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A.

TITLE
B.
PURPOSE

: Identification Reaction of Cation and Anion


:1. To know special reagents for each cation and anion in a
group
2. To show identification reaction of cation and anion
3. To write the chemical reaction
C. BASIC THEORY :
CATION
Cation analysis requires a systematic approach. This is generally done in two
ways, namely separation and identification. The separation is done by dissolving a
group cation out of the solution. Cation group precipitate separated from the solution
by centrifuge and the filtrate poured into another test tube. Solution which still
contains most of the cation is dissolve once more to form a new group of cations. If
the group of cation that is dissolve still contains some cations, so cations are then
separated again into smaller groups of cations, and so on so that ultimately exacerbate
the specific test for the cation. The type and concentration of the reactants and the pH
adjustment is done to separate the cation into several groups.
Qualitative analysis is a method used for identification of ions or compounds
in a sample. In many cases, qualitative analysis will also involve the separation of
ions or compounds in a mixture. Examples of qualitative tests would include ion
precipitation reactions (solubility tests) or chemical reactivity tests. The separation of
ions is easily achieved by taking advantage of their solubility properties
Having become familiar with the characteristic reactions of cations, one may
be able to identify an unknown material using simple chemical tests and separations.
In this process, called inorganic qualitative analysis, one deals with the detection and
identification of the elements that are present in a sample of material. Frequently this
is accomplished by making an aqueous solution of the sample and then determining
which cations and anions are present on the basis of chemical and physical properties.
If a sample contains only a single cation, their identification is a fairly simple
and straightforward process, although to distinguish between two cations (or anions)
that have similar chemical properties is not easy and in this instance additional
Analysis Cation And Anion

confirmatory tests are required. The detection of a particular ion in a sample that
contains several ions is somewhat more difficult, because the presence o the other
ions may interfere with the test. This problem can be circumvented by precipitating,
thereby removing, the disturbing ions from solution prior to testing for the particular
ion. The successful analysis of a mixture containing large number of ions centres
upon the systematic separation of the ions into groups containing only a few ion. It is
much simpler task to work with 2 or 3 ions than with 10 or more. Ultimately, the
separation of cations depends upon the difference in their tendencies to form
precipitates, or to form complex ions.
One of the best and well known separation scheme, outlined below, was first
described by R. Fresenius in 1841, though in the course of time modifications were
introduced. In this system cations are classified into five groups on the basis of their
behavior against some reagents, called group-reagents. By the systematic use of these
reagents one can decide about the presence or absence of groups of cations, and can
also separate these groups for further examination. The group reagents used for the
classification of most common cations are hydrochloric acid, hydrogen sulfide,
ammonium sulfide, and ammonium carbonate. Classification is based on whether a
cation reacts with these reagents by the formation of precipitates or not. It can
therefore be said that classification of the most common cations is based on the
differences of solubility of their chlorides, sulfides, and carbonates. The five groups
of cations and the characteristics of these groups are as follows:
Group 1
Cations of this group form precipitates with dilute hydrochloric acid. Ions
of this group are lead (II), mercury (I), and silver (I). Rationale: Softest acids react
strongly enough with a borderline base to precipitate in acid solution
Group 2
The cations of this group do not react with hydrochloric acid, but form
precipitates with hydrogen sulfide in dilute mineral acid medium. Ions of this
group are mercury (II), copper (II), bismuth (III), cadmium (II), tin(II), tin(IV),
arsenic(III), arsenic(V), antimony(III), and antimony(V). The first four form the
Analysis Cation And Anion

