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Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 5

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District Judge Thomas S. Zilly

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IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON

AT SEATTLE

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CITIZENS OF THE EBEYS RESERVE


FOR A HEALTHY, SAFE & PEACEFUL
ENVIRONMENT,

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Plaintiff,

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v.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

DECLARATION OF RACHEL K. ROBERTS

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY;


ADMIRAL PHIL DAVIDSON, in his
official capacity as the Commander, Fleet
Forces Command; and CAPTAIN MIKE
NORTIER, in his official capacity as
Commanding Officer Naval Air Station
Whidbey Island,
Defendants,

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I, Rachel K. Roberts, declare as follows:


1.

I am an attorney for Defendants in the above-captioned case and am competent to

testify. The information in this declaration is based on my personal knowledge.

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R. Roberts Declaration
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

-1-

U.S. Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 5

2.

Attached as Exhibit A is a true and correct tabulation of the annual number of

Field Carrier Landing Practice (FCLP) operations flown at Outlying Field (OLF)

Coupeville every year from 1967 through 2014.

3.

Attached as Exhibit B is a true and correct copy of excerpts from Wyle Report WR

04-26, Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and Outlying Field Coupeville

Washington, Wyle Laboratories, Oct. 2004.

4.

Attached as Exhibit C is a true and correct copy of excerpts from AICUZ Study

Update for Naval Air Station Whidbey Islands Ault Field and Outlying Field Coupeville,

Washington, The Onyx Group, March 2005.

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5.

Attached as Exhibit D is a true and correct copy of Finding of No Significant

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Impact for the Replacement of EA-6B Aircraft with EA-18G Aircraft at Naval Air Station

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Whidbey Island, Department of the Navy, July 19, 2005.

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6.

Attached as Exhibit E is a true and correct copy of a redacted version of an April

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16, 2013 Department of the Navy Memorandum from the Director, Air Warfare, to the Director,

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Energy and Environmental Readiness Division.

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7.

Attached as Exhibit F is a true and correct copy of Burden of Disease from

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Environmental Noise, Quantification of Healthy Life Years Lost in Europe, World Health

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Organization Regional Office for Europe, 2011.

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8.

Attached as Exhibit G is a true and correct copy of Environmental Noise, Sleep

and Health, Clinical Review, Alain Muzet, 11 Sleep Med. Rev. 135142 (2007).
9.

Attached as Exhibit H is a true and correct copy of Night Noise Guidelines for

Europe, World Health Organization Europe, 2009.

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R. Roberts Declaration
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

-2-

U.S. Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44 Filed 05/29/15 Page 3 of 5

10.

Attached as Exhibit I is a true and correct copy of a series of emails between

myself and Mr. Mann, counsel for COER, dated between February 26, 2014, and March 13,

2014.
11.

Attached as Exhibit J is a true and correct copy of a print-out from the U.S. Naval

Observatory, Astronomical Applications Department, Sun and Moon Data for December 21,

2014, for Coupeville, Island County, Wash. Retrieved from

http://aa.usno.navy.mil/rstt/onedaytable on May 29, 2015.


12.

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Attached as Exhibit K is a true and correct copy of the Airport Environs Map

Island County, Island County Department of Planning and Community Development, April 9,
1992.
13.

Attached as Exhibit L is a true and correct copy of the Island County- Population

Density map, Wash. Dept of Ecology, GIS Tech. Servs., September 7, 2012.
DATED May 29, 2015
JOHN C. CRUDEN
Assistant Attorney General
Environment and Natural Resources Division

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s/ Rachel K. Roberts
RACHEL K. ROBERTS
Trial Attorney, Admitted to the Maryland Bar
United States Department of Justice
Natural Resources Section
7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle WA 98115
(206) 526-6881 (tel); (206) 526-6665 (fax)
E-mail: rachel.roberts@usdoj.gov

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BRIAN C. KIPNIS
Assistant United States Attorney
United States Attorneys Office
700 Stewart Street, Suite 5220
Seattle, Washington 98101-1271
Phone: (206) 553-7970

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R. Roberts Declaration
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

-3-

U.S. Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44 Filed 05/29/15 Page 4 of 5

Fax: (206) 553-4067


Brian.Kipnis@usdoj.gov
Attorneys for Federal Defendants

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R. Roberts Declaration
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

-4-

U.S. Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44 Filed 05/29/15 Page 5 of 5

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CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
I hereby certify that on May 29, 2015, I electronically filed the foregoing with the Clerk

of the Court using the CM/ECF system which will send notification of such filing to the

following:

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David S. Mann
Dated May 29, 2015

s/ Rachel K. Roberts
RACHEL K. ROBERTS
Trial Attorney, Admitted to the Maryland Bar
United States Department of Justice
Natural Resources Section
7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle WA 98115
(206) 526-6881 (tel); (206) 526-6665 (fax)
E-mail: rachel.roberts@usdoj.gov

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R. Roberts Declaration
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

-5-

U.S. Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-1 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 2

Exhibit A

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-1 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 2


AnnualNumberofFCLPsatOLFCoupeville
Year NumberofFCLPs
1,236
1967
27,130
1968
39,246
1969
37,218
1970
18,392
1971
13,572
1972
16,764
1973
21,180
1974
24,844
1975
17,810
1976
17,748
1977
24,378
1978
20,282
1979
12,190
1980
16,848
1981
14,472
1982
11,782
1983
12,726
1984
13,924
1985
22,232
1986
30,350
1987
30,442
1988
22,596
1989
32,080
1990
27,088
1991
25,844
1992
21,324
1993
21,628
1994
19,854
1995
13,066
1996
9,736
1997
6,808
1998
6,752
1999
6,378
2000
3,568
2001
4,100
2002
2003
7,684
2004
4,314
2005
3,529
2006
3,413

Year
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

NumberofFCLPs
3,976
2,548
5,292
6,476
9,378
9,668
6,972
6,072

Source:Years19671991arefromArgentv.UnitedStates ,124F.3d1277,1279(Fed.Cir.1997);1976
2002areinAppendixA.4tothe2005EA;20032014arefrompersonalcommunicationwithNavy
officials
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit A to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 62

Exhibit B

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 62

Prepared for:
The Onyx Group
1199 N. Fairfax Street
Suite 600
Alexandria, VA 22314

FINAL
Wyle Report
W R 0 4- 26

Aircraft Noise Study for


Naval Air Station
Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field
Coupeville, Washington
Job No. 50832
October 2004
Prepared by:
Martin Schmidt-Bremer Jr.
J. Micah Downing
Geral Long
Timothy LeDoux
Vanessa Thompkins
W YLE L ABORATORIES, INC.
WYLE AVIATION SERVICES GROUP
2001 J EFFERSON D AVIS H IGHWAY
S UITE 701
A RLINGTON , VA 22202
T EL :: 703 415 4550
F AX : 703 415 4556
WWW . WYLELABS . COM

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 3 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

1.0 Introduction
Throughout the United States and overseas, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command
(NAVFACENGCOM) conducts aircraft noise surveys at various Naval and Marine Corps Air
Stations and associated facilities. The noise exposure contours developed during these studies are
integrated primarily into Air Installation Compatible Use Zones (AICUZ) studies or other
environmental documents, such as Environmental Impact Statements (EIS). These environmental
documents are employed by NAVFACENGCOM to promote the compatibility of Navy and
Marine Corps activities with neighboring land uses. This report presents the noise surveys
results for Naval Air Station (NAS) Whidbey Islands Ault Field and Naval Outlying Landing
Field (OLF) Coupeville.
The reports purpose is to present the Existing aircraft noise exposure for aircraft operations at
NAS Whidbey Island for calendar year (CY) 03 and to present the Projected (CY13) aircraft noise
exposure resulting from the transition of all EA-6B to EA-18G aircraft.
Section 1.1 summarizes the noise metrics discussed throughout this report, Section 1.2 explains
the regulatory background pertaining to noise studies and Section 1.3 briefly describes the
computer noise analysis model used to compute noise exposure. Section 2 provides a description
of NAS Whidbey Island. Section 3 details flight and run-up operations, noise exposure, and
AICUZ-related information for Existing conditions (CY03). Section 4 presents these same
elements for the Projected (CY13) conditions, and Section 5 compares average annual day (AAD)
Existing, Projected and Local Communitys Approved DNL contours. Appendix A provides a
comprehensive discussion of how noise affects people and the environment. Appendix B
contains depictions and technical data of the aircraft modeled. Appendix C contains an
explanation of the abbreviations used.

1.1

Noise Metrics
Noise represents one of the most prominent environmental issues associated with aircraft
operations. Although many other sources of noise can be found in today's communities, aircraft
noise is readily identifiable. An assessment of aircraft noise requires a general understanding of
how sound is measured and how it affects people and the natural environment (See
Appendix A).
The noise environment around a military or civil airfield normally is described in terms of the
time-average sound level generated by the aircraft operating at that facility. These operations
consist of the flight activities conducted during an average annual day. Operations at military
airfields generally include fixed- and rotary-wing arrivals and departures, general vicinity flight
patterns and pre-flight and maintenance aircraft engine "run-ups."

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 1-1


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 4 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

The federal noise measure used for assessing aircraft noise exposures in communities near air
installations is the Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL, or Ldn ), described in terms of the
decibel (dB). DNL is an average sound level generated by all aviation-related operations during
an average 24-hour period. Acoustical daytime is defined as the period from 0700 to 2200
hours and acoustical nighttime is defined as the period from 2200 to 0700 hours the following
morning. Nighttime sound levels of noise events are emphasized by adding a 10-dB weighting.
The 10-dB weighting accounts for the generally lower background sound levels and greater
community sensitivity to noise during these hours. As explained in Appendix A, DNL has been
found to provide the best measure of long-term community reaction to transportation noises,
especially aircraft noise.
DNL employs A-weighted sound levels. A-weighted denotes the adjustment of the frequency
content of a noise event to represent the way in which the average human ear responds to that
sound energy.

1.2

Regulatory Background
This study was conducted under OPNAVInst 11010.36B for long range base planning under the
Navy AICUZ program. The Federal Interagency Committee on Urban Noise (FICUN) was
formed in 1979 and it published Guidelines for Considering Noise In Land-Use Planning and
Control (FICUN, 1980). These guidelines complement federal agency criteria by providing for
the consideration of noise in all land-use planning and interagency/intergovernmental processes.
The FICUN established DNL as the most appropriate descriptor for all noise sources. In 1982,
EPA published Guidelines for Noise Impact Analysis to provide all types of decision-makers with
analytic procedures to uniformly express and quantify noise impacts (U. S. EPA, 1982). The
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) endorsed DNL in 1990 as the acoustical measure
to be used in assessing compatibility between various land uses and outdoor noise environment
(ANSI, 1990). In 1992, the Federal Interagency Committee on Noise (FICON) reaffirmed the use
of DNL (or Ldn) as the principal aircraft noise descriptor in the document entitled Federal Agency
Review of Selected Airport Noise Analysis Issues (FICON, 1992).

1.3

Computerized Noise Exposure Model


Aircraft noise exposure and compatible land-use analyses around Department of the Navy
facilities generally use a computer program called NOISEMAP.
The latest NOISEMAP package of computer programs consists of BASEOPS Version 7.291,
OMEGA10, OMEGA11, NOISEMAP Version 7.2, NMPLOT Version 4.87, and the latest issue of
NOISEFILE. NOISEFILE is the Department of Defense aircraft noise database originating from
the noise measurements of controlled flyovers at prescribed power, speed, and drag
configurations for most military aircraft models. Runway coordinates, airfield information, flight

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 1-2


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 5 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

tracks, flight profiles (power and speed settings and altitudes) along each track by each aircraft,
numbers of flight operations, run-up coordinates, run-up profiles and run-up operations all can
be entered into the BASEOPS software. The OMEGA10 program extrapolates and interpolates the
Sound Exposure Levels (SELs) for flight operations for each aircraft model from the NOISEFILE
database. It takes into consideration the specified speeds, engine thrust settings and
environmental conditions appropriate to each type of flight operation. The OMEGA11 program
calculates maximum A-weighted sound levels from ground run-up operations for each aircraft
model. This program takes the engine thrust settings, and environmental conditions appropriate
to run-up operations into consideration. The core NOISEMAP program incorporates the number
of daytime and nighttime operations, flight paths, and aircraft profiles to calculate DNL values
over a regular grid of points in area of interest. The NMPLOT program draws equal DNL
contours for overlay onto land-use maps. For AICUZ studies, as a minimum, DNL contours of 65,
70, 75 and 80 dB are developed. NOISEMAP computer program results and noise impact
guidelines provide a relative measure of noise effects around air facilities. NOISEMAP also has
the flexibility of calculating sound levels at any specified point so that potential noise impacts at
noise sensitive locations around an airfield can be identified (United States Air Force, 1992).

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 1-3


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 6 of 62


November 2004
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FINAL

3.0 Existing Aircraft Operations and Noise Exposure


3.1

Flight Operations
The number of flight operations (operations tempo) at NAS Whidbey Island has varied
dramatically over the 28 years of available data (1976-2003). Several variable factors interact with
each other differently to cause that variability. Some are relatively predictable factors (including,
but not limited to, the number of squadrons/aircraft/pilots-crews, minimum training
requirements, total annual flight hours available, etc.) and some are relatively unpredictable
factors (including, but not limited to, the number of deployments for higher headquarters
directed exercises, aircraft carrier deployment schedules, deployments directed by higher
authority in response to world events, etc.). The average (mean) operations tempo at NAS
Whidbey Island between 1976 and 2003 is 123,407 operations per year with a standard deviation
of 30,783 (NASWI CP&LO Oct 2004).
For 2003 the annual operations used for noise modeling were 81,959 for Ault Field and 7,682 for
Coupeville. Total operations figures for 2003 were reduced to account for general aviation
operations of aircraft that only transit the air space (aircraft that do not take off or land at Ault
Field) reported as total annual operations. According to NAS personnel, operations numbers in
2003 were even lower than in 2002 due to multiple deployments. Table 3-2 shows annual flight
operations for the Existing conditions at NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-1


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 7 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL
Table 3-1. Modeled Flight Operations for NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville for CY 2003
Tenant
Name

Aircraft
Type

Operation
Type

Description
Departure

Departure

Interfacility - Whidbey Island to Coupeville

Total Departures
Overhead-Break
Interfacility - Coupeville to Whidbey Island

Arrival
CVWP

TACAN
IFR Full-Stop

EA-6B

Closed Pattern1

Departure

CPRW

Arrival

P-3

Closed Pattern1

TRANSPORT

C-9

STATION

C-12

TRANSIENT

CVWP

Departure
Arrival

Departure
Arrival

Transient

Departure
Arrival

2, 3

Closed Pattern1
at OLF

EA-6B

Total Arrivals
FCLP
Touch and Go
Depart and ReEnter
GCA Box
Total Closed Pattern Operations
CVWP TOTAL
LO-TACAN
IFR
Total Departures
VFR
LO-TACAN
IFR Full-Stop
Total Arrivals
Touch and Go
GCA Box
Total Closed Pattern Operations
CPRW TOTAL
Departure
Straight-In Arrival
Transport TOTAL
Departure
Straight-In Arrival
Station TOTAL
Departure
Straight-In Arrival
Transient TOTAL
AULT FIELD TOTAL
FCLP
OLF COUPEVILLE TOTAL

Total Number of Modeled Operations for 2003 (all aircraft)

CY03 Operations
0700-2200 2200-0700
3,935
241
531
109
4,466
350
1,860
136
531
109
411
25
1,643
101
4,445
371
18,983
3,967
9,160
433
238
17
2,032
1,832
30,413
6,249
39,324
6,970
4,289
81
3,668
145
7,957
226
4,290
81
1,834
72
1,834
72
7,958
225
12,867
244
4,661
175
17,528
419
33,443
870
211
114
211
114
422
227
65
35
65
35
129
70
164
88
164
88
328
176
73,646
8,313
6,390
1,292
6,390
1,292
80,036

9,605

Total
4,176
640
4,816
1,996
640
436
1,744
4,816
22,950
9,593
255
3,864
36,662
46,294
4,370
3,813
8,183
4,371
1,906
1,906
8,183
13,111
4,836
17,947
34,313
325
325
649
100
100
199
252
252
504
81,959
7,682
7,682
89,641

1 Counted as 2 operations
2 Operation Numbers derived from 2004 ATAC Draft Report - Day/Night Split Percentage (65% / 35%) from WR 94-13
3 Transient aircraft modeled as P-3

Source: Brown, 12 August 2004

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-2


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 8 of 62


November 2004
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3.2.4 Interfacility Tracks


Figure 3-9 illustrates the interfacility tracks from NAS Whidbey Island to OLF Coupeville and
Figure 3-10 illustrates the interfacility tracks from OLF Coupeville to NAS Whidbey Island. Each
of NAS Whidbey Islands runways has two tracks going to OLF Coupeville, one for each of OLF
Coupevilles runways. Similarly, each of OLF Coupevilles runways has four tracks returning to
NAS Whidbey Island, one for each of NAS Whidbey Islands runways. All interfacility tracks are
routed to minimize overflight of residential areas.

3.2.5 Pattern Tracks at NAS Whidbey Island


There are 40 pattern tracks depicted for NAS Whidbey Island. Pattern tracks are divided into 4
Depart and Re-Enter, 24 Tower Pattern (Touch and Go/FCLP) and 12 GCA box tracks.
The Depart and Re-Enter tracks are located north and west of NAS Whidbey Island for noise
mitigation purposes (Figures 3-11 and 3-12).
Pattern Tower (Touch and Go and FCLP) tracks are identical to each other and are thus not listed
separately (Figures 3-13 and 3-14). As described in Section 3.2.3, Runways 07, 13 and 25 have
three daytime and three nighttime tracks with abeam distances ranging from about 1 NM for
tight daytime tracks to about 1.9 NM for wide nighttime tracks. Of the six tracks per runway, the
wide daytime and tight nighttime tracks are identical. Just as with the overhead break arrival
tracks, Runway 25 also has a peculiar center daytime track, referred to as the pork-chop track
of the same description and for the same reason. Runway 31 is also different in that there are
only four distinct tracks. The center daytime and tight nighttime tracks and the wide daytime
and center nighttime tracks have identical abeam distances.
The GCA pattern tracks (Figures 3-15 and 3-16) are utilized from all four runways at NAS
Whidbey Island.

3.2.6 FCLP Tracks at OLF Coupeville


Figures 3-17 through 3-18 illustrate the 12 FCLP tracks used at the OLF. Each track on
Runway 14 is unique. Various distances, such as the abeam distance, increase starting with the
tight daytime track and ending with the wide nighttime track. The difference in length between
the downwind leg, and thus of the final leg of the wide daytime and tight nighttime tracks, is
about 0.7 NM, which results in a noticeably larger, tight nighttime track.
The tracks on Runway 32, on the other hand, follow the distances outlined in Sections 3.2.3
and 3.2.5. There are three daytime and three nighttime tracks with abeam distances ranging from
about 1 NM for tight daytime tracks to about 1.6 NM for wide nighttime tracks. Of the six tracks
per runway, the wide daytime and tight nighttime tracks are identical.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-22


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 9 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-23


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 10 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-24


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 11 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-31


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 12 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-32


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 13 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL

3.3

Flight Profiles and Climatic Data


Aircraft profile data for based and transient aircraft came from several sources. Aircraft flight
profiles for the EA-6B were previously developed and approved by the US Navy for use in this
study (Papapietro, 2004). P-3 profiles were obtained through interviews with based pilots (Wyle
Laboratories Acoustics Group, 2004). Standard NOISEMAP profiles were used for the C-9 and
C-12. All profiles for the EA-6B and EA-18G are documented in Wyle Report 04-08, Revised
(Downing and Schmidt-Bremer Jr, 2004). Transient aircraft were modeled based on P-3 profiles.
Since weather is a factor in the propagation of noise, NOISEMAP requires the monthly average
temperatures and relative humidity values to determine the appropriate values to represent the
given year. The appropriate values for entry into NOISEMAP for CY03 for NAS Whidbey Island
and OLF Coupeville are 50F (10C) and 79% Relative Humidity (RH), as calculated based on the
data provided by the weather observer at Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography
Detachment Whidbey Island (Wyle Laboratories Acoustics Group, 2004). This data is presented
in chart-format in Charts 3-1 and 3-2.
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Calendar Month (2003)

Average Monthly Temperatures

Average Monthly Humidity

Chart 3-1. Temperature and Humidity Data for NAS Whidbey Island

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-33


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 14 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Calendar Month (2003)

Average Monthly Temperatures

Average Monthly Humidity

Chart 3-2. Temperature and Humidity Data for OLF Coupeville

3.4

Pre-Flight and Maintenance Run-Up Operations


Pre-flight run-ups were modeled for the EA-6B aircraft with a power setting of approximately
95% RPM for a duration of one second prior to brake release.
In-frame and out-of-frame (test cell) maintenance run-up operations data for the EA-6B are
documented in WR 04-08, Revised (Downing and Schmidt-Bremer Jr., 2004). The data for the P-3
were collected by phone and email communication with maintenance personnel from Patrol
Reconnaissance Wing 10 (CPRW-10) (Dudley, 2004). Table 3-8 displays all modeled maintenance
operations data.

3.5

Noise Exposure
Using the data described in Sections 3.1 through 3.4, NOISEMAP 7.2 with topography was used
to calculate the 60 dB through 85 dB DNL contours for the AAD flight operations for CY03, and
the results are shown in Figure 3-19.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-34


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 15 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-36


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 16 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL

Aside from covering large areas of Island County, Figure 3-19 shows that the Existing (CY03)
AAD 60 dB DNL contour extends northwest reaching San Juan County, north and east over
Skagit County. The 65 dB contour remains over Island County for the most part, except for small
parts of Skagit County where it reaches across Similk and Skagit Bays.
Table 3-9 shows the impacts of Existing aircraft operations at Ault Field and OLF Coupeville.
Listed are population numbers, housing units and area in acres within the 60 to 85+ dB DNL
contours at 5 dB increments. Ault Field and OLF Coupeville property and bodies of water are
not included in the population and housing impact calculations. For Ault Field, the Existing 65 to
less than 75 dB AAD DNL contour band contains 10,077 acres in off-station land area and an
estimated population of 9,327 (Table 3-9). An estimated 52 people would be exposed to a DNL
greater than 85 dB. An estimated 21 housing units are located within this contour band. For OLF
Coupeville approximately 7,426 acres, 1,983 people and 1,011 housing units were impacted by the
65 to less than 75 dB DNL contour band. An estimated three people were exposed to a DNL
greater than 85 dB.
The population data was obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau 2000 census.
Census
block-groups surrounding the NAS and the OLF were extracted from the most recent
Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) files, while
demographic data were extracted from the Summary Tape File 1A (STF1A). The total area
outside the boundaries of both Ault Field and OLF Coupeville, and the number of residents and
houses within each contour band, were then calculated for comparison purposes. Populations
calculated with U.S. Census data are estimates and are most useful in determining relative
change in population impact between different noise contours.

Ault Field

60
65
70
75
80
85

dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB

Existing CY03 DNL Contours


Level (dB)
Population
Housing Units Area (acres)
to less than 65 dB
15720
7320
31228
to less than 70 dB
5715
2560
6085
to less than 75 dB
3612
1477
3992
to less than 80 dB
2674
1120
5354
to less than 85 dB
289
145
926
+
52
21
157

OLF Coupeville

Table 3-8. Impacts of Existing CY03 Operations at NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville

60
65
70
75
80
85

dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB

to
to
to
to
to
+

less
less
less
less
less

than
than
than
than
than

65
70
75
80
85

dB
dB
dB
dB
dB

1372
1211
772
385
19
3

686
626
385
185
9
1

2441
4731
2695
1091
181
25

Notes: 2000 Census data utilized


All counts exclude NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville boundaries and
bodies of water

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 3-37


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 17 of 62


November 2004
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Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

4.1

Pre-flight and Maintenance Run-up Operations


Preflight run-up operations are generally not accomplished for the based aircraft, thus none were
modeled.
Table 4-3 presents the modeled maintenance run-up operations for the Projected conditions for
the EA-18G and the P-3. All maintenance run-up operations for the P-3 remain unchanged from
Existing conditions.

