26 views

Original Title: Gph301 Lect2 Seismic1 Elwaheidi

Uploaded by Roland Rawlins Igabor

- p. 279-285, Coffee, Cocoa and Tea
- Super Conducting Gravimeter
- Kalonji (Black Seeds) Benefits
- GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter_2007!10!02
- Geology & Geophysics Matlab Tutorial.pdf
- Black Seeds Precautions
- Negative Gravity Anomaly over Granite Bodies of Kanigiri Area, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India
- Bouguer anomaly and free-air anomaly correlation signatures in parts of Benue and Kogi States of Nigeria
- 101 Black Seed Oil Benefits
- Time Series and Trend Analysis
- Fourier series and transforms
- GRAVITY PROSPECTING FOR CHROMITE DEPOSITS IN CAMAGUEY PROVINCE, CUBA*
- 7 Extended Abstract Korneev
- Verification of Geotechnical Grouting - Strategies and Planning
- AVO Attibute Analysis Reservoir Characterization
- AVO Analysis of Carbonates
- Creating Depth Images From Seismic Records
- EM 1110-2-1913
- unit plan exploring light 5b 2014
- 02 Introductory Seismic Principles - Simon Oakley

You are on page 1of 29

I. Huygens Principle:

Every point on the wave front is a source of a new wave that travels out of it in

the form of spherical shells.

Seismic rays are used instead of the wave front to describe the wave

propagation.

Note:

Raypaths: Raypaths are lines that show the direction that the seismic wave is

propagating. For any given wave, there are an infinite set of raypaths that could be

used.

Wavefront: Wavefronts connect positions of the seismic wave that are doing the

same thing at the same time.

3/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

The wave will travel from the source at a minimum time; the wave path is not

necessary a straight line.

III. Snells Law :

In seismic refraction technique we deal with Direct and refracted waves. The

travel time for the direct waves is calculated simply by dividing the distance by

the velocity:

Distance / Velocity

4/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

When the velocity in the upper layer is lower than in the underlying layer, there is a

particular angle of incidence, for which the angle of refraction is 90.

Critical angle = the incident angle for which the refraction angle is 90.

5/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

Note:

In refraction technique we use the concept of critical angle. In particular,

because the wave reflected at the critical angle simply propagates along

the refractor about which we would like to obtain information. The waves

produced in this way are called HEAD WAVES.

Although a Head Wave must travel along a longer path than the direct

arrival before it could be recorded at the surface, it travels along the bottom

of the layer at a faster speed than the direct

Waves can be recorded prior to the time of arrival of the direct wave at

certain distances.

6/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

This law is utilized in the seismic reflection method. It states that the angle

of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

In case of I=0, the ratio of the reflected energy of P-wave, Er, to the

incident energy, Ei , is given by:

Er / EiI=0

This coefficient gives the ratio between the amplitudes of the incident (Ai) and

reflected waves (Ar). Its given by:

R= Ar / Ai

7/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

The Reflection Coefficient, R, shows that the quantity of the reflected energy

is based on the contrast between the acoustic impedance, defined as

multiplication of velocity by density, along the opposite side of the reflector

surface. In this case, three situations can be recognized:

1. If 1*V1 < 2*V2 no change in the phase of the reflected wave

2. If 1*V1 > 2*V2 shift in the phase of the reflected wave with 180

3. If 1*V1 = 2*V2 the reflection coefficient is zero: R = 0.

Note: Since the variation in the density of different types of rocks is relatively

small, the reflection coefficient depends mainly on the contrast in velocities at both

sides of the reflecting surface.

8/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

It was used in seismology for determining the Mohorovicic discontinuity, and to

discover the nuclei of earth.

The Description of the geometry of refracted waves is more complex than that

of reflected ones.

9/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

This time is the time required by the refracted wave to travel from the

source (at surface) to the receiver (also at the surface), taking in

The Distance between the Receiver and the Source must be very much

larger than the depth of the investigated discontinuity.

Because of this large distance, the frequencies of interest in the

10/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

Mapping of sedimentary basins.

Determining the physical properties of the bed rock.

Detecting buried structures of small dimensions.

Detecting salt domes.

Ideal Conditions of Application

Coincidence between seismic interfaces and stratigraphical or

lithological ones.

Extended interfaces, homogeneous with small dip angles (less

Small thickness of layers that are characterized by low velocity.

Not complicated topography of the investigated area.

11/GPH221L3

KSU 2012-2013

Seismic Refraction

1/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

interface depths and layer velocities. Critical refraction requires an increase

in velocity with depth. If not, then there is no critical refraction; Hidden layer

problem will be faced.

Direct wave

Reflected wave

Refracted wave

each geophone is a waveform called a seismogram.

Direct signal from shot travels along top of first layer.

Critical refraction is also recorded at distance beyond which angle of

incidence becomes critical.

2/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

In most refraction analysis, we only use the travel times of the first arrival on

each recorded seismogram. As velocity increases at an interface, critical

refraction will become first arrival at some source-receiver offset.

