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The main question in this topic is how can we

calculate the magnetic field that a given distribution

of currents produces in the surrounding space?

An array of compass needles near a central wire

carrying a strong current.

The quantitative relationship between current i

and the magnetic field B as

Unit in Tesla = Wb/m2

o = permeability = 4x10-7 H/m = 1.26x10-6 H/m

Amperes law is a basic equation of

electromagnetism that be extended by Maxwell

From the experiment of the compass

surrounding the wire flowed by current,

finally, this experiment result leads to the

right-hand rule for finding the direction of B

near a wire carrying a current i.

Grasp the wire with the right hand, the thumb

pointing in the direction of the current, the

fingers will curl around the wire in the

direction of B.

Sample Problem 1

Derive an expression for B at a distance r from the center of a

long cylindrical wire of radius R, where r<R. The wire carries a

current io, distributed uniformly over the cross section of the

wire. (B=oir/2R2)

What is the B at r=R? (B=oi/2R)

What is the B at a distance d from central of wire? (B=oi/2d)

R

d

Line of B

Line of B

What is Ba around wire b?

b?

L

ia

per unit length?

ib

b

Sample Problem 2

A long horizontal rigidity supported wire carries a

current ia of 100A. Directly above it and parallel to it

is a fine wire that carries a current ib of 20 A and

weighs 0.073 N/m. How far above the lower wire

should this second wire be strung if we hope to

support it by magnetic repulsion? (5.5 x 10-3 m)

Sample Problem 3

Two parallel wires a distance d apart carry

equal currents I in opposite directions. Find

the magnetic field for points between the

wires and at a distance x from one wire.

(B = Ba + Bb = ..)

Solenoid

A solenoid is a long wire wound in a close-packed

helix and carrying a current i.

We assume that the helix is very long compared with

its diameter

Solenoid

d

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Solenoid

d

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

= B.h + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0i

B = 0i0n

i = i0(nh)

Solenoid

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

B = 0i0n

Sample Problem 4

A solenoid is 1.0 m long and 3.0 cm in inner

diameter. It has five layers of winding of 850

turns each and carries a current of 5A.

What is B at its center? (2.7x10-5 Wb/m2)

What is the magnetic flux for a cross section of the

solenoid of its center? (1.9x10-5 Wb)

Toroid

We can use Amperes law to calculate

magnetic fields only if the symmetry of the

current distribution is high enough to permit

the easy evaluation of the line integral

According to the Biot-Savart law, dB is:

i dl

i

dB

dx

Sample Problem 6

What is B at point P? (0i/8R)

R

P

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