4.2

Noise Exposure
Using the data described above and in Section 3, NOISEMAP 7.2 with topography was used to
calculate the 60 dB through 85 dB DNL contours for the AAD operations of the Projected
condition, and the results are shown in Figure 4-1.
Projected condition DNL contours are smaller than Existing condition contours, such that the
counties of San Juan and Snohomish County are no longer encompassed by the 60 dB DNL
contour. The 60 dB DNL contour does, however, penetrate the western border of Skagit County
and the 65 dB DNL contour extends into Skagit Bay. The 70 dB DNL and greater Projected
condition contours resemble the 70+ dB and greater Existing condition DNL contours, and they
cover large parts of Island County.
Table 4-4 shows the impacts of Projected aircraft operations from Ault Field and OLF Coupeville.
Listed are population numbers, housing units and area in acres within the 60 to 85+ dB DNL
contours at 5 dB increments. For Ault Field, the Projected 65 to less than 75 dB AAD DNL
contour band contains 6,807 acres in off-station land area and an estimated population of 5,636
(Table 4-4). An estimated 2,369 housing units are located within this contour band. There are 27
people estimated to be exposed to an AAD DNL greater than 85 dB. For OLF Coupeville,
approximately 7,432 acres, 1,785 people and 900 housing units are impacted by the 65 to less than
75 dB DNL contour band. There are no people estimated to be exposed to an AAD DNL greater
than 85 dB. The computed contour areas exclude bodies of water and the areas of Ault Field and
OLF Coupeville themselves.
The population data was obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau 2000 census; while updated data
was requested from the local communities, it remains unavailable. Census block-groups
surrounding Ault Field and OLF Coupeville were extracted from the most recent
Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) files, while
demographic data were extracted from the Summary Tape File 1A (STF1A). The total area
outside the boundaries of Ault Field and OLF Coupeville, and the number of residents and
housing units within each contour band, were then calculated for comparison purposes.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 4-8


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 18 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 4-10


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 19 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL

Ault Field

60
65
70
75
80
85

dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB

Projected CY13 DNL Contours


Level (dB)
Population Housing Units Area (acres)
to less than 65 dB
3965
1659
4441
to less than 70 dB
2982
1271
2723
to less than 75 dB
2654
1098
4084
to less than 80 dB
2080
894
4505
to less than 85 dB
141
64
539
+
27
11
120

OLF Coupeville

Table 4-4. Impacts of Projected CY13 Operations at NAS Whidbey Island

60
65
70
75
80
85

dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB

to
to
to
to
to
+

less
less
less
less
less

than
than
than
than
than

65
70
75
80
85

dB
dB
dB
dB
dB

480
1196
589
224
4
0

273
609
291
106
2
0

1545
4742
2690
497
38
1

Notes: 2000 Census data utilized


All counts exclude NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville boundaries and
bodies of water

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 4-11


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 20 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

5.0 Noise Exposure Contour Comparisons


In this section, contours for the local communitys Approved conditions are introduced, and then
a comparison of three sets of contours is presented. First, a comparison is provided between the
Existing and Projected condition contours. Then the local communitys Approved contours are
compared against both Existing condition contours, as well as the Projected condition contours.

5.1

Local Communitys Approved Conditions Contours


Figure 5-1 shows the local communitys Approved 60, 65, 70 and 75 dB DNL contours for
Ault Field and OLF Coupeville. The data used to plot these contours was provided by the
Onyx Group (Dorn, 2004).
Table 5-1 shows the impacts of the local communitys Approved noise contours around
Ault Field and OLF Coupeville. Listed are population numbers, housing units and area in acres
within the 60 to 75+ dB contours at 5 dB increments. For Ault Field, the 65 to less than 75 dB
DNL contour band contains 7695 acres in off-station land area and an estimated population of
6,284. An estimated 2,629 housing units are located within this contour band. For OLF
Coupeville, the 65 to less than 75 dB DNL contour band contains 8,964 acres in off-station land
area and an estimated population of 2,801. Approximately 1,410 housing units are located within
this contour band.
The population data was obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau 2000 census.
Census
block-groups surrounding the NAS and the OLF were extracted from the most recent
Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) files, while
demographic data were extracted from the Summary Tape File 1A (STF1A). The total area
outside the boundaries of Ault Field and OLF Coupeville and the number of residents and
housing units within each contour band were then calculated for comparison purposes.

5.2

Comparison of Existing versus Projected Conditions Contours


Figure 5-2 shows a comparison of the Existing (CY03) and Projected (CY13) 65 through 75 dB
DNL contours for Ault Field and OLF Coupeville. The figure shows clearly that the transition
from the EA-6B to the EA-18G would result in a reduction in noise impact around both Ault Field
and OLF Coupeville. This is further demonstrated in Tables 5-2 and 5-3 which show a reduction
in area, people and housing units impacted by as much as 86 percent in one particular attribute,
as a result of the replacement of the EA-6B with the EA-18G. This is primarily attributed to the
better performance of the EA-18G, e.g., its climb-out rate is much faster that that of the EA-6B.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 5-1


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 21 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 5-2


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 22 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL

OLF
Coupeville

Ault Field

Table 5-1. Impacts of Community's Approved Contours at NAS Whidbey Island


Local Community's Approved DNL Contours
Level (dB)
Population Housing
60 dB to less than 65 dB
7682
65 dB to less than 70 dB
4782
70 dB to less than 75 dB
1502
75 dB +
3195
60
65
70
75

dB
dB
dB
dB

to less than 65 dB
to less than 70 dB
to less than 75 dB
+

1931
1425
1376
1201

Units Area (acres)


3457
7715
1972
4093
657
3602
1337
6693
906
702
708
601

3541
3963
5001
2981

Notes: 2000 Census data utilized


All counts exclude NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville boundaries and bo

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 5-3


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 23 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 5-4


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 24 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL
Table 5-2. Impacts of Existing versus Projected Conditions Contours Around Ault Field
EXISTING VERSUS PROJECTED CONDITIONS CONTOURS AROUND AULT FIELD
Population

DNL (dB)

CY2003

CY2013

Difference

60 to less than 65

15,720

3,965

65 to less than 70

5,715

2,982

-48%

70 to less than 75

3,612

2,654

-27%

75 +

3,015

2,248

-25%

Housing Units

DNL (dB)

CY2003

CY2013

-75%

Difference

60 to less than 65

7,320

1,659

-77%

65 to less than 70

2,650

1,271

-52%

70 to less than 75

1,477

1,098

-26%

75 +

1,286

969

-25%

Area (acres)

DNL (dB)

Difference

CY2003

CY2013

60 to less than 65

31,228

4,441

-86%

65 to less than 70

6,085

2,723

-55%

70 to less than 75

3,992

4,084

2%

75 +

6,437

5,164

-20%

Notes: Census Data: 2000


All counts exclude bodies of water
Negative percentages show decreases

Table 5-3. Impacts of Existing versus Projected Conditions Contours Around OLF Coupeville
EXISTING VERSUS PROJECTED CONDITIONS CONTOURS AROUND OLF COUPEVILLE
Population
DNL (dB)
Difference
CY2003
CY2013
60 to less than 65
1,372
480
-65%
65 to less than 70
1,211
1,196
-1%
70 to less than 75
772
589
-24%
75 +
407
228
-44%
Housing Units
DNL (dB)
Difference
CY2003
CY2013
60 to less than 65
686
273
-60%
65 to less than 70
626
609
-3%
70 to less than 75
385
291
-24%
75 +
195
108
-45%
Area (acres)
DNL (dB)
Difference
CY2003
CY2013
60 to less than 65
2,441
1,545
-37%
65 to less than 70
4,731
4,742
0%
70 to less than 75
2,695
2,690
0%
75 +
1,297
536
-59%
Notes: Census Data: 2000
All counts exclude bodies of water
Negative percentages show decreases

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 5-5


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 25 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

5.3

Comparison of Existing versus Local Communitys Approved


Conditions Contours
Figure 5-3 shows a comparison of the Existing (CY03) and local communitys Approved noise
contours for Ault Field and OLF Coupeville. This comparison shows that the area impacted
under the local communitys Approved contours around Ault Field is actually smaller (for the
most part) than the one under Existing conditions. This does not hold true for OLF Coupeville,
however, where the local communitys Approved contours are larger than the Existing condition
contours. The reasons for the difference are unknown; however, noise propagation due to the
effects of topography and transmission of noise over water was probably not considered during
the modeling of the local communitys Approved condition contours as the technology did not
exist until recently.

5.4

Comparison of Projected versus Local Communitys Approved


Conditions Contours
Noise contours under the local communitys Approved conditions and under the Navys
Projected (CY13) conditions for Ault Field and OLF Coupeville are shown in Figure 5-4. The
noise impact in CY13 would be smaller, with the exception of the 65 dB DNL contour east of
Ault Field which protrudes slightly into Skagit County. The larger contours north and south of
Ault Field are over water and would thus not impact any population. The impact around the
OLF would largely decrease.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 5-6


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 26 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 5-7


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 27 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice 5-8


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 28 of 62


October 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

DRAFT

References
American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI). 1990. Sound Level Descriptors for Determination of
Compatible Land Use. ANSI S12.40-1990 and ASA 88-1990.
ATAC Corporation. 2004. Draft Airfield and Airspace Baseline Development Study, 2 May 2004.
Brown, Cdr, Lt, 12 August 2004. Air Traffic Control, NAS Whidbey Island. Phone and email
communication with Martin Schmidt-Bremer Jr.
Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics (CHABA). 1977. Guidelines for Preparing
Environmental Impact Statements on Noise. The National Research Council, National Academy of
Sciences.
Dorn, Greg, 22 July 2004. The Onyx Group GIS/Planner. Email correspondence with Martin SchmidtBremer Jr.
Downing, Micah, and Schmidt-Bremer Jr, M. 2004. Operational Noise Comparison Between EA-6B and
EA-18G at NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville. Wyle Report 04-08 Revised, May 2004.
Dudley, Eric, ADC, 10 July 2004. Aircraft Maintenance, Patrol Reconnaissance Wing. NAS Whidbey
Island. Phone and email correspondence with Martin Schmidt-Bremer Jr.
Federal Interagency Committee on Noise (FICON). 1992. Federal Agency Review of Selected Airport
Noise Analysis Issues, August.
Federal Interagency Committee on Urban Noise (FICUN). 1980. Guidelines for Considering Noise in
Land-Use Planning and Control, August.
Melaas, Richard, August 2004. CP&L Officer, NAS Whidbey Island. Personal and email correspondence
with Martin Schmidt-Bremer Jr.
Noise Control Act of 1972. 1972. Retrieved 16 July 2002, from http://hydra.gsa.gov/pbs/pt/
call-in/nca.htm.
Papapietro, Antony F., CAPT, USN, 24 August 2004.
correspondence with Martin Schmidt-Bremer Jr.

CNAF Requirements Officer.

Email

United States Air Force. 1992. Air Force Procedure for Predicting Noise Around Airbases: Noise
Exposure Model (NOISEMAP) Technical Report. Report AL-TR-1992-0059.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1982.
Report 550/9-82-105 and #PB82-219205, April 1982.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Guidelines for Noise Impact Analysis.

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice R-1


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 29 of 62


October 2004
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Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

DRAFT

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1972. Information on Levels of Environmental Noise
Requisite to Protect the Public Health and Welfare With an Adequate Margin of Safety.
Report 550/9-74-004. March 1982.
Wyle Laboratories Acoustics Group, 2004. Site Visit to Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, 15 to
19 March 2004 by Martin Schmidt-Bremer Jr and Micah Downing.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice R-2


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 30 of 62


November 2004
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Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

APPENDIX A
DISCUSSION OF NOISE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-1


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 31 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL Appendix A

Appendix A
Discussion of Noise and Its Effect on The Environment
A.1

Basics of Sound
Noise is unwanted sound. Sound is all around us; sound becomes noise when it interferes with
normal activities, such as sleep or conversation.
Sound is a physical phenomenon consisting of minute vibrations that travel through a medium,
such as air, and are sensed by the human ear. Whether that sound is interpreted as pleasant (e.g.,
music) or unpleasant (e.g., jackhammers) depends largely on the listeners current activity, past
experience, and attitude toward the source of that sound.
The measurement and human perception of sound involves three basic physical characteristics:
intensity, frequency, and duration. First, intensity is a measure of the acoustic energy of the
sound vibrations and is expressed in terms of sound pressure. The greater the sound pressure,
the more energy carried by the sound and the louder the perception of that sound. The second
important physical characteristic of sound is frequency, which is the number of times per second
the air vibrates or oscillates. Low-frequency sounds are characterized as rumbles or roars, while
high-frequency sounds are typified by sirens or screeches. The third important characteristic of
sound is duration or the length of time the sound can be detected.
The loudest sounds that can be detected comfortably by the human ear have intensities that are a
trillion times higher than those of sounds that can barely be detected. Because of this vast range,
using a linear scale to represent the intensity of sound becomes very unwieldy. As a result, a
logarithmic unit known as the decibel (abbreviated dB) is used to represent the intensity of a
sound. Such a representation is called a sound level. A sound level of 0 dB is approximately the
threshold of human hearing and is barely audible under extremely quiet listening conditions.
Normal speech has a sound level of approximately 60 dB; sound levels above 120 dB begin to be
felt inside the human ear as discomfort. Sound levels between 130 to 140 dB are felt as pain
(Berglund and Lindvall 1995).
Because of the logarithmic nature of the decibel unit, sound levels cannot be arithmetically added
or subtracted and are somewhat cumbersome to handle mathematically. However, some simple
rules are useful in dealing with sound levels. First, if a sounds intensity is doubled, the sound
level increases by 3 dB, regardless of the initial sound level. For example:
60 dB + 60 dB = 63 dB, and
80 dB + 80 dB = 83 dB.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-2


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 32 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
WR 04-26

FINAL Appendix A

Second, the total sound level produced by two sounds of different levels is usually only slightly
more than the higher of the two. For example:
60.0 dB + 70.0 dB = 70.4 dB.
Because the addition of sound levels is different than that of ordinary numbers, such addition is
often referred to as decibel addition or energy addition. The latter term arises from the fact
that what we are really doing when we add decibel values is first converting each decibel value
to its corresponding acoustic energy, then adding the energies using the normal rules of addition,
and finally converting the total energy back to its decibel equivalent.
The minimum change in the sound level of individual events that an average human ear can
detect is about 3 dB. On average, a person perceives a change in sound level of about 10 dB as a
doubling (or halving) of the sounds loudness, and this relation holds true for loud and quiet
sounds. A decrease in sound level of 10 dB actually represents a 90% decrease in sound intensity
but only a 50% decrease in perceived loudness because of the nonlinear response of the human
ear (similar to most human senses).
Sound frequency is measured in terms of cycles per second (cps), or hertz (Hz), which is the
standard unit for cps. The normal human ear can detect sounds that range in frequency from
about 20 Hz to about 15,000 Hz. All sounds in this wide range of frequencies, however, are not
heard equally by the human ear, which is most sensitive to frequencies in the 1,000 to 4,000 Hz
range. Weighting curves have been developed to correspond to the sensitivity and perception of
different types of sound. A-weighting and C-weighting are the two most common weightings.
A-weighting accounts for frequency dependence by adjusting the very high and very low
frequencies (below approximately 500 Hz and above approximately 10,000 Hz) to approximate
the human ears lower sensitivities to those frequencies. C-weighting is nearly flat throughout
the range of audible frequencies, hardly de-emphasizing the low frequency sound while
approximating the human ears sensitivity to higher intensity sounds. The two curves shown in
Figure A-1 are also the most adequate to quantify environmental noises.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-3


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 33 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
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FINAL Appendix A

C-Weighted

A-Weighted

Relative Level (dB)

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
31.5

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

16000

Frequency (Hz)
Source: ANSI S1.4 -1983 Specification of Sound Level Meters

Figure A-1. Frequency Response Characteristics of A and C Weighting Networks

A-Weighted Sound Level

Sound levels that are measured using A-weighting, called A-weighted sound levels, are often
denoted by the unit dBA or dB(A) rather than dB. When the use of A-weighting is understood,
the adjective A-weighted is often omitted and the measurements are expressed as dB. In this
report (as in most environmental impact documents), dB units refer to A-weighted sound levels.
Noise potentially becomes an issue when its intensity exceeds the ambient or background sound
pressures. Ambient background noise in metropolitan, urbanized areas typically varies from 60
to 70 dB and can be as high as 80 dB or greater; quiet suburban neighborhoods experience
ambient noise levels of approximately 45-50 dB (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1978).
Figure A-2 is a chart of A-weighted sound levels from typical sounds. Some noise sources (air
conditioner, vacuum cleaner) are continuous sounds which levels are constant for some time.
Some (automobile, heavy truck) are the maximum sound during a vehicle pass-by. Some (urban
daytime, urban nighttime) are averages over extended periods. A variety of noise metrics have
been developed to describe noise over different time periods, as discussed below.
Aircraft noise consists of two major types of sound events: aircraft takeoffs and landings, and
engine maintenance operations. The former can be described as intermittent sounds and the
latter as continuous. Noise levels from flight operations exceeding background noise typically
occur beneath main approach and departure corridors, in local air traffic patterns around the

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-4


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 34 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
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FINAL Appendix A

airfield, and in areas immediately adjacent to parking ramps and aircraft staging areas. As
aircraft in flight gain altitude, their noise contribution drops to lower levels, often becoming
indistinguishable from the background.
Common Sounds

Sound Level
(dBA)

Loudness
Compared to 70 dB

130
Air raid siren at 50 ft
(threshold of pain)

Uncomfortable

Maximum levels in
audience at rock concerts

110

On platform by passing
train

100

Typical airliner (B737)


3 miles from take-off
(directly under flight path)

90

On sidewalk by passing
bus

32 x as loud

120

16 x as loud
Very Loud

80

On sidewalk by passing
typical automobile

70

Busy office

60

Typical suburban area


background

50

4 x as loud

Moderate

Quiet

1/4 x as loud

40
Library
Bedroom at night
Isolated broadcast study

30

Leaves rustling

20

Just Audible

10

Threshold of Hearing

1/16 x as loud

Source: Handbook of Environmental Acoustics, James P. Cowan, 1994

Figure A-2. Typical A-Weighted Sound Levels of Common Sounds

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-5


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 35 of 62


November 2004
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Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

C-weighted Sound Level

Sound levels measured using a C-weighting are most appropriately called C-weighted sound
levels (and noted dBC). C-weighting is nearly flat throughout the audible frequency range,
hardly de-emphasizing the low frequency. This weighting scale is generally used to describe
impulsive sounds. Sounds that are characterized as impulsive generally contain low frequencies.
Impulsive sounds may induce secondary effects, such as shaking of a structure, rattling of
windows, inducing vibrations. These secondary effects can cause additional annoyance and
complaints.
The following definitions in the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Report S12.9, Part 4
provide general concepts helpful in understanding impulsive sounds (American National
Standards Institute 1996).
Impulsive Sound: Sound characterized by brief excursions of sound pressure (acoustic impulses)
that significantly exceeds the ambient environmental sound pressure. The duration of a single
impulsive sound is usually less than one second (American National Standards Institute 1996).
Highly Impulsive Sound: Sound from one of the following enumerated categories of sound
sources: small-arms gunfire, metal hammering, wood hammering, drop hammering, pile driving,
drop forging, pneumatic hammering, pavement breaking, metal impacts during rail-yard
shunting operation, and riveting.
High-energy Impulsive Sound: Sound from one of the following enumerated categories of sound
sources: quarry and mining explosions, sonic booms, demolition and industrial processes that
use high explosives, military ordnance (e.g., armor, artillery and mortar fire, and bombs),
explosive ignition of rockets and missiles, explosive industrial circuit breakers, and any other
explosive source where the equivalent mass of dynamite exceeds 25 grams.

A.2

Noise Metrics
As used in environmental noise analyses, a metric refers to the unit or quantity that
quantitatively measures the effect of noise on the environment. To quantify these effects, the
Department of Defense and the Federal Aviation Administration use three noise-measuring
techniques, or metrics: first, a measure of the highest sound level occurring during an individual
aircraft overflight (single event); second, a combination of the maximum level of that single event
with its duration; and third, a description of the noise environment based on the cumulative
flight and engine maintenance activity. Single noise events can be described with Sound
Exposure Level or Maximum Sound Level. Another measure of instantaneous level is the Peak
Sound Pressure Level. The cumulative energy noise metric used is the Day/Night Average
Sound Level. Metrics related to DNL include the Onset-Rate Adjusted Day/Night Average
Sound Level, and the Equivalent Sound Level. In the state of California, it is mandated that

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-6


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 36 of 62


November 2004
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Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

average noise be described in terms of Community Noise Equivalent Level (State of California
1990). CNEL represents the Day/Evening/Night average noise exposure, calculated over a
24-hour period. Metrics and their uses are described below.
Maximum Sound Level (Lmax)

The highest A-weighted integrated sound level measured during a single event in which the
sound level changes value with time (e.g., an aircraft overflight) is called the maximum
A-weighted sound level or maximum sound level.
During an aircraft overflight, the noise level starts at the ambient or background noise level, rises
to the maximum level as the aircraft flies closest to the observer, and returns to the background
level as the aircraft recedes into the distance. The maximum sound level indicates the maximum
sound level occurring for a fraction of a second. For aircraft noise, the "fraction of a second" over
which the maximum level is defined is generally 1/8 second, and is denoted as "fast" response
(American National Standards Institute 1988). Slowly varying or steady sounds are generally
measured over a period of one second, denoted "slow" response. The maximum sound level is
important in judging the interference caused by a noise event with conversation, TV or radio
listening, sleep, or other common activities. Although it provides some measure of the
intrusiveness of the event, it does not completely describe the total event, because it does not
include the period of time that the sound is heard.
Peak Sound Pressure Level (Lpk)

The peak sound pressure level, is the highest instantaneous level obtained by a sound level
measurement device. The peak sound pressure level is typically measured using a 20
microseconds or faster sampling rate, and is typically based on unweighted or linear response of
the meter.
Sound Exposure Level (SEL)

Sound exposure level is a composite metric that represents both the intensity of a sound and its
duration. Individual time-varying noise events (e.g., aircraft overflights) have two main
characteristics: a sound level that changes throughout the event and a period of time during
which the event is heard. SEL provides a measure of the net impact of the entire acoustic event,
but it does not directly represent the sound level heard at any given time. During an aircraft
flyover, SEL would include both the maximum noise level and the lower noise levels produced
during onset and recess periods of the overflight.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-7


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 37 of 62


November 2004
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Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

SEL is a logarithmic measure of the total acoustic energy transmitted to the listener during the
event. Mathematically, it represents the sound level of a constant sound that would, in one
second, generate the same acoustic energy as the actual time-varying noise event. For sound
from aircraft overflights, which typically lasts more than one second, the SEL is usually greater
than the Lmax because an individual overflight takes seconds and the maximum sound level (Lmax)
occurs instantaneously. SEL represents the best metric to compare noise levels from overflights.
Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) and Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL)

Day-Night Average Sound Level and Community Noise Equivalent Level are composite metrics
that account for SEL of all noise events in a 24-hour period. In order to account for increased
human sensitivity to noise at night, a 10 dB penalty is applied to nighttime events (10:00 p.m. to
7:00 a.m. time period). A variant of the DNL, the CNEL level includes a 5-decibel penalty on
noise during the 7:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. time period, and a 10-decibel penalty on noise during the
10:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. time period.
The above-described metrics are average quantities, mathematically representing the continuous
A-weighted or C-weighted sound level that would be present if all of the variations in sound
level that occur over a 24-hour period were smoothed out so as to contain the same total sound
energy. These composite metrics account for the maximum noise levels, the duration of the
events (sorties or operations), and the number of events that occur over a 24-hour period. Like
SEL, neither DNL nor CNEL represent the sound level heard at any particular time, but
quantifies the total sound energy received. While it is normalized as an average, it represents all
of the sound energy, and is therefore a cumulative measure.
The penalties added to both the DNL and CNEL metrics account for the added intrusiveness of
sounds that occur during normal sleeping hours, both because of the increased sensitivity to
noise during those hours and because ambient sound levels during nighttime are typically about
10 dB lower than during daytime hours.
The inclusion of daytime and nighttime periods in the computation of the DNL and CNEL
reflects their basic 24-hour definition. It can, however, be applied over periods of multiple days.
For application to civil airports, where operations are consistent from day to day, DNL and
CNEL are usually applied as an annual average. For some military airbases, where operations
are not necessarily consistent from day to day, a common practice is to compute a 24-hour DNL
or CNEL based on an average busy day, so that the calculated noise is not diluted by periods of
low activity.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-8


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 38 of 62


November 2004
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Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

Although DNL and CNEL provide a single measure of overall noise impact, they do not provide
specific information on the number of noise events or the individual sound levels that occur
during the 24-hour day. For example, a daily average sound level of 65 dB could result from a
very few noisy events or a large number of quieter events.
Daily average sound levels are typically used for the evaluation of community noise effects (i.e.,
long-term annoyance), and particularly aircraft noise effects. In general, scientific studies and
social surveys have found a high correlation between the percentages of groups of people highly
annoyed and the level of average noise exposure measured in DNL (U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency 1978 and Schultz 1978). The correlation from Schultz's original 1978 study is
shown in Figure A-3. It represents the results of a large number of social surveys relating
community responses to various types of noises, measured in day-night average sound level.

Figure A-3. Community Surveys of Noise Annoyance

A more recent study has reaffirmed this relationship (Fidell, et al. 1991). Figure A-4 (Federal
Interagency Committee On Noise 1992) shows an updated form of the curve fit (Finegold, et al.
1994) in comparison with the original. The updated fit, which does not differ substantially from
the original, is the current preferred form. In general, correlation coefficients of 0.85 to 0.95 are
found between the percentages of groups of people highly annoyed and the level of average

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice A-9


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 39 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

November 2004
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FINAL Appendix A

noise exposure. The correlation coefficients for the annoyance of individuals are relatively low,
however, on the order of 0.5 or less. This is not surprising, considering the varying personal
factors that influence the manner in which individuals react to noise. However, for the
evaluation of community noise impacts, the scientific community has endorsed the use of DNL
(American National Standards Institute 1980; American National Standards Institute 1988; U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency 1972; Federal Interagency Committee On Urban Noise 1980
and Federal Interagency Committee On Noise 1992).
The use of DNL (CNEL in California) has been criticized as not accurately representing
community annoyance and land-use compatibility with aircraft noise. Much of that criticism
stems from a lack of understanding of the basis for the measurement or calculation of DNL. One
frequent criticism is based on the inherent feeling that people react more to single noise events
and not as much to "meaningless" time-average sound levels.