sub-group 2/a and the last six the sub-group 2/b. While sulfides of cations in
Group 2/a are insoluble in ammonium polysulfide, those of cations in Group 2/b
are soluble. Rationale: Soft acids react with a very soft base.
Group 3
Cations of this group do not react either with dilute hydrochloric acid, or
with hydrogen sulfide in dilute mineral acid medium. However they form
precipitates with ammonium sulfide in neutral or ammoniacal medium. Cations of
this group are iron (II), iron (III), cobalt (II), nickel (II), manganese (II),
chromium (III), aluminum (III), and zinc (II). Rationale (1): ZnS, NiS, FeS as
sulfides, i.e. borderline acids bind to a very soft base, when the pH is adjusted so
as to weaken the M(OH2)nm+ hydrated cation. Rationale (2): Fe(OH)3, Cr(OH)3,
Al(OH)3 precipitate because these are hard acids reacting with the hard base OH-.
As acidic cations, they will tend to precipitate when the pH is equal to the pKa.
These are all hard cations, and therefore prefer the hard base OH
Group 4
Cations of this group do not react with the reagents of Groups 1, 2, and 3.
They form precipitates with ammonium carbonate in the presence of ammonium
chloride in neutral medium. Cations of this group are calcium (II), strontium (II),
and barium (II). Rationale: These are weakly acidic (Bronsted definition) cations.
The carbonates are insoluble because of the favorable lattice energy when the
weakly basic carbonate ion reacts with these cations, since the cation and anion
are both doubly charged and similar in size.
Group 5
Common cations, which do not react with reagents of the previous groups,
form the last group of cations, which includes magnesium(II), lithium(I),
sodium(I), potassium(I), and ammonium(I) ions. Rationale: These are weakly
acidic (Bronsted definition) cations. The carbonates are insoluble because of the
Analysis Cation And Anion

favorable lattice energy when the weakly basic carbonate ion reacts with these
cations, since the cation and anion are both doubly charged and similar in size.

ANION :
Qualitative analysis is a method used for identification of ions or compounds
in a sample. In many cases, qualitative analysis will also involve the separation of
ions or compounds in a mixture. Examples of qualitative tests would include ion
precipitation reactions (solubility tests) or chemical reactivity tests. The separation of
ions is easily achieved by taking advantage of their solubility properties
To facilitate the analysis process, it is often useful to put ions that react in
similar ways and follow similar chemical reaction patterns into groups. For example,
it may be useful to group ions based on their solubility properties. Some anions such
as halides and sulfates are insoluble in lead containing solutions while remaining
soluble in iron or copper containing solutions. Therefore, anions can be roughly
classified into groups according to their solubility in a particular solution. The
reactions used to form groups of anions are referred to in this lab protocol as
classification reactions. The individual anions in each group are then separated and
identified using different reactions often referred to as confirmatory reactions.
Having become familiar with the characteristic reactions of anions, one may
be able to identify an unknown material using simple chemical tests and separations.
In this process, called inorganic qualitative analysis, one deals with the detection and
identification of the elements that are present in a sample of material. Frequently this
is accomplished by making an aqueous solution of the sample and then determining
which anions and anions are present on the basis of chemical and physical properties.
If a sample contains only a single anion, their identification is a fairly simple and
straightforward process, although to distinguish between two anions that have similar
chemical properties is not easy and in this instance additional confirmatory tests are

Analysis Cation And Anion

required. The detection of a particular ion in a sample that contains several ions is
somewhat more difficult, because the presence o the other ions may interfere with the
test. This problem can be circumvented by precipitating, thereby removing, the
disturbing ions from solution prior to testing for the particular ion. The successful
analysis of a mixture containing large number of ions centres upon the systematic
separation of the ions into groups containing only a few ion. It is much simpler task
to work with 2 or 3 ions than with 10 or more. Ultimately, the separation of anions
depends upon the difference in their tendencies to form precipitates, or to form
complex ions.
The methods available for the detection of anions are not as systematic as
those which have been described above for cations. No really satisfactory scheme has
yet been proposed which permits the separation of the common anions into major
groups, and the subsequent unequivocal separation of each group into its independent
constituents; however, it is possible to detect anions individually in most cases, after
perhaps a 1-2 stage separation. It is advantageous to remove all heavy metals from the
sample by extracting the anions through boiling with sodium carbonate solution;
heavy metal ions are precipitated out in the form of carbonates, while the anions
remain in solution accompanied by sodium ions.
The following scheme of classification of anions has been found to work well
in practice; anions are divided into four groups on the basis of their reactions with
dilute hydrochloric acid and of the differences of solubility of their barium and silver
salts.

