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Polar coordinates are another way of expressing points in a plane. Instead of being centered at

an origin and moving horizontally or vertically, polar coordinates are centered at the pole and

measure a radius out from the pole at a given angle. The beginning angle of zero radians

corresponds to the positive x-axis. Although polar functions are differentiated in r and , the

coordinates and slope of a line tangent to a polar curve are given in rectangular coordinates.

Tangent lines

Remember the following conversions:

x r cos

y r sin

They are necessary to find the derivative of a polar curve in x- and y-coordinates. The derivative

dy

dy

is done parametrically so that

d . Remember, when differentiating in x or y, use the

dx dx

d

product rule formula.

Find the slope of the rose curve r 3 sin 2 at the point where

Solution

First, find the rectangular coordinates of the point

9

x r cos x 3sin 2 cos

4

6

3 3

4

6

Next, find the derivative and evaluate it at the given angle

dy

3sin 2 cos 6 cos 2 sin

dy

d

3sin 2 sin 6 cos 2 cos

dx dx

d

15

3sin 2 cos 6 cos 2 sin

4 5 3

3

6

4

3 3 5 3

9

Tangent line is y

x .

4

3

4

y r sin y 3sin 2 sin

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Student Study Session

Remember that d refers to a thin pie-shaped sector.

1 2

r d .

2

Solution

1 2

2

2 2cos d 18.8496

0

2

1

2

2

router rinner d .

2

Notice that the integrand is the difference of the radii squared, not the square of the difference of

the radii. (Like the washer method)

The area enclosed between two polar curves is given by A

Find the area of the region that lies inside the circle r 1 and outside the cardioid r 1 cos .

Solution

The outer curve is the circle r 1 and the inner curve is the cardioid r 1 cos . The points of

intersection are

and

1 2

2

2

d 1.215.

1 1 cos

2 2

If the region has symmetry, determine the area of one segment and then multiply it by the

A

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Student Study Session

Multiple Choice

1. (calculator not allowed)

Which of the following is equal to the area of the region inside the polar curve r 2cos

and outside the polar curve r cos ?

(A) 3 2 cos 2 d

0

(B)

3 cos 2 d

(C)

3 2

cos 2 d

0

2

(D) 3 2 cos d

0

(E)

3 cos d

0

The area of the region inside the polar curve r 4sin and outside the polar curve r 2 is

given by

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

1

2

4sin 2 d

0

2

1 34

2

4sin 2 d

2 4

1 56

2

4sin 2 d

2 6

1 56

2

16sin 4 d

2 6

1

16sin 2 4 d

2 0

Copyright 2013 National Math + Science Initiative, Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit us online at www.nms.org

Student Study Session

Which of the following expressions gives the total area enclosed by the polar curve

r sin 2 shown in the figure above?

(A)

1 2

sin d

2 0

(B)

(C)

1 4

sin d

2 0

(D)

sin 2 d

sin 4 d

(E) 2 sin 4 d

0

Student Study Session

Which of the following represents the graph of the polar curve r 2sec ?

Which of the following gives the area of the region enclosed by the loop of the graph of the

polar curve r 4cos 3 shown in the figure above?

(A) 16 3 cos(3 ) d

(B)

8 6 cos(3 ) d

(C)

8 3 cos 2 (3 ) d

(D) 16 6 cos 2 (3 ) d

(E)

8 6 cos 2 (3 ) d

Student Study Session

The area of the region enclosed by the polar curve r sin(2 ) for 0

is

(A) 0

1

(B)

2

(C) 1

(D)

(E)

Student Study Session

Free Response

7. (calculator allowed)

S

O

5

y and the curve C given by x 1 y 2 .

3

Let S be the shaded region bounded by the two graphs and the x-axis. The line and the curve

intersect at point P.

dx

(a) Find the coordinates of point P and the value of

for the curve C at point P.

dy

The figure above shows the graphs of the line x

2

2

2

2

(c) Curve C is a part of the curve x y 1. Show that x y 1 can be written as the

1

.

polar equation r 2

2

cos sin 2

(d) Use the polar equation from part (c) to setup an integral expression with respect to the

polar angle that represents the area of S.

Student Study Session

8. (calculator allowed)

2

r sin2

1

x

3

2

1

The curve above is drawn in the xy-plane and is described by the equation in polar

coordinates r sin 2 for 0 , where r is measured in meters and is measured

in radians. The derivative of r with respect to is given by

dr

1 2cos 2 .

d

(a) Find the area bounded by the curve and the x-axis

(b) Find the angle that corresponds to the point on the curve with x-coordinate -2.

2 dr

,

is negative. What does this fact say about r? What does this fact

3

3 d

say about the curve?

(c) For

Student Study Session

2

the first quadrant with greatest distance from the origin. Justify your answer.

Student Study Session

9. (calculator allowed)

y

R

x

O

The graphs of the polar curves r 2 and r 3 2 cos are shown in the figure above.

2

4

.

The curves intersect when

and

3

3

(a) Let R be the region that is inside the graph of r 2 and also inside the graph of

r 3 2 cos , as shaded in the figure above. Find the area of R.

(b) A particle moving with nonzero velocity along the polar curve r 3 2 cos has

position x t , y t at time t, with 0 when t 0. This particle moves along the

dr dr

dr

at and interpret your answer in

dt d

3

dt

terms of the motion of the particle.

curve so that

dy dy

dy

at and

3

dt d

dt

interpret your answer in terms of the motion of the particle.

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