Figure A-4. Response of Communities to Noise; Comparison of Original (Schultz, 1978) and
Current (Finegold, et al. 1994) Curve Fits

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-10


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 40 of 62


November 2004
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Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

In fact, a time-average noise metric, such as DNL and CNEL, takes into account both the noise
levels of all individual events that occur during a 24-hour period and the number of times those
events occur. The logarithmic nature of the decibel unit causes the noise levels of the loudest
events to control the 24-hour average.
As a simple example of this characteristic, consider a case in which only one aircraft overflight
occurs during the daytime over a 24-hour period, creating a sound level of 100 dB for 30 seconds.
During the remaining 23 hours, 59 minutes, and 30 seconds of the day, the ambient sound level is
50 dB. The day-night average sound level for this 24-hour period is 65.9 dB. Assume, as a second
example, that 10 such 30-second overflights occur during daytime hours during the next 24-hour
period, with the same ambient sound level of 50 dB during the remaining 23 hours and 55
minutes of the day. The day-night average sound level for this 24-hour period is 75.5 dB.
Clearly, the averaging of noise over a 24-hour period does not ignore the louder single events and
tends to emphasize both the sound levels and number of those events.
Equivalent Sound Level (Leq)

Another cumulative noise metric that is useful in describing noise is the equivalent sound level.
Leq is calculated to determine the steady-state noise level over a specified time period. The Leq
metric can provide a more accurate quantification of noise exposure for a specific period,
particularly for daytime periods when the nighttime penalty under the DNL metric is
inappropriate.
Just as SEL has proven to be a good measure of the noise impact of a single event, Leq has been
established to be a good measure of the impact of a series of events during a given time period.
Also, while Leq is defined as an average, it is effectively a sum over that time period and is, thus, a
measure of the cumulative impact of noise. For example, the sum of all noise-generating events
during the period of 7 a.m. to 4 p.m. could provide the relative impact of noise generating events
for a school day.
Onset-Rate Adjusted Day-Night Average Sound Level (Ldnr)

Military aircraft flying on Military Training Routes (MTRs) and in Restricted Areas/Ranges
generate a noise environment that is somewhat different from that associated with airfield
operations. As opposed to patterned or continuous noise environments associated with airfields,
overflights along MTRs are highly sporadic, ranging from 10 per hour to less than one per week.
Individual military overflight events also differ from typical community noise events in that
noise from a low-altitude, high-airspeed flyover can have a rather sudden onset, exhibiting a rate
of increase in sound level (onset rate) of up to 150 dB per second.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-11


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 41 of 62


November 2004
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FINAL Appendix A

To represent these differences, the conventional DNL metric is adjusted to account for the
surprise effect of the sudden onset of aircraft noise events on humans with an adjustment
ranging up to 11 dB above the normal Sound Exposure Level (Stusnick, et al. 1992). Onset rates
between 15 to 150 dB per second require an adjustment of 0 to 11 dB, while onset rates below 15
dB per second require no adjustment. The adjusted DNL is designated as the onset-rate adjusted
day-night average sound level (Ldnr).
Because of the sporadic occurrences of aircraft overflights along MTRs and in Restricted
Areas/Ranges, the number of daily operations is determined from the number of flying days in
the calendar month with the highest number of operations in the affected airspace or MTR in
order to avoid seasonal periods of low activity. This monthly average is denoted Ldnmr. In the
state of California, a variant of the Ldnmr includes a penalty for evening operations (7 p.m. to 10
p.m) and is denoted CNELmr.

A.3

Noise Effects

A.3.1 Annoyance
The primary effect of aircraft noise on exposed communities is one of long-term annoyance.
Noise annoyance is defined by the EPA as any negative subjective reaction on the part of an
individual or group (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1972). As noted in the discussion of
DNL above, community annoyance is best measured by that metric.
The results of attitudinal surveys, conducted to find percentages of people who express various
degrees of annoyance when exposed to different levels of DNL, are very consistent. The most
useful metric for assessing peoples responses to noise impacts is the percentage of the exposed
population expected to be highly annoyed. A wide variety of responses have been used to
determine intrusiveness of noise and disturbances of speech, sleep, television or radio listening,
and outdoor living. The concept of percent highly annoyed has provided the most consistent
response of a community to a particular noise environment. The response is remarkably
complex, and when considered on an individual basis, widely varies for any given noise level
(Federal Interagency Committee On Noise 1992).
A number of nonacoustic factors have been identified that may influence the annoyance response
of an individual. Newman and Beattie (1985) divided these factors into emotional and physical
variables:
Emotional Variables
 Feelings about the necessity or preventability of the noise;
 Judgment of the importance and value of the activity that is producing the noise;
 Activity at the time an individual hears the noise;
 Attitude about the environment;

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-12


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 42 of 62


November 2004
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Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

 General sensitivity to noise;


 Belief about the effect of noise on health; and
 Feeling of fear associated with the noise.
Physical Variables
 Type of neighborhood;
 Time of day;
 Season;
 Predictability of noise;
 Control over the noise source; and
 Length of time an individual is exposed to a noise.

A.3.2 Speech Interference


Speech interference associated with aircraft noise is a primary cause of annoyance to individuals
on the ground. The disruption of routine activities such as radio or television listening, telephone
use, or family conversation gives rise to frustration and irritation. The quality of speech
communication is also important in classrooms, offices, and industrial settings and can cause
fatigue and vocal strain in those who attempt to communicate over the noise. Speech is an
acoustic signal characterized by rapid fluctuations in sound level and frequency pattern. It is
essential for optimum speech intelligibility to recognize these continually shifting sound patterns.
Not only does noise diminish the ability to perceive the auditory signal, but it also reduces a
listeners ability to follow the pattern of signal fluctuation. In general, interference with speech
communication occurs when intrusive noise exceeds about 60 dB (Federal Interagency
Committee On Noise 1992).
Indoor speech interference can be expressed as a percentage of sentence intelligibility among two
people speaking in relaxed conversation approximately 3 feet apart in a typical living room or
bedroom (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1972). The percentage of sentence intelligibility
is a non-linear function of the (steady) indoor background A-weighted sound level. Such a
curve-fit yields 100 percent sentence intelligibility for background levels below 57 dB and yields
less than 10 percent intelligibility for background levels above 73 dB. The function is especially
sensitive to changes in sound level between 65 dB and 75 dB. As an example of the sensitivity, a
1 dB increase in background sound level from 70 dB to 71 dB yields a 14 percent decrease in
sentence intelligibility. The sensitivity of speech interference to noise at 65 dB and above is
consistent with the criterion of DNL 65 dB generally taken from the Schultz curve. This is
consistent with the observation that speech interference is the primary cause of annoyance.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-13


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 43 of 62


Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

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FINAL Appendix A

A.3.3 Sleep Interference


Sleep interference is another source of annoyance and potential health concern associated with
aircraft noise. Because of the intermittent nature and content of aircraft noise, it is more
disturbing than continuous noise of equal energy. Given that quality sleep is requisite for good
health, repeated occurrences of sleep interference could have an effect on overall health.
Sleep interference may be measured in either of two ways. Arousal represents actual
awakening from sleep, while a change in sleep stage represents a shift from one of four sleep
stages to another stage of lighter sleep without actual awakening. In general, arousal requires a
somewhat higher noise level than does a change in sleep stage.
Sleep is not a continuous, uniform condition but a complex series of states through which the
brain progresses in a cyclical pattern. Arousal from sleep is a function of a number of factors that
include age, sex, sleep stage, noise level, frequency of noise occurrences, noise quality, and presleep activity. Because individuals differ in their physiology, behavior, habitation, and ability to
adapt to noise, few studies have attempted to establish noise criterion levels for sleep
disturbance.
Lukas (1978) concluded the following with regard to human sleep response to noise:
 Children 5 to 8 years of age are generally unaffected by noise during sleep.
 Older people are more sensitive to sleep disturbance than younger people.
 Women are more sensitive to noise than men, in general.
 There is a wide variation in the sensitivity of individuals to noise even within the same

age group.
 Sleep arousal is directly proportional to the sound intensity of aircraft flyover. While

there have been several studies conducted to assess the effect of aircraft noise on sleep,
none have produced quantitative dose-response relationships in terms of noise exposure
level, DNL, and sleep disturbance. Noise-sleep disturbance relationships have been
developed based on single-event noise exposure.
An analysis sponsored by the U.S. Air Force summarized 21 published studies concerning the
effects of noise on sleep (Pearsons, et al. 1989). The analysis concluded that a lack of reliable
studies in homes, combined with large differences among the results from the various laboratory
studies, did not permit development of an acceptably accurate assessment procedure. The noise

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-14


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 44 of 62


November 2004
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FINAL Appendix A

events used in the laboratory studies and in contrived in-home studies were presented at much
higher rates of occurrence than would normally be experienced in the home. None of the
laboratory studies were of sufficiently long duration to determine any effects of habituation, such
as that which would occur under normal community conditions.
A study of the effects of nighttime noise exposure on the in-home sleep of residents near one
military airbase, near one civil airport, and in several households with negligible nighttime
aircraft noise exposure, revealed SEL as the best noise metric predicting noise-related
awakenings. It also determined that out of 930 subject nights, the average spontaneous (not
noise-related) awakenings per night was 2.07 compared to the average number of noise-related
awakenings per night of 0.24 (Fidell, et al. 1994). Additionally, a 1995 analysis of sleep
disturbance studies conducted both in the laboratory environment and in the field (in the
sleeping quarters of homes) showed that when measuring awakening to noise, a 10 dB increase in
SEL was associated with only an 8 percent increase in the probability of awakening in the
laboratory studies, but only a 1 percent increase in the field (Pearsons, et al. 1995). Pearsons, et al.
(1995), reported that even SEL values as high as 85 dB produced no awakenings or arousals in at
least one study. This observation suggests a strong influence of habituation on susceptibility to
noise-induced sleep disturbance. A 1984 study (Kryter 1984) indicates that an indoor SEL of 65
dB or lower should awaken less than 5 percent of exposed individuals.
Nevertheless, some guidance is available in judging sleep interference. The EPA identified an
indoor DNL of 45 dB as necessary to protect against sleep interference (U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency 1978). Assuming a very conservative structural noise insulation of 20 dB for
typical dwelling units, this corresponds to an outdoor day-night average sound level of 65 dB to
minimize sleep interference.
In 1997, the Federal Interagency Committee on Aviation Noise (FICAN) adopted an interim
guideline for sleep awakening prediction. The new curve, based on studies in England
(Ollerhead, et al. 1992) and at two U.S. airports (Los Angeles International and Denver
International), concluded that the incidence of sleep awakening from aircraft noise was less than
identified in a 1992 study (Federal Interagency Committee On Noise 1992). Using indoor singleevent noise levels represented by SELs, potential sleep awakening can be predicted using the
curve presented in Figure A-5. Typically, homes in the United States provide 15 dB of sound
attenuation with windows open and 25 dB with windows closed and air conditioning operating.
Hence, the outdoor SEL of 107 dB would be 92 dB indoors with windows open and 82 dB indoors
with windows closed and air conditioning operating.
Using Figure A-5, the potential sleep awakening would be 15% with windows open and 10%
with windows closed in the above example.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-15


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 45 of 62


November 2004
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The new FICAN curve does not address habituation over time by sleeping subjects and is
applicable only to adult populations. Nevertheless, this curve provides a reasonable guideline
for assessing sleep awakening. It is conservative, representing the upper envelope of field study
results.
The FICAN curve shown in Figure A-5 represents awakenings from single events. To date, no
exact quantitative dose-response relationship exists for noise-related sleep interference from
multiple events; yet, based on studies conducted to date and the USEPA guideline of a 45 DNL to
protect sleep interference, useful ways to assess sleep interference have emerged. If homes are
conservatively estimated to have a 20-dB noise insulation, an average of 65 DNL would produce
an indoor level of 45 DNL and would form a reasonable guideline for evaluating sleep
interference. This also corresponds well to the general guideline for assessing speech
interference. Annoyance that may result from sleep disturbance is accounted for in the
calculation of DNL, which includes a 10-dB penalty for each sortie occurring after 10 pm or
before 7 am.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-16


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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Figure A-5. Recommended Sleep Disturbance Dose-Response Relationship

FINAL Appendix A

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-17


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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A.3.4 Hearing Loss


Considerable data on hearing loss have been collected and analyzed. It has been well established
that continuous exposure to high noise levels will damage human hearing (U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency 1978). People are normally capable of hearing up to 120 dB over a wide
frequency range. Hearing loss is generally interpreted as the shifting of a higher sound level of
the ears sensitivity or acuity to perceive sound. This change can either be temporary, called a
temporary threshold shift (TTS), or permanent, called a permanent threshold shift (PTS) (Berger,
et al. 1995).
The EPA has established 75 dB for an 8-hour exposure and 70 dB for a 24-hour exposure as the
average noise level standard requisite to protect 96% of the population from greater than a 5 dB
PTS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1978). Similarly, the National Academy of Sciences
Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) identified 75 dB as the
minimum level at which hearing loss may occur (Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and
Biomechanics 1977). However, it is important to note that continuous, long-term (40 years)
exposure is assumed by both EPA and CHABA before hearing loss may occur.
Federal workplace standards for protection from hearing loss allow a time-average level of 90 dB
over an 8-hour work period or 85 dB over a 16-hour period. Even the most protective criterion
(no measurable hearing loss for the most sensitive portion of the population at the ears most
sensitive frequency, 4,000 Hz, after a 40-year exposure) is a time-average sound level of 70 dB
over a 24-hour period.
Studies on community hearing loss from exposure to aircraft flyovers near airports showed that
there is no danger, under normal circumstances, of hearing loss due to aircraft noise (Newman
and Beattie 1985).
A laboratory study measured changes in human hearing from noise representative of low-flying
aircraft on MTRs. (Nixon, et al. 1993). In this study, participants were first subjected to four
overflight noise exposures at A-weighted levels of 115 dB to 130 dB. One-half of the subjects
showed no change in hearing levels, one-fourth had a temporary 5-dB increase in sensitivity (the
people could hear a 5-dB wider range of sound than before exposure), and one-fourth had a
temporary 5-dB decrease in sensitivity (the people could hear a 5-dB narrower range of sound
than before exposure). In the next phase, participants were subjected to a single overflight at a
maximum level of 130 dB for eight successive exposures, separated by 90 seconds or until a
temporary shift in hearing was observed. The temporary hearing threshold shifts resulted in the
participants hearing a wider range of sound, but within 10 dB of their original range.
In another study of 115 test subjects between 18 and 50 years old, temporary threshold shifts
were measured after laboratory exposure to military low-altitude flight (MLAF) noise (Ising, et
al. 1999). According to the authors, the results indicate that repeated exposure to MLAF noise

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-18


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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with Lmax greater than 114 dB, especially if the noise level increases rapidly, may have the
potential to cause noise induced hearing loss in humans.
Because it is unlikely that airport neighbors will remain outside their homes 24 hours per day for
extended periods of time, there is little possibility of hearing loss below a day-night average
sound level of 75 dB, and this level is extremely conservative.
A.3.5 Nonauditory Health Effects
Studies have been conducted to determine whether correlations exist between noise exposure
and cardiovascular problems, birth weight, and mortality rates. The nonauditory effect of noise
on humans is not as easily substantiated as the effect on hearing. The results of studies
conducted in the United States, primarily concentrating on cardiovascular response to noise, have
been contradictory (Cantrell 1974). Cantrell (1974) concluded that the results of human and
animal experiments show that average or intrusive noise can act as a stress-provoking stimulus.
Prolonged stress is known to be a contributor to a number of health disorders. Kryter and Poza
(1980) state, It is more likely that noise-related general ill-health effects are due to the
psychological annoyance from the noise interfering with normal everyday behavior, than it is
from the noise eliciting, because of its intensity, reflexive response in the autonomic or other
physiological systems of the body. Psychological stresses may cause a physiological stress
reaction that could result in impaired health.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and EPA commissioned CHABA in
1981 to study whether established noise standards are adequate to protect against health
disorders other than hearing defects. CHABAs conclusion was that:
Evidence from available research reports is suggestive, but it does not provide definitive answers
to the question of health effects, other than to the auditory system, of long-term exposure to
noise. It seems prudent, therefore, in the absence of adequate knowledge as to whether or not
noise can produce effects upon health other than damage to auditory system, either directly or
mediated through stress, that insofar as feasible, an attempt should be made to obtain more
critical evidence.
Since the CHABA report, there have been more recent studies that suggest that noise exposure
may cause hypertension and other stress-related effects in adults. Near an airport in Stockholm,
Sweden, the prevalence of hypertension was reportedly greater among nearby residents who
were exposed to energy averaged noise levels exceeding 55 dB and maximum noise levels
exceeding 72 dB, particularly older subjects and those not reporting impaired hearing ability
(Rosenlund, et al. 2001). A study of elderly volunteers who were exposed to simulated military
low-altitude flight noise reported that blood pressure was raised by Lmax of 112 dB and high speed
level increase (Michalak, et al. 1990). Yet another study of subjects exposed to varying levels of

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-19


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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military aircraft or road noise found no significant relationship between noise level and blood
pressure (Pulles, et al. 1990).
The U.S. Department of the Navy prepared a programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) for
the continued use of non-explosive ordnance on the Vieques Inner Range. Following the
preparation of the EA, it was learned that research conducted by the University of Puerto Rico,
Ponce School of Medicine, suggested that Vieques fishermen and their families were experiencing
symptoms associated with vibroacoustic disease (VAD) (U.S. Department of the Navy 2002). The
study alleged that exposure to noise and sound waves of large pressure amplitudes within lower
frequency bands, associated with Navy training activities--specifically, air-to-ground bombing or
naval fire support--was related to a larger prevalence of heart anomalies within the Vieques
fishermen and their families. The Ponce School of Medicine study compared the Vieques group
with a group from Ponce Playa. A 1999 study conducted on Portuguese aircraft-manufacturing
workers from a single factory reported effects of jet aircraft noise exposure that involved a wide
range of symptoms and disorders, including the cardiac issues on which the Ponce School of
Medicine study focused. The 1999 study identified these effects as VAD.
Johns Hopkins University (JHU) conducted an independent review of the Ponce School of
Medicine study, as well as the Portuguese aircraft workers study and other relevant scientific
literature. Their findings concluded that VAD should not be accepted as a syndrome, given that
exhaustive research across a number of populations has not yet been conducted. JHU also
pointed out that the evidence supporting the existence of VAD comes largely from one group of
investigators and that similar results would have to be replicated by other investigators. In short,
JHU concluded that it had not been established that noise was the causal agent for the symptoms
reported and no inference can be made as to the role of noise from naval gunfire in producing
echocardiographic abnormalities (U.S. Department of the Navy 2002).
Most studies of nonauditory health effects of long-term noise exposure have found that noise
exposure levels established for hearing protection will also protect against any potential
nonauditory health effects, at least in workplace conditions. One of the best scientific summaries
of these findings is contained in the lead paper at the National Institutes of Health Conference on
Noise and Hearing Loss, held on 22 to 24 January 1990 in Washington, D.C.:
The nonauditory effects of chronic noise exposure, when noise is suspected to act as one
of the risk factors in the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other
nervous disorders, have never been proven to occur as chronic manifestations at levels
below these criteria (an average of 75 dBA for complete protection against hearing loss for
an 8-hour day). At the recent (1988) International Congress on Noise as a Public Health
Problem, most studies attempting to clarify such health effects did not find them at levels
below the criteria protective of noise-induced hearing loss, and even above these criteria,
results regarding such health effects were ambiguous. Consequently, one comes to the

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-20


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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conclusion that establishing and enforcing exposure levels protecting against noiseinduced hearing loss would not only solve the noise-induced hearing loss problem, but
also any potential nonauditory health effects in the work place. (von Gierke 1990)
Although these findings were specifically directed at noise effects in the workplace, they are
equally applicable to aircraft noise effects in the community environment. Research studies
regarding the nonauditory health effects of aircraft noise are ambiguous, at best, and often
contradictory. Yet, even those studies that purport to find such health effects use time-average
noise levels of 75 dB and higher for their research.
For example, two UCLA researchers apparently found a relationship between aircraft noise levels
under the approach path to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and increased mortality
rates among the exposed residents by using an average noise exposure level greater than 75 dB
for the noise-exposed population (Meacham and Shaw 1979). Nevertheless, three other UCLA
professors analyzed those same data and found no relationship between noise exposure and
mortality rates (Frerichs, et al. 1980).
As a second example, two other UCLA researchers used this same population near LAX to show
a higher rate of birth defects for 1970 to 1972 when compared with a control group residing away
from the airport (Jones and Tauscher 1978). Based on this report, a separate group at the Center
for Disease Control performed a more thorough study of populations near Atlantas Hartsfield
International Airport (ATL) for 1970 to 1972 and found no relationship in their study of 17
identified categories of birth defects to aircraft noise levels above 65 dB (Edmonds, et al. 1979).
In summary, there is no scientific basis for a claim that potential health effects exist for aircraft
time-average sound levels below 75 dB.
The potential for noise to affect physiological health, such as the cardiovascular system, has been
speculated; however, no unequivocal evidence exists to support such claims (Harris 1997).
Conclusions drawn from a review of health effect studies involving military low-altitude flight
noise with its unusually high maximum levels and rapid rise in sound level have shown no
increase in cardiovascular disease (Schwartze and Thompson 1993). Additional claims that are
unsupported include flyover noise producing increased mortality rates and increases in
cardiovascular death, aggravation of post-traumatic stress syndrome, increased stress, increase in
admissions to mental hospitals, and adverse affects on pregnant women and the unborn fetus
(Harris 1997).
A.3.6 Performance Effects
The effect of noise on the performance of activities or tasks has been the subject of many studies.
Some of these studies have established links between continuous high noise levels and
performance loss. Noise-induced performance losses are most frequently reported in studies

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-21


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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The literature does suggest that common responses include the startle or fright response and,
ultimately, habituation. It has been reported that the intensities and durations of the startle
response decrease with the numbers and frequencies of exposures, suggesting no long-term
adverse effects. The majority of the literature suggests that domestic animal species (cows,
horses, chickens) and wildlife species exhibit adaptation, acclimation, and habituation after
repeated exposure to jet aircraft noise and sonic booms.
Animal responses to aircraft noise appear to be somewhat dependent on, or influenced by, the
size, shape, speed, proximity (vertical and horizontal), engine noise, color, and flight profile of
planes. Helicopters also appear to induce greater intensities and durations of disturbance
behavior as compared to fixed-wing aircraft. Some studies showed that animals that had been
previously exposed to jet aircraft noise exhibited greater degrees of alarm and disturbance to
other objects creating noise, such as boats, people, and objects blowing across the landscape.
Other factors influencing response to jet aircraft noise may include wind direction, speed, and
local air turbulence; landscape structures (i.e., amount and type of vegetative cover); and, in the
case of bird species, whether the animals are in the incubation/nesting phase.
A.3.9 Property Values
Property within a noise zone (or Accident Potential Zone) may be affected by the availability of
federally guaranteed loans. According to U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
(HUD), Federal Housing Administration (FHA), and Veterans Administration (VA) guidance,
sites are acceptable for program assistance, subsidy, or insurance for housing in noise zones of
less than 65 DNL, and sites are conditionally acceptable with special approvals and noise
attenuation in the 65 to 75 DNL noise zone and the greater than 75 DNL noise zone. HUDs
position is that noise is not the only determining factor for site acceptability, and properties
should not be rejected only because of airport influences if there is evidence of acceptability
within the market and if use of the dwelling is expected to continue. Similar to the Navys Air
Installation Compatible Use Zone Program, HUD, FHA, and VA recommend sound attenuation
for housing in the higher noise zones and written disclosures to all prospective buyers or lessees
of property within a noise zone (or Accident Potential Zone).
Real property values are dynamic. They are determined by a combination of factors, including
market conditions, neighborhood characteristics, and individual real property characteristics
(e.g., the age of the property, its size, and amenities). The degree to which a particular factor may
affect property values is influenced by many other factors that fluctuate widely with time and
market conditions. Accordingly, the impact of aircraft noise on individual property cannot be
measured, given the many factors in the real estate market that influence property values. Given
the dynamic nature of the real estate market, and the varying degree to which any combination of
factors affect the value of a particular property, it is not possible to quantify whether an increase

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-41


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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in noise from military aircraft will negatively or positively affect property values. Any discussion
of changes in property values would, therefore, be too speculative for inclusion in this document.
A.3.10 Noise Effects on Structures
Normally, the most sensitive components of a structure to airborne noise are the windows and,
infrequently, the plastered walls and ceilings. An evaluation of the peak sound pressures
impinging on the structure is normally used to determine the possibility of damage. In general,
with peak sound levels above 130 dB, there is the possibility of the excitation of structural
component resonances. While certain frequencies (such as 30 hertz for window breakage) may
be of more concern than other frequencies, conservatively, only sounds lasting more than one
second above a sound level of 130 dB are potentially damaging to structural components
(Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics 1977).
Noise-induced structural vibration may also cause annoyance to dwelling occupants because of
induced secondary vibrations, or rattling of objects within the dwelling such as hanging pictures,
dishes, plaques, and bric-a-brac. Window panes may also vibrate noticeably when exposed to
high levels of airborne noise. In general, such noise-induced vibrations occur at peak sound
levels of 110 dB or greater. Thus, assessments of noise exposure levels for compatible land use
should also be protective of noise-induced secondary vibrations.
A.3.11 Noise Effects on Terrain
It has been suggested that noise levels associated with low-flying aircraft may affect the terrain
under the flight path by disturbing fragile soil or snow, especially in mountainous areas, causing
landslides or avalanches. There are no known instances of such effects, and it is considered
improbable that such effects would result from routine, subsonic aircraft operations.
A.3.12 Noise Effects on Historical and Archaeological Sites
Because of the potential for increased fragility of structural components of historical buildings
and other historical sites, aircraft noise may affect such sites more severely than newer, modern
structures. Particularly in older structures, seemingly insignificant surface cracks initiated by
vibrations from aircraft noise may lead to greater damage from natural forces (Hanson, et al.
1991). There are few scientific studies of such effects to provide guidance for their assessment.

