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2009 International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing

Study of a Novel Zoom Spectrum Analysis Approach for Wireless


Communication Analyzer

Jin Yanhua, Li Gun, Qin Kaiyu


Institute of A&A, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Chengdu, Sichuan, China. 610054
e-mail: jinyh@uestc.edu.cn

Abstract and the number of points acquired. The interval


between each frequency bins, Δf, can be computed as
To perform FFT-based measurement in wireless Δf = FS / N (1)
communication analyzer, the frequency range and where FS denotes the sampling rate, N denotes the
resolution on the x-axis of a spectrum plot depend on
number of points in the acquired time-domain signal.
the sampling rate and the number of points acquired.
When Δf is unfitted, some effective spectrum
However, the sampling rate of the acquisition front end
is fixed in wireless communication analyzer, which information would be omitted as a result of picket-
implies a large size FFT to be used for getting high fence effect.
frequency resolution. On the other hand, it is necessary Thus in order to get high frequency resolution, the
that the analysis range and the frequency resolution number of FFT points can be increased or the sampling
can be set by user. Aiming to solve these problems, a rate can be decreased. In wireless communication
programmable zoom spectrum analysis method with analyzer, the sampling rate of the acquisition front end
multistage filtering technique is presented in this is fixed, which implies a quite long time will be taken
paper. The zoom FFT technique is investigated firstly, for the FFT computation.
and then the key process is discussed in detail, such as In most applications, this increased resolution is
the complex modulation, decimation filter and down- required only over some specified frequency segment
sampling. Especially a practical scheme of in place of the full length FFT in the entire frequency
programmable multistage decimation in wireless range. In this case, several techniques can be used for
communication analyzer has been given. Finally, the zoom spectrum analysis, such as Chirp-Z Transform
simulation results indicate that the frequency spectrum (CZT)[1,2], Multiple Modulation Zoom Spectrum
is more precision by using this method, and the Analysis (ZFFT)[3,4] and its modified algorithm[5]. The
decimation factor can be set by user between 2~20000 specific comparison between ZFFT and CZT is
(1-2-5 step) in the application of a certain wireless presented in literature [6] by theoretical analysis and
communication analyzer. simulation. And the simulation results indicate that the
performance of ZFFT algorithm is better for the
1. Introduction harmonic signal with multi-frequency component.
However, the decimation factor is fixed in
The wireless communication analyzer is designed to conventional ZFFT algorithm. In this paper, a novel
address the measurement challenges with dynamic RF programmable ZFFT algorithm is presented. It takes
signals. It affords two functions, vector signal analysis advantages of multistage filtering technique to reduce
and real-time spectrum analysis. And the Fast Fourier the total number of filter coefficients and achieves
Transform (FFT) is a widely used tool in spectrum better filter performance. Especially, according to the
measurement. It can meet the requirements of signal frequency range that is set by the user, a suitable
processing in most case. Generally, using FFT for decimation factor can be chose to satisfy the demands
signal analysis shows discrete spectrum, and spanning of the frequency resolution. The remaining section in
the whole frequency range. In wireless communication this paper is organized as follows. Section II explains
analyzer, the frequency range and resolution on the x- the fundamental of ZFFT algorithm. In section III,
axis of a spectrum plot depend on the sampling rate some practical considerations are discussed in detail.
Section IV describes the details of the simulation

