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DESIGN AND

ANALYSIS OF
ASME BOILER
AND PRESSURE
VESSEL
COMPONENTS
IN THE CREEP
RANGE
by
Maan H. Jawad
Camas, Washington
Robert I. Jetter
Pebble Beach, California

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2009 by ASME, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA (www.asme.org)
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted
under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be
reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or
retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS WORK HAS BEEN OBTAINED
BY THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS FROM
SOURCES BELIEVED TO BE RELIABLE. HOWEVER, NEITHER ASME
NOR ITS AUTHORS OR EDITORS GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY OR
COMPLETENESS OF ANY INFORMATION PUBLISHED IN THIS WORK.
NEITHER ASME NOR ITS AUTHORS AND EDITORS SHALL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF
THE USE OF THIS INFORMATION. THE WORK IS PUBLISHED WITH THE
UNDERSTANDING THAT ASME AND ITS AUTHORS AND EDITORS ARE
SUPPLYING INFORMATION BUT ARE NOT ATTEMPTING TO RENDER
ENGINEERING OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF SUCH ENGINEERING OR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES ARE REQUIRED, THE ASSISTANCE OF AN APPROPRIATE PROFESSIONAL SHOULD BE SOUGHT.
ASME shall not be responsible for statements or opinions advanced in papers or . . .
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For authorization to photocopy material for internal or personal use under those
circumstances not falling within the fair use provisions of the Copyright Act, contact
the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,
tel: 978-750-8400, www.copyright.com.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Jawad, Maan H.
Design and analysis of ASME boiler and pressure vessel components in the creep
range / by Maan H. Jawad, Robert I. Jetter.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-7918-0284-7
1. Pressure vesselsDesign and construction. 2. Pressure vesselsMaterials.
3. BoilersEquipment and suppliesDesign and construction. 4. MetalsEffect
of temperature on. 5. MetalsCreep. I. Jetter, R. I. II. Title.
TS283.J39 2008
681.76041dc22
2008047421

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To our wives
Dixie and Betty

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PREFACE
Many structures in chemical plants, reneries, and power generation plants operate at elevated temperatures where creep and rupture are a design consideration. At such elevated temperatures, the
material tends to undergo gradual strain with time, which could eventually lead to failure. Thus, the
design of such components must take into consideration the creep and rupture of the material. In
this book, a brief introduction to the general principles of design at elevated temperatures is given
with extensive references cited for further in-depth understanding of the subject. A key feature of the
book is the use of numerous examples to illustrate the practical application of the design and analysis
methods presented.
The book is divided into seven chapters. The rst chapter is an introduction to various creep topics
such as allowable stresses, creep properties, elastic analog, and reference stress methods, as well as a
few introductory topics needed in various subsequent chapters.
Chapters 2 and 3 cover structural members in the creep range. In Chapter 2, the subject of members
in axial tension is presented. Such members are encountered in pressure vessels as hangers, tray supports, braces, and other miscellaneous components. Chapter 3 covers beams and plates in bending.
Components such as piping loops, tray support beams, internal piping, nozzle covers, and at heads
are included. A brief discussion of the requirements of ANSI B31.1 and B31.3 in the creep region is
given.
Chapters 4 and 5 discuss stress analysis of shells in the creep range. In Chapter 4, various stress
categories are dened and the analysis of various components using load controlled limits of ASME
section III-NH is discussed. Comparisons are also given between the design criteria in VIII-2 and
III-NH and the limitations encountered in VIII-2 when designing in the creep range. Chapter 5 covers the analysis of pressure components using strain and deformation controlled limits. Discussion
includes the requirements and limitations of the A Tests and B Tests outlined in III-NH.
Cyclic loading in the creep-fatigue regime is discussed in Chapter 6. Both repetitive and non-repetitive cycles are presented with some examples illustrating the applicability and intent of III-NH in
non-nuclear applications.
Chapter 7 covers the issues related to buckling of components. Axial members as well as cylindrical
and spherical shells are discussed. Simplied methods are presented for design purposes. The assumptions and limitations required to derive the simplied methods are also given.
The two appendices included in the book are intended as design tools. Appendix A discusses the
derivation of the Bree diagram, used in Chapter 5, and the assumptions made in plotting it. Understanding the derivations will assist the designer in visualizing the applicability of the various regions
in the Bree diagram to various design situations. Appendix B lists some conversion factors for English
and metric units.