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7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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One study involved the measurements of sound levels and structural vibration levels in a
superbly restored plantation house, originally built in 1795, and now situated approximately
1,500 feet from the centerline at the departure end of Runway 19L at Washington Dulles
International Airport. These measurements were made in connection with the proposed
scheduled operation of the supersonic Concorde airplane at Dulles (Wesler 1977). There was
special concern for the buildings windows, since roughly half of the 324 panes were original. No
instances of structural damage were found. Interestingly, despite the high levels of noise during
Concorde takeoffs, the induced structural vibration levels were actually less than those induced
by touring groups and vacuum cleaning.
As noted above for the noise effects of noise-induced vibrations of conventional structures,
assessments of noise exposure levels for normally compatible land uses should also be protective
of historic and archaeological sites.

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-43


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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A.4

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-44


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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Seattle, WA 98115

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Seattle, WA 98115

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Federal Interagency Committee on Aviation Noise. 1997. Effects of Aviation Noise on Awakenings from
Sleep. June.
Federal Interagency Committee On Noise. 1992. Federal Agency Review of Selected Airport Noise
Analysis Issues. August 1992.
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Fidell, S., Barger, D.S., and Schultz, T.J. 1991. Updating a Dosage-Effect Relationship for the Prevalence
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Service National Ecology Research Center, Ft. Collins, Colorado.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-47


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 58 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

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Noise I Temporary Threshold Shift in Humans. Zeitschrift fur Audiologie (Germany) 38(4) 11827.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-48


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 59 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

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Noise, International. Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 62:5: 365-72.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-49


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 60 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

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Medicine, December, 58(12) 769-773.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit B to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-50


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-2 Filed 05/29/15 Page 61 of 62


November 2004
WR 04-26

Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

Schultz, T.J. 1978. Synthesis of Social Surveys on Noise Annoyance. Journal of the Acoustical Society of
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Incidental Take of Marine Mammals for Programmatic Operations at Vandenberg Air Force Base,
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35, 122-130.
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Approved by HQ USAF/CEVP, 3 October.
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Stock. Approved by HQ USAF/CEVP, 3 October.
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Handbook. Volume 8, Environmental Protection, 28 January.
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Continued Use with Non-Explosive Ordnance of the Vieques Inner Range, to Include Training
Operations Typical of Large Scale Exercises, Multiple Unit Level Training, and/or a Combination
of Large Scale Exercises and Multiple Unit Level Training. March.

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U.S. Dept. of JusticeA-51


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

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November 2004
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Aircraft Noise Study for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington

FINAL Appendix A

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1972. Information on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite
to Protect the Public Health and Welfare With an Adequate Margin of Safety. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency Report 550/9-74-004. March.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1978. Protective Noise Levels. Office of Noise Abatement and
Control, Washington, D.C.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Consultation letter #2-22-98-I-224, explaining restrictions on
endangered species required for the proposed Force Structure and Foreign Military Sales Actions
at Cannon AFB, NM. To Alton Chavis HQ ACC/CEVP at Langley AFB from Jennifer FowlerPropst, USFWS Field Supervisor, Albuquerque, NM, 14 December.
U.S. Forest Service. 1992. Report to Congress: Potential Impacts of Aircraft Overflights of National
Forest System Wilderness. U.S. Government Printing Office 1992-0-685-234/61004. Washington,
D.C.
von Gierke, H.R. 1990. The Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Problem. NIH Consensus Development
Conference on Noise and Hearing Loss, Washington, D.C., 2224 January.
Ward, D. H., E.J. Taylor, M.A. Wotawa, R.A. Stehn, D.V. Derksen, and C.J. Lensink. 1986. Behavior of
Pacific Black Brant and other geese in response to aircraft overflights and other disturbances at
Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. 1986 Annual Report, pp.:68.
Ward, D. H. and R.A. Stehn. 1990. Response of Brant and Other Geese to Aircraft Disturbances at
Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Final Report. Technical Report Number: MMS900046. Performing
Org.: Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Anchorage. Sponsoring Org.: Minerals
Management Service, Anchorage A. K. Alaska Outer Continental Shelf Office.
Weisenberger, M. E., P.R. Krausman, M.C. Wallace, D.W. De Young, and O.E. Maughan. 1996. Effects of
simulated jet aircraft noise on heart rate and behavior of desert ungulates. Journal of Wildlife
Management, 60(1) 52-61.
Wesler, J.E. 1977. Concorde Operations At Dulles International Airport. NOISEXPO 77, Chicago, IL,
March.
Wever, E.G., and J.A. Vernon. 1957. Auditory Responses in the Spectacled Caiman. Journal of Cellular
and Comparative Physiology 50:333-339.
World Health Organization. 2000. Guidelines for Community Noise.

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Seattle, WA 98115

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Exhibit C

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 31

AICUZ Study Update for


Naval Air Station Whidbey Islands Ault Field and
Outlying Landing Field Coupeville, Washington
Final Submission
March 2005

Prepared by:
The Onyx Group
for
NAVFAC Southwest
San Diego, California

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 3 of 31


TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

AB................................................................................................................................................ Afterburner
AC........................................................................................................................................................... Acre
AGL .............................................................................................................................. Above Ground Level
AICUZ .............................................................................................Air Installations Compatible Use Zones
AIMD...................................................................................Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Detachment
ANSI .................................................................................................. American National Standards Institute
APZ.......................................................................................................................... Accident Potential Zone
ASUW........................................................................................................................... Anti-surface Warfare
ASW......................................................................................................................... Anti-submarine Warfare
ATCAA..............................................................................................Air Traffic Control Assigned Airspace
ATC ..................................................................................................................................Air Traffic Control
AUW .................................................................................................................Advanced Undersea Weapon
BASH.................................................................................................................. Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard
BRAC............................................................................................................. Base Realignment and Closure
CFR................................................................................................................... Code of Federal Regulations
CNEL .................................................................................................... Community Noise Equivalent Level
CNO ...................................................................................................................... Chief of Naval Operations
CP&LO .............................................................................................. Community Plans and Liaison Officer
COMNAVAIRPAC .......................................................... Commander Naval Air Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet
CVWP or COMVAQINGPAC ........................................ Commander Electronic Attack Wing U.S. Pacific
CPRW or CPRW 10........................................................Commander Patrol and Reconnaissance Wing Ten
CY03 ............................................................................................................................... Calendar Year 2003
CY13 ............................................................................................................................... Calendar Year 2013
CZ ................................................................................................................................................. Clear Zone
C4SIR.........Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Surveillance, Intelligence, Reconnaissance
dB........................................................................................................................................................Decibel
dBA............................................................................................................................... A-weighted Decibels
DME..............................................................................................................Distance Measuring Equipment
DNL ............................................................................................................ Day-night Average Sound Level
DOD........................................................................................................................... Department of Defense
DU...........................................................................................................................................Dwelling Units
EA ........................................................................................................................Environmental Assessment
EIS ..............................................................................................................Environmental Impact Statement
EMI ...................................................................................................................Electromagnetic Interference
ESHP...................................................................................................................Effective Shaft Horsepower
FAA ............................................................................................................ Federal Aviation Administration
FAR...................................................................................................................................... Floor Area Ratio
FCLP...............................................................................................................Field Carrier Landing Practice
FL.................................................................................................................................................Flight Level
FLOLS .............................................................................................. Frensel Lens Optical Landing Systems
FM...............................................................................................................................Frequency Modulation
GCA ................................................................................................................ Ground Controlled Approach
HARM ....................................................................................................High Speed Anti-Radiation Missile
HF ......................................................................................................................................... High Frequency
HERO.............................................................................Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance
HIRL ........................................................................................................... High Intensity Runway Lighting
ICAP III ......................................................................................................................... Improved Capability
IFLOLS .............................................................................. Improved Frensel Lens Optical Landing System
IFR ............................................................................................................................ Instrument Flight Rules
Ldn ....................................................................... Day-night Average Sound Level (Mathematical Symbol)
AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 4 of 31


TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations (Concluded)

Lmax............................................................................................................................. Maximum Noise Level


LSO............................................................................................................................ Landing Signal Officer
MEDVAC ....................................................................................................................... Medical Evacuation
MF..................................................................................................................................... medium frequency
MHz ............................................................................................................................................... Megahertz
MIDS ................................................................................ Multifunctional Information Distribution System
MIL ................................................................................................... Maximum Thrust Without Afterburner
MILCON.......................................................................................................................Military Construction
MOA .......................................................................................................................Military Operating Areas
MOVLAS............................................................................ Manually Operated Visual Landing Aid System
MSL ...................................................................................................................................... Mean Sea Level
N/A..............................................................................................................................................not available
NAS .................................................................................................................................... Naval Air Station
NASWHIDBEYINST.................................................................................NAS Whidbey Island Instruction
NAVFAC ......................................................................................... Naval Facilities Engineering Command
NAVSAFCEN.................................................................................................................Naval Safety Center
NC .................................................................................................................................... Compressor Speed
NEPA ......................................................................................................National Environmental Policy Act
NLR ........................................................................................................................... Noise Level Reduction
NM ............................................................................................................................................ Nautical Mile
NOTAM.............................................................................................................................. Notice to Airmen
NS ............................................................................................................................................. Naval Station
N1................................................................................................................................................. Engine One
N2.................................................................................................................................................Engine Two
OBS..................................................................................................................................... On-board System
ODO......................................................................................................................... Operations Duty Officer
OLF........................................................................................................................... Outlying Landing Field
OPNAVINST .....................................................................................Chief of Naval Operations Instruction
PUD .....................................................................................................................Planned Unit Development
RAICUZ................................................................................Range Air Installations Compatible Use Zones
RCW ................................................................................................................ Revised Code of Washington
RPM ......................................................................................................................... Revolutions Per Minute
SAR................................................................................................................................... Search and Rescue
SEL ........................................................................................................................... Sound Exposure Levels
SLUCM...................................................................................................Standard Land Use Coding Manual
STC .......................................................................................................................Sound Transmission Class
SUA .............................................................................................................................. Special Use Airspace
TACAN..................................................................................................................... Tactical Air Navigation
TDZL .......................................................................................................................Touchdown Zone Lights
TERPS .........................................................................................................Terminal Instrument Procedures
TIGER...................................................Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
TJS ......................................................................................................................... Tactical Jamming System
UGA................................................................................................................................ Urban Growth Area
UFC........................................................................................................................ Unified Facilities Criteria
UHF ................................................................................................................................ultra high frequency
VHF ................................................................................................................................ very high frequency
VFR.................................................................................................................................. Visual Flight Rules
VIP ..............................................................................................................................Very Important Person
VR.............................................................................................................................................. Visual Route
WX.....................................................................................................................................................Weather
vi

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 5 of 31


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Background
All airports attract development. Housing is constructed for
airport employees who want to live near by, and businesses are
established to cater to the airport. As development encroaches
upon the airfield, more people experience the noise and
accident potential associated with aircraft operations.
Incompatible development, a form of encroachment, has
become commonplace on privately owned lands in the vicinity
of military air installations.
This Air Installations Compatible Use Zones (AICUZ) Study
Update includes the Navys air installation in Island County,
WashingtonNaval Air Station (NAS) Whidbey Islands Ault
Field and OLF Coupeville. The study examines various
airfield planning parameters related to aircraft operations,
noise, and safety, and it provides recommendations that can be
used to further promote compatible land use surrounding the
airfield.

An aviation structural mechanic signals the starting


of the number two engine to the pilot of a P-3 Orion
at (NAS) Whidbey Islands Ault Field. This AICUZ
Study Update includes the Navys air installations in
Island County, WashingtonNAS Whidbey Islands
Ault Field and Outlying Landing Field (OLF)
Coupeville.

An AICUZ study was originally prepared and approved for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF
Coupeville in 1977 and an update approved by the office of the Chief of Naval Operations in 1986.
Island County and the City of Oak Harbor subsequently evaluated the AICUZ recommendations and
enacted compatible land use provisions into their zoning ordinances.

Noise
As part of this AICUZ Study Update, a noise study was conducted. The noise study contains calendar
year 2003 (CY03) and calendar year 2013 (CY13) noise contours for aircraft operations associated with
the use of the two Navy airfields and the proposed transition from the EA-6B to the new EA-18G aircraft.
A comparison of these noise contours and those used in the 1986 AICUZ reveals that the areas impacted
by noise both on-station and off-station have generally seen modest changes.

Safety
Accident Potential Zones (APZs) are based on historical accident and operations data throughout the
Services and the application of margins of safety within these areas (which have been determined to be
probable impact areas) if an accident were to occur. This study updates the APZs associated with
operations at NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville and compares them with the APZs contained in
the 1986 study. Due to changes in operations and updated operator descriptions of flight tracks, changes
in APZs have occurred.

Land Use
The majority of non-Navy owned lands within the updated AICUZ footprint are included within existing
local community enacted AICUZ related land controls. This AICUZ protection includes compatible land
use zoning, sound reduction provisions in the building code, and noise fair disclosure provisions for rental
and purchase of real estate within the airfield environs that are commendable.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 6 of 31


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Recommendations
The following recommendations promote continued compatible development and prevent incompatible
development and potential encroachment resulting from changes in land use controls/zoning regulations.
1. Maintain a Community Plans and Liaison Officer (CP&LO) in the continued implementation of
the AICUZ program at NAS Whidbey Island.
2. Continue the extensive public awareness and intergovernmental coordination and cooperation in
AICUZ implementation with local, regional, and state government agencies.
3. Seek the update of current local planning and zoning ordinances to reflect compatible land use
related to APZs outlined in this study.
4. Support maintaining aircraft noise related compatible land use and zoning provisions, reflected in
current local government land use and zoning provisions and contours, as currently enacted by
Island County and the City of Oak Harbor.
5. Seek implementation of AICUZ land use compatibility recommendations with the Town of
Coupeville.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 7 of 31


NOISE

4.0

Noise

This section provides background discussion on sound; noise environmental sound descriptors; noise
metrics; noise analysis; and the noise associated with aircraft operations, including that generated by inflight operations and maintenance run-up operations at Ault Field and flight operations at OLF
Coupeville.

4.1

Aircraft Sound Sources

The main sources of sound at air installations are generally related to in-flight operations, pre-flight and
maintenance run-up operations. Computer models are used to develop noise contours for land use
planning purposes based on information about these operations, based upon the following factors:

Type of operation (e.g. arrival, departure, pattern)

Number of operations per day

Time of operation

Flight track

Aircraft power settings, speeds, and altitudes

Number and duration of maintenance run-ups

Environmental data (temperature and humidity)

Topographical features of the area

4.2

What Is Noise?

Noise is unwanted sound. Sound is a physical phenomenon consisting of minute vibrations that travel
through a medium, such as air, and are sensed by the ear. Whether that sound is interpreted as pleasant
(e.g., music) or unpleasant (e.g., jackhammers) depends largely on the listener's current activity, past
experience, and attitude toward the source of that sound.
Sound is all around us; sound becomes noise when it interferes with normal activities such as sleep and
conversation.
Aircraft noise is of concern to many in communities surrounding airports. The impact of aircraft noise is
also a factor in the planning of future land use near air facilities. Because the noise from these operations
impacts surrounding land use, the Navy has defined certain noise zones and provided associated
recommendations regarding compatible land use in the AICUZ Program.

4.3

Characteristics of Sound

The measurement and human perception of sound involves three basic physical characteristicsintensity,
frequency, and duration. Intensity is a measure of the acoustic energy of the sound vibrations and is
expressed in terms of sound pressure. The higher the sound pressure, the more energy carried by the
sound and the louder the perception of that sound. Frequency is the number of times per second the air
vibrates or oscillates. Low-frequency sounds are characterized as rumbles or roars, while sirens or
screeches typify high-frequency sounds. Duration is the length of time the sound can be detected.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

4-1

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 8 of 31


NOISE

A logarithmic unit known as decibel (dB) is used to represent the intensity of sound. Such a
representation is called a sound level. A sound level of 10 dB is approximately the threshold of human
hearing and is barely audible under extremely quiet conditions. Normal speech has a sound level of
approximately 60 dB. Sound levels above 120 dB begin to be felt inside the human ear as discomfort and
above 140 dB as pain. See Figure 4-1.
Because of the logarithmic nature of the decibel unit, sound levels cannot be arithmetically added or
subtracted. Therefore, the total sound level produced by two sounds of different levels is usually slightly
higher than the higher of the two. If two sounds of equal intensity are added, the sound level increases by
3 dB. For example
60.0 dB + 70.0 dB = 70.4 dB;
60 dB + 60 dB = 63 dB.
A change of 3 dB is the smallest change detected by the average human ear. An increase of about 10 dB
is usually perceived as a doubling of loudness. This applies to sounds of all volumes. Figure 4-1
provides some examples of sound levels of typical noise sources and noise environments.
Figure 4-1 Sound Levels of Typical Sources and Environments

A small change in dB will not generally be noticeable. As the change in dB increases, the individual
perception is greater, as shown in Table 4-1.

4-2

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 9 of 31


NOISE
Table 4-1 Subjective Responses to Changes in A-weighted Decibels (dBA)
Change
1 dB
3 dB
5 dB
10 dB
20 dB

Change in Perceived Loudness


Requires close attention to notice
Barely perceptible
Quite noticeable
Dramatic, twice or half as loud
Striking, fourfold change

Source:
Wyle Laboratories, Wyle Report 04-26 Aircraft Noise Study for NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville, Washington, 2004.

4.3.1 Environmental Sound Descriptor


The sound environment around an air installation is typically described using a measure of cumulative
exposure that results from all aircraft operations. The DOD-specified metric used to account for this is
DNL. A more detailed description of DNL follows:

In general, DNL can be thought of as an accumulation of all of the sound produced by individual
events that occur throughout a 24-hour period. The sound of each event is accounted for by an
integration of the changing sound level over time. These integrated sound levels for individual
events are called SELs. The logarithmic accumulation of the SELs from all operations during a
24-hour period determines the DNL for the day at that location.

DNL also takes into account the time of day the events occur. The measure recognizes that
events during the nighttime hours may be more intrusive, and therefore more annoying, than the
same events during daytime hours, when background sound levels are higher. To account for this
additional annoyance, a penalty of 10 dB is added to each event that takes place during acoustic
nighttime hours, defined as 2200 to 0700 the next day.

DNL values around an air installation are presented not just for a single specific 24-hour period,
but rather for an annual average day.1

DNL averaging is done to obtain a stable representation of the noise environment free of variations in
day-to-day operations or between weekdays and weekends as well as from fluctuations in wind directions,
runway use, temperature, aircraft performance, and total airfield operations (any one of which can
significantly influence noise exposure levels from one day to the next).

4.3.2 Individual Response to Sound Levels


Individual response to sound levels is influenced by many factors, including the following:

Activity the individual is engaged in at the time of the event

General sensitivity to sound

Time of day

Length of time an individual is exposed to a sound

Predictability of sound

Average temperature/Inversions/Other weather phenomena

The average annual day takes the total number of operations per year and divides it by 365.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

4-3

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 10 of 31


NOISE

Various scientific studies and social surveys have found a high correlation between the percentages of
groups of people in communities highly annoyed and the level of average sound exposure measured in
DNL. This correlation is depicted using a curve shown in Figure 4-2. Originally developed in the 1970s,
the curve has been updated over the past 10 years; it remains the best available method to estimate
community response to aircraft sound levels.
Figure 4-2 Influences of Sound Levels on Annoyance

Source:
Shultz 1978 as taken from Wyle Laboratories, Wyle Report 04-26 Aircraft Noise Study for NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville,
Washington, 2004.

For more information on sound and noise, see Appendix B.

4.4 Noise Complaints and Noise Abatement Procedures


4.4.1 Noise Complaints at NAS Whidbey Island
NAS Whidbey Island has implemented a policy for handling noise complaints and other flight-related
disturbances at Ault Field and OLF Coupeville, as well as for those that may occur at the numerous
ranges and airspace used for training2. The policy is designed to enable air station personnel to log noise
complaints, analyze complaint locations and times, and identify the flights/operations that generated the
complaints.
Persons with noise complaints or who experience other flight-related disturbances call a complaint hotline
at (360) 257-2681. Once a call is received, it is taken by the Operations Duty Officer (ODO) gathers
information from the caller as outlined in a telephone complaint form. The ODO records pertinent
information such as the location, time, and description of the noise-generating event, as well as the
address and contact information for the caller.
After speaking with the caller, the ODO may follow up by contacting ATC, OLF Coupeville, Range
Scheduling, AIMD, or other activities/tenants as appropriate to compile information as to what may have
generated the noise complaint.

NAS Whidbey Island, NAS Whidbey Instruction (NASWHIDBEYINST) 3710.10A Handling of Noise Complaints and Other Flight-related
Disturbances, February 23, 2000.

4-4

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 11 of 31


NOISE

The ODO provides copies of any previous day's complaints to several persons, including the
Commanding Officer, Executive Officer, Operations Officer, and Community Plans and Liaison Officer
(CP&LO) the following day. These persons may, when necessary, initiate an informal inquiry into the
allegations of any complainant to determine the validity of those allegations. This inquiry may involve a
follow-up call to the complainant. The CP&LO maintains a file of noise complaints. Table 4-2 lists the
number of complaints on record from 1999 through 2003 at NAS Whidbey Island. See Figure 4-3 for a
representation of the location of recent noise complaints.
Table 4-2 Noise Complaints for NAS Whidbey Island
Year

Number of Complaints
per Year

1999

302

2000

244

2001

108

2002

85

2003

126

Source
NAS Whidbey Island, Noise Complaints Log, 2000-2004.

4.4.2 Noise Abatement at NAS Whidbey Island


Numerous noise abatement procedures are contained in the current air operations manual
(NASWHIDBEYINST 3710.7S, August 14, 2002 et seq.).
It is Commanding Officer, NAS Whidbey Island policy to conduct required training and
operational flights with a minimum impact on surrounding communities. All aircrew using Ault
Field, OLF Coupeville, Admiralty Bay Mining Range, Boardman Target and the myriad of
northwest instrument and visual military training routes (IR/VR), are responsible for the safe
conduct of their mission while complying with published course rules, noise abatement
procedures, and good common sense. Each aircrew must be familiar with the noise profiles of
their aircraft and must be committed to minimizing noise impacts without compromising
operational and safety requirements.
See NASWHIDBEYINST 3710.7S for noise abatements procedures.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

4-5

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 12 of 31


NOISE

4.5

Noise Metrics

As used in environmental noise analyses, a metric refers to the unit or quantity that measures the effect of
noise on the environment. The metric for the noise environment on and in the vicinity of airbases is
normally described in terms of the time-average sound level generated by the aircraft operating at the
facility. The federal noise metric used for this purpose is the Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL),
which is defined in units of dB. DNL has been determined to be a reliable measure of community
sensitivity to noise and has become the standard metric used in the United States to quantify noise in
aircraft noise studies and associated compatible land use and zoning analysis.
The average of sound over a 24-hour period does not ignore the louder single events. When sound levels
of two or more sources are added, the source with the lower sound level is dominated by the source with
the higher sound level. The combined sound level is usually only slightly higher than the sound level
produced by the louder source.
Aircraft noise is expressed in terms of A-weighted sound levels. A-weighting is a method of adjusting
the frequency content of a sound event to closely resemble the way the average human ear responds to
aircraft sound. The A-weighting scale is therefore considered to provide a good indication of the impact
of noise produced by aircraft operations.
Noise exposure is measured using the DNL. The symbol Ldn is generally used as the descriptor for daynight average sound level in mathematical equations, although the descriptors Ldn and DNL are often
used interchangeably. DNL is used throughout this report.
Noise levels of the loudest aircraft operations significantly influence the 24-hour average. For example, if
one daytime aircraft overflight measuring 100 dBA for 30 seconds occurs within a 24-hour period in a 50dBA noise environment, the DNL will be 65.5. If ten such 30-second aircraft overflights occur in
daytime hours in the 24-hour period, the DNL will be 75.4. Therefore, a few maximum sound events
occurring during a 24-hour period will have a strong influence on the 24-hour DNL even though lower
sound levels from other aircraft between these flights could account for the majority of the flight activity.
The accumulation of noise computed in this manner provides a quantitative tool for comparing overall
noise environments and use in developing compatible land use plans and zoning regulations in the
airfields environs. The DNLs are represented as contours connecting points of equal value, usually in 5dB increments from 60 or 65 dB up to 75 or 80 dB on the contour values.
However, individuals do not "hear" DNL. The DNL contours are intended for land use planning, not to
describe what someone hears when a single event occurs.
Individual or single noise events are described in terms of the Sound Exposure Level (SEL) in units of
dB. SEL takes into account the amplitude of a sound and the length of time during which each noise
event occurs. It thus provides a direct comparison of the relative intrusiveness among single noise events
of different intensities and durations of aircraft overflights.
Table 4-3 lists SEL values that indicate what a person on the ground would hear when an aircraft is flying
overhead at representative distances from an aircraft.