978-0-7695-3501-2/09 $25.00 © 2009 IEEE 367


DOI 10.1109/CMC.2009.122

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on May 19, 2009 at 04:11 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
results of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions are spectrum of the original signal with M×N point FFT,
given in section V. but the computational complexity has been reduced. If
the number of complex multiplications (NCM) for N-
2. Fundamental of ZFFT Algorithm point FFT is ( N / 2) log 2 N , the required NCM for
Direct FFT and ZFFT can be presented as follows.
The ZFFT algorithm based on Complex Modulation Direct FFT : MN + ( MN / 2) log 2 MN
can be summarized with following steps shown in
ZFFT : MN + RN + ( N / 2) log 2 N
figure 1. The original sequence x(n) is first
Where N = points of FFT
modulated, and the specified frequency segment is
M = decimation factor
shifted by ω0 . Then the resulting sequence y (n) is low MN = total number of sample points
pass filtered to eliminate frequency aliasing. Finally, R = number of filter coefficients
the filtered sequence g (n) is sampled at a slower rate
by data decimation. Thus the spectrum with high 3. Practical Considerations of the ZFFT
resolution will be computed using the FFT algorithm.
In the following sections, some practical points will
x(n) y(n) lowpass g(n) x (n) window X[k] be emphasized, such as complex multiplications,
Decimation 0
filter and FFT multistage decimation, spectrum leakage, etc.
e -jω n
0

Figure1. Architecture of Zoom FFT.


3.1 Complex Multiplications

Consider an M×N-point sequence x(n) obtained by The original sequence x(n) is modulated in
sampling the time function x(t ) , where M must be an complex form by multiplying the complex exponential
integer and the integer N is restricted to being a power sequences, that is
of 2. Assuming X (e jω ) indicates the spectrum of y(n) = x(n) × exp( j 2π fC nTS ) (6)
original sequences x(n) . The spectrum of modulated where TS is sampling time, fC is the center frequency
sequence y (n) is shifted by ω0 can be written as of the desired segment, and ω0 = 2π fC . Implementation
of equation (6) with x(n) real utilizes two separate
Y (e jω ) = DTFT [ x(n)e− jω0 n ] = X (e j (ω +ω0 ) ) (2)
multipliers and two sinusoidal sequences that have a
After filtering by the low-pass filter and decimation phase difference of π/2, which is given by
by a factor of M, the spectrum of this sequence y (n) = x(n) cos(2π f C nTs )+j ⋅ x(n)sin(2π fC nTs )
becomes: (7)
= I ( n) + j × Q ( n)
X 0 (e jω ) = DTFT [ x0 (n)]
where I (n) indicates in-phase component of y(n) and
1 M −1 ω
+ ω0 −
2π ω

2π (3)
∑ X (e
j( l) j( l)
= M M
) H LP (e M M
) Q(n) indicates the quadrature component of y(n) . In
M l =0 this case, the orthogonality of these two sequences (I

where HLP (e ) denotes an ideal low-pass filter whose and Q component) must be ensured. Otherwise the
pseudo spectrum lines will be resulted.
π The digital mixing technique is used in wireless
cutoff frequency meet ω0 ≤ to eliminating the
M communication analyzer, so owing to the digital
aliasing. Thus equation (3) can be rewritten as operation, the orthogonality of two sinusoidal
1 ω
j ( + ω0 ) j
ω sequences is easy to meet as long as the computation
X 0 (e jω ) =
X (e M ) H LP (e M ) (4) precision can be assured.
M
The N-point DFT of this sequence is given by
3.2 Decimation Filter

X 0 ( k ) = X 0 (e ) 2π
ω= k An important point which should be considered is
N
(5) filtering and decimation (down-sampling). The
2π 2π
1 j( k + ω0 ) j k
sampling rate of I and Q component can synchronously
=
X (e MN ) H LP (e MN )
M be reduced by a factor of M without aliasing if the
From formula (5), we can see that the spectrum of bandwidth of the original sequence is first reduced by a
specified segment with N-point FFT is the same as the factor of M by anti-aliasing filters. So the