Analysis Cation And Anion

The four groups of anions and the characteristics of these groups are as
follows:
Group 1
Visible change, gas evolution and/or formation of a precipitate, with dilute
hydrochloric acid. Ions of this group are carbonate, silicate, sulfide, sulfite, and
thiosulfate.
The first group of anions to be separated will be those that precipitate in the
presence of calcium ions, Ca+2. Sulfate ions, SO4-2, and carbonate ions, CO3-2,
precipitate, that is they form a solid, when mixed with an aqueous solution
containing Ca2+ ions. The net ionic equations representing the reactions occurring
are shown below:
Ca+2(aq) + SO4-2(aq) CaSO4(s)

Equation 1

Ca+2(aq) + CO3-2(aq) CaCO3(s) Equation 2


A confirmatory reaction that distinguishes between sulfate ion and carbonate ion
utilizes the fact that calcium carbonate will undergo a reaction with a strong acid
to form carbon dioxide gas and water while calcium sulfate will not (see
equations 3 and 4).
CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca+2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Equation 3

CaSO4(s) + H+(aq) No Reaction (precipitate remains)

Equation 4

Analysis Cation And Anion

Group 2
The anions of this group do not react with hydrochloric acid, but form
precipitates with barium ions in neutral medium. Ions of this group are sulfate,
phosfate, fluoride, and borate.
When mixed with dilute sulfuric acid, and heated, the nitrite ion, NO2-, forms
red-brown nitrogen dioxide gas and nitrate ion. This is a confirmatory reaction,
since only one ion is involved.
2NO2-(aq) NO(aq) + NO3-(aq)

Equation 5

2NO(g) (colorless) + O2(g) 2NO2(g) (red-brown)

Equation 6

Equation 5 is a simplified representation of a multi-step process involving


hydrolysis and auto-redox reactions of nitrite ion (that is, NO 2- is acting as both
the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent).
Note that carbonate ion could also be listed in this group (gas forming anions),
since it does produce a gas, carbon dioxide, in its reaction with acid. However, the
presence of carbonate ion was be confirmed earlier in Group I.
Group 3
Anions of this group do not react either with dilute hydrochloric acid, or with
barium ions in neutral medium. However, they form precipitates with silver ions
in dilute nitric acid medium. Anions of this group are chloride, bromide, iodide,
and thiocyanate.
Precipitation is also the main reaction type in the classification of halides, but
with a different precipitating agent than for Group I above. Cl -, Br-, and I- ions,
when mixed with an aqueous solution containing Ag+ ion, form precipitates that
are insoluble in water. As opposed to other solid silver salts, silver halides are also
insoluble in strong acid (nitric acid will be used here). Therefore, once the
Analysis Cation And Anion

precipitate is formed, it will not dissolve on addition of acid. The Ag + ion solution
used in this experiment is aqueous silver nitrate solution, the only silver salt that
is soluble in water. Net ionic equations:
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)

Equation 7

Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) AgBr(s)

Equation 8

Ag+(aq) + I-(aq) AgI(s)

Equation 9

Confirmatory reactions that distinguish between the three halide ions and
identify each are based on a redox process. All three halides can act as reducing
agents and in the process are oxidized to their diatomic elemental forms. Their
relative reducing strength is as follows: I- >Br- > Cl-. When coupled with a strong
oxidizing agent such as aqueous Cl2 (chlorine water), bromide and iodide ions
will undergo oxidation. If chloride reacts with chlorine it will produce chloride
and chlorine. While this may happen, it is easier to say that no reaction occurs
Cl2(aq) (colorless) + Cl- (aq) (colorless) No Reaction

Equation 10

Cl2(aq) (colorless) + Br-(aq) (colorless) Br2(aq) (yellow to brown ) + Cl-(aq)


(colorless)
Cl2(aq) (colorless) + I(colorless)

Equation 11
(aq)

(colorless) I2(aq) (yellow to brown) + Cl-(aq)


Equation 12

If Cl- ion is present in the solution, without any other halide, the chlorine
water will remain colorless. Therefore, this test verifies the presence of Cl - ion
only if the classification test produced a silver precipitate that did not dissolve in
acid. After addition of colorless chlorine water to a colorless solution of either
bromide or iodide, the solution will change color to yellow-brown, since
elemental iodine and bromine impart such color to water. This test, however, does
not distinguish between the two ions. One more step is necessary. It is not a
reaction, but a physical process of extraction with hexane of the solution obtained
Analysis Cation And Anion

upon addition of chlorine water. A small volume of hexane is added to the yellowbrown halide solution. A pink or purple hexane layer (the top layer) after
extraction indicates that the initial solution contained I- ion. A yellow to brownorange hexane layer indicates that the initial solution contained Br- ion. The
actual shade of the hexane layer depends on the concentration of the halogen (a
higher concentration of the halogen produces a darker shade).

