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Resistance + Propulsion: Scaling laws

A 6 m model of a 180 m long ship is towed in a model basin at a speed of 1.61 m/s. The towing pull is 20 N.
The wetted surface of the model is 4 m 2. Estimate the corresponding speed for the ship in knots and the
effective power PE, assuming resistance coefficients to be independent of scale for simplicity.
Solution
The scale is:

Ls 180

30
Lm
6

The wetted surface at full scale is:

S s 2 S m 30 2 4 3600 m2
The Froude number is:

Vm
1.61

0.21
g Lm
9.81 6

Fn

Vs Fn

g Ls 0.21 9.81 180 8.824 m/s

8.824
17.15 kn.
0.5144
A simple scaling law assumes that the resistance coefficients remain constant. (More accurate prediction
methods have a slight speed dependence of the frictional resistance coefficient and introduce a correlation
coefficient.) Then:
1 kn = 0.5144 m/s. Thus the speed of the full-scale ship is Vs

cT

1
2

RT , m
20
1
541 kN
2
Vm S m 2 1000 1.612 3600

Resistance + Propulsion: Simple scaling laws

a) A ship of 15000 t displacement has speed 20 kn. Determine the corresponding speed for a similar
ship of displacement 14000 t using geometric and Froude similarity.
b) A ship of 140 m length has speed 15 kn. Determine the corresponding speed for a 7 m model.
c) A ship of 5000 t displacement has speed 18 kn, length 120 m. The towing tank model has 6 m
length. At which speed should the model be tested? What is the ratio of the ship-to-model PE at this
speed?
Solution
a) Let's denote the ship with 15000 t displacement with index 1, the other with index 2. The lengths L
of the ships correlate to the displacements following geometric similarity:

L13 1

L32 2

L1 3 1

L2 3 2

V1
gL1

V2
gL2

L
V2 V1 2 V1 2
L1
1

1/ 6

14000

15000

20

1/ 6

19.8 kn

b) We keep Froude similarity:

Vm
V
s
gLm
gLs

Vm Vs

Lm
7
15
3.35 kn = 1.73 m/s
Ls
140

c) We keep Froude similarity:

Vm
V
s
gLm
gLs

Vm Vs

Lm
6
18
4.02 kn = 2.07 m/s
Ls
120

2
The effective power follows from PE = RV. The resistance is expressed as R c 12 V A ; thus

it scales with 3, as the area scales with 2 and the speed in Froude similarity scales with 0.5. Thus
the power scales with 3.5:

PE , s Ls

PE , m Lm

3.5

120

3.5

35777

Resistance + Propulsion: Power estimate following simple scaling laws

A ship (L = 122.00 m, B = 19.80 m, T = 7.33 m, = 8700 t) has the following power requirements:
V [kn]
P [kW]

16
17
18
19
2420 3010 3740 4620

20
5710

Estimate the power requirements for a similar ship with 16250 t displacement at speed 19.5 knots.
Solution
We convert the speed of the new ship of 19.5 kn to the corresponding speed for the original ship, following
Froude and geometric similarity:
1/ 6
1/ 6
gL1
1
8700

V1 V2
V2
19.5
17.57 kn

gL2
16250
2
For this speed, the power for the original ship is linearly interpolated to:
3740 3010
P1 (17.57 17)
3010 3426 kW
18 17
This is scaled to the new ship:

new

old

P P1

3.5 / 3

16250

8700

3426

3.5 / 3

7088 kW

Explanation: Power scales with speed V3 and area A, which gives for the speed with Froude similarity a scale
with length scale 1.5 and for the area 2, thus together 3.5. If we use the displacement instead of the length,
we divide by 3. Hence the exponent of 3.5/3.

Resistance + Propulsion: Ship vs Car - Scaling and resistance prediction

A car has a wind resistance value of CW = 0.3. The car has a frontal area of 2 m 2. The air density is 1.23
kg/m3 and the car weighs 1200 kg.
Now compare the efficiency of a ship to that of the car. A ferry has a resistance of 2000 kN at a speed of 25
kn. The ferry has a mass of 16500 t, length Lpp = 190 m, and a wetted surface of 4400 m2.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Compute the necessary power for car speeds of 10, 20, 30, 40, 100 and 200 km/h.
What scale has to be taken to get a ship model of same mass as the car?
What is the model speed if Froude similarity is kept?
What is the model resistance if the correlation allowance is cA = 0?
How fast could the car go with the same power the ship model needs in towing at design Froude
number?

sea = 1.1610-6 m2/s, fresh = 1.1410-6 m2/s, sea = 1026 kg/m3

Solution
a) The force follows from:

F CW

air 2
V A
2

V
10 km/h
20 km/h
30 km/h
40 km/h
100 km/h
200 km/h

2.78 m/s
5.56 m/s
8.3 m/s
11.11 m/s
27.78 m/s
55.60 m/s

F
2.85 N
11.39 N
25.63 N
45.60 N
284.72 N
1138.9 N

P = F V
8W
63 W
212 W
506 W
7910 W
63272 W

b) Geometric similarity gives:

1/ 3

1/ 3

16500
s

23.957

1.2
m
Then the model length is:
L
190
Lm s
7.93 m
23.957
c) The ship speed is:
Vs 25 0.5144 12.861 m/s
The Froude number of the ship is:
Vs
12.861
Fn

0.298
gLs
9.81 190
Model and full-scale ship have the same Froude number, thus:
Vm Fn gLm 0.298 9.81 7.93 2.63 m/s
d) First, we compute the Reynolds numbers of ship and model:
V L 12.861 190
Rn , s s s
21 108
sea
1.16 10 6
V L
2.63 7.93
Rn , m m m
18.3 106
6
fresh
1.14 10
The frictional resistance coefficients are:

0.075
0.075

1.398 10 3
2
log10 Rn, s 2 log10 21 108 2 2
0.075
0.075

2.708 10 3
2
log10 Rn, m 2 log10 18.3 106 2 2

cF , s
cF , m

The total resistance coefficient for the ship is:

cT , s

RT , s
2 106
1
1
5.357 10 3
2
2
V S
1026 12.86 4400
2 sea s s
2

We assume the same wave resistance coefficient for full scale and model scale. Thus:
cT , m cF , m cF , s cT , s ( 2.708 1.398 5.357) 10 3 6.676 10 3
2
This yields a resistance (with S m S s / ):

RT ,m cT ,m

m 2 Ss
1000
4400
Vm 2 6.676 10 3
2.63 2
177 kN
2
2

23.957 2

P CW

air 3
P
465.5
V Am V 3
3
10.8 m/s
1
2
CW 2 air A
0.3 12 1.23 2
= 38.9 km/h

Resistance + Propulsion: Sailing yacht test

A sailing yacht has been tested. The full-scale dimensions are Lpp = 9.00 m, S = 24.0 m2, = 5.150 m3.
The yacht will operate in sea water of = 1025 kg/m3, = 1.19106 m2/s.
The model was tested with scale = 7.5 in fresh water with = 1000 kg/m3, = 1.145106 m2/s.
The experiments yield for the model:
Vm
RT,m

[m/s] 0.5
0.6
0.75
[N] 0.402 0.564 0.867

0.85
1.114

1.0
1.1
1.584 2.054

1.2
2.751

a) Determine the form factor following Hughes-Prohaska.

b) Determine the form factor following ITTC'78. For simplification assume the exponent n for Fn to be
4 and determine just and k in regression analysis.
Solution
The model data are:

Lm = Ls/ = 9/7.5 = 1.2 m

Sm = Ss/2 = 24/7.52 = 0.427 m2

We consider only the lowest 4 speeds as for the others a considerable wave influence is to be expected.
a) We compute the total resistance coefficient of the model, using Fn V / gL , Rn V L / ,
cF , 0 0.067 /(log10 Rn 2) 2
Vm
0.50 m/s
0.60 m/s
0.75 m/s
0.85 m/s

RT,m
0.402
0.564
0.867
1.114

Fn
0.146
0.175
0.219
0.248

Rn105
5.24
6.29
7.86
8.91

cF0 103
4.843
4.643
4.415
4.295

cT 103
7.532
7.338
7.219
7.222

cT/cF0
1.555
1.580
1.635
1.681

Fn4/cF0
0.091
0.197
0.507
0.859

Then regression analysis (e.g. using a spreadsheet like Excel) yields = 0.165 and k = 0.545.
(If only the last 3 points are used, = 0.190, k = 0.540.)
2
b) We compute now: cF 0.075 /(log10 Rn 2)

Vm
0.50
0.60
0.75
0.85

RT,m
0.402
0.564
0.867
1.114

Fn
0.146
0.175
0.219
0.248

Rn105
5.24
6.29
7.86
8.91

cF 103
5.422
5.198
4.943
4.807

cT 103
7.532
7.338
7.219
7.222

cT/cF
1.389
1.412
1.461
1.502

Fn4/cF
0.082
0.176
0.453
0.768

The expression for n = 4 is:

cT
F4
(1 k ) n
cF
cF
Regression analysis yields = 0.189 and k = 0.376. The form factor differs from Hughes-Prohaska,
as the ITTC'57 line considers already to some extent a form influence.

Resistance & Propulsion: ITTC78 for underwater vehicle

An underwater vehicle shall be tested to make a resistance prediction. The streamlined body is tested in a
wind tunnel. The following data are given:
Sm = 1.2 m2,

Lm = 1.5 m,

Vm = 30 m/s,

T = 25C.