First Break Picking

The beginning of the first seismic wave, the first break, on each seismogram is

identified and its arrival time is picked. An example of first break picking

process is shown in the figure below:

3/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

Analysis of seismic refraction data is primarily based on interpretation of

critical refraction travel times. Usually we analyze P wave refraction data, but

S wave data occasionally recorded.

Plots of seismic arrival times vs. source-receiver offset are called travel time

Curves.

In the figure below, travel time curves for three arrivals can be noted:

Direct arrival from source to receiver in top layer

Critical refraction along top of second layer

Reflection from top of second layer

4/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

the offset at which critical refraction first appears. In this case:

Critical refraction has same travel time as reflection

Angle of reflection same as critical angle

Crossover Distance is

The offset at which critical refraction becomes first arrival.

5/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

6/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

Distance

TimeD

Time R

30

32

12

16

34

18

24

36

24

32

38

30

40

40

36

48

42

42

56

44

48

64

46

54

72

48

60

80

50

66

88

52

72

96

54

78

104

56

84

112

58

Time (miliseconds)

120

7/GPH221L4

100

80

60

40

20

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Distance (meters)

KSU 2012-2013

8/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

9/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

Time Curves

Interpretation objective is to determine interface depths and layer velocities.

subsurface: shape and number of different first arrivals.

The Assumptions are:

Subsurface is composed of stack of layers, usually separated by plane

interfaces

Seismic velocity is uniform in each layer

Layer velocities increase in depth

All ray paths are located in vertical plane, i.e. no 3-D effects with layers

dipping out of plane of profile.

10/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

11/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

From travel times of direct arrival and critical refraction, we can find

1. Velocity of layer 1 given by slope of direct arrival

2. Velocity of layer 2 given by slope of critical refraction

3. Depth of the refractor

12/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

Derivation of the travel time equation for the case of two horizontal layers

Starting with:

TR = Z / V1cos ic + (X 2Ztan ic)/V2 + Z / V1cos ic

Substituting for V2 and for tanic according to

relations (4) and (5) above, we obtain:

TR = X/V2 + 2Z / V1cos ic - 2Z sin2ic / V1cos ic

in consideration :

L1 = L3 ..,(1)

cos ic = Z/L1 L1=Z/ cos ic ........ (2)

L2= X 2(Ztan ic) ................... ......(3)

sin ic = V1/V2 V2= V1/ sin ic .(4)

tan ic = sin ic / cos ic .............. .......(5)

sin2ic + cos2ic = 1 sin2ic =1- cos2ic(6)

cosic = 1 - sin2ic = V22 V12 / V2

Using relation (6)

Or:

Finally, we obtain:

TR = X/V2 + 2Z V22 V12/ V1*V2

13/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

Based on the figure above, the refracted travel time can be written as:

TR = 2Z1 / V1cos i13 + 2Z2 / V2cos i23 + (X 2Z1tan i13 - 2Z2tan i23 )/V3

TR = X/V3 + (2Z2 /V2)* (1/cosi23 - V2tan i23 / V3 ) + (2Z1 /V1)* (1/cosi13 V1tan i13 / V3 )

Noting that: V2/ V3 = sini23 , and V1/ V3 = sini13 , we obtain:

TR = X/V3 + 2Z2 cos i23/ V2 + 2Z1 cos i13/ V1

Or:

14/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

15/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

16/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

For irregular travel time curves, e.g. due to bedrock topography or glacial fill,

much analysis is based on delay times.

Total Delay Time is defined as the difference in travel time along actual

ray path and projection of ray path along refracting interface:

17/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

Total delay time is the delay time at shot plus delay time at geophone:

18/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

If velocities of both layers are known, then refractor depth at point A can be

calculated from delay time at point A:

19/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

Simplifying:

20/GPH221L4

KSU 2012-2013

- p. 279-285, Coffee, Cocoa and TeaUploaded byArmandinho Oo
- Super Conducting GravimeterUploaded byDionio Ellysson Alencar Torres
- Kalonji (Black Seeds) BenefitsUploaded bySajid Holy
- GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter_2007!10!02Uploaded byhppillai
- Geology & Geophysics Matlab Tutorial.pdfUploaded byquang
- Black Seeds PrecautionsUploaded bySubramanyam Setty
- Negative Gravity Anomaly over Granite Bodies of Kanigiri Area, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Bouguer anomaly and free-air anomaly correlation signatures in parts of Benue and Kogi States of NigeriaUploaded byPremier Publishers
- 101 Black Seed Oil BenefitsUploaded byTAMBAKI EDMOND
- Time Series and Trend AnalysisUploaded byAbdullah Zakariyya
- Fourier series and transformsUploaded byRuslan Zhivkov
- GRAVITY PROSPECTING FOR CHROMITE DEPOSITS IN CAMAGUEY PROVINCE, CUBA*Uploaded bykawanalawie
- 7 Extended Abstract KorneevUploaded byAwad Almalki
- Verification of Geotechnical Grouting - Strategies and PlanningUploaded byTony Chan
- AVO Attibute Analysis Reservoir CharacterizationUploaded byDaniel Davis
- AVO Analysis of CarbonatesUploaded byHannah Kr
- Creating Depth Images From Seismic RecordsUploaded bytayofela
- EM 1110-2-1913Uploaded byMihai Mihailescu
- unit plan exploring light 5b 2014Uploaded byapi-107627329
- 02 Introductory Seismic Principles - Simon OakleyUploaded byFikri Mubarok
- Seismic BasicsUploaded bymayappp
- Geology of NigeriaUploaded bysimonramos23
- GAS HYDRATES AND SESISMIC DATA PROCESSINGUploaded bySourav Priyam Adhya
- V RayforRhinoManual EnglishUploaded bypaulmagan
- Environmental ImpactsUploaded byrishabh jain

