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pressure on a plane surface (rectangular surface) of the torroid by

comparing the normal force (exerted by the liquid) and the weights on

the balance bar.

Introduction:

When a liquid is in contact with a solid surface, then two

forces will be

formed:

1. Shear force: which is caused due to the viscosity of the

liquid, and it describes the resistance of flow (friction) and

depends on the type of the liquid.

= (du/dy)

Where:

: Shear stress (Pa).

: Viscosity (Pa.s).

du/dy : Velocity gradient (1/s).

plane around the surface, as dams and it acts on the

area of the surface.

Sometimes we call the normal force, the pressure force.

F = PA and in the case of a static fluid F = g hc A.

Where hc: centroid.

This relation is valid if the shape is rectangular and the

plane surface is horizontal.

For other shapes (rather than horizontal or rectangular)

to find the centroid, evaluate the integral:

dF = PdA.

Where the pressure is linearly distributed over the

surface.

In this experiment the non-horizontal surface is also

affected by the hydrostatic force due to the static liquid

(water).

(a) Locate the torroid on the dowel pins and fasten to the balance arm

by the central screw.

(b) Measure the dimensions a, b, and d, and the distance L from the

knife edge axis to the balance pan axis.

(c) Position the perspex tank on work surface and locate the balance

arm on the knife edges.

(d) Attach a length of hose to the drain cock and direct the other end of

hose to the sink. Attach a length of hose to tap V3 and place the free end

in the triangular aperture on the top of the perspex tank. Level the tank,

using the adjustable feet in conjunction with the spirit level.

(e) Adjust the counter - balance weigh until the balance arm is

horizontal. This is indicated on a gate adjacent to the balance arm.

(f)Fill water to the perspex tank until the water is level with the bottom

edge of the torroid.

(g) Place a mass on the balance pan and fill water to the tank until the

balance arm is horizontal. Note the water level on the scale. Fine

adjustment of the water level may be achieved by over filling and

slowly draining, using the drain cock.

(h) Repeat the procedure under section.

(g) for different masses : 5 masses for water levels y > d (complete

immersion) and 5 masses for y < d (partial immersion)

(i) Repeat readings for reducing masses on the balance pan.

For the apparatus used, the formula:

F=PA= gya ( 1 )

And

y y =

I

(2)

Ay

force about the knife-edge axis, where:

F: the water force of the torroid area.

y: the centroid of the area.

P: the water pressure at the centroid of the area.

y: center of pressure.

I: the second moment of the area.

y= y /2, A=by

F= gby .(3)

M = gby (a+ d y /2+ y /6)= gby (a+ d y /3).(5)

Also

M =gml .(6)

Where:

M: the mass added to the balance pan.

L: the distance from the knife-edge axis to balance pan

suspension rod

axis.

F=gybd .(8)

Where:

y= y d / 2 .( 9)

and

y y=bd /12/bdy=d /12 y .(10)

The moment M of F about knife-edge axis for this case is given by:

M =gybd (a+ d /2+ d /12 y ) .(11)

Increasing:

Mass (kg)

0.06

0.08

0.1

Y(m)

0.022

0.0367

0.055

M/y (kg/m)

2.73

2.18

1.82

Y(m)

M/y (kg/m)

Decreasing:

Mass (kg)

0.05

0.06

0.08

0.01

0.021

0.036

5

2.86

2.2

Discussion:

It can be noticed that as the applied mass increases, the distances y and

yc increase because the moment is needed for balance because the

hydrostatic force exerted on the torroid increases.

After finding the slope and intercept for both partial and

complete immersion there were some deviations between

experimental and theoretical values due to errors in

measurements.

* In the case of a static fluid, the pressure force for the horizontal face

can be calculated from the relationship: F=g hc A .

But for a non-horizontal shape the centeroid is found from the

integration and then the pressure force (hydrostatic force) is evaluated.

* The location at which the resultant pressure force acts gives a moment

balance static field and the location is located under the centeroid

because the force increases with depth.

* There are linearly distributions for the force over the surface (from the

equations).

personal errors, and inaccurate reading or scaling.

References:

1)Abu-Jadayil, B.Laboratory Manual for Fluid Mechanics

ChE344, JUST, 2002, Irbid-Jordan.

2) I. Robbert,Fluid Mechanics with Engineering

Applications3rd edition, McGraw Hill, 1994.

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