The density and viscosity of air at standard atmospheric pressure are (as function of temperature):
273
1.293
kg/m3
T 273
= 105(1.723+0.0047T) kg/(ms)
where T is the temperature in C.
The model resistance measured in the wind tunnel is 3.9 N. The full-scale vehicle is 9 m long and operated
in the ocean at 15C, = 1.19106 m2/s, = 1026 kg/m3.
a) What similarity law is most important and what full-scale speed in m/s corresponds to keeping this
law?
b) What is the full-scale resistance at this speed (using same total resistance coefficient)?
c) Predict the full-scale resistance following ITTC'78 assuming c AA = cA = 0 for full-scale speed 2 m/s?
d) Can the accuracy of prediction be improved by changing the temperature in the wind tunnel? How?
Solution
a) For an underwater vehicle, wave resistance (and thus Froude similarity) can be neglected. Thus
Reynolds similarity is most important. Same Reynolds number then yields the full-scale speed:
273
273
m 1.293
1.293
1.1845 kg/m3
T 273
25 273
m 10 5 1.723 0.0047 T 105 1.723 0.0047 25 105 1.8405 kg/(ms)

Rn , m

m 10 5 1.8405

1.5538 10 5 m2/s
m
1.1845
V L
30 1.5
m m
2.896 106
m
1.5538 10 5

Keeping Reynolds similarity (Rn,m=Rn,s) then yields:

R
R
2.896 106 1.19 106
Vs n , s s n , m s
0.3829 m/s
Ls
Ls
9
b) The total resistance coefficient is:

cT

1
2

Rm
3.9
1
6.097 10 3
2
2
Vm Sm 2 1.1845 30 1.2

The wetted surface at full scale is:

2

Ls
9
1.2
43.2 m2
1.5
Lm
Thus the resistance at full scale (assuming same resistance coefficient) is:

1026
RT cT Vs2 S s 6.097 10 3
0.38292 43.2 19.8 N
2
2
S s S m

c) The wave resistance (coefficient) is zero. Thus we have simply:

cT (1 k ) cF
0.075
0.075
cF

3.767 10 3
2
2
6
log10 Rn 2 log10 2.896 10 2

cT
6.097 10

1.6185
cF 3.767 10 3
Thus, we have the resistance at 2 m/s:
1 k

Vs Ls
29

15.12 106
6
s
1.19 10
0.075
0.075
cF

2.795 10 3
2
2
6
log10 Rn 2 log10 15.12 10 2
Rn

cT (1 k ) cF 1.6185 2.795 10 4.52 103

2
3 1026
2
RT cT

Vs S s 4.52 10

2 43.2 401 N

d) Reducing the temperature increases the Reynolds number. However, to get the same Reynolds
number in this case would require a temperature of 163C...

Resistance & Propulsion: ITTC57 full-scale prediction

The full-scale ship is 140 m long and has speed 15 kn, the model 4.9 m. The resistance is measured to 19 N
in the model basin. Following the ITTC'57 approach, what is the predicted full-scale resistance?
The wetted surface of the full-scale ship is 3300 m 2. The density of sea water 1025 kg/m3, that of fresh water
1000 kg/m3. m = 1.14106 m2/s , for fresh water, s = 1.19106 m2/s for sea water. Use a correlation
coefficient of cA =0.0004.
Solution
The speed for the model follows from Froude similarity:
Lm
4.9
Vm V s
15 0.5144
1.44 m/s
Ls
140
The wetted surface follows from geometric similarity:

S m L2m

S s L2s

Sm Ss

L2m
4.9 2

3300

4.043 m2
2
2
Ls
140

V L
1.44 4.9
Rn , m m m
6.189 10 6
m
1.14 10 6

Vs Ls (15 0.5144) 140

9.078 10 8
6
s
1.19 10
This yields friction resistance coefficients following ITTC'57:
0.075
0.075
c F ,m

3.267 10 3
2
2
6
log10 Rn 2
log10 6.189 10 2
0.075
0.075
c F ,s

1.549 10 3
2
2
8
log10 Rn 2
log 10 9.078 10 2
The total resistance of the model follows from the model test:
Rn , s

cT , m

RT ,m
1
2

mV S m
2
m

1
2

19
4.533 10 3
2
1000 1.44 4.053

The wave resistance coefficient (assumed same for model and ship) is then:
c w cT ,m c F ,m 4.533 10 3 3.267 10 3 1.266 10 3
Thus the total resistance coefficient of the ship is:
cT , s c F , s c w c A (1.549 1.266 0.4) 10 3 3.215 10 3
The resistance follows:

RT , s cT ,s

s 2
1025
Vs S s 3.215 10 3
7.716 2 3300 323.7 kN
2
2

Resistance & Propulsion: ITTC78 full-scale prediction including appendages

A ship model with scale = 23 was tested in the model basin with 104.1 N total resistance for the bare hull
model at towing speed Vm = 2.064 m/s. The wetted surface of the model is Sm = 10.671 m2 and its length Lm =
7.187 m. The viscosity is = 1.14106 m2/s in fresh water and = 1.19106 m2/s in sea water, density =
1000 kg/m3 in fresh water, 1025 kg/m3 in sea water.
a) What is the prediction for the total calm-water resistance of the bare hull in sea water of the fullscale ship following ITTC'78 with a form factor k = 0.12? Assume standard roughness ks/Loss = 106,
corresponding roughly to 150 m average surface roughness, neglect air resistance.
b) The appendages of the ship (bilge keels, shaft brackets and rudder) add 8% to the total resistance of
the smooth bare hull. What is the total resistance now?
c) Fouling increases the surface roughness by a factor 10 to ks/Loss = 105. What is the total resistance
now?
Solution
The full-scale ship data are:

Ls Lm 23 7.187 165.30 m
Vs

Vm

23 2.064 9.899 m/s

S s S m 23 10.761 5645 m2
The Reynolds numbers for model and full scale are:
2

Vm Lm 2.064 7.187

1.301 107
6
m
1.14 10
V L
9.899 165.3
s s
1.375 109
s
1.19 10 6

Rn , m
Rn , s

The friction coefficients follow:

0.075
0.075

2.867 10 3
2
2
7
log10 Rn 2 log10 1.301 10 2
0.075
0.075

1.472 10 3
2
2
9
log10 Rn 2 log10 1.375 10 2

cF , m

cF , s

The frictional resistance for model and full scale follow:

m 2
1000
Vm S m 2.867 10 3
2.064 2 10.671 65.2 N
2
2

1025
cF , s s Vs2 S s 1.472 10 3
9.899 2 5645 417.2 kN
2
2

RF ,m c F ,m

RF , s

a) We compute the correlation coefficient following ITTC78:

k
c A 10 3 105 3 s 0.64 10 3 105 3 10 6 0.64 0.41 10 3
Loss

The total resistance coefficient of the model and the model is:

cT , m

1
2

RT , m
104.1
1
4.580 10 3
2
2
mVm S m 2 1000 2.064 10.671

The total resistance coefficient of the full-scale ship follows then according ITTC'78:
cT , s (1 k )(cF , s cF , m ) cT , m c A (1 0.12)(1.472 2.867) 4.580 0.41 3.427 10 3

RT ,s cT , s

s 2
1025
Vs S s 3.427 10 3
9.899 2 5645 971.4 kN
2
2

c) The fouling changes the correlation coefficient:

k
c A 10 3 105 3 s 0.64 10 3 105 3 10 5 0.64 1.622 10 3
Loss

cT , s (1 k )(c F , s c F ,m ) cT ,m c A (1 0.12)(1.472 2.867) 4.580 1.622 4.639 10 3

RT ,s cT , s

s 2
1025
Vs S s 4.640 10 3
9.899 2 5645 1315 kN
2
2

Resistance + Propulsion: ITTC'57 and ITTC'78

A ship model (scale = 23) was tested in fresh water with: RT,m = 104.1 N, Vm = 2.064 m/s, Sm = 10.671 m2,
Lm = 7.187 m. m = 1000 kg/m3, s = 1026 kg/m3, m = 1.14 106 m2/s, s = 1.19 106 m2/s
What is the prediction for the total calm-water resistance in sea water of the full-scale ship following
ITTC'57? Assume cA = 0.0002.
Solution
The full-scale ship data are:

Ls Lm 23 7.187 165.3 m
Vs

Vm

23 2.064 9.899 m/s

S s S m 23 10.761 5645 m2
2

Thus:

Vm Lm 2.064 7.187

1.301 107
m
1.14 10 6
V L
9.899 165.3
Rn , s s s
1.375 109
6
s
1.19 10
0.075
0.075
cF , m

2.867 10 3
2
2
7
log10 Rn, m 2 log10 1.301 10 2
Rn , m

0.075
0.075

1.472 10 3
2
2
9
log10 Rn, s 2 log10 1.375 10 2

1000
RF , m cF , m m Vm2 S m 2.867 10 3
2.0642 10.671 65.1 N
2
2
s 2
1026
RF , s cF , s Vs S s 1.472 10 3
9.8992 5645 417.7 kN
2
2

cF , s

Residual resistance: RR RT RF . Thus RR , m RT , m RF , m 104.1 65.1 39 N.

