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2010 2nd International Conference on Mechanical and Electronics Engineering (ICMEE 2010)

An Analysis & Design on Micro Generation of A Domestic Solar-Wind Hybrid


Energy System for Rural & Remote Areas - Perspective Bangladesh

Mir Nahidul Ambial, Md. Kafiul Islam3, Md. Asaduzzaman Shoeb2, Md. Nasimul Islam MaruF, A. S. M. Mohsin2
lLecturer, Dept. of EEE, Eastern University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Lecturer, Dept. of EEE, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
3Junior Lecturer, SEeS, Independent University, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Abstract- Utilization of renewable energy resources have been


the most important & prospective field to seek new energy
sources to meet up the increasing demand in power all over the
world specially in a developing country like Bangladesh.
Among the renewable resources, wind & solar being the most
popular

ones due

convertibility

to

to

the

abundant,

ease

of

electricity.

This

paper

accessibility
presents

and
the

analysis and design of a hybrid solar-wind system for micro


generation for domestic purpose in the rural & remote areas of
our country where continuous power supply from central grid
has been a great is problem and sometimes for some remote

considerably high for remote areas. Also there will be a


substantial increase in transmission line losses in addition to
poor power supply reliability. There is a growing interest in
harnessing

renewable

energy

sources

since

they

are

naturally available, pollution free and inexhaustible.


At

present,

systems have

standalone
been

solar

promoted

comparatively larger scale.

photovoltaic
around

and

wind

the globe on

These independent systems

cannot provide continuous source of energy, as they are


seasonal. For example, standalone solar photovoltaic energy

places it's economically not viable at all as far as our country is

system cannot provide reliable power during non-sunny

concerned. We propose such a hybrid system which is expected

days. The standalone wind system cannot satisfy constant

to

run

effectively

under a

microcontroller

to

utilize

the

maximum possible solar & wind resources to reduce the


demands on national grid for on-grid region as well as to
supply power to those places where there is no grid line (i.e.
off-grid region).

load

demands

due

to

significant

fluctuations

in

the

magnitude of wind speeds from hour to hour throughout the


year. Therefore, energy storage systems will be required for
each of these systems in order to satisfy the power demands.
Usually storage system is expensive and the size has to be

Keywords- hybrid system; solar power; wind power;


renewable energy; on-grid region; off-grid region

reduced to a minimum possible for the renewable energy


system to be cost effective. Hybrid power systems can be
used to reduce energy storage requirements. In this paper we

I.

apply the hybrid system for both on-grid and off-grid areas.

INTRODUCTION

In general, we act as having energy with no price or

II.

thinking that the energy available is infinite. Lot of times we


use the energy do not thinking about where is it produced or
originated. Energy is vital for the progress of a nation and it
has to be conserved in a most efficient manner. Not only the
technologies should be developed to produce energy in a
most environment-friendly manner from all varieties of
fuels but also enough importance should be given to

Although a hybrid wind-solar electric system demands a


higher initial investment but the hybrid solution is the best
option whenever there is a significant improvement in terms
of output and efficiency - which happens when the sun and
the wind resources have opposite cycles and intensities
during the same day or in some seasons.

conserve the energy resources in the most efficient way.

A.

Energy is the ultimate factor responsible for both industrial


and agricultural development.
Anyway, it is important to prevent scenarios avoiding
energy faults or absence. There is energy crisis all over the
world. But developing countries like Bangladesh suffer
most for very limited resources and technology.

There are

still lots of area where there are no supplies of electricity


and some areas which are grid connected but most of the
time they are deprived of continuous supply.
In Bangladesh, a large percentage of villages remain to be
un-electrified, most of them are difficult to supply electricity
due to inherent problems of location and economy.
costs to install

and

service the distribution

978-1-4244-7481-3/$26.00 2010 IEEE

The

lines are

THEORY

Solar Power

Solar panels are the medium to convert solar power into


the electrical power. Solar panels can convert the energy
directly or heat the water with the induced energy. PV
(Photo-voltaic) cells are made up from semiconductor
structures as in the computer technologies. Sun beam is
absorbed with this material and electrons are emitted from
the atoms that they are bounded. This release activates a
current. Photovoltaic is known as the process between beam
absorbed and the electricity induced. With a common
principle

and

individual

components,

solar

power

is

converted into the electric power.


