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PLATE GIRDERS - II

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PROBLEM:
The girder showed in Fig. E1 is fully restrained against lateral buckling
throughout its span. The span is 36 m and carries two concentrated loads as
shown in Fig. E1. Design a plate girder.
Yield stress of steel, fy
Material factor for steel, m
Dead Load factor, fd
Imposed load factor, f
9000 mm

= 250 N/mm2
= 1.15
= 1.35
= 1.50
w
18000 mm

W1

W2

9000 mm

36000 mm
Fig. E1 Example plate girder
1.0

LOADING

Dead load:
Uniformly distributed load, wd
Concentrated load, W1d
Concentrated load, W2d

= 20 kN/ m (Including self-weight)


= 200 kN
= 200 kN

Live load:
Uniformly distributed load, w
Concentrated load, W1
Concentrated load, W2
Version II

= 35 kN/m
= 400 kN
= 400 kN
16 - 12

PLATE GIRDERS - II

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16 - 13

PLATE GIRDERS - II

Factored Loads:
w
W1
W2

= wd * fd + w* f = 20 * 1.35 + 35 * 1.5
= W1d* fd + W1* f = 200 * 1.35 + 400 * 1.5
= W2d * fd + W2* f = 200 * 1.35 + 400 * 1.5

2.0

BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE


Bending moment (kN-m)
UDL effect

= 79.5 kN/m
= 870 kN
= 870 kN

Shear force (kN)

w12
79.5 * 36 * 36

12879
8
8

Concentrated
load effect

870 * 9

TOTAL

w1
1431
2

7830

20709

W = 870
2301

The design shear forces and bending moments are shown in Fig. E2.
3.0

INITIAL SIZING OF PLATE GIRDER

Depth of the plate girder:


The recommended span/depth ratio for simply supported girder varies
between 12 for short span and 20 for long span girder. Let us consider
depth of the girder as 2400 mm.

36000

15.0
d
2400

Depth of 2400 mm is acceptable.

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

(For drawing the bending moment and shear force diagrams, factored
loads are considered)

870 kN
9000 mm

79.5 kN/m
18000 mm

870 kN

9000 mm

36000 mm
2301

1585.5
715.5

Shear force
in kN

715.5
1585.5

2301

20709
Bending moment
in kN-m

Fig. E2 Bending moment and shear force diagrams

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Sheet 4 of 18
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Job Title: PLATE GIRDER
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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Flange:
py = 250/1.15 = 217.4 N/mm2
Single flange area,
Af

M max
20709 *10 6

39690.7 mm 2
d py
2400 * 217.4

By thumb rule, the flange width is assumed as 0.3 times the depth of the
section. Try 720 X 60 mm, giving an area = 43200 mm2.
Web:
Minimum web thickness for plate girder in buildings usually varies between
10 mm to 20 mm. Here, thickness is assumed as 14 mm.
Hence, web size is 2400 X 14 mm
4.0

SECTION CLASSIFICATION

Flange:
250

f y
b

250

250

1.0

B t
720 14

353
2
2

b
353

5.9 7.9
T
60

Hence, Flange is PLASTIC SECTION.

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Web:
d
2400

171.4 66.2
t
14

Hence, the web is checked for shear buckling.


5.0

CHECKS

Check for serviceability:


d
2400

9.6 mm t
250
250
d
Since, t
250

Web is adequate for serviceability.


Check for flange buckling in to web:
Assuming stiffener spacing, a > 1.5 d
d p yf

t
294 250

1/ 2

2400 217.4

294
250

1/ 2

7.6 mm

Since, t (= 14 mm) > 7.6 mm, the web is adequate to avoid flange buckling
into the web.
Check for moment carrying capacity of the flanges:
The moment is assumed to be resisted by flanges alone and the web resists
shear only.
Distance between centroid of flanges, hs = d + T = 2400 + 60 = 2460 mm
Af = B * T = 720 * 60

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= 43200 mm2

Job No:
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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Mc = pyf * Af * hs = 217.4 * 43200 * 2460 * 10-6 = 23103.5 kN-m


> 20709 kN-m
Hence, the section in adequate for carrying moment and web is designed for
shear.
6.0

WEB DESIGN

The stiffeners are spaced as shown in Fig. E5. The spacing of stiffeners is
taken as 3000 mm. The spacing can be increased towards the centre of the
span for economy.
W1
W
2

12 panels @ 3000 mm [36000 mm]


Fig.E3 Trial stiffener arrangement
Panel AB is the most critical panel (Maximum shear zone), so design checks
for the web are made for panel AB only.
End panel ( AB) design:
d = 2400 mm
t = 14 mm
a
3000

