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# Ching Jen Chen Lecture in Turbulent Flows

## and Convective Heat Transfer

C J Chen Lecture in Turbulent Flows
C J Chen Lecture
CJ Chen Lecture in Convective Heat Transfer

## Viewing with Supplement Notes

Historical Development
Fundamental Equations

#Turbulent Phenomenon
Turbulence Modeling
Order of Magnitude Analysis
Hydrodynamic Instability
Statistical Analysis of Turbulence
Fractals, Chaos & Strange Attractors

## Ching Jen Chen, Dean and Professor Emeritus

College of Engineering
Florida A&M University-Florida State University

cturbu!~nt

Phenomenon

## It is impoi'Wit w recognize t~at tb~ iYrbuli!m.~ How motion is always three-dimensionali

unsteady, rotational, and, mo\$~ irnpeirctant. i~a~o Th~ irregularity of turbulent motion
8~ thie to the inherent nonlinear nature of the Navier-S~o;xes equations when the Reynolds
nurmber is beyond the critical value. Thus, contrary to laminar ftow, which is regular
and, deterministic, turbulent flow is stochastic and chaotic. In order to predict ~he gross
or aYerage behavior of turbulent fiOW, a mathematical model must be established. ',

"'"o"'

..

3 -t

## c... t-y~l...-~.:o.. \$"""'

( t>.4+--~-ui.)

~~r'"-l~ ""'""""t-....u..

3-

t H~+..:o""

2. .

Lo..,...i..

A- .

~ ...........+-.-.... ..,._,l.:1-~

Du...

r D ~-

...t.:.. ..
i l . JJ~.t
p~....

'I:... -4..:...

~o'4+v-..:~.o"'" +.,,

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+ ~ b~i6~,

- ll'/C.,,.;

'> I

1:1 .. ~"-t-..:.._ F
--

....

( R6:1-~s)
-

E..

p-c-.. . ~,~4

i:.

## ' ~ .....:~fo4,.. ~u.11)

( 5 .... ~)

\J~6~

o...o-.,~J...;.~-t.:. ..

V~t.c1o- F

!"

.. t

pq

<r..:

'1- .............~Cl\4

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~.t........~-~

u,,._. .. .,..,,.~.
co ..... rt....-< +ei ~ 'lw.&~ov.
N~ ..

~f"'" ..:t..'. () .. ,

~........

## V~c.~u~ ~~ ~ j--....b.:-..... s 1, s~~~J-.~

...

c1:1,;..-k.... &.~4.{ J

No...".:.i...c -

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s.+-ok.ti

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pt....r" t

...t.=..,. .. i:

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~<...6..D~.!"<-

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:t:.t,. I\\ - S t._..,.~ic..I f"
~h~
~

t=-L......:.4.,

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k . , ''f'(

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ti

c ..,.'4'"""'"' ~'

R-t

~. 'J'

H,~.:ti.,.

c-+...... u

A-w.OA ~

lo

t_

,.,

"""'-.rt~

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## 151. Turbulent wake far behind a projectile. A bullet

has been shot through the atmosphere at supersonic
speed, and is now several hundred wake diameters to the
left. This short-duration shadowgraph shows the remarkable sharpness of the irrL-gular boundary between the

## highly turbulent wake produced by the bullet and ti

almost quiescent air in irrotational motion outside;.Phoc

## graph made at Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Pro

ing Ground, in Carrsin & Kistler 1954

88

..

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r,

i:". ~.:-:-.
. ;. ~ ,

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...:,
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Ill

Cll

::;
Cll

j::

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r..f
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t..~.I _;:.

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z-=o I

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:::-

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8 = 4mm
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(a)

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K ~ 100,tJOO

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## 109. Emmoas turbu11m opot. On a fiat plate, transidon

from a lamin;ir tO a cutbul<nt boundary layct proo:ls
intcrmlt<entlV thro111h the sponr:>neou> random appeu
an.:.e or spo<s ul turbulence. Ext. Sl"'t i"OWI approx!
mon:lv lincorly witl\ di><once while mo"ing downstttm at
a fTactlon of tt>c fitt stn:llm opceJ, and main~ina the

## ""2r.lctcrisdc arrowh""d shope chat is shown here by

swpmslon of aluminum Jloka in water. T.....,,..,.. .:on
!lmination is sccn 'P"'odtng frorn ~ bouom of the
channel. At the ccntc'f ui the spoc the Reynolds number is

## 100,00l ~ .,n Jls<o""" from th kodl~ edae c.w..Tll,

Coln l1 Dimomki 1978

'l

!I I.

R-t00.000

l:
I!
I\
1
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nattd bv sheet

64

...en in

TO(.S se.'tion

## Ul. Turbulent sp.>t at dilferent lleyoold1 nvmbera.

Th.! oudlne cl the spa< bcco1'1CS more r<sular. and the
&11iik of itt kodin~ .:d~ steeper. as the Reynolds numbtt

## incru sco. Visuoliurion is by smoke in mr wich 0o

lighdng. l'liotoer4/i Ir)' It E. r~ lco

---------------.....