The solar power generation for any solar radiation can
be predicted by using the formula given below:

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2010 2nd International Conference on Mechanical and Electronics Engineering (ICMEE 2010)

Wind speed exhibits a diurnal cycle, generally

iv)

peaking at noon and weakest at night.

(1)

Where x

solar radiation, P

power generation A,

AvgSolar Radiation kWh/m2/day

B, C are constants, which can be derived from measured

7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0

data. The practical values and simulated values for solar


power generation are nearly coinciding. By using the above
formula, we can predict solar power generation at any solar
radiation.

B.

Wind Power

.,------j-------:=--j---__r-I_____---------+-______r-I______I--:=-___
____---==_
--

+l1--.....H
. ....-IIH.....--1I-____--I1+l1-____r-I______I-I___-III-____-I._
+l1-____r-I______I-I___-III-____-I._
+-"....--.-'-r-''"-r---.-....
.
. .
...
.. --,...L,--,,-........

Wind turbines are used to convert the wind power into


electric power. Electric generator inside the turbine converts
the mechanical power into the electric power. The energy
production by wind turbines depends on the wind velocity

Figure

acting on the turbine. Wind power is used to feed both


energy

production

and

consumption

demand,

I.

and

Monthly average solar radiation profile

Avg. Wind

transmission lines in the rural areas.


The wind direction is an important factor, because if we

Speed (m/s)

have sudden changes in the direction meaning that we have

strong winds, it is mandatory to stop the wind energy

production to not damage the equipment. Knowing the

predominant wind direction we can select the ideal spot for

the wind turbine.


In addition, we cannot convert all the wind energy into

electricity; we can only convert 59%, according to Betz

limit. When using an optimized system, the power available

Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJun Jul A g Sep Oct

Nov

Dec

is:
P

().p. A. v3 (in Watts)

(2)

Figure 2.

where, A is the area perpendicular to the direction of flow,


meter,

p, density of air, kgm-\ is approximately 1.2 kg/m\

v, wind velocity, meters per second.

Monthly average wind speed profile

In figure 1 & figure 2 average wind speed and average


solar radiation have been shown, which are the overall
information

of

wind

speed

and

solar

radiation

for

Bangladesh in general. By observing the average wind


III.

speed we see that the wind speed is not overall the same

SOLAR & WIND RESOURCE ASSESMENT

Bangladesh is situated between 20.30 - 26.38 degrees


north latitude and 88.04 -92.44 degrees east which is an
ideal location for solar energy utilization. Daily average
solar radiation varies between 4 to 6.5 kWh per square
meter. Maximum amount of radiation is available on the
month of March-April and minimum on December-January.
From collected wind speed data for some sites of our
country, the following information about the wind climate
in Bangladesh has been found:
i)

Wind speeds appear to be higher in the east of the

throughout the whole year. Even wind speed is less than


4m!s during some months for which wind generator cannot
produce power. For this purpose we have proposed wind
solar

hybrid systems so

that maximum utilization of

renewable energy and production of electricity is ensures. In


figure2

average

solar

radiation

has

been

shown

varies with respect to time. So by utilizing both the wind


and solar energy we get overall satisfactory data throughout
the whole year.

country than the west.


ii)

Wind speeds in the coastal areas appear to be


higher than inland.

iii)

Wind speed

exhibits a strong

seasonal

for

Bangladesh throughout the whole year. The solar radiation

cycle,

lowest in the winter and higher in the summer.

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2010 2nd International Conference on Mechanical and Electronics Engineering (ICMEE 2010)

IV.

V.

PROPOSED HYBRID SYSTEM

The designed system has developed for on grid as well as


for off grid regions.
A.

