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CHEMISTRY

QUESTIONSHEETS

A2 TOPIC 17

ENERGETICS II

A2 Level

Questionsheet

ENTHALPY OF ATOMISATION

13 marks

Questionsheet

HYDRATION ENTHALPIES OF IONS

18 marks

Questionsheet

LATTICE ENTHALPY

16 marks

Questionsheet

BORN-HABER CYCLES I

16 marks

Questionsheet

BORN-HABER CYCLES II

16 marks

Questionsheet

ENTROPY AND FREE ENERGY CHANGE

17 marks

Questionsheet

SOLUBILITY TRENDS OF GROUP 2 HYDROXIDES & SULPHATES

15 marks

Questionsheet

TEST QUESTION I

15 marks

Questionsheet

TEST QUESTION II

15 marks

Questionsheet

10

TEST QUESTION III

15 marks

Authors
Trevor Birt
Donald E Caddy
Sam Goodman
Andrew Jones
Editor
John Brockington

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The Curriculum Press Unit 305B The Big Peg 120 Vyse Street Birmingham B18 6NF

A2 Level

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TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 1

ENTHALPY OF ATOMISATION
a) Distinguish between the standard enthalpy of atomisation of an element and the standard enthalpy of atomisation
of a covalent compound.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
b) What is the relationship between the enthalpy of atomisation of hydrogen and the bond dissociation enthalpy
of the HH bond?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
c) (i)

Given that the standard enthalpy of atomisation of water is 920 kJ mol-1, calculate the mean bond
dissociation enthalpy of the OH bond in water.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) According to the data books, the mean bond dissociation enthalpy of the OH bond is 463 kJ mol-1.
How do you account for the difference between this value and the one you have calculated in c) (i)?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
d) (i)

Write an equation for the formation of methane from its elements.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) Given that the standard enthalpy of formation of methane is 74.9 kJ mol-1, and the standard enthalpies
of atomisation of carbon and hydrogen are 715 and 218 kJ mol-1 respectively, calculate the mean bond
dissociation enthalpy of the CH bond in methane.
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]

TOTAL / 13

A2 Level

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TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 2

HYDRATION ENTHALPIES OF IONS


a) Define the hydration enthalpy of an ion.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) How and why would you expect the magnitude of the hydration enthalpy to change on progressing:
(i)

from Li+ Na+ K+ ?


Change .................................................................................................................................................. [1]
Reason ................................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) from Na+ Ca2+ Al3+ ?


Change .................................................................................................................................................. [1]
Reasons .....................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) from F- Cl- Br- ?
Change .................................................................................................................................................. [1]
Reason ................................................................................................................................................... [1]
c) How do you account for the fact that the hydration enthalpy of H+ is exceptionally large (-1200 kJ mol-1)?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]

TOTAL(Continued...)
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TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 2 Continued

HYDRATION ENTHALPIES OF IONS


d) In this part of the Questionsheet you will need the following data.

(i)

Ionisation energy of hydrogen

+1310 kJ mol-1

Electron affinity of chlorine

-364 kJ mol-1

Bond dissociation enthalpy of HCl bond

431 kJ mol-1

Hydration enthalpy of H+

-1200 kJ mol-1

Hydration enthalpy of Cl-

-364 kJ mol-1

Construct an enthalpy cycle or diagram for the formation of H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) from HCl(g).

[3]
(ii) Apply Hesss law to your cycle or diagram to calculate the enthalpy change for the conversion:
HCl(g) + aq H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL / 18

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TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 3

LATTICE ENTHALPY
a) Define the lattice enthalpy of a simple ionic compound.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) (i)

For the chlorides of the metals of Group 1, how does the magnitude of lattice enthalpy change on
progressing from LiCl to CsCl? Explain your answer.
Change .................................................................................................................................................. [1]
Explanation ...............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) From lattice enthalpy considerations only, would you expect the following physical properties of the
Group1 chlorides to increase, decrease or remain approximately constant on progressing from LiCl to
CsCl?
Melting point ......................................................................................................................................... [1]
Solubility in water ................................................................................................................................. [1]
c) Lattice enthalpies and enthalpies of hydration are given in the table for a selection of compounds and ions.
Salt
BaF2 (s)
BaCl2(s)
(i)

Lattice enthalpy
/kJ mol-1

Ion

Hydration enthalpy
/kJ mol-1

2352
2056

Ba2+
FCl-

-1275
-530
-394

Use the appropriate data to construct an enthalpy diagram for the dissolving of barium fluoride in water,
and calculate the enthalpy of solution of BaF2(s).

