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Estimation of Highway Engineering

WANG Xin-Zheng

School of Civil Engineering,Nanyang Normal University ,Nanyang city P.R.China, 473061

wxz791023@126.com

School of Economics and Management,Shijiazhuang Railway InstituteShijiazhuang city,P.R.China,050043

Liujingyan999@163.com

up the model of cost estimation of highway engineering.

The BP neural network model is trained by a sample data

obtained from some performed typical engineering to come

true quick cost-estimatingIt is sure that the method is

practical and the estimating results are reliable according

to lots of examplesIt shows the promising perspective of

BP Neural Network in cost estimate of construction

engineering.

Index Terms -neural network, highway engineering, cost

estimation

I. INTRODUCTION

The cost estimation of the project is an important

content of the feasibility Study. The accuracy of the cost

estimation directly affects the projects decision,

constructions scale, design scheme, economical effects,

and projects proceeding. Estimating the project handily,

quickly and exactly has the great significance for the

management and control of the projects estimation[1].

The main characteristic of the projects cost estimation

is that there are too many factors that can affect the

fabrication cost of the project, but little available related

material[2]. The fabrication cost is affected by not only

the constructions characteristic, but also many uncertain

factors. And there is highly nonlinear mapping

relationship between the projects fabrication cost and

the uncertain engineering characteristics. Therefore, how

to reflect this mapping relationship is the key of setting

up the estimation model. The relationship between these

two ones is linearity in the traditional estimating methods

(such as regression analysis), which would reduce the

precision and accuracy of the results. If the theory of

neural network is introduced in the traditional method

(Engineering comparison), it can remedy the shortage by

the training process and make the evaluation more

dependable and quicker.

doi:10.4304/jcp.5.11.1762-1766

The neural network is a new method of information

processing[3]. It is the complex network system that is

formed by many plentiful and simple processing units

(neurons) [4]. The neural network is one kind of

large-scale parallel connection mechanism with adaptive

modeling function, which simulates the structure of

human brain[5]. Its establishment is on the basis of

modern neuroscience research. In many kinds of neural

network models, the back-propagation neural network

model (i.e. BP network model) is the most popular

network because of its better functions of self-study and

self-association. The standard BP network is composed

of three kinds of neurons layer. The lowest layer is called

the input layer. [6] The middle one is named as the hidden

layer (can be multi- layer). And the top one is called the

output layer. Every layer of neurons forms

fully-connection, and the neurons in each layer have no

connection. The learning course of BP algorithm is

composed of two processes propagation and

antipropagation. In the propagation course, the input

information is transferred and processed through input

layer and hidden layer[7]. The state of every neural unit

layer only affects the state of next layer. If the expected

information cannot be got in the output layer, the course

will turn into the antipropagation and return the error

signal along the former connection path. Via altering the

value of concatenation weight between each stratum, the

error signal is transmitted orderly into the input layer,

and then be sent into the propagation course. The

repeated application of these two courses makes the error

more and much smaller, until it meets the requirements.

The specific structure is as shown in figure 1:

1763

Error

back-propagation

m

m

input layer

Desired

output

Output layer

hidden layer

output of neural unit (except the input layer) is nonlinear

mapping, and S (Sigmoid) function is always be adopted

x

output node function, and the differential coefficient is

input data of any form can be transformed into the

numbers that are in0+1.

III. APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORK IN THE

ESTIMATION OF PROJECTS INVESTMENT

The basic principle of the estimation and analysis of

projects investment is that its establishment should be

on the base of the similarity of projects. For planned

construction projects waiting for estimation, firstly, we

start with the analysis of the constructions type and the

projects feature, and find some projects that are the

similar ones like the planned construction projects in

many other projects that have been completed. Then the

fabrication cost materials of these similar projects can be

used as the original data to make the illation. At last, get

the investment estimation and any other related data of

the planned construction projects. When we use neural

network to estimate the investment of project ,we should

analyze and settle the existing estimation materials,

analysis materials and features of the former typical

projects in the light of the definite formats, and make

them as the training samples in order to input them into

neural network to be trained, then finish the mapping

from input layer (features of project) to output layer

(estimation material). This mapping is set up on the base

of the simple nonlinear functions and expresses t

complex phenomenon of projects investment estimation.