4-6

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 13 of 31


NOISE

Table 4-3 Representative SEL Values for Aircraft


Comparison of Representative SEL Values for Downwind Leg
Segment of FCLP Pattern
Aircraft

Altitude (feet AGL)

F/A-18 C/D

EA-18G

EA-6B

SEL (dBA)

600

111

800

109

1,000

108

600

117

800

115

1,000

113

600

121

800

119

1,000

117

Comparison of Representative SEL Values for Take-off and


Approach Referenced to 1,000 FT
Aircraft
F/A-18 C/D

EA-18G

EA-6 B

Operation Type

SEL (dBA)

Departure

117

Approach

109

Departure

117

Approach

114

Departure

114

Approach

107

Source:
Wyle Laboratories personal communication to the Onyx Group, January 2004.
Notes:
SEL generated for representative airspeed and power settings. Sound Exposure Level (SEL), above ground level (AGL), compressor speed (NC),
revolutions per minute (RPM)

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

4-7

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 14 of 31


NOISE

4.6

Noise Contours at Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

At a minimum, DOD requires that contours be plotted for DNL values of 65, 70, 75, and 80 in AICUZ
studies. Recently, contours of 60 DNL are also depicted to account for potential noise impacts in areas of
low ambient noise levels. Three general noise exposure zones are defined in the AICUZ program: areas
with a DNL of less than 65; areas with a DNL between 65 and 75; and areas with a DNL of 75 or greater.
These three areas are defined as Noise Zones 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

4.6.1 Methodology
The Navy periodically conducts noise studies to assess the noise impacts of aircraft operations. As with
updates to AICUZ studies, the need to conduct a noise study is generally prompted by a change in aircraft
operationseither by the number of operations conducted at the airfield, the number and type of aircraft
using the airfield, or the flight paths used for airfield departure/arrival changes. A noise study is also
normally conducted as a part of an update of an AICUZ study.
The transition from the EA-6B to the EA-18G was the driver behind the latest noise study, Wyle Report
04-26 Aircraft Noise Study for NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville, Washington, 2004. The noise
contour data presented for CY03 and CY13 comes from this noise study.
The Navy uses NOISEMAP (Version 7.2), a widely accepted computer model that projects noise impacts
around military airfields, to generate noise contour data. NOISEMAP calculates DNL contours resulting
from aircraft operations using such variables as power settings, aircraft model and type, maximum sound
levels, and duration and flight profiles for a given airfield.
The flight tracks, as well as pre-flight and maintenance run-up operations, establish the shape of the noise
contours. In general, approaches and departures cause the narrow tapering of portions of the contours
aligned with the runways, while touch and go and FCLP operations determine the general contour size.
Noise from pre-flight and maintenance run-up operation locations, if not overshadowed by flight
operations, causes generally circular arcs.

4-8

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 15 of 31


AICUZ AND LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES

6.0

AICUZ and Land Use Compatibility Guidelines

The AICUZ boundary is generally defined as the areas contained within the noise zones and APZs of an
air installation. The AICUZ footprint is the minimum area where land use controls are recommended to
protect the health, safety, and welfare of those living on or near a military airfield.
Although control over land use and development in the vicinity of military facilities is the responsibility
of local governments, the Navy encourages localities to adopt programs, policies, and regulations that
promote compatible development within the AICUZ footprint. This section presents the AICUZ footprint
for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville and the recommended land use compatibility
guidelines that local planning and zoning officials can use in their review of land use control and zoning
regulation updates.

6.1

AICUZ Footprints for Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

Figures 6-1 and 6-2 present the AICUZ footprints for Ault Field and OLF Coupeville based on CY13
operations.
The superimposed noise exposure levels and APZ boundaries conceptually create 12 potential subzones
within an AICUZ footprint. As shown in Table 6-1, these subzones contain various combinations of
noise and accident potential exposure. Note that the AICUZ footprints for Ault Field and OLF are not
composed of all 12 subzones. For example, subzone I-2 (APZ I and Noise Zone 2) does not exist at Ault
Field. Subzones that do not exist are indicated by N/A (not applicable) in the figure legends. The Noise
Zone 2 area extending over the Seaplane Base area of NAS Whidbey Island results from the straight-in
approach and GCA pattern for that runway, while the APZ in the same area results from the combined
departures from Runway 13.
Table 6-1 AICUZ Footprint Subzones
Noise Zones
1

Below 65 DNL (db)

65-75 DNL (db)

Above 75 DNL (db)

Clear Zone (including Primary Surface)

CZ

CZ

CZ

APZ I

I-1

I-2

I-3

APZ II

II-1

II-2

II-3

Outside APZs

Accident Potential Zone

Notes:
Accident Potential Zone (APZ), Clear Zone (CZ), Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL), decibels (dB).
Source:
OPNAVINST 11010.36B, 2002.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

6-1

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 16 of 31


AICUZ AND LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES

APZ I is beyond the Clear Zone and possesses a measurable potential for accidents relative to the Clear
Zone. These areas can exist in conjunction with Noise Zones 1, 2, or 3. The combinations of noise and
accident potential are shown as I-3 (APZ I-Noise Zone 3) for the highest combination of noise and
accident potential, I-2 (APZ I-Noise Zone 2) for areas of moderate noise exposure and measurable
accident potential, and I-1 (APZ I-Noise Zone 1) for areas of measurable accident potential and low noise
exposure.
APZ II is an area beyond APZ I that has a measurable potential for aircraft accidents relative to APZ I or
the Clear Zone. APZ II areas can exist in conjunction with Noise Zones 1, 2, or 3. These combinations
of noise and accident potential are shown as II-3 (APZ II-Noise Zone 3) for the areas of highest noise
exposure and measurable accident potential, II-2 (APZ II-Noise Zone 2) for areas of moderate noise
exposure and measurable accident potential, and II-1 (APZ II-Noise Zone 1) for areas of low noise
exposure and measurable accident potential. These areas have potential for accidents, and noise impacts
and land use controls are recommended.
Noise zones are shown as 1, 2, and 3 in Table 6-1. Noise Zone 1 (less than 65 DNL) is an area of low or
no impact (although some people in these areas may be annoyed by aircraft overflights), Noise Zone 2
(DNL 65-75) is an area of moderate impact where some land use controls are needed, and Noise Zone 3
(DNL 75 and above) is the most severely impacted area and requires the greatest degree of land use
controls for noise exposure.

6.2

Suggested Land Use Compatibility within AICUZ Footprint

Land use compatibility recommendations for noise and APZs zones, as shown in Tables 6-2 and 6-3.
Noise-sensitive uses including, but not limited to, housing, schools, hospitals, and churches are
recommended to be placed outside of high-noise areas. People-intensive uses including, but not limited
to, shopping malls, theaters, and activities that would draw concentrations of people to an area should be
placed outside APZs.
Certain land uses are considered incompatible in high noise zones and APZs. Other land uses are
considered compatible under certain conditions. For example, recreational uses, such as parks, are
considered compatible under APZ I, provided that the recreational use does not include a high density of
people (e.g., spectator sports). Agricultural uses are compatible above 75 DNL, but residential buildings
are not considered compatible. Compatibility is a relative term and should be considered along with
specific local land use development criteria by local governments in their decision making processes.
The guidelines for suggested land use listed in Tables 6-2 and 6-3 are also nationwide in scope. Since
many air installations are in urban areas, these guidelines assume an urban environment with higher levels
of ambient background noise than might exist in rural and suburban areas. These compatibility
guidelines are, therefore, sometimes modified at the local government level to address a specific local
noise environment.

6-2

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 17 of 31


AICUZ AND LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES

II 1

Figure 6-2

Seaplane Base
Oak
Harbor

Strawberry
Point

Crescent
Harbor

Skagit
Bay

CY13 AICUZ Footprint


at OLF Coupeville
AICUZ Footprint Sub-zones

Primary
Surface/
Clear Zone APZ I

Oak
Harbor

PUGET
SOUND

ISLAND
COUNTY

Brown
Point

Forbes
Point

20
!
(

Noise Zone 1
(<65 Ldn)
Noise Zone 2
(65-75 Ldn)
Noise Zone 3
(>75 Ldn)

APZ II

Noise
Zone
Only

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

CZ

N/A

N/A

CZ

N/A

N/A

Navy Property Boundary


CY13 AICUZ Footprint Extent
Penn Cove

Point
Partridge

60 dB

Coupeville

OLF Coupeville
Runway

Camano
Island

60 dB

14

65 dB

32
70 dB

OLF Coupeville

70 dB

CZ
80 dB
70 dB

70 dB

Port
Susan

a
tog
Sara

2
75 dB

sag
Pas

70 dB

Point
Wilson

65 dB
60 dB
Admiralty
Bay

Notes:
AICUZ Air Installations Compatible Use Zone
APZ Accident Potential Zone
CZ Clear Zone
Ldn Day-Night Average Sound Level

Port
Townsend

Lowell
Point

!
(
525

ORTH

Rocky
Point

GN
ETIC
N

Port
Townsend

TRUE NORTH

"
"

Marrowstone
Point

Magnetic Declination
19

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Island's Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

MA

JEFFERSON
COUNTY

Sources:
The Onyx Group, 2004
NAS Whidbey Island GIS, 2004
ESRI, 2004
U.S. Census TIGER Files, 2004
Island County GIS, 2004
Wyle Laboratories, 2004

Miles

6-5
7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 18 of 31


AICUZ AND LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES
Table 6-2 Suggested Land Use Compatibility in Noise Zones
Land Use

Suggested Land Use Compatibility

Noise Zone 1
(DNL or CNEL)
SLUCM
NO

11
11.11
11.12
11.13
11.21
11.22
11.31
11.32
12
13
14
15
16
20
21
22
23

24
25
26
27
28
29

LAND USE NAME


Residential
Household units
Single units: detached
Single units: semidetached
Single units: attached row
Two units: side-by-side
Two units: one above the other
Apartments: walk-up
Apartments: elevator
Group quarters
Residential hotels
Mobile home parks or courts
Transient lodgings
Other residential
Manufacturing
Food and kindred products;
manufacturing
Textile mill products;
manufacturing
Apparel and other finished
products; products made from
fabrics, leather, and similar
materials; manufacturing
Lumber and wood products
(except furniture); manufacturing
Furniture and fixtures;
manufacturing
Paper and allied products;
manufacturing
Printing, publishing, and allied
industries
Chemicals and allied products;
manufacturing
Petroleum refining and related
industries

Noise Zone 2
(DNL or CNEL)

Noise Zone 3
(DNL or CNEL)

< 55

5564

6569

7074

7579

8084

85+

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1
Y1

N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N
N1
N1

N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N1
N
N1
N1

N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N1
N

N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

(Continued on next page)

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

6-7

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 19 of 31


AICUZ AND LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES
Table 6-2 Suggested Land Use Compatibility in Noise Zones (Continued)
Land Use

Suggested Land Use Compatibility


Noise Zone 1
(DNL or CNEL)

SLUCM
NO
30
31
32
33
34
35

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

50
51
52
53
54

LAND USE NAME


Manufacturing (continued)
Rubber and misc. plastic
products; manufacturing
Stone, clay, and glass products;
manufacturing
Primary metal products;
manufacturing
Fabricated metal products;
manufacturing
Professional, scientific, and
controlling instruments;
photographic and optical goods;
watches and clocks
Miscellaneous manufacturing

Noise Zone 3
(DNL or CNEL)

< 55

5564

6569

7074

7579

8084

85+

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

25

30

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Y2
Y2
Y2
Y2
Y2
25 5
Y2
25 5

Y3
Y3
Y3
Y3
Y3
30 5
Y3
30 5

Y4
Y4
Y4
Y4
Y4
N
Y4
N

N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

Y
Y

Y
Y

Y
Y

Y2
Y 2

Y3
Y3

Y4
Y4

N
N

Y
Y

Y
Y

Y
Y

25
25

30
30

N
N

N
N

Transportation, communication, and utilities


Railroad, rapid rail transit, and
Y
street railway transportation
Motor vehicle transportation
Y
Aircraft transportation
Y
Marine craft transportation
Y
Highway and street right-of-way
Y
Automobile parking
Y
Communication
Y
Utilities
Y
Other transportation,
Y
communication, and utilities
Trade
Wholesale trade
Retail tradebuilding materials,
hardware and farm equipment
Retail tradeshopping centers
Retail tradefood

Noise Zone 2
(DNL or CNEL)

(Continued on next page)

6-8

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 20 of 31


AICUZ AND LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES
Table 6-2 Suggested Land Use Compatibility in Noise Zones (Continued)
Land Use

Suggested Land Use Compatibility


Noise Zone 1
(DNL or CNEL)

SLUCM
NO
50
55
56
57
58

LAND USE NAME


Trade (Continued)
Retail tradeautomotive, marine
craft, aircraft and accessories
Retail tradeapparel and
accessories
Retail tradefurniture, home
furnishings and equipment
Retail tradeeating and drinking
establishments

59

Other retail trade

60
61

Services
Finance, insurance, and real estate
services
Personal services
Cemeteries
Business services
Warehousing and storage
Repair services
Professional services
Hospitals, other medical facilities
Nursing homes
Contract construction services
Government services
Educational services
Miscellaneous

62
62.4
63
63.7
64
65
65.1
65.16
66
67
68
69
70
71
71.2
72
72.1
72.11
72.2
73
74
75
76
79

Noise Zone 2
(DNL or CNEL)

Noise Zone 3
(DNL or CNEL)

< 55

5564

6569

7074

7579

8084

85+

25

30

25

30

25

30

25

30

25

30

25

30

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y1
Y
Y
Y1
Y1
Y

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
25
N1
Y
Y1
25
Y

25
Y2
25
Y2
Y2
25
30
N1
25
25
30
25

30
Y3
30
Y3
Y3
30
N
N
30
30
N
30

N
Y 4,11
N
Y4
Y4
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

N
Y 6,11
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

Y1
Y1
Y1
Y
Y1

25
Y1
Y
25
N

30
N
N
30
N

N
N
N
N
N

N
N
N
N
N

N
N
N
N
N

Y7

Y7

Y
Y1

Y
Y1

Y
25

N
30

N
N

N
N

Y1
Y1
Y1

Y1
Y1
Y1

Y1
Y1
Y1

N
N
N

N
N
N

N
N
N

Cultural, entertainment, and recreational


Cultural activities (churches)
Y
Nature exhibits
Y
Public assembly
Y
Auditoriums, concert halls
Y
Outdoor music shells,
Y
amphitheaters
Outdoor sports arenas, spectator
Y
sports
Amusements
Y
Recreational activities (golf
Y
courses, riding stables, water
recreation)
Resorts and group camps
Y
Parks
Y
Other cultural, entertainment, and
Y
recreation facilities

(Continued on next page)

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

6-9

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 21 of 31


AICUZ AND LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES
Table 6-2 Suggested Land Use Compatibility in Noise Zones (Concluded)
Land Use

Suggested Land Use Compatibility


Noise Zone 1
(DNL or CNEL)

SLUCM
NO
80
81
81.5
81.7
82
83
84
85
89

Noise Zone 2
(DNL or CNEL)

Noise Zone 3
(DNL or CNEL)

LAND USE NAME

< 55

5564

6569

7074

7579

8084

85+

Resource production and extraction


Agriculture (except livestock)
Livestock farming
Animal breeding
Agriculture-related activities
Forestry activities
Fishing activities
Mining activities
Other resource production or
extraction

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

Y8
Y8
Y8
Y8
Y8
Y
Y
Y

Y9
Y9
Y9
Y9
Y9
Y
Y
Y

Y 10
N
N
Y 10
Y 10
Y
Y
Y

Y 10,11
N
N
Y 10,11
Y 10,11
Y
Y
Y

Y 10,11
N
N
Y 10,11
Y 10,11
Y
Y
Y

Key:
SLUCM

Standard Land Use Coding Manual, U.S. Department of Transportation.

Y (Yes)

Land use and related structures compatible without restrictions.

N (No)

Land use and related structures are not compatible and should be prohibited.

Y* (Yes with Restrictions)

Land use and related structures are generally compatible. However, see note(s) indicated by the superscript.

N* (No with Exceptions)

Land use and related structures are generally incompatible. However, see notes indicated by the superscript.

NLR
Noise Level Reduction (outdoor to indoor) to be achieved through incorporation of noise attenuation into the design and construction
of the structure.
25, 30, or 35
The numbers refer to NLR levels. Land use and related structures generally are compatible; however, measures to achieve
NLR of 25, 30, or 35 must be incorporated into design and construction of structures. Measures to achieve an overall noise reduction do not
necessarily solve noise difficulties outside the structure, and additional evaluation is warranted. Also, see notes indicated by superscripts where
they appear with one of these numbers.
DNL

Day Night Average Sound Level.

CNEL

Community Noise Equivalent Level (Normally within a very small decibel difference of DNL).

Ldn

Mathematical symbol for DNL.

Notes:
1.
a) Although local conditions regarding the need for housing may require residential use in these zones, residential use is discouraged in
DNL 6569 and strongly discouraged in DNL 7074. The absence of viable alternative development options should be determined and an
evaluation should be conducted locally prior to local approvals, indicating that a demonstrated community need for the residential use
would not be met if development were prohibited in these zones.
b) Where the community determines that these uses must be allowed, measures to achieve and outdoor to indoor NLR of at least 25 dB in
DNL 6569 and NLR of 30 dB in DNL 7074 should be incorporated into building codes and be in individual approvals; for transient
housing, an NLR of at least 35 dB should be incorporated in DNL 7579.
c) Normal permanent construction can be expected to provide an NLR of 20 dB; thus, the reduction requirements are often stated as 5, 10,
or 15 dB over standard construction and normally assume mechanical ventilation, upgraded Sound Transmission Class (STC) ratings in
windows and doors and closed windows year-round. Additional consideration should be given to modifying NLR levels based on peak
noise levels or vibrations.
d) NLR criteria will not eliminate outdoor noise problems. However, building location and site planning, design, and use of berms and
barriers can help mitigate outdoor noise exposure, particularly from ground-level sources. Measures that reduce noise at a site should be
used wherever practical in preference to measures that protect only interior spaces.

6-10

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 22 of 31


AICUZ AND LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES
Notes (Continued):
2. Measures to achieve NLR of 25 must be incorporated into the design and construction of portions of these buildings where the public is
received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas, or where the normal noise level is low.
3. Measures to achieve NLR of 30 must be incorporated into the design and construction of portions of these buildings where the public is
received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas, or where the normal noise level is low.
4. Measures to achieve NLR of 35 must be incorporated into the design and construction of portions of these buildings where the public is
received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas, or where the normal noise level is low.
5. If project or proposed development is noise sensitive, use indicated NLR; if not, land use is compatible without NLR.
6. No buildings.
7. Land use compatible provided special sound reinforcement systems are installed.
8. Residential buildings require NLR of 25.
9. Residential buildings require NLR of 30.
10. Residential buildings not permitted.
11. Land use not recommended, but if community decides use is necessary, hearing protection devices should be worn.
Source:
OPNAVINST 11010.36B, 2002.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

6-11

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 23 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

7.0

Land Use Compatibility Analysis

This section presents information pertaining to Island County history; socioeconomics; land use planning
authorities, existing land use, zoning, and future land use.
In addition, this section examines the AICUZ recommendations as they apply to current and future land
use in the areas surrounding the airfields. Land use compatibility decisions are made by local government
authorities responsible for land use planning and zoning. Island County and the City of Oak Harbor have
taken positive steps to help in ensuring compatible future development by recognizing airfield noise
contours in local land use planning, zoning, and building code provisions. Further progress can be made
by also considering compatible land use provisions related to APZs in future updates. A comparison of
the noise contours contained in the current zoning regulations and those outlined in this AICUZ analysis
is provided in this section for ease of reference.

7.1

Island County

Rural character is one of Island Countys most valued assets,


providing the quality of life desired by most island residents
according to the Island County Comprehensive Plan, 1998.
Nestled in the Puget Sound basin between the Cascade
Mountains to the east and the Olympic Mountains to the west,
Island Countys name reflects the fact that it consists of just
two islandsWhidbey and Camano. The county covers a
land area of 208 square miles, or 133,120 acres. Included are
the countys three municipalities of Oak Harbor, Langley, and
Coupeville, which total 3,173 acres. The Town of Coupeville
serves as the county seat.

Above shows the Town of Coupevilles scenic


waterfront. The Town of Coupeville serves as the
Island County seat.

7.1.1 Island County History


Before the advent of white exploration and settlement, Native Americans moved throughout what is now
Island County. The principal tribes were the Snohomish, Skagit, and Kikialos. The mainstay of local
tribal economies was fishing1.
In 1792, an expeditionary party led by Captain George Vancouver of the British Navy discovered Puget
Sound, signaling the advent of white exploration in the region. In June of that year, Ship's Master Joseph
Whidbey of the HMS Discovery charted a recently discovered island, which Captain Vancouver later
named "Whidbey" in his honor. Through the early 1800s, other explorers, scouts, and trappers visited the
island.
American settlement of Island County began around 1850, primarily around the Oak Harbor and Penn's
Cove areas. Soon after, Island County was created out of Thurston County on January 6, 1853, by the
legislature of the Oregon Territory. Agriculture and logging/timbering began to flourish. By the turn of
the century, other businesses followed, and Oak Harbor and Coupeville became small centers for banking,
shipping, industry, and trading within the county.

Information in this section was obtained from the American Local History Network for Island County, Washington at
www.usgennet.org/usa/wa/county/island, 2004.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7-1

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 24 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

7.2

Existing Land Use in AICUZ Areas

The development pattern in Whidbey Island remains largely


rural in character, with much of the area wooded or covered
with small farms. The shoreline is often less than five miles
away from any interior point, and the land close to Ault Field
and OLF Coupeville offers vast areas of undeveloped
landscape where distant mountains and water are often visible.
The majority of development within the county occurs along
shoreline areas or in the municipalities of Oak Harbor,
Langley, and Coupeville. However, because of the natural
attractiveness of the countryside, there is an interest for
residential development in the rural areas outside of the
municipalities. The result is that much of the island, including
the areas around the airfields, is becoming developed with
low-density residential and rural agricultural uses
characterized by single-family homes located on large lots that
are often cultivated.

Whidbey Island has a distinct and picturesque rural


character. This rural character, when coupled with
the proximity to water, helps generate a continual
demand for single family housing on the island.
Many residents use their large lots for agricultural
purposes.

Land use surrounding the airfields is generally compatible with AICUZ recommendations. Limited
existing incompatibilities are attributable to residential development scattered inside the 65 and 75 and
above dB contours of the airfields that were constructed in the past, prior to current zoning revisions in
1994. The current local land use controls include requirements to incorporate noise level reduction
materials and disclosure above 60 DNL. Existing residential development densities in these noise areas
vary from one dwelling unit per 10 acres to dwelling units located on quarter-acre lots within previously
platted developments. The Island County Comprehensive Plan provides that housing should not be
constructed above 70 DNL.
Existing platted developments are in a general sense grandfathered, or somewhat exempt from some but
not all current land use regulations enacted by the county and municipalities. For example all new
construction within platted developments or on individual parcels, or major renovations to existing
structures are required to meet a variety of regulations related to density, type, and construction practices.
These regulations include noise level reduction for construction or major renovations occurring in higher
noise areas a well as disclosure. The regulations that the local jurisdictions have enacted that specifically
work toward land use compatibility in the Ault Field and OLF Coupeville noise and safety environs are
supportive of compatible land use in the areas covered.

7-4

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 25 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

7.3

Zoning and Land Use Controls

The privately owned parcels near Ault Field and OLF Coupeville are subject to the policies and
procedures of Island County, or the municipalities of the City of Oak Harbor and the Town of Coupeville.
Table 7-3 provides a summary of existing zoning and land use controls around NAS Whidbey Islands
Ault Field and OLF Coupeville by the county and local municipalities. Island County and the City of
Oak Harbor have developed ordinances that require noise level reduction/sound attenuation in noise areas
around the airfields. The county and local municipalities do not currently address accident
potential/APZs in their ordinances.

7.3.1 Island County Zoning and Land Use Controls


Island County has adopted a Zoning Ordinance; an Airport and
Aircraft Operations Noise Disclosure Ordinance for property
sold, rented, or leased around Ault Field and OLF Coupeville;
and a Noise Level Reduction Ordinance to specify minimum
standards for building construction within the noise zones
around Ault Field and OLF Coupeville. In addition, the county
has adopted a Cell Tower Ordinance and a Signs and Lighting
Ordinance. The latter is designed to help preserve the dark
skies and rural character of the county. Together, these
ordinances help to ensure the safety of aircraft operations and
protect the health, safety, and welfare of citizens.

Island County has implemented a number of


regulations that promote compatibility between Ault
Field and OLF Coupeville operations and
surrounding development.

As for zoning, Figures 7-1 and 7-2 show that the majority of
parcels under county jurisdiction near the airfields are zoned
Rural (R) Zone or Rural Agriculture (RA) Zone. The figures
also show the 60dB and 70dB contours recognized in the current ordinances requiring noise level
reduction. The CY13 AICUZ footprint (combination of CY13 noise contours and CY13 APZs) has been
overlaid on the figures. As mentioned earlier, accident potential is not yet recognized in the local
ordinances.
The Rural (R) Zone generally limits development density to one unit per 5 acres. The ordinance states
that the limitations on density and uses are designed to provide for a variety of rural lifestyles and to
ensure compatible uses. Permitted uses include single-family residences, farms, and other types of
structure where few people congregate. Conditional uses where a larger number of people may
congregate include churches, schools, and inns. Approval for such conditional uses is often contingent on
a community meeting which allows the Navy a public forum for discussion and opinion.