[6]
(ii) Use your value from c)(i), and the information that the enthalpy of solution of BaCl2(s) is 7 kJ mol-1, to
explain why BaF2(s) is less soluble than BaCl2(s).
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL / 16

A2 Level

TOPIC 17

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Questionsheet 4

BORN-HABER CYCLES I
a) Given the thermodynamic data below, construct a Born-Haber cycle for the formation of lithium fluoride and
then calculate a value for its lattice enthalpy.
Enthalpy of atomisation of Li(s)
Enthalpy of atomisation of F2(g)
First ionisation energy of Li(g)
First electron affinity of F(g)
Enthalpy of formation of Li+F-(s)

kJ mol-1
159.5
79.0
520.0
-334.0
-616.0

Marks are awarded for correct labelling of both enthalpy levels and arrows.
Born-Haber cycle

[12]
Lattice enthalpy of lithium fluoride
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) The lattice enthalpy of a compound, determined from a Born-Haber cycle as in a), generally differs from the
value that can be calculated from the charge numbers and radii of its ions. Suggest a reason for this.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL / 16

A2 Level

TOPIC 17

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Questionsheet 5

BORN-HABER CYCLES II
a) Magnesium chloride has the formula MgCl2, i.e. Mg2+ (Cl-)2, and a standard enthalpy of formation of -642 kJ mol-1.
Use the data below to calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of the hypothetical chloride MgCl, i.e.
Mg+ Cl-, and hence explain why, when magnesium and chlorine react together, the product is MgCl2 rather
than MgCl. Begin your answer by drawing a Born-Haber cycle.
Atomisation enthalpy of magnesium
Atomisation enthalpy of chlorine
First ionisation energy of magnesium
First electron affinity of chlorine
Lattice enthalpy of MgCl
(i)

=
=
=
=
=

150 kJ mol-1
121 kJ mol-1
736 kJ mol-1
-364 kJ mol-1
756 kJ mol-1

Born-Haber cycle for the formation of MgCl

[6]
(ii) Standard enthalpy of formation of MgCl
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iii) Why MgCl2 is formed, rather than MgCl
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) Which one of the data listed in a) would have been obtained by calculation rather than experiment?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
c) If you were constructing a Born-Haber cycle for MgCl2 rather than MgCl, what addtional data would you need?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
d) Would you expect the lattice enthalpy of MgCl to be greater or less than that of MgCl2? Explain you answer.
Greater or less than H lattice (MgCl2) ........................................................................................................... [1]
Explanation ................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL / 16

A2 Level

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TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 6

ENTROPY AND FREE ENERGY CHANGE


a) Give the name and units of each physical quantity in the equation: G = H T.S

G ............................................................................................................................................................... [1]
T

............................................................................................................................................................... [1]

............................................................................................................................................................... [1]
S ............................................................................................................................................................... [1]
b) State, with reasons, whether you would expect the standard entropy change in each of the following reactions
to increase, decrease or remain the approximately the same.
(i)

2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s)

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iii) H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iv) 2NH3(g) N2(g) + 3H2(g)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) The combustion of ethanol is represented by the equation: C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)
(i) Given the following data: S /J K-1 mol-1: C2H5OH 160.7; O2(g) 0; CO2(g) 213.6; H2O(l) 69.9;
calculate the standard entropy change for the reaction.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
-1

(ii) Given the additional information that the standard enthalpy of combustion of ethanol is -1367.3 kJ mol ,
calculate the standard free energy change for the reaction.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL / 17

A2 Level

TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 7

SOLUBILITY TRENDS OF GROUP 2 HYDROXIDES AND SULPHATES


The solubility of an ionic compound is controlled by its lattice enthalpy and the hydration enthalpies of its ions.
a) Explain how the values of the hydration enthalpies of Ba2+ and Mg2+ vary.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
b) Which of the two compounds Ba(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2 is more soluble?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
c) The ionic radius of the hydroxide ion is relatively low. Use this fact and your answer to a) to explain how the
solubilities of Ba(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2 vary.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
d) Consider the following data concerning the sulphates of the Group 2 elements.

