the following data, if two trickling filters
in parallel are designed to treat the
wastewater:
Influent rate:2 MLD
BOD of the influent = 190 mg/L
Efficiency of BOD removal by each

filter is 707o
Hydraulic loading rate = 1.66 m3/m2.d
Organic loading rate = 0.1 kg/m3.d

Calalote the dioreter and depih of filteF 1, 2 and 3 for fhe


follrying dqiq. The diogmm of rricking filter s).stem is shom in
FiEUr 1.

lnflucrrt flow mte = 2.5 rt{LD


BOD cf fhe inflwnt = 180 mg,/L
Efficiercy of BOb ramovol by the roogrhing filters 1
Itdrculic l$ding roie = 1.5 m3lmz.d
Oryoic lodiry mle = 0.1 lglm3.d

od 2 is 654

i-,::::::::::::::::::

the reguired volune of the oerotion tonk for


a town of 20,OO0 populotion.
rl/tixed liguor suspended solids = 2600 mg/L
Deternrine

BOb looding rote = O.48 kg/(d.n?)


Sludge volume index = 100 mLlg
Percentoge of solids in the mixed liguor

= O.267c

Assume: (1) overoge BOD contribution per person per


doy = 9.991 k9l@erson-d), (2) 3O7" BOD removol in the
prinrory sedinentotion tsnks, ond (3) ollowing on
odditional 4Q7c of return sludge on BOD looding.

Ltls/20a8

tLlsl200B

.aa........:=

:::::::)t

i:ttjj;:;:j:ji..Aillitlt, |ttthl}lw

Tuor,rtolm"

The MLSS concentration in the aeration tank is


28O0 mg/l-. The sludge settleability test showed
that the sludge volume, settled for 30 minutes in
a I tr-graduated cylinder, is 285 mL.

tr* *q-k***l* tn

nqrS,rqf

6r. -ra,r*qbJurftre"

tuo-

t*
,l

Calculate:
(1) the sludge volume index

n3

(SVf

(2) the SS concentration in the return activated

U*f* g:,t

sludge
(3) the required return sludge ratio.

./4p

uttr

fito
,r+
/ow^u,rt!
,*,1e$
uJu+/14
{u
3l'rgf

*fu, e'tltr

t at/y1,4

svr&* r.!tnn.,b; h

,*

k :ytb*
i,tSe^ *{ry-j fi, *o*, r*'"" i*
-*

ll yrk
prrfu.U hoolrArll

il*-su

uw

An sctivoted sludge tonk is used to treot 37850


m3/d of wostewoter. The refurn suspended
solids in return octivoted sludge (RAS) ond
mixed liguor suspended solids concentrotion in
oerqtion tonk ore 9O9O ng/L ond 25OO mg/L
respectively.

Colculote:

(1) Return slu'dse rotio1.(2) The RAS flow rofe

/l/lL i5

f\I
I

ffi

AW1

,*/*au

Estimating the moisture content of


o solid woste somple with the

llau

It/wt

n Exa-

Componznt

F""d

-"tt*

Poper

Cordboord
Plostics
Gorden trimming

10
10

10

6o

Wood

Tin cons

2o
3,

+.?

71,0

lPk^,,,z /1N- ltLotJt* LonW


fuulw ton@:
xloo: 21,0/,

2.

{le,nSton*7Vt

W;

c l,n(t ,tr\/e,

hlualqib l/* ualurw

tQory/
ElD Ke*ored
ll= Z,utLD = ZxloTnY/da4

# tfir/,rl,y frllrr

x[t$ ffiuy/L = au| b/^'

*'^ i 4 o{ ea(/a ,h4k = Zxp'/Z t lt to'*'hg


7LR, o,l&y/^t] = ffrf,f#

Fn

f xp'n//

Vcluo,,z=

hnpw&

xo

lfi (7/,3 ^

/33

or'

fil S,tr&u qrtq @;

flLK, lrtr:'a/d A _- lxto'*i/

T"

w:602'4"