1.25
d
2400
d
2400

171.4
t
14

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Calculation of critical shear strength, qcr:


Elastic critical stress, qe (when a/d > 1) = [1.0 + 0.75/(a/d)2][1000/(d/t)] 2
= [1 + 0.75/(1.25)2][1000/(171.4)] 2
= 50.4 N/mm2
Slenderness parameter, w

= [0.6(fyw/m)/qe]1/2
= [0.6(250/1.15)/50.4] 1/2
= 1.61 > 1.25

Hence, Critical shear strength (qcr = qe) = 50.4 N/mm2


fv

FVA
2301*103

68.5 N / mm 2
dt
2400 *14

Since, fv > qcr

(68.5 > 50.4)

Panel AB is designed using tension field action.


Calculation of basic shear strength, qb:
t

1.5qcr
a
1

1.5 * 50.4
1 1.25

47.2

yb = (pyw2 3qcr2 + t2) 1/2 - t = (217.42 3*50.42 + 47.22) 1/2 47.2 = 157.4
qb qcr

yb
a
a
2
1

50.4

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157.4
78.0 N / mm 2
2

2 1.25 1 1.25

Job No:
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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Since, qb > fv

(78.0 > 68.5)

Panel AB is safe against shear buckling.


Checks for the web panel:
End panel AB should also be checked as a beam (Spanning between the
flanges of the girder) capable of resisting a shear force Rtf and a moment Mtf
due to anchor forces.
(In the following calculations boundary stiffeners are omitted for simplicity)
Check for shear capacity of the end panel:
Hq

qcr
0.75 dt p y 1
0. 6 p y

qcr 50.4 N / mm
Hq
Rtf

f v qcr

qb qcr

50.4
0.75 * 2400 *14 * 217.4 1

0.6 * ( 250 / 1.15)

Hq
2814

1407 kN
2
2

68.5 50.4

2814 kN .
78 50.4

Av = t .a = 14 * 3000 = 42000 mm2


Pv = 0.6 pyw Av = 0.6 * (250/1.15) * 42000/1000 = 5478 kN
Since, Rtf < Pv, the end panel can carry the shear force.

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Check for moment capacity of end panel AB:


M tf
y

Hq d
10

2814 * 2400
*10 3 675.4 kN m
10

a
3000

1500
2
2
1
1
ta 3
*14 * 30003 3150 * 107 mm 4
12
12

Mq

I
3150 *10 7
py
* ( 250 / 1.15) *10 6 4565 kN m
y
1500

Since, Mtf < Mq

(675.4 < 4565)

The end panel can carry the bending moment.


7.0 DESIGN OF STIFFENERS
Load bearing stiffener at A:
Design should be made for compression force due to bearing and moment.
Design force due to bearing, Fb = 2301 kN
Force(Fm) due to moment Mtf, is
Fm

M tf
a

675.4
*103 225 kN
3000

Total compression = Fc = Fb + Fm = 2301 + 225 = 2526 kN

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Area of stiffener in contact with the flange, A:


Area ( A) should be greater than

0.8 Fc
p ys

0.8 Fc
0.8 * 2526

* 103 9295 mm 2
p ys
217.4

Try stiffener of 2 flats of size 240 X 25 mm thick


Allow 15 mm to cope for web/flange weld
A = 225 * 25 * 2 = 11250 mm2 > 9295 mm2

Bearing check is ok.


Check for outstand:
Outstand from face of web should not be greater than 20 ts.
250

f y

250

250

1.0

Outstand bs = 240 mm < 20 ts (= 20 * 25 * 1.0 = 500)


bs = 240 mm < 13.7 ts (= 13.7 * 25 * 1.0 = 342.5)
Hence, outstand criteria is satisfied.

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Check stiffener for buckling: (The effective stiffener section is shown in Fig. E4)
Y
25 mm
bs = 240 mm
14 mm
X
bs = 240 mm

Web

Stiffener

Fig. E4 End bearing stiffener


The buckling resistance due to web is neglected here for the sake of
simplicity.
Ix

25 * 4943
1

* 25 *143 25115 *10 4 mm 4


12
12

Ae = Effective area = 240 * 25 * 2 = 12000 mm2


I
rx x
Ae

25115 *104

12000

144.7 mm

Flange is restrained against rotation in the plane of stiffener, then


le = 0.7 l = 0.7 * 2400 = 1680 mm

le
1680

11.6
rx
144.7

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Job No:
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PLATE GIRDERS - II

For fy = 250 N/mm2 and = 11.6

c = 250 N/mm2 from table (3) of chapter on axially compressed columns


Buckling resistance of stiffener is
Pc = c Ae / m = (250/1.15) * 12000 * 10 -3 = 2609 kN
Since Fc < Pc (2526 < 2609), stiffener provided is safe against buckling.
Check stiffener A as a bearing stiffener:
Local capacity of the web:
Assume, stiff bearing length b1 = 0
n2

