#Turbulent Phenomenon
Turbulence Modeling
Order of Magnitude Analysis
Hydrodynamic Instability
Statistical Analysis of Turbulence
Fractals, Chaos & Strange Attractors
cturbu!~nt
Phenomenon
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bJ Thomas C.Orkc
.,.,
172. Woke of an inclinod fl." plat.
0
woke behind o plotc ot 4S onsle of"'
turbulent at a Reynolds number c :
A lumi num Oakes suspended in W<lh:
its charoactcristii.: sinuuus form [
1981. Rcproducecl,
ifh Jitnnirnon , J
H1
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is <he IT'W:3n flow of a
: ..1 1h~ JCr o( c.:olorld warc r issu ing in10 3mbic:nl
\\a u:: at 100 cm/s. T iny air bubbles mark rhe
..  ~~:u::/inl:oi of the slow uxH ion inc.Jui.:cJ in the
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97
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strain).
3. The fluid is isotropic.
4. The fluid is homogeneous; that is, r11 :F(U,, P, p, T).
5. When the fluid is at rest, the stress is hydrostatic.
6. When the ~ow is pure dilatation, the average stress is equal to the pressure (Stokes's
hypothesis).
7. Viscous fluid model constants (or coefficients) require experimental determination,
namely, p, ., . 2 (second viscosity).
There is nothing said in these postulations about excluding turbulent flows. As
long as the flow does not violate the postulations, the NS equations should be valid for
turbulent flows.
For the p and . constants, the NS equations and ~e energy equation are
au1 _ 0
ax, 
DU;
P Dt
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(l.6)
aP
a"'u,
= pG;  ax; + . ax1ax;
(1.7)
and
DT
a2 r
pC,D = k;a + .~.
f
(1.8)
CIXj X j
where
~=
ax,
ax;
One may be concerned that the continuous cascade of turbulent eddies may violate
the continuum assumption. Let us examine the limiting eddy and vortex stretching in
turbulent ftows. For ex31llple, in turbulent .flows the pauems in Fig. 1.2 are often seen.
The eddies tend to be smaller for larger Reynolds number (Re). The turbulent eddies
arc always ill'egular, time dependent. and threedimensional with the associated vortices
always being stretched. One may aslc. will the cascade of an eddy evolve such that the
eddies become indefinitely small?
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INl'RODUCllON TO TURBULENCE 5
Dw
= aw
Dt
ot + (v v)w = (w v)v + vv2w,
(l.9)
where
'~
S~~
\J~~
 ~t O(?
c.....v.
Vectors an
presented ID bold
We sec that when Dw/ Dt = 0, the voncx stretching will stop. From an orderof~ magnitude analysis of Eq. 1.9, balancing the righthand side will occur when cuu / l
.
by arrows
OID__::
v,
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.
.
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::~ 
      
 
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t
(V/) 112, where f refers to the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. From
the Kolmogorov scale. we also find ulfv = I.
For example, consider turbulent flow in air. If u = 10 mis and v = 105 m 2/s,
then l = Io' m is the size of the smaU eddy. There are I 029 molecules/m3 under
normal one atmosphere conditions. In this case, there are 1011 air molecules/l 3 (where
l / 3 10111 m3). For an eddy with 1011 molecules. the continuum assumption is valid.
We therefore conclude that the NS equations are vaJid for turbulence.
This has also been proved by direct numerical simulation (DNS, Moser and Moin,
1984 {106]; Spalart. 1986 (155]; Kim, Moin, and Moser, 1987 [71]; Mansour, Kim, and
Moin, 1988 [97J) and by large eddy simulation (LES) (Deardorff, 1970 [36]; Schumann,
1975 [141]; Moin and Kim, 1981 [106]) oflow Re turbulent flows. DNS predicts turbulent ftows by solving directly the instantaneous NS equations, whereas LES uses a filter
model for the smalleddy behavior and computes the threedimensional, timedependent
largeeddy stnJctures in turbulent flows. These predictions are validated by experiments.
However. at present. both approaches require much computer memory and centralproccssingunit time and are not practical in engineering applications. For instance, in order to capture the fine scaJe turbulent eddies, DNS requires the grid size to be smaller than
the finest turbulent eddies. In general, the grid number required by DNS is about 9/4th
. the power of the turbulent Re of the ftow. For a fiow with turbulent Re, (RT), equal to HP,
which is often encountered in engineering applications, the grid number required would
be higher than l 0 11 , which is far beyond the capability of computers currently available.