'~

## 47. Cir cular cylinder at R=2000. A c chis Reynolds

number one may properly speak of a boundary layer. It is
laminar over the from, separares, and breaks up inro a tur
bulcnc wake. The sepnr:icion points, moving for\\'ard a>

## 48. Circular cylinder at R=l0,000. Ar five times the

fK'<.' d of rhr rhorngrnph .1r the top 11{ 1 h<" p:i~,., r Ji .. (].,,..

## pattern is scarcdy changed. The drag codfic1enc <.:onse

quemly remains almost constant in rhe ran11c of Revnolds

## the Reynolds number is increased, have now attained their

upstream limit , ahead of maximum th ickness. Visualization is by air bubblts m water . ONERA phocograph, Werle

## number spa nl\cd by chc5c cwo photographs. Ir drops lacer

\"-lw11 , :I!'- in (it.!11n ~i. tlu- I H11t1hbry layl'r h n .'<HlH..~ tur ,
bulcm ;n separation. l'lwwgraph by Thomas Cork~ and
Hmsan Nt> iii

...
;

## is6: Comparison oC lam.inar and turbulent boundary

l~ycrs. The lamin~r boundary layer in the upper photo-

## g~aj)h separn~cs from the crest of a convex surface (cf.

figure 38); w~er~as the turbulent layer in the second

## photograph remains attached; similar behavior is shown

below for a sharp comer. (Cf. figures 55-58 for a sphere.)
Titanium tetrachloride is painted on the forepart of che
model in a wind tunnel. Head 1982

## Turbulent Flows between Concentric Cylinders

129. Taylor vortices between spheres. With
a radius ratio of 0.95, the outer sphere fixed,
and the inner one rotating at R=7600, aluminum particles in silicone oil show laminar
vortices near the equator. Sawatzki & Zierep
1970

## 130. Spiral turbulence between counterrotating cylinders. This "barber-pole" pattern

of alternating laminar and turbulent spirals, a
phenomenon discovered by Coles, was formed
by first rotating the outer cylinder from rest to
R=l0,000 (based on outer radius) and then accelerating the inner one slowly to R= 4200
(based on inner rad.ius). Photograph by M.
Gomuzn and H. L. Swinney

## 131. Axisymmetric turbulent Taylor vortices. The conditions are

as in the pair of photographs on the opposite page, but at 1625 times
the critical speed. A sudden start produces chaotic motion at first, but
this reglar permanent turbulent pattern emerges within a minute.
Koschmieder 1979

77

Cj

## Gonera1ion of turbulence by a grid. Smoke wires

uniform lami nar str,am passing through a 1/ 16lnch
: ":th v,.inch square perforations. T he Reynolds num

JJ 2

## ber is 1500 based on 1he I-inch mesh size. Instability of th

shear layers leads to turbulent flow downmeam. Photo
graph by Thomas Corke arvl Hassan Nagib

## 154. Growth of moitcrial Jines in isotropic turbulence.

A fine platinum wire at the left is Stretched across a water
tunnel 18 mesh lengths behind ~ turbutcncegener:ning
~riJ, The ltcyoolds l\Uinbcr 1s 1J60 h:1~cJ on ~riJ rc.x.I c.Jiam-

## etcr. Periodic electrical pulses gcnc:r:ttc: OOublc

hydrogen bubbles that are s<r<iched ond wrinkle~
arc convected down~trci\m . ConJin '-q Konc cir JOt

## 155. Wrinkling of a Ouid surface in i>

turbulence. Herc rhc rl:tr inum

\\'ICC..'

t;cr.

## continuous sher! or hydrogen bubblt

ddonnc:d by thr nc:irl,, t~mropic tu~
behind 1he ~riJ . The bri~ht mcab ;ire be:
be placC'~ where: the: crinkkd ;-.h1.'<'t '~ \ic''
on. Phou'!!rlll>h by ~I. ). K11n1..:11, ~I. S. i
Johru Hopki ns Uniu., 1%\$

## omoge n eous turbulence behind a grid. &hind

'-:-.d cha~ above, the merging unsc;;ible w:akcs
k:rn a hvm~ncous field . As it dt."Ca ys down-

## stream, it provides :a useful approximouion co the idealita

tion of 1s0tropic turbulence. Ph~ograph

## and Hanan Nat1b

bJ Thomas C.Orkc

.,.,
172. Woke of an inclinod fl." plat.
0
woke behind o plotc ot 4S onsle of"'
turbulent at a Reynolds number c :
A lumi num Oakes suspended in W<lh:
its charoactcristii.: sinuuus form [

1981. Rcproducecl,

ifh Jitnnirnon , J

H1

## 76. Largtscalc struc ture in a turbulent mixing layer.

~bovc llowing ;1t 1000 cm/s mixes \Yith :'I heliu m
1rgc:"1 mixnirt below ar the same density newing :I{ 380
mh under a pressure o( 4 oumosphcrcs. Spark shadow
~hc~ograph\ shows simultaneous edge 01nd pl;m view~.