Residual resistance coefficient:

cR , m

1
2

RR , m
39
1
1.718 10 3
2
2
m Vm Sm 2 1000 2.064 10.671

The residual resistance coefficient is assumed to be constant. Then:

RR , s cR , s

s 2
1026
Vs S s 1.78 10 3
9.899 2 5645 487.5 kN
2
2

3
3
Total resistance coefficient: cT , s cF , s cR , m c A (1.472 1.718 0.2) 10 3.390 10
Total calm-water resistance at full scale:

RT , s cT , s

s 2
1026
Vs S s 3.390 10 3
9.8992 5645 962.9 kN
2
2

Resistance + Propulsion: Power scaling from model to ship following ITTC'57

A model of 6 m length has total resistance 70 N at 1.8 m/s. The wetted surface of the model is 5 m 2.
Determine the resistance for a geometrically similar ship of length 130 m using the ITTC'57 approach.
Density of model basin water m = 1000 kg/m3, density of sea water s = 1026 kg/m3. m = 1.14 106 m2/s for
fresh water, s = 1.19 106 m2/s for sea water. Use a correlation coefficient cA = 0.00035.
Solution
The speed for the ship follows from Froude similarity:
Ls
130
Vs Vm
1. 8
8.38 m/s = 16.3 kn
Lm
6
The wetted surface follows from geometric similarity:
2

L
S s Ls

S s S m s

S m Lm
Lm
The Reynolds numbers are:

130
5

2347 m2

Vm Lm
1.8 6

9.47 106
m
1.14 10 6
V L
8.38 130
s s
9.15 108
6
s
1.19 10

Rn , m
Rn , s

This yields friction resistance coefficients following ITTC'57:

0.075
0.075

3.028 10 3
2
2
6
log10 Rn, m 2 log10 9.47 10 2
0.075
0.075

1.548 10 3
2
log10 Rn, s 2 log10 9.15 108 2 2

cF , m
cF , s

The total resistance coefficient of the model follows from the model test:

cT , m

RT , m
70
1
8.642 10 3
2
2
1
V S
1000 1.8 5
2 m m m
2

The wave resistance coefficient (assumed same for model and ship) is then:
cw cT , m cF , m (8.642 3.028) 10 3 5.614 103
Thus the total resistance coefficient of the ship is:
cT , s cF , s cw c A (1.548 5.614 0.35) 103 7.511 103
The resistance follows:

RT , s cT , s

s 2
1026
Vs S s 7.511 10 3
8.382 2347 635.1 kN
2
2

Resistance + Propulsion: Resistance prediction with base design following ITTC'57

A base ship (Index O) has the following main dimensions: Lpp,O = 128.0 m, BO = 25.6 m, TO = 8.53 m, CB =
0.565. At a speed VO = 17 kn, the ship has a total calm-water resistance of RT,O = 460 kN. The viscosity of
water is = 1.19 106 m2/s and density = 1026 kg/m3.
What is the resistance of the ship with Lpp = 150 m if the ship is geometrically and dynamically similar to the
base ship and the approach of ITTC'57 is used (essentially resistance decomposition following Froude's
approach)?

1/ 3
1/ 3
The wetted surface may be estimated by an empirical estimate: S 3.4 0.5 Lwl

Lwl may be estimated by Lwl = 1.01Lpp.

The Reynolds number shall be based on Lpp. The correlation coefficient can be neglected.
Solution
The ships are geometrically similar with scaling factor:

L pp ,1
L pp ,O

150
1.1719
128

We have:

SO 3.4 1 / 3 0.5 Lwl 1 / 3 3.4 15792.41 / 3 0.5 129.28 15792.41 / 3 m2

S1 2 SO 1.1719 2 3761.9 5166.4 m2
The speed of the base ship is VO = 17 kn = 170.5144 = 8.7448 m/s. Dynamic similarity means:
V1 VO 1.1719 8.7448 9.467 m/s
Then we have:

VO L pp ,O

8.7448 128
9.406 108
6

1.19 10
V1 L pp ,1 9.467 150
Rn ,1

1.193 109
6

1.19 10
0.075
0.075
cF , O

1.5423 103
2
2
8
log10 Rn,O 2 log10 9.406 10 2
Rn ,O

cF ,1

0.075
0.075

1.4976 10 3
2
2
9
log10 Rn,1 2 log10 1.193 10 2
2
3 1026
2

RF , O cF , O

VO SO 1.5423 10
8.7448 3761.9 227.6 kN
2
2

1026
RF ,1 cF ,1 V12 S1 1.4976 10 3
9.467 2 5166.4 355.7 kN
2
2
The residual resistance is RR RT RF . Thus:
RR ,O RT ,O RF , O 460 227.6 232.4 kN