- Vedic MathsUploaded byTB
- [Yositaka Mimura, Hyôitirô Takeno] Wave Geometry(BookZZ.org) (1)Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Devi Sageep16 Rev1Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- [Craig Murray, Leissa Pitts] Sexpectations Girl a(BookZZ.org)Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Spgp320.PDF MASWUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Spgp320.PDF MASWUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Lecture 13Uploaded byShivamanth Angadi
- masw-firstpaper-140605065751-phpapp02.pdfUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- 7c633f48e267c460d1ea3c4bf968ad1e.pdfUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Avoc Fogg 2001Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- AVO ResponsesUploaded byMuhammad Arief Harvityanto
- Ground Penetrating Radar & Avo (2)Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- [Mark_Driscoll]_Porn-again_Christian__a_frank_dis(BookZZ.org).epubUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- ReadMePCUploaded bycavaldryg
- Math FormulaUploaded byJames Ho
- Get PDF Serv LetUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Determination of Dipping Contacts UsingUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- PROJECT REPORT GUIDELINESUploaded byShubhamKumawat
- [Untitled] 1Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- 1-1.2.6 Location of Fluids in Oil and Gas ReservoirsUploaded byCordylus0824
- Jolley Brent FaultsUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- 1Introduction to Remote Sensing1Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- T44Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- segam2012-1534%2E1Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Schaefer PermafrostUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Definition of PoissonUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- Dormy06.pdfUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- PetrGeosc 2000 Hesthammer Fossen Fault SealingUploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- ERT TLE Rev Website (1)Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor
- 8 Gravity 2009Uploaded byRoland Rawlins Igabor

- AHCT April 2011 for WebUploaded bythomsun press
- Structural Engineering Design CriteriaUploaded byAnonymous z4Fe39j
- Numerical Analysis of Performance of Soil Nail Walls in Seismic ConditionsUploaded byDeepthi
- Abutment 2Uploaded byaminjoles
- M.sc. (Geophysics)Uploaded byAndzani Ndhukwani
- CFRD 05 BMaterónUploaded byjnf
- TSPSC SYLLABUS Group 1Uploaded bySri Teja
- SRS-457Uploaded byAnonymous dlSmlsymH
- Torsional Effects on the Inelastic Seismic Response of StructuresUploaded byLeonardo Pimentel
- Wegener-continental Drift to Plate Tectonics July2011Uploaded bymanugaspar
- Life Detection System Based on l and s Band MicrowavesUploaded byRadhika Mohan
- (Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering) Atilla Ansal-Recent Advances in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering and Microzonation-Springer (2004).pdfUploaded byQuyền Lê
- 105284-230748-2-PBUploaded byNilay Gandhi
- CHi CHI Earthquake data analysis using seismosignalUploaded byShayhaq Baloch
- bok%3A978-3-319-59469-9Uploaded byalfonso lopez alquisirez
- TH3048-ICIMPACT-2014.pptxUploaded byIsrael Cooper
- Compilation of Reports and Assignments in High School (Grade 7, Grade 8 and others) - K to 12 Program of the PhilippinesUploaded byR. Borres
- engdynamics2011.0v1.pdfUploaded bysteefff88
- Metode_Seismik_refraksiUploaded byMasri Razak
- ASCE 7 Seismic Loads SRRUploaded byJose Rojas-Guzman
- Behaviour of Pile in Liquefable Soils During EarthquakeUploaded byGaurav Malla
- Comparative Study for Rcc,Steel, BuildingUploaded byFaraaz Faisal
- Thomson Research Fronts 2013Uploaded byKuen Tas
- Log Problems WorksheetUploaded byRobert Francis Dela Rosa
- Asce 7-10 - Load Sismic CombinationUploaded bysdfsfds
- 147Uploaded bystraulle
- WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING-II.pdfUploaded byMopidevi Vijaya Kishore
- Solved MDOF ExampleUploaded byMohit Singhi
- Course SyllabusUploaded bylilchickie5377
- Cyclone shelterUploaded byDeepu Alex