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Amperes Law

Calculating The Magnetic Field


The main question in this topic is how can we
calculate the magnetic field that a given distribution
of currents produces in the surrounding space?
An array of compass needles near a central wire
carrying a strong current.

Calculating The Magnetic Field


The quantitative relationship between current i
and the magnetic field B as

Which is known as Amperes law


Unit in Tesla = Wb/m2
o = permeability = 4x10-7 H/m = 1.26x10-6 H/m
Amperes law is a basic equation of
electromagnetism that be extended by Maxwell

Calculating The Magnetic Field


From the experiment of the compass
surrounding the wire flowed by current,
finally, this experiment result leads to the
right-hand rule for finding the direction of B
near a wire carrying a current i.
Grasp the wire with the right hand, the thumb
pointing in the direction of the current, the
fingers will curl around the wire in the
direction of B.

Sample Problem 1
Derive an expression for B at a distance r from the center of a
long cylindrical wire of radius R, where r<R. The wire carries a
current io, distributed uniformly over the cross section of the
wire. (B=oir/2R2)
What is the B at r=R? (B=oi/2R)
What is the B at a distance d from central of wire? (B=oi/2d)

R
d

Line of B

Line of B

Two Parallel Conductor


What is Ba around wire b?

What happen with wire


b?

L
ia

Can you measure Force


per unit length?

ib
b

Sample Problem 2
A long horizontal rigidity supported wire carries a
current ia of 100A. Directly above it and parallel to it
is a fine wire that carries a current ib of 20 A and
weighs 0.073 N/m. How far above the lower wire
should this second wire be strung if we hope to
support it by magnetic repulsion? (5.5 x 10-3 m)

Sample Problem 3
Two parallel wires a distance d apart carry
equal currents I in opposite directions. Find
the magnetic field for points between the
wires and at a distance x from one wire.
(B = Ba + Bb = ..)

Solenoid
A solenoid is a long wire wound in a close-packed
helix and carrying a current i.
We assume that the helix is very long compared with
its diameter

Solenoid
d

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Solenoid
d

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= B.h + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0i
B = 0i0n

i = i0(nh)

Solenoid

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B = 0i0n

Flux magnetic ???

Sample Problem 4
A solenoid is 1.0 m long and 3.0 cm in inner
diameter. It has five layers of winding of 850
turns each and carries a current of 5A.
What is B at its center? (2.7x10-5 Wb/m2)
What is the magnetic flux for a cross section of the
solenoid of its center? (1.9x10-5 Wb)

Toroid

The Biot-Savart Law


We can use Amperes law to calculate
magnetic fields only if the symmetry of the
current distribution is high enough to permit
the easy evaluation of the line integral

The Biot-Savart Law


According to the Biot-Savart law, dB is:

i dl
i

dB

A long straight wire, what is B at point P?

dx

Sample Problem 6
What is B at point P? (0i/8R)

R
P