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implementation of base band low-pass filter is the It is easy to show, using the multistage decimation,
kernel in the whole process. M=M1×M2=25×4, in first stage fs=20000/25=800Hz
If we set the frequency span of the desired segment and fp=80Hz, then
is f L ~ f H , and the center frequency is fC , then the 60 − 8
R1 = ⋅ 20000 + 1 ≈ 231 (13)
relation between them is given by 2.285 × 2π (400 − 80)
fC = ( f H + f L ) 2 (8)
in second stage fs=800/4=200Hz and fp=80Hz, then
and the spectrum of modulated x(n) is shifted by f C . 60 − 8
To attenuate the aliasing, the pass band cutoff R2 = ⋅ 800 + 1 ≈ 151 (14)
2.285 × 2π (100 − 80)
frequency f p and the stop band cutoff frequency f s of
So the number of complex multiplications for
the digital filter will be satisfied as decimation filter in ZFFT and multistage decimation
f p ≥ ( f H − fC ) (9) ZFFT are RN and R1 ( MN / M 1 ) + R2 N respectively.
f s ≤ FS 2 M (10) From approximately computation of formula (12),
where M is decimating factor, and FS denotes (13), (14), it is clear that the number of multiplication
sampling rate. Assuming the design of FIR filter is per second can be reduced by the use of multistage
based on the window method, the filter order R can be decimation.
estimated using the formula In the practical applications, the number of
computation will be more reduced by the use of FIR
−20 lg δ − 8
R= ⋅ Fs + 1 (11) half-band filter (HBF), because nearly half coefficient
2.285 × 2π ( f s − f p ) of the impulse response of HBF is zero, the only
where δ denotes stop band attenuation. restrictions is that the decimation factor M must be a
From formula (11), a larger factor, M, will induce a power of 2. Obviously, the integer M not always
higher order which is difficult to implement and will satisfy this condition, for example, M=50=5×10. In
yield a long time delay. Consequently, using fact, M can be expressed as M=K×2L, in this case the
multistage decimation to decrease the filter order at cascaded integrator-comb (CIC) filter will be used to
every stage, simultaneously reduce computation implement K-fold decimating and multistage half-band
complexity, is one of effective scheme corresponding filter used to implement 2L-fold decimation.
to this case. Figure 2 shows the structure of multistage Therefore, it must be considered weighty in wireless
decimation. communication analyzer, that how to partition and
calculate the decimation factor in every stage. In order
to afford variant frequency range and resolution, the
several scales corresponding different decimation
factor can be preassigned. Table 1 shows a feasible
(a) Single stage decimation, M. assignment scheme of decimating factor in a certain
wireless communication analyzer. The multistage
decimation Filter is implemented in FPGA (Field
Programmable Gate Array).

(b) Multistage decimation, M=M1M2…Ml. Table 1. Table of Decimation Factor


Signal Sampling Decimation CIC Deci. HBF Deci.
Figure 2 the structure of multistage decimation bandwidth Rate Factor factor _factor
For example, assuming that the sampling rate of an 2MHz 5.12MHz 1 1 1
10MHz 25.6MHz 2 1 2
input sequence x(n) is 20KHz, decimating factor, 5MHz 12.8MHz 4 1 4
M=100, so the sampling rate of the output sequence 2MHz 5.12MHz 10 5 2
y (m) is 200Hz. 1MHz 2.56MHz 20 5 4
500KHz 1.28MHz 40 5 8
Using the single stage decimation, the stop band 200KHz 521KHz 100 25 4
cutoff frequency fs=100Hz, and suppose the pass-band 100KHz 256KHz 200 25 8
cutoff frequency fp=80Hz, then 50KHz 128KHz 400 25 16
20KHz 51.2KHz 800 25 32
60 − 8
R= ⋅ 20000 + 1 ≈ 3631 (12) 10KHz 25.6KHz 2000 125 16
2.285 × 2π (100 − 80) 5KHz 12.8KHz 4000 125 32
2KHz 5.12KHz 8000 250 32
1KHz 2.56KHz 20000 625 32

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3.3 Spectrum Leakage

In the FFT algorithm, there is an assumption that


the time record is exactly repeated throughout all time
and that signals contained in a time record are thus
periodic at intervals that correspond to the length of the
time record. If this assumption is violated, that is, the
time record has a non-integral number of cycles, the
leakage occurs in frequency spectrum.
Windows are useful in reducing spectrum leakage (a) No decimation, 1024 point.
when using the FFT for spectrum analysis, each
window has its own characteristics, and different
windows are used for different applications. The
necessity and effect of using windows are discussed in
references [7] in detail.