Group 4
Common anions, which do not react with reagents of the previous groups,
form the last group of anions, which includes nitrite, nitrate and chlorate ions.
Nitrate ion does not directly produce any precipitates (remember the solubility
rules?) nor does it produce any gaseous products in an acidic environment.
However, upon reduction by Fe2+ ion it forms a characteristic brown gas,
nitrogen dioxide. As with nitrite, the reaction is considered a confirmatory one.
The equations for the reactions involved are as follows:
NO3-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 3Fe2+(aq) NO(aq) + 3Fe3+(aq) + 2H2O(l) Equation 13
2NO(g) (colorless) + O2(g) 2NO2(g) (red-brown)

Equation 14

A specific test reagent, ideally, possesses a specific reaction with each type of
anion. The reagent might react with one anion to provide a distinguishing product,
but not with the other anions in the mixture. The color of precipitate formed and
the reaction of the precipitate formed with dilute acid or identity of gas liberated
gives us definitive proof of the unknown anion in the solution.

Analysis Cation And Anion

There are three main solution tests and these are also confirmatory tests for
specific anions:
Test reagents

Specific Anions Identified

Silver nitrate solution followed by


dilute nitric acid

Chloride, ClIodide, ICarbonate, CO32-

Barium nitrate solution followed by


Sulfate, SO42dilute nitric acid or
Sulfite, SO32Barium chloride solution followed
Carbonate, CO32by dilute hydrochloric acid.

Lead(II) nitrate solution

Chloride, ClIodide, ISulfate, SO42Carbonate, CO32-

Addition of NaOH, aluminum foil /


Nitrate, NO3powder or Devarda's alloy. Heat

The principles that are employed in the identification of cations can also be
applied to the analysis of anions. The qualitative detection of anions in a sample
depends on the distinctive solubility properties of particular salts of the ions and
specific chemical reactions that are (ideally) unique to a particular ion.

Analysis Cation And Anion

10

D.

TOOLS AND MATERIALS


a. Cation

Materials

Tools

Sample

Beaker Glass

Aquades

Test Tube

HCl 6 M

Rack

H2O2 3%

Tripot

HCl 2 M

Burner

NH4Cl 2 M

Spatula

NH4OH

Kassa

Ammonium Oxalate

Clamp

b. Anion
Materials

Tools

Unknown Solution

Test tube

Na2CO3 concentrate

Burner

AgNO3

Tripot
Kassa
Clamp

Analysis Cation And Anion

11

E.

PROCEDURE
a. General Procedure of Cation

Analysis Cation And Anion

12

b. Analysis Procedure of Cation Ca2+


Sampl

Analyt

Thinned with aquades


- Added 5 drops of solution into test tube
Added 5 drops of water
Added 2 drops of HCl 6 M
Stirred
Washed substances that stick on the wall with water

Filtrate for

- Added 6 drops of H2O2 3%


Added 2 drops of HCl 2 M
Boiled until reach volume 1-2 drops
Cooled dawn
Added 6 drops of HCl 6 M
Evaporated

Analyte for

Added 4 drops of NH4Cl 2 M

Mixed it well
Added 15 drops of NH4OH, drop by drop
Stirred

Analyte Contain of

- Added 2 drops of NH4OH


Added 2 drops of Ammonium Oxalate

White
Precipitate
Ca2+ Present

Analysis Cation And Anion

13

c. Analysis Procedure of Anion Cl1. Making Preparation Solution

Unknown
-

Heated with Na2CO3 concentrate

Precipitate

Filtrate
-

2. Proving Theres Cl-

Used for next


analysis (supply
solution)

Preparation Solution

- Added AgNO3
White Precipitate
Cl- exist
-Added NH3
Dissolve

Analysis Cation And Anion

14

F.

EXPERIMENT RESULT
a.
No.

Cation Ca2+
Procedure of Experiment

Experiment
Result

Analysis Cation And Anion

Hypothesis /
Reaction

Conclusion

15

Before:

Sampl

- Sample: colorless
Thinned with
aquades

Analyt

- Adde
d 5 drops of solution
into test tube
Added 5 drops of
water
Added 2 drops of
HCl 6 M
Stirred
Washed substances
that stick on the wall
with water

Filtrate for

Added 6 drops of
H2O2 3%
Added 2 drops of
HCl 2 M
Boiled until reach
volume 1-2 drops
Cooled dawn
Added 6 drops of
HCl 6 M
Evaporated