What an engineer always would like to know is the mean effect of the turbulent
quantities and not that of the instantaneous fluctuation quantities. Thus, a more practical
approach to describing turbulent Bows would be to model the averaged turbulent transpon
quantities. In this approach, models arc created to simulate the unknown transport quantities that are formed from the averaging process. This approach is adopted in this book.
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Here At, is the time interval that u* is in au. In order to construct B(u"), one may
measure a variable, f. as
J = T~oo
lim T11to+T f(u*)dt =
to
oo
f(u*)B(u*)du* (moments).
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= total value
u1 = mean value
ui = flactuating
u 1*
F1pre 1.6
value
A similar proccdW'C may be applied lO the two and threedimensional cases. However, the analysis is more complicated. Hence. although statistical analysis may reveal
details ofturbulent sttuctures. it is cumbersome to use for solving engin~ring problems.
Phenomenological analysis. In this approach, turbulence model postulations are made.
The analysis loses some details of the turbulence physics, but it can provide solutions to
engineering problems. The starting point of phenomenological analysis is the construction of some process of averaging.
Longtimeaveraging(T  oo):

"1
u, = r1 lofT u,dt.
Shorttimeaveraging(ATsbort):
a7 = U1(t) =
 
AT}_
Here t' is the time variable in 6 T duration near t . In this case, U1 is a fuoction of time
and t:.T. If tJ.T becomes large, the shorttime average recovers the original Reynolds
longtime average. A shorttime average is somewhat similar to a signal that has been
smoothed or has had a highfrequency component filtered out. It should also be noted
that u, 0 and u 1u1 # 0 in general. See Fig. 1.7
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IITTRODUCTION TO TURBULENCE 9
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,..
= total value
Ui
mean v;ilue
ui
flaccuacing value
u ( t)
FiggR 1.7 Reynolds shoiHimoaveraging.
.
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u1
u; =
U1(t)
= NooN
lim ..!.. ~ u;(t, n),
~
(1.11)
iI
Uf+ii1
2.
= Vi + Ui
3. au;fax j = autfax j
4. ujuj U1U1 +u1u;.
Equation 1.11 includes the shorttime Reynolds average and is potentially more general.
However, it is more difficult to produce because it requires N experiments. N should be
large enough so that the ensemble average is no longer dependent of N .
+ u)(V + v) = .
is a messy operation. Alternatively, a 9ensityweighted average (~r massweighted average) ~ay be used.
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+k
Ui
~I
+~
Oj
~!
Ui*
N: N
<Ui>
U11u
f, we define
(1.12)
Then. instead of
u; = U1 + u1
(\): ClG111illg qmitation or we have
doUle prime mark
. $Jlllbol'aneet
/"'\
uj = 01 + u;'
p + p'
p =
(Reynolds average),
(densityweighted average)
(Reynolds average).
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INTRODOCl'ION TO TURBULENCE 11
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= 0,
or
(p
+ p' )u'f = 0.
That is.
or
ii~'
= p'u/ /p :F 0.
1
In general,
u7 =F o.
For example. the mass conservation equation (Eq. 1.6) under densityweighted averaging
becomes
or
a(~+
at
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p')
apll1
0X1
=O.
Hence.
ap
apo, _
which is simpler than the continuity equation with conventional Reynolds averaging:
ap
apO;
au,p'
++=
a1 ax, ax, 01.3.5 Conditional Averaging (Sampling Average)
In some problems suchas intermittent phenomena or thermal spikes, a special averaging
process may reveal mo~ physics of turbulence. Let l1 be the duration of the laminar
flow and t; be the turbulent Bow duration. Then, we can define the inrermittency, y, as
the ratio of the turbulent fiow duration to the total flow duration. that is,
r= L:j 1jE,11
+ E,1, .
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ll FUNDAMENTALS OF TURBULENCE MODELING
J )~
~coo
/
/
) ) /;; 7
() 0
0
7 7 7
OQ ()
\../
?~
@
Figure 1.9
For example. the signals at Locations l, 2, or 3 in Fig. 1.9 may be represented as shown
in Fig. 1.10. In digital recording of total N data. we may define the intermittcncy as
H
a= "1/N,
/=I
where, l
uj.1 =
J~tluj/t1.
"'
,_,
whereas.
H
uj,1 = J~~:Eo
 I)uj
lI
IN::E(l  /),
iI
wherein the subscripts t and I refer to turbulent and laminar signal, respectively (see
Fig. 1.11).
t,e = J~m00 2: rr IN
2: /.