-.J itrotcn

## 7 7. Coherent structure ;;r; C higher Reynolds number.

"h i~ ilow is as above but at twice the p ressure. Doublin~
1..: f\..:ynolJ) number hos pruJu1.:cJ more sm&1ll~c.:ale suuc.:~z

## eddies. The strcamwisc urea ks in the plan view (of w '

half the sp::m is shown) corrt:sponJ to~ system of :lt...'Cllj
ary vortex pairs oriented in the scrca mwisc directi1
Their spacing at the downstream ~idc of the la yer is la
than nc:u 1hc hct:inning. Phnrngmf>h hy ). H. Knnrml, Pi
<'1.sil, Calif. fru<. of Tech .. J976.

& /(oJhku 197'1

## 173. Woke of a Grounded rankship. The tanker Argo

Mtrchan< went aground on the Nantucket shoals in 1976.
Leaking crude oil shows that she happened to be inclined
at abo ut 4S 0 to the current. Although the Reynolds
tnn

## number is jpproximatcly 101 the wake pattern i<

ably similar to that in the pho tograph at the tc-.
page. NASA photograph,
of 0 . M . Gri//i
Rtltarch Laboratory.

"""'"J

,-:

i--1

~. ~

... ,...

~.

. :.::.c L'XJ..
is <he IT'W:3n flow of a
: ..1 1h~ JCr o( c.:olorld warc r issu ing in10 3mbic:nl
\\a u:: at 100 cm/s. T iny air bubbles mark rhe
.. - ~~:u::/inl:oi of the slow uxH ion inc.Jui.:cJ in the

NQ

## ~"o"nding water. ONERA pho1ograph, Werle

/~,-4

r4

l..l
17('1. Enrrainm c m by an axisymm c rric rur..
bult::nt jc1. A jc:r o( colored lurbu lent w3rcr
"o.-s from a rube o( 9 mm diamcrcr at 200

('

.,

j)

## '"n.:::imlin1..~ shown by air bubbles in che wacer

.:uu:dc rhc jer arc paraboloids of revolution,
;od pa,abolas in rhc plonc case obovc.
(',\"ERA phorocraph, Werle 1974

A:-~}, :
!"-~

, ;i,

## ...:. r,t~~;~~~f~: ~~J;~..; ,.:.. -WI:

~,~ ~~-;; ~ '::<' ',,. ....c ...,_.,.~

~ :~".,.~ v'*~~1).\.i:f!t'i..~t:.._!~:~m

~'Ii' }:",..,,~, .. ~ ~ ~~
f:., <!'" w ,\i ~:i1iy\~:.~.0:~~L'f '~

'!,.-,. .;"'.'

## ~-);.. ""'- ~> ;,',;, t_;

''.."-~
.r.~'P~ol\~f.,
., '. . . ,J.~;"
"'t-.J'w~....t'f~!'f~~,~~~
::i~ ~ ...:t.*":. .:._ :~!?
' "~/ "' \'\ . <l ..,ll

'

... .)'.,.t

- ..{.~

## ~!"';)t v.!.fi~ ~.\l ~N-- ~-:. .t ~

-t;~ . ~.,,. J--, . . ~~ ' :~,.(.~:~ ./.' .....~

## ..-;:!r :'.owi'1g at JO cm/s from o long slit in a

.,o: i! :nitiaJly laminar. After it becomes tUr
-u:,~r. thc jcr is like tha t in the top photo.Lr2.:;,, !:ur che flow in the surrounding wate r is
. ui;, d::1crc"r bccouso o( the presence of the
.-al:. o:-.ER.'\ photograph, Wrrlr 1914

## ! -'~,.f ...~w <4-A~J;:'):. -

'" -..C

"\'i'::~_}}:~:*~;t.~::::;;~\1\lJ

## r bule nt water jct. Lascr .. induced fluorescence

.,e concentration of jct flu id in the p lane o f sym,. of an axisymmetr ic jec of water directed downward
water. The Reynolds number is approximately 2300.

## T he spacial resolution is a dcq u.ite to resolve the Kolmo

gorov scale in the down.meam half of the photograph.

97

:::. Cl(

I.'>

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4.

FOR 'IURBULENCE

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## The foundation ofturbulence modeling is the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. Therefore,

it is necessary to understand them and to validate that they are capable of describing
turbulent fluid motion.