Analyte for

Added 4 drops of
NH4Cl 2 M
Mixed it well
Added 15 drops of
NH4OH, drop by
drop
Stirred

Analyte Contain of

Analysis Cation And Anion

- Water : colorless
- HCl

: colorless

- H2O2

: colorless

- NH4Cl : colorless
- NH4OH : colorless
- Ammonium
Oxalate (NH4)2S :
yellow

After:
- Sample + aquades:
colorless solution
(sample solution)
- Sample solution +
water: colorless
solution
- Sample solution +
water + HCl:
colorless solution
(filtrate for
procedure II)

First, we
made a hypothesis that the
sample which
is given
contain of
cation Mg2+,
Ba2+, and
Ca2+. When
we add 1-2
drops of
ammonium
oxalate, it
forms white
precipitate.
Because
calcium
oxalate
(CaC2O4) will
be form after
adding of
ammonium
oxalate.
CaCO3(s)+
H2O(l)

Separation of
calcium with
other cation
based on the
solubility of
CaC2O4 salt
which cant
dissolve on
the water,
hence the
other cation is
easy to
dissolve. If
theres white
precipitate in
calcium,
CaC2O4 will
be form when
adding
(NH4)2C2O4.
Solution made
in base
condition to
prevent the
solubility of
oxalate salt.

Ca(OH)2(aq) +
CO2(g)
Ca(OH)2(aq) +

- Filtrate 2 + H2O2:
colorless solution

2HCl(aq)

- Filtrate 2 + H2O2 +
HCl: colorless
solution

2H2O

- After boiled and


cooled dawn and
drop HCl and

Ca2+ +

CaCl2(aq)+

(COO)22-
16

Added 2 drops of
NH4OH
Added 2 drops of
Ammonium Oxalate

evaporated: colorless Ca(COO)2


solution
Ca2+ + C2O4
CaC2O4(s)

White
Precipitate

Analysis Cation And Anion

17

b. Anion ClNo

Procedure of Experiment

Experiment
Result

Hypothesis / Reaction

Conclusion

Making Preparation

Before:
- Unknown
solution:
colorless
- Na2CO3
concentrate:
colorless
- AgNO3:
colorless
After:
- Unknown
solution +
Na2CO3:
colorless filtrate
and white
precipitate
- Supply
Solution +
AgNO3: White
precipitate

Unknown solution
+AgNO3: white
precipitate
Ag+ + Cl- AgCl(white)
Na2CO3 + CaCl2
CaCO3 + 2NaCl

There is white
precipitate
after adding
AgNO3 so the
anion of Cl- is
proven.

Unknown
Solution

- Heated with
Na2CO3
Precipitateconcentrate
Filtrate
2.

Used for next


analysis
(supply
solution)

Proving Theres Cl-

Preparation Solution

Na2CO3 + 2 AgNO3

2 NaNO3 + Ag2CO3
NaCl + AgNO3
AgCl white +
NaNO3
AgCl + 2NH3
[Ag(NH3)2]+ + Cl-

White Precipitate
Cl- exist
-Added NH3
Dissolve

Analysis Cation And Anion

18

G. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


ANALYSIS OF CATION
In this experiment, the sample is colorless and the shape is like jelly. sample is
dissolved in a test tube by using aquades, this is done to simplify the analysis of
anions and cations. Then the samples were dissolved according with the procedures
analyzed cation analysis in general. The first sample of 6 M HCl added three drops,
precipitate containing group 1, the filtrate containing group 2, 3, 4 or 5 after the H 2S
gas flowed and added with HCL. Precipitation in the form group 2 and the filtrate
containing group 3, 4 or 5. Added (NH 4) 2S precipitate containing group 3 and filtrate
containing group 4 or 5. Added (NH4)2CO3 precipitate containing group 4 and filtrate
containing group 5.
First we suppose that the samples containing cations Mg2+, Ba2+ and Ca2+.
When the sample solution, added 5 drops of water then there is the compound
Ca(OH)2, a solution of white and added 2 drops of HCl solution contained CaCl 2
compound, white solution (filtrate to procedure 2)
CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g)
Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + 2 H2O
The addition 6 drops of H2O2 in the filtrate group 2 reduce white solution.
Similarly, while the addition HCl and boiled and cooled and added with HCl obtain
the same results. Then evaporated to obtain a perfect result and produce white
solution (filtrate for group 3).
The addition a few drops of NH4Cl and NH4OH in the filtrate group 3
produces white solution containing cations Ca2+ or Ag2+.
2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2+ H2O + 2NH3
After the addition, HH4OH produces white solution but when the the addition
ammonium oxalate occur white precipitate because there is precipitate of calcium