The Rural Agriculture (RA) Zone generally limits development density to one lot per 10 acres. The
primary purpose of the Rural Agriculture (RA) zone is to protect and encourage the long term productive
use of Island Countys agricultural land resources of local importance. Permitted uses include singlefamily residences, farms, and other types of structure where few people congregate. Conditional uses
where a larger number of people may congregate include churches and inns.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7-5

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 26 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

The Navy recently purchased 18 avigation easements over 27 parcels scattered around OLF Coupeville.
Easements grant the Navy the right of passage in and through the airspace at various altitudes, depending
upon the location of the parcel(s). The easements also offer the Navy some flexibility, for they give the
Navy the right to cause in and through the airspace such noise as has been inherent in the operation of A3D, A-6E, EA-6B, or follow-on aircraft of lesser or comparable noise level; or no more than 10,000
flights through the individual parcel's airspace per calendar year, whichever is greater, caused by the
utilization of OLF Coupeville.
Table 7-3 Zoning and Land Use Controls in Impacted Areas
Zoning and Land
Use Control

Island County

City of Oak Harbor

Town of Coupeville

Majority of parcels near airfields zoned


for low-density development5- and 10acre minimum lot sizes.

Ordinance contains provisions for


Aviation Environs Overlay Zone that
requires development in any area of
above the 60dB DNL contour to sound
attenuate. A stated goal/policy objective
within the citys 2003 Comprehensive
Plan is to prohibit residential
development in any area above the 70dB
DNL contour.

Yes

Gives notice to prospective buyers,


renters, or lessees that the property of
interest is subject to aircraft noise for the
northern two-thirds of Island County.

Gives notice to prospective buyers,


renters, or lessees that the property of
interest is subject to aircraft noise. A
stated goal/policy objective within the
citys 2003 Comprehensive Plan is to also
ensure disclosure of accident potential
impacts.

No.

Noise Level
Reduction
Ordinance

Noise Level Reduction of 25 or 30 dB for


all new structures and alterations to
existing structures on parcels within
specified noise areas around Ault Field
and OLF Coupeville: 25 dB noise level
reduction within 6070 dB DNL
contours; and 30 dB noise level reduction
above 70 dB DNL.

Noise Level Reduction of 25 or 30 dB for


all new structures and alterations to
existing structures on parcels in noise
areas: 25 dB noise level reduction within
6065 dB DNL contours (Subdistrict A);
and 30 dB noise level reduction within
6575 dB DNL contours (Subdistrict B).

Signs and Lighting


Ordinance

This ordinance is designed to help


preserve dark skies and the rural character
of the county by requiring signs to be lit
from above/facing downward and any
other lighting to be shielded so as not to
produce glare into the night sky. The
ordinance that applies to both residential
and commercial entities thereby works to
minimize bright lights, either directed or
reflected, that can impair a pilots vision,
especially at night.

This commercial only ordinance allows


for limitations to be placed on the
reflective qualities of surface materials,
area and intensity of illumination,
location and angle of illumination, and
the hours of illumination. The ordinance
thereby works to minimize bright lights,
either directed or reflected, that can
impair a pilots vision, especially at night.

Requires that all communication towers


comply with state and local mechanical,
electrical and building codes, FCC
requirements, FAA requirements
(including FAR Part 77 Objects
Affecting Navigable Airspace).

Towers, antennas, or other objects that


penetrate the 100:1 angle slope criteria
established in FAR Part 44 shall be
reviewed for compatibility with airport
operations. No tower, antenna, or other
object shall constitute a hazard to air
navigation, interfere with the safe
operation of aircraft or deny the existing
operational capability of Ault Field.

Adopted Zoning
Ordinance

Noise Disclosure
Ordinance

Cell Tower
Ordinance

7-6

No.

Yes.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 27 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

Figure 7-1

Anacortes

Zoning and CY13 AICUZ


Footprint at Ault Field

Padillo
Bay

AICUZ Footprint Sub-zones

Primary
Surface/
Clear Zone APZ I

20
!
(

SAN JUAN
COUNTY

Similk
Bay
SKAGIT
COUNTY

Noise Zone 1
(<65 Ldn)
Noise Zone 2
(65-75 Ldn)
Noise Zone 3
(>75 Ldn)

APZ II

Noise
Zone
Only

N/A

N/A

II-1

N/A

CZ

N/A

II-2

CZ

I-3

II-3

Navy Property Boundary


tion
Decep
Pass

Hoypus
Point

Island County Zoning and Noise Contours


Airport (AP)

Strait of
Juan de Fuca

Commercial Agriculture (CA)


65 dB

60 dB

La
Conner

II-3

Federal Land (FL)


Light Manufacturing

60 dB

I-3

75 dB

II-2

Park (PK)

Ault Field
70 dB

Municipality

Public Facilities (PF)

75 dB

II-3

CZ

I-3

II-3

I-3

Rural (R)

65 dB

70 dB

Rural Agriculture (RA)

Rural Center (RC)


Rural Forest (RF)
Rural Residential (RR)

2
I-3

II-3

Rural Service (RS)

II-3

Skagit
Bay

Rural Village (RV)


Special Review District (SR)

60 dB; Noise Zone 2

II-2

70 dB; Noise Zone 3

II-1

Sources:
The Onyx Group, 2004
NAS Whidbey Island GIS, 2004
ESRI, 2004
U.S. Census TIGER Files, 2004
Island County GIS, 2004
Wyle Laboratories, 2004

Crescent
Harbor

Oak
Harbor

Forbes
Point

TRUE NORTH

20
!
(

Magnetic Declination
19

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Island's Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

13
25

07
31

"
"

ISLAND
COUNTY

Brown
Point

Field Runways

ORTH

Oak
Harbor

Strawberry
Point

GN
ETIC
N

Seaplane Base

Notes:
AICUZ Air Installations Compatible Use Zone
APZ Accident Potential Zone
CZ Clear Zone
Ldn Day-Night Average Sound Level
Ault

MA

Miles

7-7
7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 28 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

II 1

Figure 7-2

Seaplane Base
Oak
Harbor

Strawberry
Point

Crescent
Harbor

Skagit
Bay

Zoning and CY13 AICUZ


Footprint at OLF Coupeville
AICUZ Footprint Sub-zones

Primary
Surface/
Clear Zone APZ I

Oak
Harbor

PUGET
SOUND

ISLAND
COUNTY

Brown
Point

Forbes
Point

20
!
(

Noise Zone 1
(<65 Ldn)
Noise Zone 2
(65-75 Ldn)
Noise Zone 3
(>75 Ldn)

APZ II

Noise
Zone
Only

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

CZ

N/A

N/A

CZ

N/A

N/A

Navy Property Boundary


Island County Zoning and Noise Contours
Penn Cove

Point
Partridge

Airport (AP)

65 dB

Commercial Agriculture (CA)

60 dB

Federal Land (FL)

60 dB

Coupeville

Light Manufacturing
Municipality

Park (PK)

Camano
Island

65 dB

Public Facilities (PF)


Rural (R)

OLF Coupeville

CZ

75 dB

Rural Agriculture (RA)


Rural Center (RC)
Sara

Port
Susan

Rural Forest (RF)


Rural Residential (RR)

a
tog

P as

Rural Service (RS)

s ag

Rural Village (RV)

Special Review District (SR)


65 dB

Point
Wilson

60 dB; Noise Zone 2


70 dB; Noise Zone 3

Admiralty
Bay

Notes:
AICUZ Air Installations Compatible Use Zone
APZ Accident Potential Zone
CZ Clear Zone
Ldn Day-Night Average Sound Level

Port
Townsend
70 dB
60 dB
Lowell
Point

JEFFERSON
COUNTY

!
(
525

14

32

ORTH
GN
ETIC
N

TRUE NORTH

Rocky
Point

Magnetic Declination
19

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Island's Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

MA

Port
Townsend

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

OLF Coupeville
Runway

"
"

Marrowstone
Point

Sources:
The Onyx Group, 2004
NAS Whidbey Island GIS, 2004
ESRI, 2004
U.S. Census TIGER Files, 2004
Island County GIS, 2004
Wyle Laboratories, 2004

Miles

7-9
7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 29 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

7.3.2 Island County and City of Oak Harbor Noise Contours


Figure 7-3 shows the 60, 65, 70, and 75 dB DNL contours for Ault Field and OLF Coupeville as reflected
in Island Countys and the City of Oak Harbors current zoning ordinances.2 Table 7-4 shows the
population numbers, housing units, and area in acres within the 60 to 75+ dB DNL contours at 5 dB
increments.
Table 7-4 Island County and City of Oak Harbor Noise Exposure at Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
DNL (dB)
60 dB to less than 65 dB
65 dB to less than 70 dB
70 dB to less than 75 dB
75 dB +
Totals
60 dB to less than 65 dB
65 dB to less than 70 dB
70 dB to less than 75 dB
75 dB +
Totals

Population

Housing Units

Ault Field
7,682
4,782
1,502
3,195
17,161
OLF Coupeville
1,931
1,425
1,376
1,201
5,933

Area (Acres)

3,457
1,972
657
1,337
7,423

7,715
4,093
3,602
6,693
22,103

906
702
708
601
2,917

3,541
3,963
5,001
2,981
15,486

Notes:
Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL), decibels (dB).
Source:
Wyle Laboratories, Wyle Report 04-26 Aircraft Noise Study for NAS Whidbey Island and OLF Coupeville, Washington, 2004.

7.3.3 City of Oak Harbor Zoning and Land Use Controls


The City of Oak Harbor has adopted the same noise contours as Island County, to implement the Aviation
Environs Overlay Zone through the citys zoning ordinance and other elements of the municipal code.
The overlay applies additional standards to properties located within underlying zoning districts. These
standards include noise level reduction requirements ranging between 25 and 30 dB depending on
structure type and location within the noise zones and disclosure. The City of Oak Harbor has also
adopted a lighting and glare ordinance that helps to ensure the safety of aircraft operations by placing
limitations on lighting that can impair a pilots vision, especially at night.
Additionally, the City of Oak Harbors 2003 Comprehensive Plan promotes residential development to
occur to the southwest and away from Ault Field. The area closer to the airfield is designated as
commercial and light industrial. The plan also has stated goals/policy objectives that prohibit residential
development in any area above the 70 dB DNL contour and disclose accident potential. These
goals/policy objectives are not currently included within the citys zoning code.

As adopted with Ordinance C-59-02 [PLG-011-02] of the Island County code. The contours are also recognized in the City of Oak Harbor code.

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7-11

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 30 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

7.3.4 Town of Coupeville Zoning and Land Use


Controls
The town has not adopted policies or goals designed
specifically to ensure development compatible with AICUZ
recommendations. However, the goals and policies of the
Comprehensive Plan and current zoning for the town foster
minimal development on the east, where aircraft noise from
OLF Coupeville has a greater impact. The plan also
recommends infill development in the central core of the town,
where aircraft noise has less of an impact.

7.4

Above shows North Main Street in the Town of


Coupeville.
The towns plan calls for infill
development within this central area.

Planning and Future Land Use in Impacted Areas

7.4.1 Island County Planning and Future Land Use


The Island County Comprehensive Plan was adopted in 1998 in accordance with the Washington State
Growth Management Act. The plan was established to manage growth in the county through the year
2020. As mandated under RCW 36.70A.070, the elements addressed include Land Use, Rural, Housing,
Capital Facilities, Utilities, Transportation, and Shoreline Management. Several optional elements are
addressed in the plan as well, including Parks, Recreation and Open Space, Natural Lands, Historic
Preservation, and Water Resources (Board of Island County Commissioners et al., 1998).
The Comprehensive Plan acknowledges the countys association with NAS Whidbey Island, as well as
the impacts associated with aircraft operations at Ault Field and OLF Coupeville. The plan designates an
Airport and Aviation Safety Overlay, which recommends that future land use adjacent to Ault Field and
OLF Coupeville be maintained as Rural (R) and Rural Agricultural (RA) Zones. These areas are
designated R and RA to encourage low-density development within the air stations noise zones.
The plan also states the followingIsland County will discourage residential development in Aircraft
Accident Potential Zones (APZ). To protect the operational use of military airports, Island County will
ensure that future development in Accident Potential Zones (APZs) around Ault Field and Outlying Field
Coupeville is at the lowest possible density consistent with the underlying land use designation.
Additionally, the comprehensive plan addresses growth issues through 2020, with the most powerful tool
being the designation of Urban Growth Areas (UGAs) in which urban growth shall be encouraged and
outside of which only nonurban growth may occur. Two UGAs exist near Ault Field and OLF
Coupeville, as shown in Figure 7-4, the Island County Future Land Use Map. One UGA is located
around the City of Oak Harbor and the second UGA is located around the Town of Coupeville. The
figure illustrates that the UGA around the City of Oak Harbor actually includes an additional area outside
the municipalitys limits, while the UGA for the Town of Coupeville is the municipalitys limits. The
larger UGA around the City of Oak Harbor works to provide an urban transition area where clustered
development, open space for future development, and greenbelts are envisioned. Since the Town of
Coupeville has a limited water supply and sewer availability, no UGA transition area has been included.

7-12

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Islands Ault Field and OLF Coupeville

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-3 Filed 05/29/15 Page 31 of 31


LAND USE COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS

Anacortes
SAN JUAN
COUNTY

!
(
20

75 d

La
Conner

60 d B

SAKGIT
COUNTY

65 dB
70 dB

Ault Field

Skagit
Bay

Seaplane Base

Oak
Harbor

ISLAND
COUNTY

70 d

Stanwood

Coupeville
75

60 d B

65 d B
B

Strait de
Juan de Fuca

dB

Port
Susan

OLF Coupeville
ato
Sa r
ga
Pa
ssa
ge

Port
Townsend

Admiralty
Bay

!
(

JEFFERSON
COUNTY

525

"
"
TRUE NORTH

Sources:
NAS Whidbey Island GIS, 2004
ESRI, 2004
U.S. Census TIGER Files, 2004
Island County GIS, 2004
Wyle Laboratories, 2004

RTH

75 dB

NO

65 dB

Island County and City of Oak Harbor


Noise Contours

ETIC

70 dB

Magnetic Declination
19

AICUZ Study Update for NAS Whidbey Island's Ault Field and OLF Coupeville
No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit C to Roberts Declaration

GN

60 dB

Figure 7-3

MA

DNL Noise Contours

Miles

7-13

7600 Sand Point Way NE


Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-4 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 5

Exhibit D

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit D to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-4 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 5

DEPART\1ENT OF DEFENSE
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF EA-6B
AIRCRAFT WITH EA-18G AIRCRAFT AT NAVAL AIR STATION WHIDBEY ISLAND,
WASHINGTON
Pursuant to section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as
amended, and the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508),
implementing procedural provisions of NEPA, the Department of Defense gives notice that an
EA has been prepared and that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required for the
replacement of EA-6B aircraft with EA-18G aircraft at Naval Air Station (NAS), Whidbey
Island, Oak Harbor, Island County, Washington.
The Navy proposes to replace the EA-6B aircraft with the EA-18G aircraft at NAS Whidbey
Island and provide facilities and functions to support this replacement. Because the EA-18G
squadrons will perform the same Airborne Electronic Attack (AEA) mission as the EA-6B
squadrons, many of the facilities and functions at NAS Whidbey Island that support the EA-6B
squadrons will continue to support the EA-18G squadrons.
The types of facilities needed to support the EA-18G aircraft include operational (e.g., hangars,
parking, runways), training (e.g., flight simulators, classrooms, airspace, ranges), maintenance,
support (e.g., warehouses), and personnel (e.g., medical and dental clinics, housing) facilities.
Functions to support the EA -18G aircraft squadrons comprise the combination of personnel,
airfield and airspace use, and established procedures to conduct the range of aircraft operations at
the air station and other training areas, including flight operations (e.g., Field Carrier Landing
Practice), to support the readiness of these squadrons. In general, the functions and facilities
needed to support the EA-18G aircraft are very similar to existing facilities and functions
supporting the EA-6B aircraft
The purpose and need for the proposed action is to maintain the Navy's AEA capability at NAS
Whidbey Island by replacing the EA-6B airframe, which is nearing the end of its service life,
with the EA-18G airframe and providing the facilities and functions to support the replacement
without negatively affecting the Navy's AEA mission readiness. The EA-6B aircraft has
remained operationally viable in the fleet for its more than 30-year history through systematic
upgrades to its airframe and electronic weapons systems. However, the airframe is rapidly
approaching the end of its service life. In Public Law I 08-87, the Department of Defense
Appropriations Act, 2004, Congress recognized this fact and authorized the Department of the
Navy to proceed with the research and development aspects of replacing the EA-6B with the EA18G.
The Navy's AEA capability currently resides with the EA-6B aircraft squadrons. Although the
primary types of mission training and readiness requirements for the EA-18G will remain
virtually the same as those for the EA-6B currently stationed at NAS Whidbey Island, the
airframe, aircraft components, and performance of the EA-6B and EA-18G differ. Existing
facilities and functions at NAS Whidbey Island will require modification to accommodate the

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit D to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-4 Filed 05/29/15 Page 3 of 5

replacement airframe. In addition, the replacement will result in a decrease in the number of
aircraft, personnel, and flight operations at NAS Whidbey Island.
EA-6B replacement with the EA-18G will begin in 2008 and be completed by 2013. The
replacement process will result in an overall decrease in the number of Electronic Attack (V AQ)
aircraft and associated personnel stationed at NAS Whidbey Island. A total of 57 EA-18G
aircraft will replace the existing 72 EA-6B aircraft, resulting in a decrease of 15 VAQ aircraft
stationed at NAS Whidbey Island and a decrease of approximately 1,106 personnel associated
with the AEA aircraft squadrons.
Although the primary types of mission training and readiness requirements for the EA-18G
squadrons will remain virtually the same as those for the EA-6B squadrons currently stationed at
NAS Whidbey Island (with the exception of an additional air-to-air combat training requirement
not currently applicable to the EA-6B aircrews), the number of operations are projected to be
fewer in 20 13; the projected decrease is due to the disestablishment of the four EA-6B
expeditionary squadrons and the reduced number of operations required to meet the training
syllabus and readiness requirements. There will be no change in the training syllabus that
would cause changes to the types of flight operations flown by the EA-6B (arrivals, departures,
pattern operations), the locations of flight operations (flight tracks over land or water), or the
current ratio of daytime and nighttime flight operations. In addition, the number or type of flight
operations within national airspace, designated Special Use Airspace, and in the low-altitude
Military Training Routes will remain the same as those conducted by the EA-6B squadrons for
several decades.
The environmental consequences of the Navy's proposed action are associated with changes to
aircraft operation, personnel transitions, and new construction or renovation of structures at NAS
Whidbey Island. To adequately meet the requirements of the EA-18G transition, minor
modifications to the existing facilities at NAS Whidbey Island would be required. These consist
of internal facility modifications to accommodate aircraft simulators, engine test cell, Naval
Aviation Technical Training Unit (NATTU), and Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department
(AIMD). Minor changes to room configuration; electrical power routing; heating, ventilation, air
conditioning (HV AC); mountings for replacement equipment; etc. would be required. Navy also
analyzed an estimated 20,000-square-foot hangar addition adjacent to Hangar 10 to provide
improved flexibility in meeting aircraft storage and maintenance requirements. This
modification would be constructed consistent with existing on-station land use, land already
developed with tarmac and connected to existing service utilities.
EA-6B replacement with the EA-18G would have an overall positive impact on the noise
environment. The day-night average sound level (DNL) noise metric was used to evaluate the
change in the existing (calendar year [CY] 2003) and projected (CY 2013) noise environment,
with a greater than 65-dB DNL noise contour considered high noise exposure. Implementation
of the Proposed Action would result in a 36% reduction in the population exposed to aircraft
noise greater than 65 dB DNL around Ault Field (the primary airfield at NAS Whidbey Island),
and a 16% reduction in the population exposed to aircraft noise greater than 65 dB DNL around
Outlying Field (OLF) Coupeville. Similarly, implementation of the Proposed Action would
result in a 28% decrease in the land area and a 38% reduction in the number of housing units

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit D to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-4 Filed 05/29/15 Page 4 of 5

within the greater than 65-dB DNL noise contour around Ault Field. Implementation of the
Proposed Action would result in a 9% decrease in the land area and a 16% reduction in the
number of housing units within the greater than 65-dB DNL noise contour around OLF
Coupeville.
EA-6B replacement with the EA-18G would have no significant impact on regional air quality.
Annual mobile source emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO~). and volatile
organic compounds (VOCs) are projected to increase with replacement of the EA-6B with the
EA-18G. Annual mobile source emissions of particulate matter (PM 10 ) and sulfur dioxide (S0 2)
are projected to decrease. Projected emission increases are not significant because they represent
less than 1% of the total annual mobile source emissions within the three-county Northwest Air
Pollution Authority (NW APA) region. The NW APA region is in attainment for all criteria
pollutants, and the increase would not cause the region to be in violation of any of the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Because the region is in attainment, the Clean Air
Act General Conformity Rule does not apply, and a General Conformity Determination is not
required. Stationary source emissions of CO from the test cell are projected to increase while
emissions of VOCs, NOx, so~. and PM 10 are projected to decrease. The projected CO increase
is not significant because the projected increase is well below the Prevention of Significant
Deterioration threshold as defined under the Clean Air Act.
EA-6B replacement with the EA-18G would result in a reduction of 1,106 personnel. This
reduction would impact the on-station and regional population in Island County if personnel are
reassigned outside of the local area. However, as the reduction in personnel would occur over a
6-year period, the annual reduction in personnel would range from I% to 4% of the on-station
population in CY 2003. The total reduction in personnel would represent a loss of only 3% of
the Island County population in 2000. Considering that the reduction would occur over a 6-year
period, that the population of Island County is projected to continue its growth trend, that the
military personnel would be reassigned to other Naval installations, and that the number of
civilian personnel would not be reduced, neither the economy, population, schools, or housing
within Island County or its municipalities would be significantly affected.
Minor modifications to existing facilities would result in no significant impact on the natural or
socioeconomic environment. Possible construction of a hangar addition would result in no
significant impact on the natural or socioeconomic environment.
Implementation of any of the proposed projects in the Airfield Recapitalization Plan could have
cumulative impacts on existing air quality. However, the potentially cumulative increase in
emissions would be minor and limited to the duration of the construction period.
With respect to Executive Order 12898, Federal Action to Address Environmental Justice in
Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the direct and indirect effects of the
proposed action are not expected to cause disproportionately high and adverse human health or
environmental effects specific to any groups or individuals from minority or low-income
populations residing in the area. With respect to Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children
from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks, children would not be disproportionately
exposed to environmental health risks or safety risks by the proposed action.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit D to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-4 Filed 05/29/15 Page 5 of 5

Based on the information gathered during the preparation of the EA for the replacement of EA6B aircraft with EA-180 aircraft at NAS Whidbey Island, Washington, the Navy finds that the
proposed action will not have significant adverse impacts or reasonably foreseeable significant
adverse cumulative impacts on the natural or man-made environment.

D. K. BULLARD
Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit D to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-5 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 2

Exhibit E

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-5 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 2


DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS
2000 NAVY PENTAGON
WASHINGTON , D .C. 20350-2000
IN REP LY REFER TO

3000
Ser N98 / l3Ul60044
16 Apr 2013
. MEMORANDUM
From:
To:

. S,ubj:
Ref:

Director, Air Warfare (N98)


Director, Energy and Environmental Readiness
Division (N45)
ADDITIONAL EA-18G EXPEDITIONARY SQUADRONS
(a) Resource Management Decision for the FY 2014
Budget Request dated 10 Apr 2013

1. Reference (a) directed the Navy to stand-up two additional


expeditionary EA-18G squadrons. The President's Budget for
Fiscal Year 2014 contains funding to procure 21 additional EA18Gs for this effort. Request a review of National Environmental
Policy Act (NEPA) analysis requirements to base two additional
expeditionary EA-18G squadrons at NAS Whidbey Island, WA. Should
additional NEPA analysis be required, the desire is not to
interfere or cause undue delay to the ongoing P-8 NEPA analysis
being c.o nducted at Whidbey Island.
2.
Each of the additional expeditionary squadrons will have
five aircraft and the Fleet Replacement Squadron will increase
from 17 aircraft to 20 aircraft. The first Expeditionary
squadron is planned to stand-up by the end of FY16 with the
second squadron standing up by end of FY17.
2.

My .Point of contact is CAPT John Thompson,

Aft~
W. F. Moran
RADM, U.S. Navy
Copy to:
OPNAV N46
CNAF N8
CNAL N8

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit E to Roberts Declaration

Enclosure (1)
U.S. Dept. of Justice
7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-6 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 15

Exhibit F

Buchdeckel:Layout 1 07.06.11 13:39 Seite 1

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-6 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 15

Burden of disease from environmental noise

Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise


The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing
concern among both the general public and policy-makers in Europe. This publication provides technical support
to policy-makers and their advisers in the quantitative risk
assessment of environmental noise, using evidence and
data available in Europe. It contains the summary of synthesized reviews of evidence on the relationship between
environmental noise and specific health effects, including
cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, and annoyance. For each outcome, the
environmental burden of disease methodology, based on
exposureresponse relationship, exposure distribution,
background prevalence of disease and disability weights
of the outcome, is applied to calculate the burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life-years. The results
indicate that at least one million healthy life years are lost
every year from traffic-related noise in the western part
of Europe. Owing to a lack of exposure data in south-east
Europe and the newly independent states, it was not possible to estimate the disease burden in the whole of the
WHO European Region. The procedure of estimating burdens presented in this publication can be used by international, national and local authorities in prioritizing and
planning environmental and public health policies.