## 1.2.1 Stokes's Postulations for a Viscous Fluid Model

Consider the postulations used in deriving the N-S equations:
1. The fluid motion can be considered to be a continuous medium (continuum).
2. The viscous diffusion of U1 (or pU1) is proportional to the gradient of U; (rate of

strain).
3. The fluid is isotropic.
4. The fluid is homogeneous; that is, r11 :F(U,, P, p, T).
5. When the fluid is at rest, the stress is hydrostatic.
6. When the ~ow is pure dilatation, the average stress is equal to the pressure (Stokes's

hypothesis).
7. Viscous fluid model constants (or coefficients) require experimental determination,
namely, p, ., . 2 (second viscosity).
There is nothing said in these postulations about excluding turbulent flows. As
long as the flow does not violate the postulations, the N-S equations should be valid for
turbulent flows.
For the p and . constants, the N-S equations and ~e energy equation are

au1 _ 0
ax, -
DU;
P Dt

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(l.6)

aP
a"'-u,
= pG; - ax; + . ax1ax;

(1.7)

and

DT
a2 r
pC,-D = k-;---a + .~.
f

(1.8)

CIXj X j

where

~=

## (au1 + auj) au,.

ax;

ax,

ax;

One may be concerned that the continuous cascade of turbulent eddies may violate
the continuum assumption. Let us examine the limiting eddy and vortex stretching in
turbulent ftows. For ex31llple, in turbulent .flows the pauems in Fig. 1.2 are often seen.
The eddies tend to be smaller for larger Reynolds number (Re). The turbulent eddies
arc always ill'egular, time dependent. and three-dimensional with the associated vortices
always being stretched. One may aslc. will the cascade of an eddy evolve such that the
eddies become indefinitely small?

## 1.2.2 Limits in Vortex Stretching

Let us isolate a vortex and examine its stretching (see Fig. 1.3). Consider the curl of the
N-S equations. Then we have the vorticity equation. where the vorticity (w) is the curl

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,.-

..

--- . ..

'

...

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INl'RODUCllON TO TURBULENCE 5

## of the velocity and is given as

-Dw
= -aw
Dt
ot + (v v)w = (w v)v + vv2w,

(l.9)

where

## "'= V" x ...

,

'~

S~~

\J~~
- ~-t O(?

c.....v.
Vectors an
presented ID bold

## ( l.l 0) faced typuad not

We sec that when Dw/ Dt = 0, the voncx stretching will stop. From an order--of~ magnitude analysis of Eq. 1.9, balancing the right-hand side will occur when cuu / l
.

by arrows

## va>/l2 orul/v =I.

Here. cu is the limiting vorticity, u is the eddy velocity, and I is the eddy size.
We find that when ul/v (the eddy Re) is 0(1), D(J)Dt ~ 0, or, in other words, there
will be no more vortex stretching. Thus, the smallest turbulent eddies should be at
ul/v = 1.
Let us consider this from another point ofview. The Kolmogorov scaling (see Hinze.
1915 (58))(11, E), which refers to the small eddies. gives u = (vE)l/4, / = (v3/E)ll4, and

OID__::
-v,

## F1pn 1.3 Bxamilling the siretcbinr of a voneit.

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.
.
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.. ::-:-. -----:----------.---=----;- -

:-:--~ -

------------ -- - --- - - -

-- -

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## 6 RJNDAMENTALS OF TURBULENCE MODEUNG

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t
(V/) 112, where f refers to the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. From
the Kolmogorov scale. we also find ulfv = I.
For example, consider turbulent flow in air. If u = 10 mis and v = 10-5 m 2/s,
then l = Io-' m is the size of the smaU eddy. There are I 029 molecules/m3 under
normal one atmosphere conditions. In this case, there are 1011 air molecules/l 3 (where
l / 3 10-111 m3). For an eddy with 1011 molecules. the continuum assumption is valid.
We therefore conclude that the N-S equations are vaJid for turbulence.
This has also been proved by direct numerical simulation (DNS, Moser and Moin,
1984 {106]; Spalart. 1986 (155]; Kim, Moin, and Moser, 1987 [71]; Mansour, Kim, and
Moin, 1988 [97J) and by large eddy simulation (LES) (Deardorff, 1970 [36]; Schumann,
1975 [141]; Moin and Kim, 1981 [106]) oflow Re turbulent flows. DNS predicts turbulent ftows by solving directly the instantaneous N-S equations, whereas LES uses a filter
model for the small-eddy behavior and computes the three-dimensional, time-dependent
large-eddy stnJctures in turbulent flows. These predictions are validated by experiments.
However. at present. both approaches require much computer memory and centralproccssing-unit time and are not practical in engineering applications. For instance, in order to capture the fine scaJe turbulent eddies, DNS requires the grid size to be smaller than
the finest turbulent eddies. In general, the grid number required by DNS is about 9/4th
. the power of the turbulent Re of the ftow. For a fiow with turbulent Re, (RT), equal to HP,
which is often encountered in engineering applications, the grid number required would
be higher than l 0 11 , which is far beyond the capability of computers currently available.
What an engineer always would like to know is the mean effect of the turbulent
quantities and not that of the instantaneous fluctuation quantities. Thus, a more practical
approach to describing turbulent Bows would be to model the averaged turbulent transpon
quantities. In this approach, models arc created to simulate the unknown transport quantities that are formed from the averaging -process. This approach is adopted in this book.