= 2.5 * 60 * 2 = 300

Pcrip

= (b1+ n2) t pyw

BS 5950: Part 1, Clause 4.5.3

= (0 + 300) * 14 * (250/1.15) * 10-3 = 913 kN


Bearing stiffener is designed for FA
FA = Fc Pcrip = 2526 913 = 1613 kN
Bearing capacity of stiffener alone
PA = pys * A = (250/1.15) * 12000/1000 = 2609 kN
Since, FA < PA

(1613 < 2609)

The designed stiffener is OK in bearing.


Stiffener A Adopt 2 flats 240 mm X 25 mm thick

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Design of intermediate stiffener at B:


Stiffener at B is the most critical intermediate stiffener, hence it will be
chosen for the design.
Minimum Stiffness:
I s 0.75 dt 3
Is

for a d

0.75 dt 3
a3

for a d

2 * 2400 3394 mm

a d 2

( 3000 3394)

Conservatively' t' is taken as actual web thickness and minimum' a' is used.

1.5 d 3t 3
1.5 * 24003 * 143

632 * 10 4 mm 4
2
2
a
3000 of 2 flats 90 mm X 12 mm
Try intermediate
stiffener

I s Pr ovided

12 *1943 12 *143

730 * 10 4 mm 4
12
12

The section provided satisfies the minimum required stiffness.

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Check for outstand:


Outstand of the stiffener 13.7 ts
13.7 ts= 13.7 * 14 * 1.0 = 192 mm
Outstand = 90 mm

(90 < 192)

Hence, outstand criteria is satisfied.


Buckling check:
Stiffener force, Fq = V - Vs
where, V
Vs

= Total shear force


= Vcr of the web.

Elastic critical stress, qe

= 50.4 N/mm2

Vcr = qcr d t = 50.4 * 2400 * 14 * 10-3 = 1693 kN


Shear force at B, VB = 2301 [(2301 1585.5)*(3000/9000)] = 2062.5 kN
Stiffener force, Fq = [2062.5 - 1693] = 369.5 kN

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Buckling resistance of intermediate stiffener at B:


Y
20tw
20tw
12
90
X
14
90

Fig.E5 Effective section


20 tw = 20 * 14 = 280 mm
Ix

1
560 *143
12 *143
* 12 *1943

743 * 10 4 mm 4
12
12
12

A = 180 * 12 + 560 * 14 = 10000 mm2


743 *10 4

10000

rx

27.3

le = 0.7 * 2400 = 1680

le
1680

61.5
rx
27.3

For fy = 250 N/mm2 and = 61.5


From table3 of chapter on axially compressed columns,

c = 182.3 N/mm2

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Buckling resistance = (182.3/1.15) * 10000 * 10-3= 1585 kN


Fq < Buckling resistance. (369.5 < 1585)
Hence, intermediate stiffener is adequate
Intermediate stiffener at B - Adopt 2 flats 90 mm X 12 mm
Intermediate Stiffener at D (Stiffener subjected to external load):
Try intermediate stiffener 2 flats 90 mm X 12 mm thick
It satisfies the minimum stiffness requirement as in case of stiffener at B.
Buckling check:
Fq Fx
Pq

Fq = V- Vs

Fx
Ms

1
Px
M ys

V = 1585.5 kN

Vs = Vcr = qcr d t = 50.4* 2400 * 14 * 10-3 = 1693 kN


Fq is negative and so we can take Fq Fx = 0
Ms = 0
Fx = 870 kN

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

Buckling resistance of load carrying stiffener at D:


(Calculation is similar to stiffener at B)
Buckling resistance, Px = (182.3/1.15) * 10000 * 10-3= 1585 kN
Fx / Px = 870/1585 = 0.55 < 1.0
Hence, stiffener at D is OK against buckling
Stiffener at D - Adopt flats 90 mm X 12 mm thick
Web check between stiffeners:
fed ped
fed = w1/ t = 79.5/14 = 5.7 N/mm2
when compression flange is restrained against rotation relative to the web

ped 2.75

a
d

d t

2.75

3000

2400

200000
2400 2

14

3.79 * 20000
27.4 N / mm 2
26406

Since, fed < ped [5.7 < 27.4], the web is OK for all panels.

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PLATE GIRDERS - II

8.0 FINAL GIRDER


(All dimensions are in mm)
A

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3000

(a) Longitudinal section of plate girder


720
60

14
2400

(b) Flange and web proportions


Fig. E6 Final girder

Version II

16 - 30