Analysis Cation And Anion

19

oxalate compounds. The function of ammonium oxalate for precipitate Ca. Therefore,
we conclude that the sample contains cations Ca2+
Ca2+ + (COO)22- Ca(COO)2
Ca2+ + C2O4 CaC2O4(s)
ANALYSIS OF ANION
Analyte is colorless and the shape is like jelly. To know there is anion on
analyte, the first step that we have done is adding saturated Na 2CO3 to the reaction
tube which contain of analyte so it formed colorless solution. The purpose of adding
Na2CO3 is to dissolve the anion on the analyte , with analyte CaCl 2 (Ca is our cation)
that have been found so the equation that will be happen is :
Na2CO3 + CaCl2 CaCO3 + 2NaCl
The next step is heating the reaction tube, it purpose to faster the reaction that
occur or in other case it can give the activation energy to the solution, so the reaction
which didnt take place in the beginning because less of activation energy, through of
heating the reaction can be occur.
The third step is separation between precipitate and filtrate, it purpose to
remove the other substance which may be react with reagent to be added later. And
the fourth steps is adding AgNO3 and filtrate, it purpose to difference between Cl- and
Br-.
Na2CO3 + 2 AgNO3 2 NaNO3 + Ag2CO3
CO32- ion is precipitated when ionic displacement occurs..
In this experiment Cl- ion would be formed white precipitate and Br- ion
would be formed yellow precipitate.
NaCl + AgNO3 AgCl white + NaNO3
The last step is dissolve the precipitate into NH3 it purpose to keep the
possibility of a substance that

formed isnt AgCl, because AgCN has white

precipitate too, so that if the substance is reacted with NH3, AgCl will react while
AgCN not react, so that when the precipitate dissolved in NH 3 it can be concluded
that of the analyte anion is Cl-. The reaction is:
AgCl + 2NH3 [Ag(NH3)2]+ + ClAnalysis Cation And Anion

20

H.

CONCLUSION

Based on experiment that we have done, we can conclude that :


1. Cation that contain in our analyte is Ca2+
2. Anion that contain in our analyte is Cl3. Compound that our observe is CaCl2

I.

ANSWER AND QUESTION

1. Write the general reaction for each group!


Group I : M+ + Cl- MCl
M+ + 2Cl- MCl2
with M+ = As+ dan Hg22+ ; M2+ = Pb+
Group II : M2+ + S2- MS
3M3+ + 2S2- M2S3
M4+ + 2S2- MS2
with M2+ = Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ ; M3+ = B3=, As3+,
Sb3+ ; M4+ = Sn4+ The color of sediment depends on each
cation, ie HgS, Bi2S3, CuS the black, CdS, As2S3, SnS2
yellow, and Sb2S3, Sb2S5 is red. The precipitation carried
out in acid solution with the atmosphere (H2S containing
dilute HCl).
Group III : M3+ + NH3 + H2O M(OH)3(s) + NH 4
M2+ + 2OH- M(OH)2
with M3+ = Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+ ; M2+ = Mn2+
Group IIIA : The color of the precipitate depends on the
respective cations,
namely Fe(OH)3, Al(OH)3, which is white, Cr(OH)3
greenish gray
Group IIIB : The color of the precipitate depends on each
cation, the NIS, CoS,
Analysis Cation And Anion

21

black, MNS color pink, and white ZnS. The


precipitation occurs in
the atmosphere alkaline solution (solution
containing H2S, NH3
and NH4Cl)
Group IV

: M2+ + S2- MS
with M2+ = Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+

Group V

M2+ + CO32- MCO3


With M2+ = Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+

In group V, there is no common reagents, so


that a special
reaction test used to identify dry ions. Dry test,
among
others, test the inflatable tube, staining test,
flame test,
and so forth
2. Why oxidizer used in the analysis of cations in the
system H2S is H2O2 or bromine, and instead of HNO3?
Oxidizer used in the analysis of cations in the system
H2S is H2O2 or bromine because H2O2 is volatile when added to
water in order to get salt deposits of sulfide H 2S. And instead
of using an oxidizing acid HNO3 because all the salt must be
removed so that the sulfite deposits will not be formed,
because the H2S gas is passed in the analyte in acidic
conditions.
3. How do we know that H 2S, H2O2, or Br2 is not contained
in the solution?
To determine the H2S is not present in the solution, we
can boiled to remove the H 2S and to know that the H2S was
gone, entry the filter paper to the Pbacetate, than clamp the