4. Simulation Results
Assuming the input original sequence consisting of
three sinusoidal signals: 893Hz to 0.25V, 901Hz to (b) Single stage decimation, M=10.
0.5V, 907.6Hz to 1.0V which be sampled at 25KHz,
such as
x(t ) = 0.25 sin(2π * 893t ) +
0.5 sin(2π * 901t ) + sin(2π * 907.6t )
The spectrum of original signal with 1024 point
FFT is illustrated in Fig.3 (a). Three signals are
undistinguishable because the resolution, Δf, is 24.4Hz.
Fig.3 (b) depicts the zoom output with single stage
decimation, M=10, the resolution Δf is 2.44Hz. Three (c) Single stage decimation, M=50.
amplitudes could be discerned indistinctly, respectively
as (893.95Hz, 0.17741), (901.27Hz, 0.44053),
(908.59Hz, 0.76956).
When the single stage decimation M=50, the zoom
spectrum is shown in Fig.3 (c), Δf =0.488Hz. The three
original signals can be distinguished with a few of
error, respectively as (892.97Hz, 0.2499), (900.78Hz,
0.35018), (907.62Hz, 0.99691).
Fig.3 (d) illustrates the zoom output with single
stage decimation, M=100, Δf=0.244Hz. Three (d) Multistage decimation, M=100.
amplitudes respectively are (892.97Hz, 0.22412),
(901.03Hz, 0.4414), (907.62Hz, 0.8758).
By using two stage decimation, M=25×4, the zoom
output is given in figure 3 (d). The resolution is same
as single stage decimation and the peak amplitudes of
three signals are shown as (892.97Hz, 0.24015),
(901.03Hz, 0.48616), (907.62Hz, 0.99032).

(e) Multistage decimation, M=25×4.

Figure 3. Example showing operation of the ZFFT

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As the repeated emulation results proved, under the
same condition of precision, multistage decimation has [2] Huang Yuchun, Huang Zailu, Huang Benxiong, etc.,
less operation than single stage decimation; moreover, “Chirp Z transform based high performance frequency
under the same number of operation, multistage estimation”, Journal of Huazhong University of Science and
Technology, 36(6), 2008, pp.73-76.
decimation offers more precision than single stage
decimation. The essential reason lies in the order of [3] Xie Ming, Ding Kang, “Algorithm of Multiple
decimation filter. Modulation Zoom Spectrum Analysis Based on Complex
Analytic Band-Pass Filter”, Journal of Vibration
5. Conclusion Engineering, 15(4), 2002, pp.479-483.

In this paper, a novel programmable zoom spectrum [4] A. Yazidi, H. Henao, G.A. Capolino, etc., “Improvement
of Frequency Resolution for Three-phase Induction Machine
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results and above discussion, it is clear that the less pp.20-25.
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decimation, simultaneity that the high frequency [5] Zhou Zhihai, Shan Tao, “Research on Fast Computation
resolution will be achieved by the use of ZFFT of Ambiguity Function”, Congress on Image and Signal
algorithm. In addition, a programmable structure for Processing, 2008, pp.188-192.
decimation filter is presented, and then the decimation
factor and the frequency resolution can be set by user. [6] Ding Kang, Pan Chenghao, Li Weihua, “Spectrum
Finally, a feasible application in wireless analysis Comparison between ZFFT and Chirp-Z
Transform”, Journal of Vibration and Shock, 25(6), 2006,
communication analyzer has been achieved via pp.9-12.
discussing some practical considerations, especially
implementation of multistage decimation filter. [7] Michael Cerna, Audrey F.Harvey, “The Fundamentals of
FFT-Based Signal Analysis and Measurement”, Application
6. References Note 041, Hewlett-Packard, July 2000.

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1989.

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