The neural network model automatically extracts the

information and stores it as network weight in the inside

of neural network. In this way, engineers and technicians

inputting the features of the planned construction

projects and some related price materials into neural

network. This paper makes the estimation of highway

projects investment as the example and sets up an

estimation model of BP neural network by collecting the

data of highway projects in some area that have been

completed between 2000 and 2002 the data of sixteen

typical projects were selected as training samples,

thereinto the data of fifteenth and sixteenth are applied

for checking.The estimation model that is based on

neural network is expressed in figure two. The model can

be divided into three sections: input-preprocessing

module, neural network module, and output-processing

module. Neural network module is the nuclear module

input-preprocessing

module

neural network

module

output-processing

module

The task of input-preprocessing module is to

preprocess the input data by changing qualitative stuff

into quantitative ones so as to make the calculation of

neural network convenient the output-processing module

can change the output of neural network into the data of

estimation that we need.

A.

characteristics

Engineering characteristics is the important factor that

can express the projects characteristic and can reflect

the main constitution of the projects cost. The selection

of the projects feature should refer to the statistics of

historical projects materials and expert's experience.

Firstly, analyze the effect the typical highway project

cost and the change of constructions parameter make to

the estimation of the projects investment. we confirm

nine main factors including landform, highway grade,

cross-section type (cutting, Embankment, half-digging

and half-filling), height, width, foundation treatment type,

1764

type and so on as the projects features. And then List the

characteristics of different engineering categories, each

kilometer highway engineering construction cost change

by reason of construction cost influence's relevance

according to quota and the project characteristic, make

TABLE I.

quantification data subjectively, shown in table 1.

quantitative value

landform

maintain area

hill

plain

cutting

embankment

half-digging and

half-filling

highway grade

high speed

rank 1

rank 2

0~0.5

0.5~1

1~1.5

0~10

10~15

15~20

type of foundation

Ordinary replacement

geogrid

structure

asphalt concrete

cement concrete

guard project

common guard

structure/m

0~0.2

0.2~0.3

0.3~0.4

quantitative value

cross-section

cutting embankment

half-filling

embankmenthalf-digging

and half-filling

highway grade

rank 3

1.5~2

2~2.5

20~25

25~30

more than 30

consolidation

geotextile

guard project

vegetation support

structure/m

0.4~0.5

0.5~0.6

height of foundations

cross-section/m

width of foundations

cross-section/m

landform

cross-section/m

the width of foundations

cross-section/m

the type of foundation

the material of road surfaces

structure

be

given a quantitative description. Taking

t ( j = 1,2," ,9)

is

number of project i (i = 1,2, ") ; ij

i

the quantitative numeric value of the project s

feature j . For instance, some highway project (the serial

number is assumed as i ) is in the plain, and the type of

cross section is embankment and highway grade for at a

high speed with 1.8m height of roadbed cross section,

35m width and geogrid, asphalt concrete, common guard

and 0.45m thickness of road surfaces structure.

Therefore,

its

quantitative

description

is

Ti = (3,2,1,4,6,3,1,1,4) . If some feature is composed of

several kinds, count its weighed average calculated

2010 ACADEMY PUBLISHER

quantification result.

B.

network

This model adopts three layers of BP network model,

and chooses the node-outputting function. there are nine

units in output layer,which stand for projects

characteristic vectors, such as landform, highway grade,

cross-sections

type,

cross-sections

height,

cross-sections width, foundation processing type,

material of road surfaces structure, road surfaces

thickness and protection type, the nine unite are marked

I ~I

as 1

cost of highway project and expressed by 0. The number

of hidden layer units is nineteen according to

one hundred and ninety connections totally

(9*19+1*19=190).

The initial weight are chosen randomly from random

number between-11.The fixed network weight is the

initial weight that has best training result. The selection

of the initial weight has important impaction the training

TABLE II.