N
i=I
r:
l=I
We see that
can be far greater than r,, as shown in Fig. 1.12. in which case a
conventional Reynolds averaging will not capture the peak of the thermal spike.
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INTRODt.ICT!ON TO nJRSULENCE 13
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(, +)
(+,
+)
j2
jl
(, )
(+, )
 4
H1(t;) = 1
=0
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14 FUNDAMENTALS OF 11JRBULENCE MOD!'LING
flow 
) ) 7 7 7 7 ) ? 7 7 7 7 /? 7
Data
Samplino
""'
Momentum equation:
(l.14)
wherein
"u =
and
au, au1 )
( ax, + ax,
r,,, =  pu1u1.
Here, T:;j is modeled from the viscous fluid model, whereas r:[1 needs to be modeled from
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INTROOucrtON TO TI.llUIULENCE 15
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DT
oU;
aq,
aqf
'
pCp = r,i   Dt
(1.15)
where
= KoT/0X1
qf = Cppu,e
q1
r:;; = ,
ax1
(au,
au1 )
ax1 +ax, .
Here, q, is modeled from the Fourier postulations, whereas qf and <I>' need to be modeled
from the turbulence model. Equations 1.71.9 give five equations for the five variables
P . U, V, W, and T, whereas there are no equations for u 1u;, u 18 and <I>'. Therefore,
the set of equations is not closed. The problem of closing the turbulence mathematical
model is called the turbulence closure problem.
Before the closure problem can be addressed. the ensembleaverage quantities of
u1u1, u1 6, and <1>1 must be derived. These additional unknowns, a total often (six from
u1u1, thiee from u;IJ, and one from 4>') can be derived from the fluctuation equations
for u, and 8. The fluctuation equations for"' and e are obtained from
[NS]  [NSJ+ Equation for u1,
or
OU/) a}
( o1u; ) apu;U1
at+ u, ax, +"'ax, +"'ax; =  ax, + , ax,ax, .!ax;8u1
Oil/
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0U1
c ( ae
1.~.2
u ae
ar
ae ) _
a20
a"Cpiiii;O _ ,
P ,
<1>
(1.17)
In order to close the problem, we will derive u 1uJ> u 16, and so forth from .Eqs. l.16 and
1.17. These are the s~ndorder. onepoint correlationbased transport equations.
Reynoklsstnss transport equations. The equation for u, u1 is obtained by the following method;
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(l.1 6)
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INTRODUCTION TO TURBULENCE 17
au, au,
=V
0X1
ax,
directly affects the growth rate of k. It is thus one of the most important turbulent
quantities. It appears naturally in the derivation of the k equation. The equation for
the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy, E, is obtained by the following
approach:
Perform the operation a;ax, on Eq. 1.16 for the ith variable.
Multiply theresulting equation by au;/8X1
Take rhe ensemble average of the product and multiply by two.
a ( 
2v 8u1 ap
oe )
 2vu,
2(v ax,ax,
a
2
u1
(1.20)
au/
= "ax, ax,
In order to understand the E equation, let us examine the various tenns on the righthand
The first two tenns again represent the turbulent diffusion of.
The third term represents the molecular diffusion of E.
The fourth and fifth terms represent the production of E.
The last two terms represent the destruction (source or sink) of the dissipation rate of
the turbulent kinetic energy.
term as
/
41
au,
i.
au,.
then the equation for the Reynolds turbulent heat fiux, u;IJ, can be obtained by using the
following approach:
Multiply Eq. 1.16, for the ith variable, by 6.
Multiply Eq. l.17 by
u,.
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.
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.
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By following the abovementioned procedure, the equations for u1u i obtained are
Du;uj
Dr
= ~ (u;UjU/ ax,
!!..(Oj/Ui
+ Oi!Uj) + v ou;Uj)
ax1
_auj _oU;)
OU; ou;
p (OU;
au;)
( u;ui ax, + u;ur ax,  Zv ax, ax, + p ax; + oX;
(l.18)
For understanding the physicsof this equation, let us consider what the seven tenns on
the righthand side of this equation represent
The first two terms on the right represent the turbulent diffusion of the momentum.
The third term represents the molccular diffusion of the momentum and is usually
negligible compami with the first two tenns. However, it is the term with the highest
deriwtive. Hence, it must be retained.
Tiie founh and the fifth terms represent the production of stresses. u111. i by the interaction of Reynolds stresses u;u 1 and the gradient of the mean values.
The si;t;th term represents the viscous dissipation of the Reynolds stresses. u1u I
The seventh tenn represents the pressurestrain (PS) of the flow, which tends to restore
isotropicity of the flow.
