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Literature review

Due to the fact, that most of young men in our country have to serve in the army
if they are not at twenty seven years old, dont have health problem that allow to skip the
army and if they dont have at least two children. Its important to know that conscripts
will be protected from rights violation. Despite of fact that our country is constitutional
Kazakhstani conscripts faced with rights violation in the army. There were found several
reasons of such experience. Investigating this issue can reveal several important
problems, solutions for which will help conscripts to escape of such negative
experience.
I found eight articles and all of them are interconnected in sense of
common issue conscripts right violation. Article Violations of the rights of conscripts
in Turkey written by Askerhaklari Portal shows us that military conscripts process in
Turkey is a very problematic rights issue. So, Askerhaklari Portal created a website to
help victims of ill-treatment and human rights abuses that young men face with during
their military service, and to provide an online platform to tell their stories and seek
support in claiming their rights. The applicants tell their stories by filling in a form on the
website. After consulting with the applicant, the complaints are transformed into petitions
and are submitted to the Human Rights Investigation Commission of the Turkish Grand
National Assembly (TGNA). During the period of April 2011 and 2012, 46 petitions were
submitted to the Commission. The report showed information about types of conscripts
rights violation in the period of 25 April 2011 and 24 April 2012:
48% of applications included complaints of insults (206)
39% of applications included complaints of beatings (169)

16% of applications included complaints of forced excessive physical activity (67)


15% of applications included complaints of denial of access to proper health care (65)
13% of applications included complaints of threats (57)
9% of applications included complaints of disproportionate punishment (40)
5% of applications included complaints of being forced to run errands for superiors (9)
4% of applications included complaints of sleep deprivation (19)
4% of applications included complaints of institutionalized bullying (19)
169 applications out of 432 (39%) described episodes of physical violence
using words such as beating, slap on the face, choking, kicking, being trampled
on and punching. Most of the applications that include physical violence include other
abuses as well. Applications about beating include, insult intimidation, forced excessive
physical activity, impeding the right to access to health care disproportionate/inadequate
allegations/ punishments, institutionalized bullying, sleep deprivation and forced personal
errand-running.
Types of conscripts rights violation in Turkey are quite similar with the
Russias. Article Violations of Human Rights in the Russian Military written by Cathy
Smith showed that in 2005, an estimated 450 deaths were caused by injuries due to
internal military violence. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian military
has been experiencing heightened levels of personnel decline despite the compulsory
draft. Despite the military code of conduct, todays army is afflicted with perpetual
violations of human rights. So the possible way to exclude this violation is to reconstruct
the Russian Military. If modifications fail to be put in place, the system will continue to
facilitate massive human rights abuses that will affect the efficiency of the military. Daily

life for first year conscripts consists of menial and degrading tasks. There are explicit
distinctions within the military between ranks; the second year soldiers, known as
Dedy, have absolute authority over first year conscripts, a status which promotes the
frequent usage of hazing; unfortunately, reprimands are seldom. Food distribution is
imbalanced, and the rations given are often insect infested, spoiled, or nutrient deficient.
Medical access is lacking and, when available, most first year soldiers are denied
adequate care or are punished for seeking assistance. The lack of attention given to
sanitation is illustrated by poor living conditions and insufficient time for cleansing
especially for first year conscripts. Often labor is enforced throughout the night, which
causes chronic sleep deprivation. The fear and terror that exist within the ranks has
perpetrated a rise in fleeing soldiers and suicide rates. Despite the military code of
conduct, which emphasizes justice, fairness, and equal rights for all, human rights
violations are common among personnel. Instead of breaking the cycle of violence and
creating camaraderie amongst ranks, vengeance for past abuses is the prominent cause of
hazing by second year soldiers. One particular case that took place New Years Eve 2005
demonstrates the heightened level of torture and demise between ranks: Andrei Sychyov,
a first year conscript, had been forced to squat until he lost all blood flow to his legs and
genitals; he then developed an infection and had to undergo several amputations. To date,
of those responsible for the violence, only one person has been issued a four-year
sentence while investigation of the officers charged with negligence has been dropped.
Reasons of conscripts rights violation in different countries are different but types
are quite similar. As for our country reasons are clear. Money shortage in Kazakhstani
army is the reason of some discrimination types such as picking of money that

government has to pay for all conscripts. Its a problem of concrete agency that must
monitor the orderliness of conscripts set and protect them from military outrage.
Staffs abuse of authority is some kind psychological issue and reasons can be different.