1765

can lead dramatic changes of error.

According to the complexity degree for the mapping

of inputting-outputting, fourteen training samples and

twelve testing samples have been collect. Quantitative

data and budget material of the sixteen typical samples

are Listed in table 2

Outputten thousand

yuan/Km

Input

No.

I1

I2

I3

I4

I5

I6

I7

I8

I9

285

255

575

615

590

630

595

1248

1120

10

1650

11

2025

12

2910

13

3204

14

2830

15

1204

16

550

C.

The results of group fifteen and sixteen tested the

convergence network are respectively 12,500,000 yuan

and 5,440,000 yuan. And the relative error between the

real value and forecasting value is less than 5%. It can be

seen from the tests result that the overall error ratio is

small and the need for the estimation of engineering

feasibility study can be basically satisfied. It shows that

the model has good generalization ability and the

estimation model is successful.

IV. CONCLUSION

in the economic owing to its non-linear mapping ability

and approaching ability for any function. This paper uses

the artificial neural network to extract the relation

between the projects features and the estimation of

fabrication cost from the large number of past estimation

materials and sets up the estimations neural network

model. The two test prove that the estimation accuracy

meet the requirements, so this is an effective and feasible

highway project investment.

Adopting neural network model to estimate the

highway project investment is completely feasible and it

can get the precise result. It has very important reference

value and academic significance for Adopting new

scientific method and promoting construction projects

estimated investment research..

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to the anonymous referees

for their valuable remarks and helpful suggestions, which

have significantly improved the paper. This research is

supported by the Soft-Science Program of Henan

Province (Grant No. 092400440076); Natural Science

Basic Research projects of the Education Department of

Henan Province (Grant No. 2009B630006); Soft-Science

Program of Nanyang City (Grant No.2008RK015)

REFERENCES

[1].

network in the cost estimation of construction [J].Journal

1766

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

[7].

2005,37(2):262-264

Duan Xiaochen, Yu Jianxing, Zhang Jianlong. A Method

of Estimating WLC of Scheduled Railway Projects Based

on CS,WLC and BPNN Theorems[J].Journal of the China

Railway Society, 2006,28(6):117-122

Han Yanfeng, Duan Xiangqian. Application of artificial

neural network in date mining [J].Journal of Xi'an

University

of

Architecture

&technology,

2005,37(1):121-124

M. Kashaninejada, A.A. Dehghanib, M. Kashiri.

Modeling of wheat soaking using two artificial neural

networks (MLP and RBF)[J].Journal of Food Engineering,

2009,91:602607

Federico Marini. Artificial neural networks in foodstuff

analyses:Trends and perspectives A review[J].Analytica

Chimica Acta, 2009,635(2):121-131

Hsiao-Tien Pao. Forecasting electricity market pricing

using artificial neural networks[J].Energy Conversion and

Management, 2007,48(3):907-912

Zhao Feng. Project Investment Risk Evaluation based on

BP Neural Network System[J].Construction Economy,

2006,288(10):62-64

P.R.China,on Oct 23,1979.He received the master degree in

engineering

from

Shijiazhuang

Railway

Institute,

China.Currently he is a lecturer in school of civil engineering,

Nanyang Normal University , China. His current research

interests are in the areas of cost estimation, engineering

management. E-mail: wxz791023@126.com

Xiaochen DUANborn in Zhaoyuan, Shandong Province,

P.R.China, on Jan.12,1962. He received the PhD degree from

Tianjin University, China, in 2006. Currently he is professor in

Shijiazhuang Railway Institute, His current research interests

are in the areas of cost estimation, engineering management.

He has published more than 20 papers and 2 books.

E-mail:zhangxp7935229@163.com

Jingyan LIU ,born in Baoding, Hebei Province, P.R.China,on

Jan.28, 1980.she received the PhD degree in management from

Tianjin University, China, in 2009. Currently she is a lecturer in

Shijiazhuang Railway Institute. Her current research interests

are in the areas of education, marketing, engineering

optimization, logistics and supply chain optimization.

E-mail:liujingyan999@163.com

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