SYSTEM FLOW CHART & ALGORITHM

In the wind-solar hybrid system a controller has been


developed which is shown in figure 4. The system has been
designed in such a way that maximum utilization of wind

Off-Grid Hybrid Systems

and solar energy is ensured. This system has been designed


for on grid and off grid region especially for rural areas

The figure 3 is the block diagram of an off-grid hybrid


system which is very useful in remote places. In the off grid
system solar panels and wind generators have been used.
The designed system also includes a load controller in order
to control the load, batteries and inverter so that we may get
both DC and AC loads.

where

grid

line

has

been

reached

but

availability

of

electricity is very less or in a sense supply of electricity is


not continuous and there is much interruption. For this
reason this system has been designed where we have mainly
focused on utilizing renewable energy rather than national
grid line. Our main objective is to use the wind energy and
solar energy without national grid and if at a period neither

t::::>.
load

wind nor solar energy is available then we would use the


national grid.

DC load

In the controlled system we have given first priority to


Batteries

Inverter

the wind turbine which is obvious from the flow chart

F} :

(figure 5). If the wind energy is greater than 4m1s then we

Ch ge

will charge the battery bank 1 which will enable us to

"----

supply DC or AC. But if the wind energy is less than 4 mls


then we would like to use the solar energy panel. In this case,
we will again check whether the radiation is satisfactory

Wind

enough to produce energy or not. If not then we would use

Generator

power grid system and check whether the power grid is

B.

available or not. If the grid is available then we will take

Off-grid solar-wind hybrid system

Figure 3.

power from the grid and if not then we would again check

On-Grid Hybrid Systems

whether the

The figure 4 is the block diagram of an on-grid hybrid


system. In this on grid system solar panel and wind
generators have been used like the off grid system. In
addition, load controller batteries and inverter have been
used. A controller has been used in the block diagram which
is connected with grid line and the inverter. The output of
the controller is again connected with the loads. As the
controller has two inputs one from the inverter another from

battery

is

charged

enough to

produce

electricity or not. If the BB 1 is charged enough then we will


take power from BB 1 and if not then we will take power
from BB2 which has been charged by solar panel. In this
case it should be kept in mind that the battery bank 2 is for
emergency case. If the battery 1 fails to supply current then
we would use the battery bank 2. So through this controlled
system we will ensure maximum utilization of wind and
solar energy without connection from grid line.

the grid, it choose only one input depending upon the


availability of the output of the inverter. The controller will

VI.

choose the grid line and pass it to the load only when there
will not be any input from the inverter.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, the design of an effective and convenient


domestic solar-wind hybrid system has been proposed to

Grid Connection
Wind

implement in the rural and remote areas of our country


where it's difficult to have continuous power supply from
national grid and in some places where we can't even think

Generator

to bring the grid line because of impracticability and


uneconomically. There is a huge opportunity to improve &
extend the proposed system in such a way to be able to

".i===>f

support national grid [3] by optimal sizing of the whole


Load
Controler

system [4] as well as by introducing multi-agent control [5]


with the optimization of initial cost [6] in the hybrid system.

Solar Panels

Figure 4.

On-grid solar-wind hybrid system

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2010 2nd International Conference on Mechanical and Electronics Engineering (ICMEE 2010)

No

Take

Figure 5.

B, B2

Complete flow chart of the proposed hybrid system

[7]
VII.

from

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1. Bhagwan Reddy, D.N. Reddy, "Probabilistic Performance


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[I]

Ugur FESL, Raif BAYIR and Mahmut bZER, "Design and


Implementation of a Domestic Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System"

[8] Sultan Ahmmed and M QuamrulIslam,

[2]

Fontes, N., Roque, A., Maia, 1. : "Micro Generation - Solar and


Wind Hybrid System"

[9]

[3]

Ghassan Halasa, and Johnson A. Asumadu, "Wind-Solar Hybrid


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Zobair, "Prospect of Hybrid Wind System in Bangladesh"

[10]

[4]

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[II]

[5]

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Mohammad Golam Kibria Khan, Talha Rahman and M.M. Alam,


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[6]

A. M. Jain*, Dr.B. E. Kushare, "Techno-Economics Of Solar Wind


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[12]

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