Wtrliil*
il
tn,o,)

r.la,

{)*e/h

tt,e.

d,awe/,,

&d,/h o{

@,r . ej, fn

: c=,
4-U

i D- _/3.3 0*t - f,Zon


6c2,4 pr,,

hlclalqk ilN uol,lw ol *rc/t/ty


6n0 ftw)ouC

= 1trl ry/L xa6tr ll7-,jiL

4 =Z,f/l/) LD :2,fttot

Tn \fu"

5,yge,,)

= c, ll7

bht

*t/d ;

: Ta*'

I=

&/jt 2, rx fut/:
: Q.fifX bT*ld

\e/J - z(z wot)/s = l ddrv/at*rH


eK=Q,l rtg/*1d=W

TqnkZ

/0luM

Valuurr(rft).

asls\- taT,r'/d

fc,,tl74o'

:1ftlrst

o,lfu/n,?,'/

a U,{aw (rrz)= {6trx,o'rrrrr,,,tO, '


'
0,\ftg/w1d =lf#rn.
t

?9^j {
'r 16,7n' l,7fn
q76,

Atf/h : oL.

Tf?
l'l F

,r

,a1--1F

llLK'

f,

[6f*

L"t

lo,

AZ

:.frr= 6{*tot*td

T^%',d
= I ll3,4nZ

:JUr^

0,owe*r,dZ=

W, i02= 1448n3 - lTrn


lll3,/tm,

frllrs
6oD

t, ht knp,,rd = lfo*l17. 63ry //=o,7ffi@/rr

Vlolunz*

l+LKi

ynods, /a,

_Z,fnfi?M

!,fit{i7i'//,,,
4t

#s

: ll f

.
l9,tln14

t,lf,! = o,QQ^
-l 670"

lh B=

'"/

+r\rq =46,6
UTT

ilrawa/sr d3 = ,l

'

D;

= 167*^

'd,Slwdr^

"

WL'
T&

Calp,rlok, Tblrl ac/uql ftop l*6/,y


aar,,Ttnn /trnl<

-t

::

rit

(U 0n

'

Tnbl \op loqd h lia waslt*alr frw/wtplanf.

Wry x 0,0(l U l@":un, d)' i 820 ki ld


\h*.h,e,L= ftrrc U/d x(l-r'30 il,+

\a,oao

= t78+ ly/d
.lltfZ; Cq lc,rlak il,! uolri,,v of filL qe{qtn /r,,/^fu)

(/: \bl-l@

6aD lpady:

-Allo,,red EoD loo/U

v (=

w
@-\
t7s+:

fl

nt

= 3vt7n3

gol

L: Ql(4lqk SUI
Svr ("t/t) =.
fladq< rro[tt,
l/tLss
SVI

(rnwnknniaon

_--/

laoo

(qe/Q

(rt61 =Qrcnt/txtooot

%;frft
s' /fr;r!Svt

t)"1/Lx
\
=

to2

nL/j

zso(ry/t)
,'/ttss n rW re'i,rn qcltuaU
=

W.-aililab

to'.=
- qffi+ryy/L

toz

t' t

wlrcd rcfun Jtudqa nho

(0r1CI)

,Lfrn Sludq( nh, = A = rclum ao{trqkd Slalry{loro,


a

:v

*ffi-

0r-CI- -

zgs

@zrs)

0r--tffi
SV
-A

- o,Qo = 4o il ret'um

rel,4n
-A
T-x
., rY

., ,= S

,,,'Ztoo

'

Sludq< rqllo

/,ULSs

f:

= 9r

= 0.371

nK'r, =,;T^ 3?;; |ffir,'fi

Fto*rc'b

OQ

Sold Walelhnoget,enl
!,. Se* ul

t#*^f:

q con/a t ho,,t +qil(- /v /p,/t rrn /y,L

f#,f'fmff'*^Wk

TH E E/VD