Burden of disease from


environmental noise
Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe

%%,-.%+/&%

%%

World Health Organization


Regional Office for Europe
Scherfigsvej 8, DK-2100 Copenhagen , Denmark
Tel.: +45 39 17 17 17. Fax: +45 39 17 18 18. E-mail: contact@euro.who.int
Web site: www.euro.who.int

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit F to Roberts Declaration

WHO_Kim_Rokho_2011_15:Layout 1 26.05.11 09:11 Seite ii

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-6 Filed 05/29/15 Page 3 of 15

The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office, WHO Regional Office
for Europe coordinated the development of this publication.

Keywords
NOISE advErSE EffEctS
ENvIrONMENtaL EXPOSUrE
ENvIrONMENtaL HEaLtH
rISK aSSESSMENt
PUBLIc HEaLtH
HEaLtH StatUS
EUrOPE

ISBN: 978 92 890 0229 5

World Health Organization 2011


All rights reserved. The Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion
whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of
its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate borderlines for which there may not yet be full agreement.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended
by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable
for damages arising from its use. The views expressed by authors, editors, or expert groups do not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization or the European Commission.
Edited by Frank Theakston, layout by Dagmar Bengs, printed by www.warlich.de

This product was printed on paper from well-managed forests.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

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13:43 Uhr

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vi

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


ADL
AF
AR
CI
CLAMES
DALY
DW
EBD
EEA
EEG
EMG
END
EOG
ETC LUSI
EU
EUR-A

GBD
HA
HSD
ICD-9
ICD-10
LAeq,th or Leq,th
Lden
Ldn
Lnight
NIHL
NOISE
NYHA
OR
OSAS
PAR
PSG
REM
SWS
WHO
YLD
YLL

Activity of daily life


Attributable fraction
Attributable risk
Confidence interval
Classification and Measurement System of Functional Health
Disability-adjusted life year
Disability weight
Environmental burden of disease
European Environment Agency
Electroencephalogram
Electromyogram
Environmental noise directive (2002/49/EC)
Electrooculogram
European Topic Centre on Land Use and Spatial Information
European Union
WHO epidemiological subregion in Europe: Andorra, Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
and the United Kingdom
Global burden of disease
Highly annoyed people
Highly sleep disturbed people
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related
Health Problems, ninth revision
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related
Health Problems, tenth revision
A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level over t hours
Day-evening-night equivalent sound level
Day-night equivalent sound level
Night equivalent sound level
Noise-induced hearing loss
Noise Observation and Information Service for Europe
New York Heart Association
Odds ratio
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
Population attributable risk
Polysomnography
Rapid eye movement
Slow wave sleep
World Health Organization
Years lost due to disability
Years of life lost

BURDEN OF DISEASE FROM ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE

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16

ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

Summary of evidence linking noise and cardiovascular disease


Epidemiological studies on the relationship between transportation noise (particularly road traffic and aircraft noise) and cardiovascular effects have been carried out
on adults and on children, focusing on mean blood pressure, hypertension and ischaemic heart diseases as cardiovascular end-points. The evidence, in general, of a
positive association has increased during recent years (1820). While there is evidence that road traffic noise increases the risk of ischaemic heart disease, including
myocardial infarction, there is less evidence for such an association with aircraft
noise because of a lack of studies. However, there is increasing evidence that both
road traffic noise and aircraft noise increase the risk of hypertension. Very few studies on the cardiovascular effects of other environmental noise sources, including rail
traffic, are known. Numerical meta-analyses were carried out assessing exposure
response relationships in quantitative terms (21,22) and the issue has been addressed
in various WHO projects. The exposureresponse curves presented here refer to the
data collected for these projects, to illustrate the processes of a quantitative risk assessment.

Biological model of causation


Non-auditory health effects of noise have been studied in humans and animals for
several decades, using laboratory and empirical methods. Biological reaction models have been derived, based on the general stress concept (17,2330). Noise is a
nonspecific stressor that arouses the autonomous nervous system and the endocrine
system (9,1114,31,32) (C. Maschke & K. Hecht, unpublished data, 2005). A neuro-endocrinological definition of stress is that it is a state that threatens homeostatic or adaptable systems in the body (16,33,34). Increased allostatic load is associated with various diseases, including ischaemic heart disease (35). The epidemiological reasoning is based on three facts. First, experimental studies in the laboratory
have been carried out for a long time and revealed an increased vegetative and endocrine reactivity during periods of exposure (1,3670). However, the question regarding long-term effects of chronic noise exposure cannot be answered from shortterm experiments. Second, animal studies have shown manifest disorders in species
exposed to high levels of noise for a long time (7183). However, effects in humans
and animals cannot be directly compared, particularly because two pathways may
be relevant the direct effect due to nervous innervation and the indirect effect due
to the cognitive perception of the sound; the latter is certainly different in humans.
Furthermore, noise levels in animal studies were higher than in ambient situations.
Third, occupational studies have shown health disorders in workers chronically exposed to noise for many years (20,8498). However, noise levels were higher than
in the ambient environment. Epidemiological research has therefore been carried out
with respect to community noise levels to test the hypothesis and to quantify the
risk.
Among other non-auditory health end-points, short-term changes in circulation, including blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output and vasoconstriction, as well as
stress hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine and corticosteroids), have been studied in experimental settings for many years (32,99). Classical biological risk factors
have been shown to be elevated in subjects that were exposed to high levels of noise
(44,54,79,100111).

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ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

Meta-analysis road traffic noise and myocardial infarction


To determine the most up-to-date and accurate exposureresponse relationship between community noise and myocardial infarction, a meta-analysis was carried out
(21,121). By 2005, a total of 61 epidemiological studies had been recognized as
having either objectively or subjectively assessed the relationship between transportation noise and myocardial infarction. Nearly all of the studies referred to road
traffic noise or (commercial) aircraft noise, and a few to military aircraft noise.
Most of the studies were of the cross-sectional type (descriptive studies) but observational studies such as case-control and cohort studies (analytical studies) were also available. The study subjects were children and adults. Confounding factors
were not always adequately considered in some older studies. Not many studies
provided information on exposureresponse relationships, because only two exposure categories were considered.
All epidemiological noise studies were evaluated with respect to their feasibility for
inclusion in a meta-analysis. The following criteria for the inclusion in the analysis/synthesis process were applied: (a) peer-reviewed in the international literature;
(b) reasonable control of possible confounding (stratification, model adjustment,
matching); (c) objective assessment of exposure (sound level); (d) objective assessment of outcome (clinical assessment); (e) type of study (analytical or descriptive);
and (f) multi-level exposureresponse assessment (not only dichotomous exposure
categories).
Based on the above criteria, five analytical (prospective case-control and cohort)
and two descriptive (cross-sectional) studies were suitable for derivation of a common exposureresponse curve for the association between road traffic noise and the
risk of myocardial infarction. Two separate meta-analyses were undertaken by considering the analytical studies and descriptive studies separately. The analytical
studies comprised those that were carried out in Caerphilly and Speedwell with a
pooled analysis of 6 years follow-up data (122,123) and the three Berlin studies
(124,125). The descriptive studies comprised the cross-sectional analyses that were
carried out on the studies in Caerphilly and Speedwell (126). All studies referred to
the road traffic noise level during the day (Lday,16h) and the incidence (analytical
studies) or prevalence (descriptive studies) of myocardial infarction as the outcome.
The study subjects were men. In all analytical studies the orientation of rooms
(moderator of the exposure) was considered for the exposure assessment (at least
one bedroom or living room facing the street or not). In all descriptive studies the
traffic noise level referred to the nearest facades that were facing the street and did
not consider the orientation of rooms/windows (source of exposure misclassification). The individual effect estimates of each study were adjusted for the covariates
given in these studies. This means that different sets of covariates were considered
in each study. Nevertheless, this pragmatic approach accounts best for possible confounding in each study and provides the most reliable effect estimates derived from
each study.
The common set of covariates considered in the descriptive studies were age, sex
(males only) social class, body mass index, smoking, family history of ischaemic
heart disease, physical activity during leisure time and prevalence of pre-existing
diseases. The common set of covariates considered in the analytical studies were

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139. Gesundheitsdaten online. Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes [online database]. Berlin,
Statistisches Bundesamt and Robert Koch-Institut, 2005 (http://www.gbebund.de, accessed
20 June 2005).
140. Umweltatlas Berlin [online database]. Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung, 2007
(http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/umwelt/umweltatlas/dinh_07.htm, accessed April
2008).
141. Noise Observation and Information Service for Europe (NOISE) [web site]. Copenhagen, European Environment Agency 2009 (http://noise.eionet.europa.eu/index.html, accessed 31 July
2010).)
142. Global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008
(http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_full.pdf,
accessed 3 February 2011).
143. Yusuf S et al. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases. Part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization. Circulation, 2001, 104:2746
2753.
144. Herbold M, Hense H-W, Keil U. Effects of road traffic noise on prevalence of hypertension in
men: results of the Lbeck blood pressure study. Sozial- und Prventivmedizin, 1989, 34:19
23.
145. Belojevic G, Saric-Tanaskovic M. Prevalence of arterial hypertension and myocardial infarction
in relation to subjective ratings of traffic noise exposure. Noise & Health, 2002, 4(16):33
37.
146. Farley TMM et al. Combined oral contraceptives, smoking, and cardiovascular risk. Journal of
Epidemiology & Community Health, 1998, 52:775785.
147. Miedema HME, Vos H. Exposureresponse relationships for transportation noise. Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America, 1998, 104:34323445.

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148. Pope CA III et al. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA, 2002, 287:11321141.
149. Pope CA III et al. Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution.
Circulation, 2004:7177.
150. Anderson HR et al. Meta-analysis of time-series studies and panel studies of particulate matter
(PM) and ozone (O3). Report of a WHO task group. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for
Europe, 2004.
151. Rabl A. Analysis of air pollution mortality in terms of life expectancy changes: relation between
time series, intervention and cohort studies. Environmental Health, 2006, 5:119.
152. Dockery DW et al. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U. S. cities. New
England Journal of Medicine, 1993, 329:17531759.
153. Dockery, D.W., Epidemiologic evidence of cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2001, 109(Suppl. 4):483486.
154. Brunekreef B, Holgate ST. Air pollution and health. Lancet, 2002, 360:12331242.
155. Brook RD et al. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Circulation, 2004, 109:26552671.
156. Schwela D, Kephaloupoulos S, Prasher D. Confounding or aggravating factors in noise-induced
health effects: air pollutants and other stressors. Noise & Health, 2005, 7(28):4150.
157. Naess O et al. Relation between concentration of air pollution and cause-specific mortality: fouryear exposures to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter pollutants in 470 neighborhoods in
Oslo, Norway. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2006, 165:435443.
158. Public health impact of large airports. Report by a committee of the Health Council of the Netherlands. The Hague, Health Council of the Netherlands, 1999 (Publication No. 1999/14E).
159. Jarup L et al. Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA): study design and noise
exposure assessment. Noise & Health, 2006, 8:5859.
160. Heimann D et al. Air pollution, traffic noise and related health effects in the Alpine space a
guide for authorities and consulters. ALPNAP comprehensive report. Trento, Universit
degli Studi di Trento, 2007.
161. Gehring U et al. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cardiopulmonary mortality in
women. Epidemiology, 2006, 17:545551.
162. Hoek G et al. Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the
Netherlands: a cohort study. Lancet, 2002, 360:12031209.
163. Hoffmann B et al. Residence close to high traffic and prevalence of coronary heart disease. European Heart Journal, 2006, 27:26962702.
164. Hoffmann B et al. Residential exposure to traffic is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation, 2007, 116:489496.
165. Tonne C et al. A case-control analysis of exposure to traffic and acute myocardial infarction. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007, 115:5357.
166. Maschke C. Epidemiological research on stress caused by traffic noise and its effects on high
blood pressure and psychic disturbances. In: de Jong R et al., eds. ICBEN 2003. Proceedings
of the 8th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Rotterdam, 2003.
Schiedam, Foundation ICBEN, 2003:9395.
167. Greiser E, Greiser C, Janhsen K. Night-time aircraft noise increases prevalence of prescriptions
of anthypertensive and cardiovascular drugs irrespective of social class the CologneBonn
Airport study. Journal of Public Health, 2007, 15:16132238.
168. Rose G. Editorial: epidemiology and environmental risks. Sozial- und Prventivmedizin, 1992,
37:4144.
169. Scheuplein RJ. Uncertainty and the flavors of risk. EPA Journal, 1993, JanMar:1617.

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REFERENCES

170. Morrell S, Taylor R, Lyle D. A review of health effects of aircraft noise. Australian and New
Zealand Journal of Public Health, 1997, 21:221236.
171. Evaluation and use of epidemiological evidence for environmental health risk assessment. Guideline document. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2000 (http://www.
euro.who.int/document/e68940.pdf, accessed 21 July 2010).
172. Horton R. The new new public health of risk and radical engagement. Lancet, 1998, 352:251
252.

BURDEN OF DISEASE FROM ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

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Exhibit G

IN 44-7
PRESS
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Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 9
Sleep Medicine Reviews (2007) 11, 135142

www.elsevier.com/locate/smrv

CLINICAL REVIEW

Environmental noise, sleep and health


Alain Muzet
FORENAP, BP 27, Rouffach, France

KEYWORDS
Noise;
Sleep disturbance;
Subjective
evaluation;
Health effects;
Habituation;
Age

Summary Unlike other physical ambient factors (i.e. electromagnetic fields or air
pollutants), noise is perceived by a specific system (auditory system) in humans. It is
therefore a phenomenon that is sensed and evaluated by everybody, and this is why
exposure to noise is one of the most, if not the most, frequent complaints of
populations living in large cities. In these areas and their surroundings, the sources of
noise most frequently cited are traffic, followed by neighbourhood noises and
aircraft noises. Sleep is a physiological state that needs its integrity to allow the
living organism to recuperate normally. It seems to be sensitive to environmental
factors that can interrupt it or reduce its amount. Ambient noise, for example, is
external stimuli that are still processed by the sleeper sensory functions, despite a
non-conscious perception of their presence. Over the past 30 years, research into
environmental noise and sleep has focused on different situations and environments,
and therefore the findings are variable. However, it still seems necessary for some
fundamental questions to be answered on whether environmental noise has longterm detrimental effects on health and quality of life and, if so, what these effects
are for night-time, noise-exposed populations.
& 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sound and noise


Sound is produced by any mechanical movement
and is propagated as a motion wave through the air
or any other material. Therefore, sound is defined
by its mechanical energy and is measured in
energy-related units. Sound pressure proportional
to the square of sound intensity (W/m2) is
expressed in Pascal units (Pa), whereas sound
pressure level is expressed in decibel units (dB)
on a logarithmic scale, owing to the wide range
covered.
Tel.: +33 3 89787370; fax: +33 3 89787371.

E-mail address: alain.muzet@forenap.com.

Sound evokes physiological signals in the auditory


system constituted by the ear and the auditory
pathways. However, some sounds do not evoke
those signals as they are out of the auditory
perception range in humans, which theoretically
ranges from 20 to 20,000 Hz.
Noise is generally defined as an unwanted sound
or set of sounds. This definition means that it is not
possible to classify sounds as noise on the unique
basis of their physical characteristics. The general
agreement is that noise is an audible acoustic
phenomenon that adversely affects, or may affect,
people. The effects of noise can be appreciated
physiologically but also psychologically (annoyance
and disturbed well-being).

1087-0792/$ - see front matter & 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2006.09.001

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A. Muzet

Noise in the environment


Noise is a phenomenon that affects everybody. We
are constantly exposed to noise during our everyday life. Within our environment, there are
different sources of noise, but they generally
depend on our activity, location, and the time of
day.
Transportation noise represents a large majority
of external noise affecting people in large cities
and their surroundings. Road traffic noise is mostly
noise generated by the engine of the vehicle, but
noise produced by frictional contact between the
vehicle and the air, as between tyres and the road
surface, exceeds engine noise at speeds higher than
50 km/h for passenger cars and at speeds higher
than 80 km/h for lorries. Railway noise mainly
depends on the speed of the train and the quality
of the track. High-speed trains, for instance, might
produce high-frequency noise, which is fairly
similar to those generated by jet aircrafts. The
expected development of this high-speed freight
transport system in the next few years should be
regarded as potentially disturbing for people living
alongside the rail tracks, especially at night. Air
traffic noise has been given much research attention during the past 30 years. Noise from a single
aircraft, however, has considerably diminished
during this period, as the concept of engines and
flying machines has changed. However, increasing
volume of traffic, and specifically night-time
traffic, has often created conflict between populations living around large airports and the airport
authorities.
Industrial plants can also be a source of excessive
noise for the surroundings. This type of noice can
be complex in nature, owing to the wide variety of
sources. It can be spontaneous or more or less
continuous, with large variations in intensity. Lowfrequency noises are not so well attenuated by
surrounding structures, and they can be transmitted across large distances. Building construction
and ground work (e.g. hammering, crane, or heavy
trucks) can generate high noise emissions. Military
activities, although generally limited to specific
areas, may also cause large noise disturbances for
the surrounding populations.
Inside buildings, several different types of noises
can be found: mechanical devices (e.g. lift,
ventilation, pumps, water pipes) or domestic noises
(e.g. neighbours voices, Hi Fi, TV set, pets, and
musical instruments). Ventilation noise can be
quite disturbing in residential areas because of its
low-frequency characteristics, even at low Aweighted sound pressure levels.1 Domestic noises
are among the most frequently reported causes of

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

annoyance and the most difficult to characterize


and quantify.2 This is mainly due to the general
attitude of the exposed people towards the source
of noise and who is responsible for it. Neighbourhood noises (e.g. voices, music or footsteps) have
high information content, which may catch the
attention of the listener, independent of their
intensity. Thus, independent of the noise exposure
characteristics, the psychological dimension of the
expressed annoyance is highly related to the
specific relationship that exists between the noise
producer and the noise receiver (the bark of your
neighbours dog is much louder than the bark of
your dog). Therefore, in the domestic setting, the
physical characteristics of the noise are often less
important than the resultant attitude towards the
source of the noise.3
Noise from leisure activities is clearly increasing
with the invasion of more powered machines on the
ground as well as in air and water (e.g. off-road
vehicles, motorboats, and sporting airplanes). They
are often limited to more or less specific areas, but
they tend to increase at the periphery of large
cities. Outdoor shooting activities, as well as
outdoor concerts, have to be avoided in residential
areas, but less noisy activities are often programmed almost everywhere and are, in addition,
often accompanied by increased motor traffic.

The exposure to noise


As discussed previously, complaints about global
noise exposure are one of the most, if not the most,
frequent complaints among populations living in
large cities.4 Surveys show that frequency of
complaints from noise increases with the size of
cities, and that exposure to noise is inversely
related to family income, with those on lower
levels of income being the most exposed to
ambient noise.2 The most frequently cited sources
are traffic noises, followed by noises from the
neighbourhood and then aircraft noises.
Ten years ago in France, the number of people
living in a noisy environment was estimated to
be 10% of the total population or 6 million
individuals, comprising 2 million (including
450,000 children) exposed to high levels of noise
above 70 dB Leq 8h20h (Leq or equivalent noise
level: constant noise level having an equivalent
energy to the total energy of the actual noises
occurring between 08:00 and 20:00).5 Unfortunately, there is no reason to believe that this
picture has much improved, and these days the
numbers are certainly higher. However, the extent
of the noise problem is large, and the case given

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Environmental noise, sleep and health

137

above can be applied to many more industrialized


countries. Thus, annoyance to community noise is
widespread among citizens in the European Union,
and the number of people exposed to moderately
high levels (5565 dB Leq) still increases in those
countries. This is mainly due to the increasing
sources of noise and their wider dispersion, along
with greater individual mobility and growing leisure
activities.

Sleep disturbance due to noise


Sleep disturbance is part of the extra-auditory
effects of noise (Fig. 1). The input to the auditory
area of the brain through the auditory pathways is
prolonged by inputs reaching both the brain
cortical area and the descending pathways of the
autonomic functions. Thus, the sleeping body still
responds to stimuli coming from the environment,
although the noise sensitivity of the sleeper
depends on several factors. Some of these factors
are noise dependent, such as the type of noise (e.g.
continuous, intermittent, impulsive), noise intensity, noise frequency, noise spectrum, noise interval
(e.g. duration, regularity, expected), noise signification and the difference between the background
noise level and the maximum amplitude of the
occurring noise stimulus. Other factors are related
to the sleeper, such as age, sex, personality
characteristics and self-estimated sensitivity to
noise.

The effects of noise on sleep can be immediate or


secondary to the noise exposure. The first category
corresponds to responses occurring simultaneously
or immediately after the noise emission, whereas
the latter corresponds to effects visible the next
day or after a few days.

Immediate effects: objective measures of


sleep disturbance
Sleep disturbance may be quantified by number
and duration of nocturnal awakenings, number of
sleep stage changes, and modifications in their
amount. Proper rhythms of particular sleep
stages (i.e. slow wave sleep [SWS] or stages 3 and
4, and rapid eye movement [REM] sleep [Fig. 2]),
also characterize sleep disturbance, together
with modifications in the autonomic functions
(heart rate, blood pressure, vasoconstriction and
respiratory rate).

Shortening of the sleep period


Total sleep time can be reduced by both longer time
to fall asleep and premature final awakening. It has
been reported that intermittent noises with peak
noise levels of 45 dB(A) and above, can increase the
time to fall asleep by a few minutes to 20 min.6 On
the other hand, sleep pressure is significantly
reduced after the first 5 h. Therefore, in the morning
hours, noise events can more easily awake and
prevent the sleeper of going back to sleep. The
main problem, however, is to determine whether

Auditory effects
Auditory fatigue,
temporary and
permanent deafness

Extra-auditory effects
Subjective effects

Annoyance, fatigue, lack


of concentration

Biological effects
Sleep disturbances
Autonomic functions
(cardiovascular, endocrine and
digestive systems)
Growth and immune
system

Behavioral effects
Medication intake
Psychiatric symptoms
Masking effects and
learning

Figure 1 Auditory and extra-auditory effects of noise.

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A. Muzet
W
REM
1
2
3
4

hours

W
REM
1
2
3
4

8 hours

Figure 2 Hypnograms of a young adult. Top: during non-disturbed sleep. Sleep onset occurs within 10 min after light out
time (0). Sleep begins by NREM sleep stages and the first REM episode occurs some 90 min after sleep onset. SWS (stages
3 and 4) occurs mainly during the first 3 h of the night. REM sleep episodes appear at very regular intervals. No
awakening is seen during the entire night. Bottom: during a noise-disturbed night. Sleep onset is slightly delayed. The
first episode of stage 4 is partly interrupted. A significant amount of SWS does occur during the fifth hour (possibly as a
compensatory mechanism of the disturbed first episode). REM sleep still shows clear rhythmic occurrence but some of
the episodes are fragmented. Significant awakenings occur throughout the sleep process. Sleep efficiency is reduced.

a significant part of sleep can be chronically reduced


with no detrimental effect in the long term.

Sleep awakenings
It seems obvious that noise occurring during sleep
may cause awakenings. The awakening threshold
observed with noise (the sleeper is asked to push a
button when awake) depends on several factors. In
the sleepers current stage of sleep, the threshold
is particularly high in deep slow wave sleep (stages
3 and 4), whereas it is much lower in shallower
sleep stages (stages 1 and 2).7 The awakening
threshold also depends on physical characteristics
of the noisy environment (intermittent or sharp
rising noise occurring above a low background noise
will be particularly disturbing), as well as noise
signification. Thus, whispering the sleepers name
can awake the person more easily than a much
louder but neutral acoustic stimulus.8 Similarly, and
with a similar intensity, the noise of an alarm will
awaken the sleeper more easily than a noise
without any particular signification.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Sleep stage modifications


If nocturnal awakenings can be provoked for peak
noise level of 55 dB(A) and above, disturbance of
normal sleep sequence can be observed for peak
noise levels between 45 and 55 dB(A). In order to
protect noise-sensitive people, The World Health
Organization recommended a maximal level (LAmax) inside the bedroom at night of 45 dB,
whereas, for the same period, the mean recommended level (integrated noise level over the 8
nocturnal hours: Lnight) was of 30 dB.9
SWS and REM sleep are both considered to be
important stages of sleep, which should be well
protected. SWS seems to be an energy restoration
state of the sleeping body, whereas REM sleep
seems to be more related to mental and memory
processes. Carter10 reported that SWS could be
reduced in young sleepers exposed to intermittent
noises. We previously reported that REM sleep
rhythmicity could also be affected by environmental noise exposure.11 It is a common observation in
all noise-disturbed sleep studies to see an increase
in sleep stage changes resulting in a reduced
amount of SWS and REM sleep to the benefit of

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Environmental noise, sleep and health

139

shallower sleep stages. This instability of the sleep


process might be detrimental if it becomes chronic.
Its picture is close to that observed in chronic
insomniacs, and exploring the long-term evolution
of such sleep disturbance could be important.