Then:
RR ,1 RR , O 3 232.4 1.17193 374.0 kN

and

Resistance & Propulsion: Ship-propeller interaction based on model test

Consider the propeller and ship described below:

s
f
W
D
J
n
KT
V
R
0

density of sea water

kinematic viscosity of sea water
kinematic viscosity of fresh water
wake fraction
propeller diameter
propeller rpm
thrust coefficient
ship speed
relative rotative efficiency
open-water efficiency

1026
1.13910-6
1.18810-6
0.135
4.5
0.833
3
0.1594
13
0.95
0.684

kg/m3
m/s2
m/s2
m
1/s
m/s

a) The ship resistance at design speed is 580 kN. The ship is at constant speed. What is the thrust
deduction fraction t?
b) Give an estimate for the propulsive efficiency D.
c) For a 1:16 model of the ship a wake fraction w = 0.19 is measured in towing tank tests. What should
be the propeller rpm at the model speed corresponding to full-scale design speed?
d) Compare Reynolds numbers at 0.7R for the model and at full scale. The full-scale propeller chord c
at r/R = 0.7 is 2 m.
Solution
a) The propeller thrust follows from:

T K T n 2 D 4 0.1594 1026 3 2 4.5 4 603.5 kN

Thrust and resistance (without propeller) are coupled by:

T (1 t ) RT

t 1

RT
580
1
0.04
T
603.5

The thrust deduction is thus 4%.

b) Inflow velocity: V A Vs (1 w) 13 (1 0.135) 11.245 m/s
RT V s
580 13

1.111
Hull efficiency: H
T VA
603.5 11 .245
Propulsive efficiency: D 0 R H 0.684 0.95 1.111 0.72
c) Similarity laws give:

Vs

Vm

Vm

Vs
13

3.25 m/s

16

Inflow velocity in model scale: V A,m Vm (1 wm ) 3.25 (1 0.19) 2.63 m/s

The advance number in model scale is equal to the advance number in full scale. This gives:
V A, m
V A, m
2.63
n

11.2 Hz
J Dm J ( Ds / ) 0.833 (4.5 / 16)
Thus the model propeller turns at 674 rpm.
d) Circumferential velocity at r/R=0.7: VR V A2 (0.7nD ) 2
At full scale:

VR ,s

At model scale: V R ,m

11.245 2 (0.7 3 4.5) 2 31.75 m/s

2.63 2 (0.7 11.2 ( 4.5 / 16)) 2 7.4 m/s

VR c

VR , s c s
31.75 2

56 10 6
At full scale: Rn , s
s
1.139 10 6
VR ,m c m 7.4 ( 2 / 16)

0.78 10 6
At model scale: Rn ,m
6
m
1.188 10
Reynolds number: Rn

The model scale Reynolds number is close to the point where laminar/turbulent transition is
expected. Unless turbulence is stimulated, some contamination due to partially laminar flow may be
expected.

Resistance + Propulsion: Resistance prediction with model tests

Make a resistance prognosis for a newly designed containership. A model of the ship is towed in a model
basin. Temperature of seawater shall be 15, its salinity 3.5%, temperature of water in basin 20. The model
basin measures the values given in the table below.
V [kn] 2.4
2.6
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
R [N] 23.24 28.38 33.92 37.53 41.47 44.79 47.49 52.13 58.71
The model has Lpp = 5.6 m at model scale = 25 and wetted surface S = 8.16 m2.
a) Compute density, viscosity and wetted surface for model and full scale, using the formulae:
106 0.014 s (0.000645 t 0.0503) t 1.75

p1
p2 0.7028423 p1

p1 = 5884.8170366 + t(39.803732+t(-0.3191477+t0.0004291133)) + 26.126277s

p2 = 1747.4508988 + t(11.51588 0.046331033t) s(38.5429655+0.1353985t))
where s is the salinity and t the temperature in C.
b) Compute Froude and Reynolds numbers for the model test, the speeds and Reynolds numbers for
full scale.
c) Compute the frictional (ITTC'57), residual and total resistance coefficients for the model.
d) Compute the frictional and total resistance coefficients for full scale as well as the resistance at full
scale following ITTC'57, assuming cA = 0.0003.
Solution
2
a) Using Ls Lm , S s S m and the formulas with s = 0.035 and t = 20, we get:

Lpp [m]
S [m2]
[t/m3]
[m2/s]
b) Fn

Model
5.6
8.16
0.9983
1.002106

Full scale
140
5100
1.026
1.190106

V
V L
Rn
and
and 1 kn = 0.5144 m/s. Then we have:
gL pp

Vm [kn]
2.4
2.6
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Vm [m/s]
1.235
1.337
1.440
1.492
1.543
1.595
1.646
1.698
1.749