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## 1.3 AVERAGING PROCFSSE.5

1.3.1 Methods of Description
Sfatistical analysis. This type of analysis is used to study turbulent structures by various
correlations (i22, etc.) and by probability density functions (B(u ), etc.). For example, let
u* be the instantaneous velocity. The time history of the velocity component u is shown
in Fig. 1.4. To avoid looking at the history of instantaneous ftow fluctuations every time.
we replace or pack the same information into a probability distribution function B(u*).
Here B(u*)au is the probability of finding u" in the range au. or by definition,
B(u*)au* = lim .!.'9(At1).
T_..oo fl"'

'

Here At, is the time interval that u* is in au. In order to construct B(u"), one may
measure a variable, f. as

J = T~oo
lim T11to+T f(u*)dt =
to

-oo

f(u*)B(u*)du* (moments).

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- - -.. --- - --

- ----- - -

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= total value
u1 = mean value
ui = flactuating
u 1*

F1pre 1.6

value

## Reynolds long-dme aveqgillg.

A similar proccdW'C may be applied lO the two- and three-dimensional cases. However, the analysis is more complicated. Hence. although statistical analysis may reveal
details ofturbulent sttuctures. it is cumbersome to use for solving engin~ring problems.
Phenomenological analysis. In this approach, turbulence model postulations are made.
The analysis loses some details of the turbulence physics, but it can provide solutions to
engineering problems. The starting point of phenomenological analysis is the construction of some process of averaging.

## 1.3.2 Reynolds Averaging

Let uj = U; + u1, where u; is the total or instantaneous value, U1is the mean value, and
u, is the fluctuating value.

Long-timeaveraging(T - oo):
-
"1

u, = r1 lofT u,dt.

## In this case, U1 is not a function of time. Soc Fig. 1.6.

Shorttimeaveraging(ATsbort):

a7 = U1(t) =

- -

## r+"f ui(t + t')dt'.

AT}_-

Here t' is the time variable in 6 T duration near t . In this case, U1 is a fuoction of time
and t:.T. If tJ.T becomes large, the short-time average recovers the original Reynolds
long-time average. A short-time average is somewhat similar to a signal that has been
smoothed or has had a high-frequency component filtered out. It should also be noted
that u, 0 and u 1u1 # 0 in general. See Fig. 1.7

## 1.3.3 Ensemble Averaging (Phase Averaging)

In a short-time averaging process. the experiment needs to be performed only once.
However, the averaging depends on the filter time interval. Ll. T , which is not known in

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I
IITTRODUCTION TO TURBULENCE 9

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,..

= total value

Ui

mean v;ilue

ui

flaccuacing value

u ( t)
FiggR 1.7 Reynolds shoiHimoaveraging.

## advance. An alternative way of conslrUCting an average for a time-dependent flow is by

obtaining an ensemble average, which requires one to perform the experiment repeatedly
for N times, and then the averaging is taken over the entire range of experiments over
N experiments, as indicated in Fig. 1.8.

.
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u1

u; =

U1(t)

= N-ooN
lim ..!.. ~ u;(t, n),
~

(1.11)

iI

## where N number of experiments.

Also, note that
I. Au[= Auj =AU;

Uf+ii1

2.
= Vi + Ui
3. au;fax j = autfax j
4. ujuj U1U1 +u1u;.

Equation 1.11 includes the short-time Reynolds average and is potentially more general.
However, it is more difficult to produce because it requires N experiments. N should be
large enough so that the ensemble average is no longer dependent of N .

## 1.3.4 DemityWeighted Averaging (Compnsnble Fluids)

The use of the Reynolds average for compressible ftuids is cumbersome.. For example,
puv ;.,. (p + p')(U

+ u)(V + v) = .

is a messy operation. Alternatively, a 9ensity-weighted average (~r mass-weighted average) ~ay be used.

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+k

Ui

~I

+~

Oj

~!

Ui*
N: N

<Ui>

U11u

## Lcttmgi be tho density-weighted averll8e for

f, we define
(1.12)

u; = U1 + u1
(\): ClG111illg qmitation or we have
doUle prime mark
. \$Jlllbol'aneet

--------/"'\
uj = 01 + u;'
p + p'

p =

(Reynolds average),

(density-weighted average)

(Reynolds average).

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---.-.. .I
..

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____..

- ---.

.._.,....~,

--- - -- - -

.- ----

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INTRODOCl'ION TO TURBULENCE 11

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## From Eq. l .12. we have

But,
Thus,
pu~'

= 0,

or
(p

+ p' )u'f = 0.