'lbrbuleat ldnedc energy (k) eqaadon. From Eq. 1.18 for "'"i we can easily obtain
the turbulent ldnetic energy equation by setting i = j. The mean turbulent kinetic energy
is denoted by i:: = u1u; /2, whereas die ftuctUating turbulent kinetic et1ergy is denoted by
k' = u. 1u;/2. Then, the turbulent kinetic energy (k) equation can be obt.ained as
Dk
_,,,,
_a
Dt
ax,
( k'ur+vpu,
ok)
au,
P
ax, u1u1E'+O.
ax,
(1.19)
Note that the PS term goes to zero because of the continuiry equation. The physics
hidden in the equation is revealed when each of the tenns on the righthand side is
studied carefully.
The first two terms on the right represent the diffusion of the kinetic energy from the
high intensity to the low intensity that is due to turbulent fluctuating motions.
The third tenn repn:sents the molecular diffusion of the turbulent kinetic energy.
The fourth term reimsents the production of the turbulent kinetic energy that is due to
the in~on of turbulent stress and the gradient of the meanfl.ow velocity.
The fifth term. E, represents the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy that
cc:nds to occur at the smalleddy scale. ' is always positive because
The PS term of the Reynolds stress ttansport equation in the last term vanishes. and,
hence, its net contribution to the turbule_nt kinetic energy trans.fer rate is uro.
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BUi)
a ( u1u18011+au1+ve  Pe ae
Dlii8
= ax,
Dt
p
ax1
ax1

 ao au;)
au; ao
pae ,( u;ui ax,+ "18 ax,  (a+ v) ax, ax,+ p8X1 +<I> u, .
(l.21)
Here a and v are the thermal diffUsivity and the kinematic viscosity, respectively.
J'
ax;
DU,
P Dt
ap
O'Cjj
chfj
wherein
and
tf1 =  pu;uj.
The abovementioned four equations are for U1 and p. The problem of specifying unknowns, u1u I is the turbulence closure problem. Historically the first attempt to model
the Reynolds stress, rfj, is to model it as a function of the meanflow equations. Because
the u1u1 term is modeled directly without any additional differential equation, this model
is also called the zeroequation model or the firstorder closun model. For example,
1. iii= v,au /aY. This is the Boussinesq eddy viscosity model.
2.  uv l2 JdU /dYI au /8 Y. This is the Prandtl mixing length model.
3. uv = KX8U /iJY. This is the Prandtl wake mixing length model.
4. iiil = K 2 1(dU/dY)/(d2 U/dY2 )12 au1ar. This is the von Kinn8n mixing length
model.
In the early twentieth century, because of the lack of computing machines, the aboveindicated turbulence models were very popular because they arc relatively simple and
intuitive. However, models were very limited in the sense that the model could apply
only to a particular problem or problems with similar geometry and were inappropriate
for predicting other types of flows with different geometries. These simple models, in
general, have a lowprediction capability. Nevertheless. they possess the advantag~ of
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simplicity and are capable of modeling turbulence with similar flow conditions and
geometrical shapes.
c.~{> t .t:'k
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1.6 SUMMARY
'ti:~"y. f~;r
In the recent years the zeroequation model that imitates the laminar viscous stress
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(2/3)&11k
Here, the eddy viscosity, v,, must be modeled. Prandtl and Kolmogorov have shown that
if the turbulent kinetic energy k and its dissipation rate E are known, then by dimensional
analysis, the eddy viscosity can be obtained by
v, = Ck 2/e.
For simple flows without separation, such as boundary layer flow and pipe flow, 111 can be
modeled with a simpler model of mixing length with some degree of success.. Otherwise.
for more general and complex flow careful modelling of le and t: must be made. This
leads the secondorder closure problem that will be discussed in Chapter 2.
With the advance of highspeed computing after World War II, turbulence modeling
also advancm. From the late I9S0s to the present. turbulence modeling in engineering practice has progressed to the secondorder turbulence closure model in which the
secondorder turbulence transport quantles u1u1 and u18 are modeled. In the secondorder closure, the u1u J ;;9, le; and E equations contain many additional unknowns,
such as
pu1/ p, p/p8u1/ax1. v8u1/8x18u;/8x,. and so forth. These unknowns
must, hence, be modeled.
Although complicated and tedious, these models can be potentially more useful and
less problem dependent. The second.arde.c closure models provide a higher degree of
prediction capability and reduce the postdiclion. Moreover, the solution of the secondorder closure model is within the capacity of currently available computers.
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