Fn
0.1666
0.1804
0.1943
0.2013
0.2082
0.2151
0.2221
0.2290
0.2360

Rn,m106
6.900
7.475
8.050
8.337
8.625
8.912
9.200
9.487
9.775

Vs [m/s]
6.173
6.687
7.202
7.459
7.716
7.973
8.230
8.488
8.745

Vs [kn]
12.0
13.0
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0

Rn,s106
778.1
842.9
907.8
940.2
972.6
1005.0
1037.4
1069.9
1102.3

c) cT , m

cF , m

RT , m
1
Vm2 S m
2 m
0.075
log10 Rn, m 2 2

cR cT , m cF , m

Vm [kn]
2.4
2.6
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

RT [N]
23.24
28.38
33.92
37.53
41.47
44.79
47.49
52.13
58.71

cT,m103
3.744
3.895
4.014
4.141
4.275
4.324
4.303
4.442
4.712

cF,m103
3.203
3.158
3.116
3.097
3.079
3.061
3.044
3.028
3.012

cR103
0.540
0.738
0.898
1.043
1.197
1.264
1.259
1.414
1.700

d) cT , s cF , s cR c A
0.075
cF , s
log10 Rn, s 2 2

RT , s cT , s

s 2
Vs S s
2
Vs [kn]
12.0
13.0
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0

cF,s103
1.579
1.564
1.549
1.542
1.536
1.530
1.524
1.518
1.512

cT,s103
2.420
2.602
2.747
2.886
3.033
3.094
3.083
3.232
3.513

RT [kN]
242.2
304.4
372.7
420.1
472.0
514.6
546.4
609.2
702.9

Resistance + Propulsion: Wageningen propeller behind ship

Consider a ship with speed Vs = 15 kn, thrust deduction fraction t = 0.2, wake fraction w = 0.15. The ship is
equipped with a Wageningen B4-40 propeller with diameter D = 6 m. The water density is = 1025 kg/m3.
The resistance curve between 10 and 16 kn is given in good approximation by (R in kN, V in kn):

R 10 V 2 185 V 1100
a) What is the required thrust?
b) At what points (J, KT, KQ, 0) does the propeller operate assuming P/D = 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2,
respectively?
c) What propeller P/D would you chose? What are the corresponding open-water efficiency, torque and
delivered power of the engine?
d) What are then delivered power and open-water efficiency at Vs = 12 kn?
Use the file Wageningen_B4-40.pdf to find the solution.
Solution
a) Resistance at Vs = 15 kn: R 10 V 2 185 V 1100 10 152 185 15 1100 575 kN
Thrust at Vs = 15 kn:

RT
575

718.85 kN
1 t 1 0.2
KT

T
n2 D 4

VA
nD

The inflow velocity is: VA (1 w) Vs (1 0.15) (15 0.5144) 6.559 m/s

We eliminate the unknown rpm from these two equations:

KT
T
718.75

0.453 KT 0.453 J 2
2
2
2
2
2
J
VA D 1.025 6.559 6
We compute a characteristics curve:
J
K

0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85

0.137 0.163 0.191 0.222 0.255 0.290 0.327

0.90
0.367

Now we plot this function in the diagram for the B4-40 propeller. The intersections of this KT = f(J)
curve with the KT curves of the propeller for the various P/D values (solid lines) gives
(approximately taken from the diagram) J and KT. The corresponding values of 0 and 10KQ for this
J are listed as well:
P/
D
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2

KT

10KQ

0.570
0.620
0.665
0.705
0.745

0.147
0.174
0.200
0.225
0.251

0.150
0.265
0.330
0.400
0.475

0.620
0.630
0.635
0.630
0.625

c) The best efficiency is for P/D = 1.0 with 0 = 0.635. So we select this propeller. The propeller rpm
follows from:

VA
V
6.559
n A
1.64 s-1 = 98.6 rpm
nD
J D 0.665 6

2
5
2
5
Torque follows from: Q K Q n D 0.033 1025 1.64 6 707 kNm
The necessary delivered power follows from: PD 2 n Q 2 1.64 707 7285 kW

R12 10 122 185 12 1100 320 kN

R
320
T12 12
400 kN
1 t 0.8
VA (1 0.15) (12 0.5144) 5.247 m/s
KT ,12 0.394 J 2

J
KT,12

0.55
0.119

0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85

0.142 0.166 0.193 0.222 0.252 0.285
P/
D
1.0

This yields:

KT

10KQ

0.690

0.188

0.405

0.650

VA
5.247

J D 0.690 6

0.90
0.319

Resistance + Propulsion: Containership lengthened Lap-Keller

A container ship shall be lengthened by adding a parallel midship section of 12.50 m length (40' container
and space between stacks). At full engine power (100% MCR = maximum continuous rating), the ship is
capable of V = 15.6 kn. Ship data (original before conversion):
Lp