That is.

or
ii~'

= -p'u/ /p :F 0.
1

In general,

u7 =F o.
For example. the mass conservation equation (Eq. 1.6) under density-weighted averaging

becomes

or
a(~+

at

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p')

apll1
0X1

=O.

Hence.

ap

a-po, _

## at+ ax, - 0 '

which is simpler than the continuity equation with conventional Reynolds averaging:

ap

apO;

au,p'

-+--+--=
a1 ax, ax, 01.3.5 Conditional Averaging (Sampling Average)
In some problems suchas intermittent phenomena or thermal spikes, a special averaging
process may reveal mo~ physics of turbulence. Let l1 be the duration of the laminar
flow and t; be the turbulent Bow duration. Then, we can define the inrermittency, y, as
the ratio of the turbulent fiow duration to the total flow duration. that is,

r= L:j 1jE,11
+ E,1, .

_J

I
r

'

------

--

## - --- --------- - - .... --- -

-- ----- - . . ...

- -- - - - - - -

'

r~;

1. n J IVj/t\.D/'\

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ll FUNDAMENTALS OF TURBULENCE MODELING

J )~

~coo

/
/

) ) /-;-; 7

() 0
0--

7 7 7

OQ ()

\../

?~
@

Figure 1.9

## Sigilal sampling It three different loc:atioas in flow.

For example. the signals at Locations l, 2, or 3 in Fig. 1.9 may be represented as shown
in Fig. 1.10. In digital recording of total N data. we may define the intermittcncy as
H

a= "1/N,
/=I

where, l

## Also, one must remember that uj,, 1'= uj,1 because

uj.1 =

J~tluj/t1.
"'
,_,

whereas.
H
uj,1 = J~~:Eo
- I)uj

lI

IN::E(l - /),
iI

wherein the subscripts t and I refer to turbulent and laminar signal, respectively (see
Fig. 1.11).

## For a thennal spike signal,

t,e = J~m00 2: rr IN
2: /.
N

i=I

r:

l=I

We see that
can be far greater than r,, as shown in Fig. 1.12. in which case a
conventional Reynolds averaging will not capture the peak of the thermal spike.

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-I
' ' ',

. ..

## '-_::.:::.:_. :.~.~~:.::..--:.::::-~=.:.:::: :: __- ------. ---.:.-~_-:=-, -.-:~.:...:.::.::~:=~=--------------- . . --- -------

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INTRODt.ICT!ON TO nJRSULENCE 13

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(-, +)

(+,

+)

j2

jl

(-, -)

(+, -)

- 4

## Quadrant coadidonal averaging (sampling). This is used to monitor or investigate

the details of the turbulent directional characlcristics (u, v ). Let j bo the j th quadrantat
the time t (sec Fig. 1.13). Then

H1(t;) = 1

=0

t;

ifnoL

## With u =U +u and v = V + v, we can define the jth-quadrant conditional average

(see Fig. 1.14) as

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------=~-:

......

- -~-

-.

- - - - - - --- -

-'

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14 FUNDAMENTALS OF 11JRBULENCE MOD!'LING

flow -

) ) 7 7 7 7 ) ? 7 7 7 7 /? 7

Data

Samplino

""'

## 1.4 AVERAGED IN~SmLE 1URBULENCEEQUATIONS

1.4.1 Navfer-Stok.es and Energy Equations
We start out by defining the turbulent quantity to be equal to the sum of the mean value
of the quantity plus its fluctuating value. Thus, P* = P + p. T* = T +8, ui = U; +u;.
and r:1j = r:11 + -rf1 Taking ensemble average of insWltaneous incompressible N-S and
energy equations. Eqs. l.6-1.8, we have the following equations.
Continuity equation:
(l.13)

Momentum equation:
(l.14)

wherein

"u =
and

au, au1 )
( ax, + ax,

--r,,, = - pu1u1.

Here, T:;j is modeled from the viscous fluid model, whereas r:[1 needs to be modeled from

## lhc turbulence model.

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-.:-.':""''"'.-:

-----------

-~- -

. ..-

~--------- ~ - -

. . ... . - .
-.-. .. - ----- - -- ...------ - - --

## . -- ' .---r -- - - - --- - -----

-- ---

- - - - ---- - -----

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.. ..

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INTROOucrtON TO TI.llUIULENCE 15

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DT

oU;

aq,

aqf

'

## ax1 ax; + -ax, + 4>

pCp- = r,i - - Dt

(1.15)

where

= -KoT/0X1
qf = -Cppu,e
q1

## ct>'= e.1 au,

r:;; = ,

ax1

(au,

au1 )

ax1 +ax, .