Autonomic responses
Awakenings and sleep-stage modifications are not
the only possible acute effects of noise on the sleep
process itself. The limit values given above do not
mean that for lower noise levels there are no more
effects on the sleeper. Autonomic responses, such
as heart rate changes and vasoconstrictions, can be
obtained for much lower peak noise intensities,
indicating that the sleeping body still perceives the
external stimuli even if there is no consciousness or
memory about these events the next day.7 Although
these effects are considered to be minimal, they
have been found not to habituate over long
exposure times compared with clear subjective
habituation
over
successive
noise-exposed
nights.12,13 These autonomic responses represent
reflex responses of the sleeping body to the
external stimuli, which can already be observed
at quite a low intensity. The health effects of longterm repetition of such responses should be
discussed, especially in the case of multi-exposure
(e.g. air and surface traffic). In this situation, there
could be a cumulative effect of these cardiovascular responses over a few thousands stimuli
per night.

Secondary effects of the sleep


disturbance due to noise
The secondary effects of night-time noise exposure
can be separated into subjective reports of sleep
disturbances and objective effects on daytime
functioning.

Subjective evaluation of sleep disturbance


Objective recordings of sleep disturbance data
are too costly and too difficult to use with large
samples of the population or when funding is
limited. Next-day subjective evaluation of sleep
quality is a much easier and less costly way of
collecting data, especially in the field. Sleep
disturbance per se can be assessed from complaints
about bad sleep quality, delayed sleep onset,
nocturnal awakenings, and early morning
waking up. These sleep disturbances are often
accompanied by impaired quality of the subsequent

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

daytime period with increased tiredness, daytime


sleepiness and need for compensatory resting
periods.2
However, the actual value of subjective
complaints might be quite different from assessments based on instrumental measures. In fact,
many factors influence peoples subjective
evaluations of their own sleep quality. Several
studies show that subjective self-reports on
sleep quality or on nocturnal awakenings do not
correlate well with more objective measures of
sleep disturbance.14 When the number of noise
events increases, the number of sleep modifications or awakenings also increases, although not
proportionally. As indicated by Porter et al.15
noise heard at night will be more intrusive
and noticeable than during the day. This is
caused by reduced outside and inside background
noises at night and to the circadian fluctuation of
biological rhythms. The night-time period may also
be a time of higher noise sensitivity, especially if
awakenings related to aircrafts flying over occur.
Therefore, use of self-reports of movement, awakenings, or other sleep-related effects, needs
serious reconsideration because of their questionable validity.
However, if the number of noise events is
important and the noise level is high, nocturnal
awakening can be excessively prolonged and
even constitute a premature final awakening of
the night. Sleep disturbance occurring during the
early part of the night and during the time just
preceding usual awakening seems to be most
annoying.6,16 In this case, sleep disturbances will
lead to excessive daytime fatigue, often accompanied by daytime sleepiness, with its specific
effects being low work capacity and increased
accident rate.
Fear of living under aircraft routes is often a
major reason of protesting against aircraft
noise even if the measured noise levels are
relatively low. This largely accounts for the
difficulty in trying to find a clear relationship
between subjective complaints and actual noise
exposure.

Other secondary effects


In addition to subjective evaluations of sleep
quality, after-effects of nocturnal noise exposure
can be measured the following morning by objective biochemical data (i.e. increase in levels of
stress hormones, including noradrenalin, adrenalin
and cortisol),10,17,18 or by cognitive performance
deterioration during the next day.19,20

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A. Muzet

Physiological sensitivity to noise


The noise physiological sensitivity depends also on
the age of the sleeper. Although electroencephalogram (EEG) modifications and awakening thresholds
are, on average, 10 dB(A) higher in children than in
adults, their cardiovascular sensitivity to noise is
similar to, if not higher than, older people.21
Elderly people complain much more than younger
adults about environmental noise. However, their
spontaneous awakenings during sleep are also much
more numerous. Therefore, it is difficult to
conclude if elderly people are more sensitive to
noise or if they hear noise because they are often
awake during the night. This natural fragmentation
of their night sleep tends also to lengthen their
return to the sleeping state, and this accounts for a
significant part in their subjective complaints. The
main question about possible sensitive groups
remains almost entirely unanswered. Most of the
studies (in laboratories as well as in the home) have
been carried out on groups of normal people or,
at least, populations where some pathologies have
been systematically excluded.

The particular case of shift workers


The sleep of shift workers is often disturbed by
combined influences of ambient factors (noise is
one of them) and chronobiological factors (sleeping
at an unusual time of the day). Thus, noise was
considered as the first cause of sleep interruptions
in a group of female shift workers.22 It is also
considered a major cause of sleep shortening during
daytime.23 Some investigators comparing daytime
to night-time sleep disturbance due to noise in shift
workers, have found that the percentage of noiseinduced EEG effects was significantly higher during
the day than during the night-time REM sleep.24
These investigators also stated that the inversion of
the sleepwake cycle did not markedly influence
the average cardiovascular reactivity to noise, and
they concluded that daytime sleep disturbance by
noise was as important and harmful as night-time
disturbance. Carter et al.25 underlined the effects
of noise on the cardiovascular side and, particularly, the modifications in blood pressure due to
suddenly occurring noises.

Possible health effects of noise-disturbed


sleep
From a public health perspective, it is necessary
to be able to link sleep disturbance from noise

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

exposure with long-term health effects. Of course,


these effects depend on the magnitude and the
repetition of sleep disturbance. To be awakened
when engaged in a quiet and comfortable universe
full of sweet dreams is, per se, a real aggression
that only few sleepers may appreciate. However, it
is much more through the reduction of daytime
quality of life that sleep disturbance can be
evaluated. Chronic partial sleep deprivation induces marked tiredness, increases a low vigilance
state, and reduces both daytime performance and
the overall quality of life.26 Excessive daytime
fatigue accompanied by sleepiness, deterioration
of normal behaviour, expression of anger, lack of
concentration and reduced work ability are often
associated with chronic sleep deprivation. In this
case, the need for additional resting period during
the daytime is not always satisfied. In fact, the
subtle equilibrium between waking and sleeping
states is deteriorated to the detriment of the
quality of both states.
More generally, some health effects, such as
increased prescription of drugs around major airports27 or increased rate of psychiatric hospital
admission28 could also be related to night-time
noise exposure. However, many confounding factors cannot be eliminated in these epidemiological
studies and, therefore, it remains difficult to
confirm such results. The perception by the
exposed population of possible factors affecting
their health is often reported by the airport
services in charge of communication with the
public. Most of the complaints refer to sleep
disturbance, general fatigue and anxiety. Noise is
then clearly identified as a factor of stress and
stress may be considered as the possible mechanism through which mental and physical health can
be affected by noise.29
Of particular interest is the possible relationship
between noise and the stress responses it produces,
as they have the potential to be linked to hypertension, cardiovascular disease and other severe medical problems.3037 As mentioned previously, there is
also a need to protect sensitive groups and shift
workers who sleep during the day.25

Conclusion
Sleep is a physiological state that needs its integrity
to allow for normal recuperation of the living
organism. Its reduction or disruption is detrimental
in the long term, as chronic partial sleep deprivation induces marked tiredness, increases low
vigilance state and reduces daytime performance

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141

and quality of life. Sleep seems to be fairly


sensitive to environmental factors, and, specifically, to ambient noise, as external stimuli are still
processed by the sleeper sensory functions, despite
a non-conscious perception of their presence.
The large amount of research developed in the
laboratory during the past 30 years has produced
variable results, and some of them seem quite
controversial. In fact, the effects of noise exposure
depend on several factors, and the absence of a
clear doseeffect relationship is certainly due to
the complex interactions of these factors, including
the noise characteristics, the individual sensitivity
and the context of the explored living environment.
However, the amplitude of the subjective complaints about sleep disturbance seems to have been
increasing during recent years. Unfortunately, only
a few epidemiological studies have considered the
possible effect of noise exposure (considered
globally), together with other environmental factors, on the health of exposed populations. To our
knowledge, no large-scale epidemiological study
focusing on the effect of night-time noise exposure
on health has yet been undertaken. Therefore, it is
necessary to answer some fundamental questions in
order to understand the detrimental effects on
health and quality of life in the long term, for nighttime, noise-exposed populations. Continuous highlevel exposure can lead to aggression in a hostile,
angry, and helpless population. It is often the
population with the least income that suffers the
most from noise in general. Also, annoyance due to
ambient noise may be often seen as the visible part
of a greater problem. Therefore, it should be an
everyday concern to protect these populations
against this major environmental aggression.

Practice points
Immediate and secondary effects of sleep
disturbance due to noise are as follows:
Immediate effects:






Delayed sleep onset, earlier final awakening


or nocturnal awakenings.
Sleep stage changes or sleep structure
changes.
Arousals and body movements.
Vegetative or hormonal responses to noise.
Secondary effects:





Subjective estimation of sleep quality.


Performance decrement.
Change in daytime behaviour.

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Research agenda
Future research should focus on:




Long term effects of night-time noise


exposure of different populations.
The study of specific sub-groups that can be
considered to be at risk (e.g. children,
elderly people, self-estimated sensitive
people, insomniacs, sleep disorder patients,
night and shift workers).
Combined effects of noise exposure and
other physical agents or stressors during
sleep.

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Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ ARTICLE
DocumentIN44-7
Filed 05/29/15 Page 9 of 9
142

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Exhibit H

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Keywords
NOISE - ADVERSE EFFECTS - PREVENTION AND CONTROL
SLEEP DEPRIVATION - ETIOLOGY
SLEEP DISORDERS - PREVENTION AND CONTROL
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
HEALTH POLICY- LEGISLATION
GUIDELINES

ISBN 978 92 890 4173 7

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Edited by Charlotte Hurtley, Layout by Dagmar Bengs

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EJ EFFECTS

ON HEALTH

for aircraft:
%HSD = 18.147- 0.956 *Lnighr + 0.01482'' (Lnighrl 2

[12]

%SD = 13. 714- 0.807"Lnighr + 0.01555* (Lnighrl 2

[13]

%LSD= 4.465-0.411 '' Lnighr + 0.01395 *(Lnighrl 2

[14]

and for railways:


%HSD = 11.3- 0.55 *Lnighr + 0.00759 *(Lnighrl 2

[15]

%SD = 12.5- 0.66 *Lnighr + 0.01121 *(Lnighrl 2

[16]

%LSD= 4. 7 - 0.3l"Lnight + 0.01125 '' (Lnighr) 2

[1 7].

The above relations represent the current best estimates of the influences of Lnight on
self-reported sleep disturbance for road traffic noise and for railway noise, when no
other factors are taken into account. Fig. 4.1 illustrates the relations [9] [12] and
[15] for persons highly disturbed by road, aircraft and rail noise.

25, -----------------,-------------------- --- Air traffic


Fig. 4 .1 a:l
High sleep disturbance by ~
noise at night 1ii

:a

20-

Road traffic
Rail traffic

15-

>.

:c
Source:
European Commission, 2004.

.. . .....

...

10 ~--------------------~~
,
- . . .- - ~~------------.

..... -

. .

............. . --
.. . ..
t
t I I I I I I I I

5 -t----0

..

40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70
Lnight, outside, facade

With regard to the relations for aircraft noise it should be noted that the variance in
the responses is large compared to the variance found for rail and road traffic. This
means that the uncertainty regarding the responses for night-time aircraft noise is
large, and such responses can be considered as indicative only. Miedema (2003) suggests the following causes.
The time pattern of noise exposures around different airports varies considerably
due to specific night-time regulations.
The sleep disturbance questions for aircraft noise show a large variation.
The most recent studies show the highest self-reported sleep disturbance at the
same Lnight level. This suggests a time trend.
For industrial noise there is an almost complete lack of information, although there
are some indications (Vos, 2003) that impulse noise may cause considerable disturbance at night.
NIGHT NOISE GUIDELINES FOR EUROPE

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AND

A simple measure is the orientation of noise-sensitive rooms on the quiet side of the
dwelling (this applies to road and rail traffic noise).
Zoning is an instrument that may assist planning authorities in keeping noise-sensitive land uses away from noisy areas. In the densely populated areas of the EU this
solution must often compete, however, with other planning requirements or a simple lack of suitable space.

Sleep is an essential part of healthy life and is recognized as a fundamental right under the
European Convention on Human Rights 1(European Court of Human Rights, 2003).
Based on the systematic review of evidence produced by epidemiological and experimental studies, the relationship between night noise exposure and health effects can be summarized as below. (Table 5.4)
Table 5.4
2
Effects of different levels of night noise on the population's health

Average night noise level

Health effects observed in the population

over a year Lnight, outside


Up to 30 dB

Although individual sensitiVIties and circumstances may


differ, it appears that up to this level no substantial biological effects are observed. Lnight,outside of 30 dB is equivalent to the NOEL for night noise.

30 to 40 dB

A number of effects on sleep are observed from this range:


body movements, awakening, self-reported sleep disturbance, arousals. The intensity of the effect depends on the
nature of the source and the number of events. Vulnerable
groups (for example children, the chronically ill and the
elderly) are more susceptible. However, even in the worst
cases the effects seem modest. Lnight, outside of 40 dB is
equivalent to the LOAEL for night noise.

40 to 55 dB

Adverse health effects are observed among the exposed


population. Many people have to adapt their lives to cope
with the noise at night. Vulnerable groups are more severely affected.

Above 55 dB

The situation is considered increasingly dangerous for


public health. Adverse health effects occur frequently, a
sizeable proportion of the population is highly annoyed
and sleep-disturbed. There is evidence that the risk of cardiovascular disease increases.

"Article 8:1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence."
Although in the case against the United Kingdom the Court ruled that the United Kingdom Government was
not guilty of the charges, the right to undisturbed sleep was recognized (the Court's consideration 96).
2
Lmght,ouwde in Table 5.4 and 5.5 is the night-time noise indicator (Lmgh<) of Directive 2002/49/EC of 25 June
2002: the A-weighted long-term average sound level as defined in ISO 1996-2: 1987, determined over all the
night periods of a year; in which: the night is eight hours (usually 23.00- 07.00 local time), a year is a relevant
year as regards the emission of sound and an average year as regards the meteorological circumstances, the incident sound is considered, the assessment point is the same as for Lden See Official journal of the European
Communities, 18.7.2002, for more details.
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Exhibit H to Roberts Declaration

U.S Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-8 Filed 05/29/15 Page 24 of 29

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U.S Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle WA 98115

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No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

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U.S Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-8 Filed 05/29/15 Page 26 of 29

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NiGHT NOISE GUIDELINES FOR !EUROPE

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U.S Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-8 Filed 05/29/15 Page 27 of 29

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NIGHT NOISE GU!!lELINES FOR EUROPE

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

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U.S Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-8 Filed 05/29/15 Page 28 of 29

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U.S Department of Justice


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Seattle WA 98115

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NIGHT NOISE GUIDELINES rOR EUROPE

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

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U.S Department of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-9 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 5

Exhibit I

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-9 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 5


Roberts, Rachel (ENRD)
From:
Sent:
To:
Subject:

David S. Mann <mann@gendlermann.com>


Thursday, March 13, 2014 6:19 PM
Roberts, Rachel (ENRD)
Re: CER v. Dep't of the Navy,

Notiftheyaren'tflying.Iftheystartbackupwehaveournoisemonitorsandpublichealthexpertsonstandbyto
monitorandwillfilethemotion.

I'msorryyoucannotplanyourschedule.Butthenmyclientscan'tplantheirseither.Theyareatthemercyofyour
client.Theyneverknowwhentheyaregoingtobeliterallyshakenoutoftheirsleep.

DavidS.Mann

>OnMar13,2014,at5:45PM,"Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)"<Rachel.Roberts@usdoj.gov>wrote:
>
>Butyouaren'tfilingonerightaway?Sodoweneedtoworkoutaschedule?
>
>OriginalMessage
>From:DavidS.Mann[mailto:mann@gendlermann.com]
>Sent:Thursday,March13,20148:38PM
>To:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)
>Subject:Re:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>
>Yes,iftheystartflying.
>
>DavidS.Mann
>

>
>
>>OnMar13,2014,at4:59PM,"Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)"<Rachel.Roberts@usdoj.gov>wrote:
>>
>>David,
>>
>>Iamabitconfusedbyyoursecondsentence.Areyoustillplanningonfilingforapreliminaryinjunction?
>>
>>Thanks,
>>
>>Rachel
>>
>>OriginalMessage
>>From:DavidS.Mann[mailto:mann@gendlermann.com]
>>Sent:Thursday,March13,20147:47PM
>>To:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)
>>Subject:RE:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>>
1

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit I to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-9 Filed 05/29/15 Page 3 of 5


>>I'msorry,I'mincourtalldaytomorrow.Perhapsnextweek?Itisacrazyweekforme,butIshouldbeabletofind
time.
>>
>>Sincetheyarenotreallyflying,wehaveseennoneedtorequestinjunctiverelief.
>>
>>David
>>
>>
>>DavidS.Mann
>>GENDLER&MANN,LLP
>>936N.34thSt.,Suite400
>>Seattle,WA98103
>>206.621.8868Main
>>206.621.8869Direct
>>

>>mann@gendlermann.com
>>www.gendlermann.com
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>OriginalMessage
>>From:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)[mailto:Rachel.Roberts@usdoj.gov]
>>Sent:Thursday,March13,20143:30PM
>>To:DavidS.Mann
>>Subject:RE:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>>
>>Mr.Mann,
>>
>>I'mreallysorrytobotheryou,butmyexistingbriefingschedulesarealreadystartingtofillupthisspring/summer.I
wouldreallyliketofigureoutourscheduleforbriefingyourmotionassoonaspossible,beforeIsetanymoreschedules
inothercases.Areyouavailabletomorrowtodiscussaschedule?
>>
>>Thankyou,
>>
>>Rachel(Bowen)Roberts
>>TrialAttorney
>>U.S.DepartmentofJustice
>>EnvironmentandNaturalResourcesDivisionNaturalResourcesSection
>>Tel:2062204199
>>Fax:2062204077
>>Rachel.Roberts@usdoj.gov
>>
>>
>>
>>OriginalMessage
>>From:DavidS.Mann[mailto:mann@gendlermann.com]
>>Sent:Thursday,March06,20145:05PM
>>To:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)
>>Subject:RE:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>>
>>Rachel:ItwillprobablybenextweekbeforeIcangetbacktoyou.Sorry.
2

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit I to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-9 Filed 05/29/15 Page 4 of 5


>>
>>David
>>
>>
>>
>>OriginalMessage
>>From:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)[mailto:Rachel.Roberts@usdoj.gov]
>>Sent:Wednesday,March05,201411:03AM
>>To:DavidS.Mann
>>Subject:RE:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>>
>>Mr.Mann,
>>
>>Justwantedtotouchbasewithyouafteryou'vehadachancetotalktoyourclients.Doyoustillwanttohavea
schedulingcall?I'mprettyfreefortherestofthisweekafterabout1pmtoday.
>>
>>Thanks,
>>
>>Rachel
>>
>>OriginalMessage
>>From:DavidS.Mann[mailto:mann@gendlermann.com]
>>Sent:Friday,February28,201412:49PM
>>To:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)
>>Subject:RE:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>>
>>Rachel:Canwebumptonextweeksometime.I'mmeetingwithmyclientsthisweekendtodiscussandIwantto
talkwiththemfirst,beforewejumpintobriefing.
>>
>>David
>>
>>
>>
>>OriginalMessage
>>From:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)[mailto:Rachel.Roberts@usdoj.gov]
>>Sent:Thursday,February27,201411:01AM
>>To:DavidS.Mann
>>Subject:RE:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>>
>>David,
>>
>>I'mprettyavailabletomorrow.Doyouwanttotalkat11amtomorrowtodiscussscheduling?Icancallyou.
>>
>>Rachel
>>
>>OriginalMessage
>>From:DavidS.Mann[mailto:mann@gendlermann.com]
>>Sent:Thursday,February27,20141:58PM
>>To:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)
>>Subject:Re:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>>
>>I'mincourttoday.I'mhappytotalkfirst.Ihavenotstartedamotionyet.
3

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit I to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-9 Filed 05/29/15 Page 5 of 5


>>
>>DavidS.Mann
>>

>>
>>
>>>OnFeb27,2014,at9:06AM,"Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)"<Rachel.Roberts@usdoj.gov>wrote:
>>>
>>>Mr.Mann,
>>>
>>>

>>>
>>>Iassumethatthismeansthatyouwillfileamotionforapreliminaryinjunction.Wouldyouliketohaveacall
betweenthetwoofustodiscussbriefingyourmotionbeforewegetonthephonewiththecourt?
>>>
>>>Regards,
>>>
>>>
>>>Rachel(Bowen)Roberts
>>>TrialAttorney
>>>U.S.DepartmentofJustice
>>>EnvironmentandNaturalResourcesDivisionNaturalResourcesSection
>>>Tel:2062204199
>>>Fax:2062204077
>>>Rachel.Roberts@usdoj.gov
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>OriginalMessage
>>>From:DavidS.Mann[mailto:mann@gendlermann.com]
>>>Sent:Wednesday,February26,201412:30PM
>>>To:Roberts,Rachel(ENRD)
>>>Subject:RE:CERv.Dep'toftheNavy,
>>>
>>>Ms.Roberts:
>>>
>>>MyclientshaveaskedmetoprepareamotionforpreliminaryinjunctionconcerningflightoperationsatOLF
CoupevillependingcompletionoftheEIS.Asagreedtoinour"stay",Iwillcoordinateabriefingschedulewithyou.
>>>

>>>
>>>Pleaseletmeknowatyourearliestconvenience.
>>>
>>>Thankyouforyourconsideration.
>>>
>>>
>>>DavidS.Mann
>>>GENDLER&MANN,LLP
>>>936N.34thSt.,Suite400
>>>Seattle,WA98103
4

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit I to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-10 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 2

Exhibit J

Sun and Moon Data for One Day


Page 1 of 2
Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-10 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 2

U.S. Naval Observatory


Astronomical Applications Department
Sun and Moon Data for One Day
Coupeville, Island County, WA (Longitude W122 40', Latitude N48 13')
December 21, 2014

Pacific Standard Time

Sun
Begin civil twilight

7:22 a.m.

Sunrise

7:59 a.m.

Sun transit

12:09 p.m.

Sunset

4:19 p.m.

End civil twilight

4:56 p.m.

Moon
Moonrise

7:14 a.m.

Moon transit

11:56 a.m.

Moonset

4:37 p.m.

Phase of the Moon on December 21, 2014: New Moon at 5:36 p.m. (local standard time)

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Exhibit J to Roberts Declaration

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

http://aa.usno.navy.mil/rstt/onedaytable?form=1&ID=AA&year=2014&month=12&day=2... 5/29/2015

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-11 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 2

Exhibit K

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-11 Filed 05/29/15 Page 2 of 2

.~

Do.k Ha.rbor
Ai r- Per~

Co.upre"vill2 DlF
Notse ZOr"e- 2
No1s ~

Zot~t!'

!
I

A'i rport Environs Mo.p

Islo.nd

Coun -~y

Inpo.ci::ed Areo.s

Exhibit K to Roberts Declaration


No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

U.S. Dept. of Justice


7600 Sand Point Way NE
Seattle, WA 98115

Burlington

Mount Vernon

Similk Bay

.08 - 1

1-5

5-1

10 - 50

50 - 100

100 - 500

Deception Pass

ham

> 1000

g it R

e nte

rC

La Conner

SAN JUAN
I S LA N D

ka

R
agit
Sk

kS

534
U
V

F o rk

20

Naval Air Station

N F or

Dugualla Bay

Ca rp

Whidbey Island

E.

Cr

s
n P as
c e ptio
De

500 - 1000

ps

e
Sw in o m i sh C ha nn l

population/sq.mi.

Island County - Population Density

N o ok a

Case 2:13-cv-01232-TSZ Document 44-12 Filed 05/29/15 Page 1 of 1

Joseph Whidbey

Whidbey

er C
Fish

Oak Harbor

c h Cr

Crescent Harbor

Utsalady

Ebeys Landing

Ft Casey

Camano

20

Admiralty Bay

Cama Beach

Port Townsend

ve

Po rt Town

Ch imacum Cr

JEFFERSON

South Whidbey

Oak Bay

Tarboo C r

Little Quil

104
V
U

Port Gardner

525
V
U

Clinton

Useless Bay

19

ISL
KIT AND
SAP

Sno

101

Langley

Mutiny Bay

Mats Mats Bay

`
_

Island
Freeland

w Cr

Everett

Skunk Bay

Port Ludlow

Mukilteo
525
U
V

ne

ce

o
Th

Miles
10

k
ree

Exhibit L to Roberts Declaration

Lynnwood
Edmonds
U.S. Dept. of Justice popden15
7600 Sand Point Way NE
Woodway
Bothel
Seattle, WA 98115
524
V
U

th C

99

No r

SO
R
E
P
FF SA
E
T
J KI

Port Gamble

rndike C r

No. 2:13-cv-1232-TSZ

Swa m p C r

Quilc

Wa. Dept. of Ecology,


Quilcene Bay GIS Technical Services, 9/7/12

Mill Cre

Squamish Harbor

CLALLAM

Holmes Harbor

116
U
V

lm on Cr

Greenbank

arbor

ry
B

Ba

Kilisut H

co

is

nd

Goodwin, Lake

Camano Island

p Cr
lali
Tu

20

Glen Cove

se

till agua m is h River

Crockett Lake

LA
N
ER D
SO
N

Livingston Bay

Missio n C

FF

Camano Isl

532
U
V

ISLAND

IS

Stanwood

ur

S NO HOM I S

Coupeville

Ft Elbey

JE

532
U
V

Penn Cove

Ch