= 117.20 m

rb

Lwl
B

= 120.00 m
= 20.00 m

CB
lc
b

= 0.688
= 0.0 m

= 6.56 m

Wake fraction and thrust deduction are estimated by: w 0.75 CB 0.24 and t 0.5 C B 0.15
Viscosity and density are: = 1.1910-6 m2/s, sea = 1025 kg/m3
The ship is equipped with a propeller with 0 = 0.55. The relative rotative efficiency is R = 1.
a) What is the power requirement before conversion?
b) What is the power requirement after conversion, if the propeller is assumed to remain unchanged?
Base your prediction on Lap-Keller1, with correlation coefficient c A 0.35 103 .
Solution
a) Considerations for the original hull
The displacement is: CB L pp B T 0.688 117 .20 20.00 6.56 10579 m3
The wetted surface following Keller (1973) is:
S (3.4 1 / 3 0.5 L pp ) 1 / 3 (3.4 105791 / 3 0.5 117 .20) 105791 / 3 2925 m2
The midship section area is:

Am B T rb2
2 20.00 6.56 1.5 2
2 130.20 m2
2

Thus Cm

C
0.688
Am
130.20
0.692 .

0.9926 and C P B
CM 0.9926
B T 20 6.56

CP = 0.692 and lcb = 0 make this ship a group C ship according to Keller's (1973) Figure 1.
The calculation length for Lap-Keller is Ld 1.01 L pp 1.01 117 .20 118 .37 m.
( Ld Lwl for Lwl 1.01L pp , but this is not the case here.)
The prismatic coefficient based on this length is CPd = CP/1.01 = 0.685.
The speed is V = 15.6 kn = 8.025 m/s.
The Reynolds number is: Rn
cF following ITTC'57 is: cF

V Ld 8.025 118 .37

7.983 108
6

1.19 10

0.075
0.075

1.574 10 3
2
2
8
log10 Rn 2 log10 7.983 10 2

V
8.025

0.891 and CP = 0.692 we read from the diagram in Fig.4 of Keller

CPd L
0.685 118 .37
(1973): r = 0.025. We do not have to apply any correction for CP, as CP < 0.8. Then:

Lap, A.J.W. (1954). Diagrams for determining the resistance of single screw ships. Int. Shipb. Progr., p.179; Keller, W.H. auf'm (1973). Extended
diagrams for determining the resistance and required power of single-screw ships. Int. Shipb. Progr., p.253

cR

Am
130.20
r
0.025 1.111 10 3
S
2925

B

20.00

K 2 1 0.05
2.4 1 0.05
2.4 1.032
T

6.56

The total resistance is:

1025
RT c F c R c A K 2 V 2 S 1.574 1.111 0.35 1.032
8.025 2 2925
2
2
= 302 kN
PE RT V 302 8.025 2424 kW
w 0.75 CB 0.24 0.75 0.688 0.24 0.276
t 0.5 CB 0.15 0.5 0.688 0.15 0.194
1 t
1 0.194
H

1.113
1 w 1 0.276

PD

PE
2424

3960 kW
H 0 R 1.113 0.55 1

b) Considerations after ship conversion (We denote values for the new version by a prime.)
The new length is L' pp L pp L 117 .20 12.50 129.70 m.
Thus L'd 1.01 L' pp 1.01 119 .70 131.00 m.
' Am L 10579 130.2 12.50 12206.5 m3

12206.5
C 'B

0.710
L'B T 131 20 6.56

C 'P

C 'B
0.710

CM 0.9926
1.01

Thus the ship is a group D ship according to Kellers (1973) Figure 1.

The wetted surface according to the Lap-Keller formula is:
S ' (3.4 1 / 3 0.5 L pp ) 1 / 3 (3.4 12206.51 / 3 0.5 117 .20) 12206.51 / 3 3296
m2
w' 0.75 C 'B 0.24 0.75 0.710 0.24 0.293
t ' 0.5 C 'B 0.15 0.5 0.710 0.15 0.205
1 t ' 1 0.205
'H

1.124
1 w' 1 0.293
The other data remain unchanged. (The relative rotative efficiency is largely influenced by the
aftbody shape and the propeller. Both do not change here, so the assumption of unchanged R is
acceptable.) We now use Keller's (1973) Figure 5.
8.834 108
1.554 103

Rn
cF
V/

C 'Pd L'd

0.833

r
cR
(cF+cA+cR) K2

0.0285
1.126 103
3.127 103

RT
PE
P

340 kN
2730 kW
4416 kW

Thus the power requirement increases by 456 kW or 11.5%.

Note: The method is based on regression analysis of ships without bulbous bows. Such ships are not built
anymore. The method of Lap-Keller must thus be seen with appropriate scepticism!