Here, q, is modeled from the Fourier postulations, whereas qf and <I>' need to be modeled
from the turbulence model. Equations 1.7-1.9 give five equations for the five variables
P . U, V, W, and T, whereas there are no equations for u 1u;, u 18 and <I>'. Therefore,
the set of equations is not closed. The problem of closing the turbulence mathematical
model is called the turbulence closure problem.
Before the closure problem can be addressed. the ensemble-average quantities of
u1u1, u1 6, and <1>1 must be derived. These additional unknowns, a total often (six from
u1u1, thiee from u;IJ, and one from 4>') can be derived from the fluctuation equations
for u, and 8. The fluctuation equations for"' and e are obtained from
[N-S] - [N-SJ-+ Equation for u1,

or

OU/) a}
( o1u; ) apu;U1
at+ u, ax, +"'ax, +"'ax; = - ax, + , ax,ax, .!-ax;8u1

Oil/

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0U1

or

c ( ae
1.~.2

u ae

ar

ae ) _

a20

a"Cpiiii;O _ ,

P ,

<1>

(1.17)

## Turbulence 'lhlmport EquaUom

In order to close the problem, we will derive u 1uJ> u 16, and so forth from .Eqs. l.16 and
1.17. These are the s~nd-order. one-point correlation-based transport equations.

Reynokls-stnss transport equations. The equation for u, u1 is obtained by the following method;

## Multiply Eq. 1.16, for the ith variable, by u1

Multiply F.q. 1.16, for the jth variable, by u 1
Add the results of the above two operations.
Take the average of the total addition.

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(l.1 6)

...

....

.. ---:- --

.
- ---~-- -

-~-

,,

__ __ .. .. - - - ,,

-- ---

## --- ------ ----- -------

l'l :A IM/11.tsA

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INTRODUCTION TO TURBULENCE 17

## Rate of dWipation equation. The dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy,

au, au,

=V--

0X1

ax,

directly affects the growth rate of k. It is thus one of the most important turbulent
quantities. It appears naturally in the derivation of the k equation. The equation for
the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy, E, is obtained by the following
approach:
Perform the operation a;ax, on Eq. 1.16 for the ith variable.
Multiply theresulting equation by au;/8X1
Take rhe ensemble average of the product and multiply by two.

DE
Dt =

a ( -

2v 8u1 ap

oe )

--

- 2vu,

## au; a2 u, - 2v aui .au, au, + au, auj

ax1 ax,ax1
ax1 ax; axi ax, ax,

2(v ax,ax,
a
2

u1

(1.20)

## Here the fluctuation or instantaneous quantity of ds given by

au1

au/

= "ax, ax,

In order to understand the E equation, let us examine the various tenns on the right-hand

## side of the equation.

The first two tenns again represent the turbulent diffusion of.
The third term represents the molecular diffusion of E.
The fourth and fifth terms represent the production of E.
The last two terms represent the destruction (source or sink) of the dissipation rate of
the turbulent kinetic energy.

term as
/

41

au,

-i.

au,.

## = -r,1 ax1 - '""ax,,.,

then the equation for the Reynolds turbulent heat fiux, u;IJ, can be obtained by using the
following approach:
Multiply Eq. 1.16, for the ith variable, by 6.
Multiply Eq. l.17 by

u,.

L
.

~----

.
------. _.__---.......

- -. .. ... - .
:

._ ,. ,

.. -

## ------- - -------- -----~

. . ._:_::.:__ - --

1
_. ,

'.

ii

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## 16 FUNDAMENTALS OFTIJRBUl..ENCE MODtilJNG

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By following the above-mentioned procedure, the equations for u1u i obtained are
Du;uj

Dr

= ~ (-u;UjU/ ax,

!!..(Oj/Ui

+ Oi!Uj) + v ou;Uj)

ax1

_auj _oU;)
OU; ou;
p (OU;
au;)
( u;ui ax, + u;ur ax, - Zv ax, ax, + p ax; + oX;

(l.18)

For understanding the physicsof this equation, let us consider what the seven tenns on
the right-hand side of this equation represent
The first two terms on the right represent the turbulent diffusion of the momentum.
The third term represents the molccular diffusion of the momentum and is usually
negligible compami with the first two tenns. However, it is the term with the highest
deriwtive. Hence, it must be retained.
Tiie founh and the fifth terms represent the production of stresses. u111. i by the interaction of Reynolds stresses u;u 1 and the gradient of the mean values.
The si;t;th term represents the viscous dissipation of the Reynolds stresses. u1u I
The seventh tenn represents the pressure-strain (PS) of the flow, which tends to restore
isotropicity of the flow.
'lbrbuleat ldnedc energy (k) eqaadon. From Eq. 1.18 for "'"i we can easily obtain
the turbulent ldnetic energy equation by setting i = j. The mean turbulent kinetic energy
is denoted by i:: = u1u; /2, whereas die ftuctUating turbulent kinetic et1ergy is denoted by
k' = u. 1u;/2. Then, the turbulent kinetic energy (k) equation can be obt.ained as