(i)

Sulphate

Solubility
/ mol dm-3

Lattice enthalpy
/ kJ mol-1

Hydration enthalpy
of M2+/kJ mol-1

CaSO4

4.6 x 10-2

-2480

-1650

SrSO4

7.1 x 10-4

-2484

-1480

BaSO4

9.4 x 10-6

-2374

-1360

The lattice enthalpies are varying very little. Suggest why this is so.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) How do the solubilities of the sulphates vary in the group?
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Suggest why this occurs, referring to the hydration and lattice enthalpy data given in the table.
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TOTAL / 15

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A2 Level

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TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 8

TEST QUESTION I
The reaction between sodium and water can be represented by the following equation:
Na(s) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) + H2(g); H = -183.7 kJ mol-1
a) The reaction can be broken down into the following seven steps.
Name the enthalpy change for each step.
Step 1

Na(s) Na(g); H = + 109 kJ mol-1

Name ............................................................................................................................................................. [1]


Step 2

Na(g) Na+(g) + e-; H = + 500 kJ mol-1

Name ............................................................................................................................................................. [1]


Step 3

Na+(g) + aq Na+(aq); H = -406 kJ mol-1

Name ............................................................................................................................................................. [1]


Step 4

H2O(l) + aq H+(aq) + OH-(aq); H x

Name ............................................................................................................................................................. [1]


Step 5

H+(aq) H+(g) + aq ; H = +1090 kJ mol-1

Name ............................................................................................................................................................. [1]


Step 6

H+(g) + e- H(g); H = -1316 kJ mol-1

Name ............................................................................................................................................................. [1]


Step 7

H(g) H2(g); H = -218 kJ mol-1

Name ............................................................................................................................................................. [1]


b) (i)

Sketch an enthalpy diagram for this reaction.

[4]
TOTAL(Continued.....)
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A2 Level

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TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 8 Continued


2

TEST QUESTION I
b) (ii) Apply Hesss law to your diagram and then calculate the standard enthalpy change (H x) for Step 4.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) From your answer to b) (ii), predict a value for the enthalpy of neutralisation of a strong acid by a strong base
and explain your answer.
Predicted value .............................................................................................................................................. [1]
Explanation ......................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

TOTAL / 15

A2 Level

TOPIC 17

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Questionsheet 9

TEST QUESTION II
Magnesium oxide is an ionic compound that can easily by prepared by burning magnesium in excess oxygen. It
has a melting point of 2827 C and so is commonly used for manufacturing linings for open-hearth steel furnaces.
Use the information in the table below to answer the following questions.
H / kJ mol-1
O2(g) 2O(g)
O(g) + e- O-(g)
O-(g) + e- O2-(g)
Mg(s) Mg(g)
Mg(g) Mg+(g) + eMg+(g) Mg2+(g) + eMg2+(g) + O2-(g) MgO(s)

+498
-142
+844
+147
+738
+1451
-3884

a) Write a chemical equation which represents the standard enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) (i)

Construct a Born-Haber cycle which could be used to calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of
magnesium oxide. Write, by each arrow, the value of the enthalpy change it represents.

[4]
TOTAL(Continued...)
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A2 Level

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TOPIC 17 Questionsheet 9 Continued

TEST QUESTION II
(ii)Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of magnesium oxide.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) The standard molar entropy, S, for each species involved in the standard enthalpy of formation of magnesium
oxide is shown below.
S / J K-1 mol-1
Mg(s)

32.7

O2(g)

205.0

MgO(s)

27.0

Use the data to calculate the standard entropy change for the formation of magnesium oxide.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
d) (i)

Calculate the standard free energy change at 298 K for the formation of magnesium oxide. Show the
equation on which your calculation is based.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) Why does this reaction not happen spontaneously at 298 K?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL / 15

A2 Level

TOPIC 17

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Questionsheet 10

TEST QUESTION III


Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, and calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, are both hydroxides of Group 2 metals but
have different solubilities in water.
a) Explain, with a suitable example, the meaning of the following terms.
(i)

Enthalpy of hydration (of an ion)

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) Enthalpy of solution (of an ionic compound)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) Use the following data to answer parts (i) and (ii) of this question.
Enthalpy change
Lattice enthalpy of MgCl2(s)
Enthalpy of solution of MgCl2(s)
Enthalpy of hydration of Cl-(g)
(i)

H /kJ mol-1
+2493
-155
-364

Construct an enthalpy diagram for the dissolving of MgCl2(s) in water. Your diagram should include the
enthalpy of hydration of Mg2+(g), as well as the enthalpy changes shown in the table.

[3]
(ii) Apply Hesss law to your enthalpy diagram to write an equation which relates the enthalpy of solution
of a compound to its lattice enthalpy and the hydration enthalpies of its ions.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Calculate a value for the enthalpy of hydration of Mg2+(g)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL (Continued...)
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A2 Level

TOPIC 17

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Questionsheet 10 Continued

TEST QUESTION III


c) (i)

Describe how the value of H solution changes as solubility increases.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Explain why, on descending Group 2, the lattice enthalpy of the metal hydroxides decreases.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iii) Explain why calcium hydroxide is more soluble in water than magnesium hydroxide under standard
conditions, even though the hydration enthalpy of cations decreases down Group 2.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL / 15