Analysis Cation And Anion

22

filtrate paper after that directed to the Erlenmeyer mouth, if


the filter paper was black it signify that H2S still exist, but if
the filtrate paper didnt change into black it signify that the
H2S was gone.
To determine H2O2 was not present in the solution,
dipped the filter paper into HCl, then faced with the hose
holes which are distributed to H2O2. If theres no black spot in
the filter paper it show that theres no H2O2.
To know Br2 was not present in the solution, through
evaporate the solution. Smoke coming out placed on a wet
starch paper. If the wet starch paper become reddish-orange,
the Br2 is still there, but if the orange, Br2 is not there.
4. Why to determine the presence of NH4 + cations should be used its analyte
directly?
Because the reagent that we use to analyse the cathion of group I
until group IV contain NH4+, for example NH4OH, NH4Cl, etc. So if we use this
filtrate the NH4+ exactly present.
5.

How is the general reaction to the making of the solution preparation to


determine the presence of anion?
Na2CO3 + 2HX 2NaX + H2CO3

6. Precipitation of Sulfide salt on the analysing cations of group II and group


IIIB do in the difference condition of solution. Explain?
Because in group II, the precipitation of the salt sulfide reacted under acidic
conditions, ie in H2S-containing dilute HCl. This is because the filtrate which
used to get the precipitate of salt sulfide from group I filtrate which contaion
dilute HCl. In group III B, precipitation of salts sulfide reacted under base
condition ie in H2S-containing solution of NH3 and NH4Cl. This is because the
filtrate which is used to get the precipitate of salt sulfide from the filtrate of
group III A, which still contains NH3 and NH4Cl.
7. Why is the precipitation of group IV must be in the base properties?

Analysis Cation And Anion

23

The deposition of group IV had under base properties because the


ammonium , NH4OH, can prevent the loss of acids which volatile so it will
produce carbonate salts derived from a solution of ammonium carbonate.

Analysis Cation And Anion

24

J. REFERENCE
http://www.inc.bme.hu/en/subjects/inchem/sillabus/129-145.pdf Accessed on
Monday,
December 2nd 2013 at 15:05
http://classes.uleth.ca/201201/chem20001/6_2012%202000Expt1_Qual1643.pdf
Accessed
on Monday, December 2nd 2013 at 15:38
http://www2.ucdsb.on.ca/tiss/stretton/chem3/lab_24_intro_qa_theory.html Accessed
on
Monday, December 2nd 2013 at 16:15
http://chemist-try.blogspot.com/2013/01/analisa-kualitatif-reaksi-identifikasi.html
Accessed on Monday, December 2nd 2013 at 17:55
http://www.crescent.edu.sg/crezlab/Webpages/AnionLabManual01.htm Accessed on
Monday, December 2nd 2013 at 17:58
http://www.inc.bme.hu/en/subjects/inchem/sillabus/129-145.pdf Accessed on
Monday,
December 2nd 2013 at 15:05
http://sunny.moorparkcollege.edu/~chemistry/chemistry_1B_labs/experiment_twelve.
pdf
Accessed on Monday, December 2nd 2013 at 18:01
http://www.slcc-science.org/chem/labs/chem1225/1225experiment07.pdf Accessed
on
Monday, December 2nd 2013 at 18:15
Svela, G. 1985. VOGEL Buku Teks Analisis Anorganik Kualitatif Makro dan
Semimakro. Edisi ke 5. Jakarta: PT. Havery Indah.
Achmad, Hiskia. 2012. Kimia Analitik Kualitatif. Bandung:PT. Citra Aditya Bakti.
Tim.2013.Panduan Praktikum Kimia Analitik I Dasar-Dasar Kimia Analitik.
Surabaya:Jurusan Kimia FMIPA UNESA

Analysis Cation And Anion

25

ATTACHMENT
PICTURE

EXPLANATION
Unkown solution (clear like gel)

Unknown solution contain cation of


Ca (CaC2O4)

Sample of anion solution

Analysis Cation And Anion

26

White precipitate shown anion of


Cl-

Analysis Cation And Anion

27