Dk
_,,,,
_a
Dt

ax,

( -k'ur--+vpu,
ok)
au,
P
ax, -u1u1--E'+O.
ax,

(1.19)

Note that the PS term goes to zero because of the continuiry equation. The physics
hidden in the equation is revealed when each of the tenns on the right-hand side is
studied carefully.
The first two terms on the right represent the diffusion of the kinetic energy from the
high intensity to the low intensity that is due to turbulent fluctuating motions.
The third tenn repn:sents the molecular diffusion of the turbulent kinetic energy.
The fourth term reimsents the production of the turbulent kinetic energy that is due to
the in~on of turbulent stress and the gradient of the mean-fl.ow velocity.
The fifth term. E, represents the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy that
cc:nds to occur at the small-eddy scale. ' is always positive because

The PS term of the Reynolds stress ttansport equation in the last term vanishes. and,
hence, its net contribution to the turbule_nt kinetic energy trans.fer rate is uro.

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## 18 FUNDAMENTALS OF TURBULENCE MODELING

Take the ensemble average of the resultant sum.
Thus, the u;O equation can be written as

BUi)

a ( -u1u18-011-+au1-+ve- - Pe -ae
-Dlii8
= -ax,
Dt
p
ax1
ax1
-

- ao --au;)
au; ao
pae -,( u;ui ax,+ "18 ax, - (a+ v) ax, ax,+ p8X1 +<I> u, .

(l.21)

Here a and v are the thermal diffUsivity and the kinematic viscosity, respectively.
J'

## l.S 'roRBULENCE CLOSURE PROBLEM

The averaged N-S equations, as indicated by Eq. 1.14, is given as
8U; =O

ax;

DU,

P Dt

ap

O'Cjj

chfj

## = pG, - ax, + axJ + ax1

wherein

and

tf1 = - pu;uj.
The above-mentioned four equations are for U1 and p. The problem of specifying unknowns, u1u I is the turbulence closure problem. Historically the first attempt to model
the Reynolds stress, -rfj, is to model it as a function of the mean-flow equations. Because
the u1u1 term is modeled directly without any additional differential equation, this model
is also called the zero-equation model or the first-order closun model. For example,
1. -iii= v,au /aY. This is the Boussinesq eddy viscosity model.
2. - uv l2 JdU /dYI au /8 Y. This is the Prandtl mixing length model.
3. -uv = KX8U /iJY. This is the Prandtl wake mixing length model.
4. -iiil = K 2 1(dU/dY)/(d2 U/dY2 )12 au1ar. This is the von Kinn8n mixing length

model.
In the early twentieth century, because of the lack of computing machines, the aboveindicated turbulence models were very popular because they arc relatively simple and

intuitive. However, models were very limited in the sense that the model could apply

only to a particular problem or problems with similar geometry and were inappropriate
for predicting other types of flows with different geometries. These simple models, in
general, have a low-prediction capability. Nevertheless. they possess the advantag~ of

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'

..

. - -- -- ---- - - - ----

- ... .

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j~

lt<JltODUCTION TO TURBULENCE 19

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simplicity and are capable of modeling turbulence with similar flow conditions and
geometrical shapes.

c.~-{> t .t-:'k

"

1.6 SUMMARY

'ti:~"y. f~;r

In the recent years the zero-equation model that imitates the laminar viscous stress

## :r,1 = 11 (au, + aui)

P
ax1 ax,
has ad-hoc-ly ~n generali:zcd to model the turbulent Reynolds stress as

## r/, = 11, ( -au1 + -au1 ) p

ax ax,

..;J..

(2/3)&11k-

Here, the eddy viscosity, v,, must be modeled. Prandtl and Kolmogorov have shown that
if the turbulent kinetic energy k and its dissipation rate E are known, then by dimensional
analysis, the eddy viscosity can be obtained by

v, = Ck 2/e.
For simple flows without separation, such as boundary layer flow and pipe flow, 111 can be
modeled with a simpler model of mixing length with some degree of success.. Otherwise.
for more general and complex flow careful modelling of le and t: must be made. This
leads the second-order closure problem that will be discussed in Chapter 2.
With the advance of high-speed computing after World War II, turbulence modeling
also advancm. From the late I9S0s to the present. turbulence modeling in engineering practice has progressed to the second-order turbulence closure model in which the
second-order turbulence transport quantles u1u1 and u18 are modeled. In the secondorder closure, the u1u J -;;9, le; and E equations contain many additional unknowns,
such as
pu1/ p, p/p8u1/ax1. v8u1/8x18u;/8x,. and so forth. These unknowns
must, hence, be modeled.
Although complicated and tedious, these models can be potentially more useful and
less problem dependent. The second.arde.c closure models provide a higher degree of
prediction capability and reduce the postdiclion. Moreover, the solution of the secondorder closure model is within the capacity of currently available computers.

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... - ..