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vi Preface

The design approaches illustrated in this book are based on the experience of the authors over the
past 40 years, with assistance from colleagues. It is the intent of the authors that the methodology
shown in the book will help the engineer accomplish a safe and economical design for boiler and pressure vessel components operating at high temperatures where creep is a consideration.

Maan H. Jawad
Camas, Washington
Robert I. Jetter
Pebble Beach, California

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This book could not have been written without the help of numerous people and we give our thanks
to all of them. Special thanks are given to Pete Molvie, Bob Schueller, and the late John Fischer
for providing background information on Section I and, to George Antaki, Chuck Becht, and Don
Broekelmann for supplying valuable information on piping codes B31.1 and B31.3.
Our thanks also extend to Don Grifn, Vern Severud, and Doug Marriott for providing insight into
the background of various creep criteria and equations in III-NH and for their guidance.
Special acknowledgement is also given to Craig Boyak for his generous help with various segments
of the book, to Joe Kelchner for providing a substantial number of the gures, to Wayne Mueller and
Jack Anderson for supplying various information regarding the operation of power boilers and heat
recovery steam generators, to Mike Bytnar, Don Chronister, and Ralph Killen for providing various
photographs, to Basil Kattula for checking some of the column buckling equations, and to Ms. Dianne
Morgan of the Camas Public Library for magically producing references and other older publications
obtained from faraway places.
A special thanks is also given to Mary Grace Stefanchick and Tara Smith of ASME for their valuable help and guidance in editing and assembling the book.

vii

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NOTATIONS
Some of the symbols used in this book are dened below

ASME_Jawad_FM.indd

A
A
B
c
C
d
D
D
Dcf
Di
Do
E
EH
EL
Eo

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Et
f
f
f
F
F
F
G
I
k
k
K
K
Kt

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Ksc
K
Kv
l
L
n

=
=
=
=
=
=

nc
Nd
P
Pa
Pb
Pb

=
=
=
=
=
=

area of structural member


ASME designation for compressive strain in heads and shells
ASME designation for compressive stress in heads and shells
corrosion allowance
at head bending factor in ASME, VIII-1
diameter
Et 3/12(1 - 2)
force-deection matrix of a member
factor to account for the interaction of creep and fatigue damage
inside diameter
outside diameter
modulus of elasticity
modulus of elasticity at hot end of cycle
modulus of elasticity at cold end of cycle
joint efciency factor in ASME, VIII-1, and ligament efciency
in ASME-I
tangent modulus
triaxiality factor
stress reduction factor in pipes
thickness factor for expanded tube ends in ASME, Section I
force in axial members and beams
equivalent peak stress in plates and shells
peak stress in plates and shells
multiaxiality factor
moment of inertia
P/EI
constant
stiffness matrix of an element
plastic shape factor
creep shape factor. Approximate value adopted by the ASME for
a rectangular cross section = (1 + K )/2
stress concentration factor
constant
plastic Poisson ratio adjustment factor
effective length of column
length of member
creep exponent, which is a function of material property and
temperature
number of applied cycles
number of allowable cycles
pressure
ASME allowable external pressure for heads and shells
equivalent primary bending stress
primary bending stress

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Notations

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PL
PL
Pm
Pm
Q
Q
r
Ri
Rm
Ro
Rw
S
Sa

Sm
Sm
Smt

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Sj
So

=
=

Sr
Sr

Sr
St
Sy
SyH
SyL
t
T
T
X
y
Y
Z
Z

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1
Dmax
Dmod

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

c
cH

=
=
=
=

equivalent local primary membrane stress


local primary membrane stress
equivalent general primary membrane stress
general primary membrane stress
equivalent secondary stress
secondary stress
radius of gyration = (I/A)0.5
inside radius
mean radius of shell
outside radius
weldment reduction factor based on type of weld rod
allowable stress for I, VIII-1, and VIII-2 construction
alternating cycle stress
(1.5Sm + 0.5St )/3
allowable stress in III-NH
membrane stress. It is the lower value of Sm and St obtained from
III-NH
the initial stress level for cycle type j
Design stress values. The values are taken as equal to Sm except for
a few cases at lower temperatures, where values of Smt at 300,000
hours exceed the Sm values. In those limited cases, So is equal to Smt at
300,000 hours
stress to rupture strength given in Table I-14.6 of III-NH
relaxed stress level at time T adjusted for the multiaxial stress state
relaxed stress level at time T based on a uniaxial relaxation model
time-dependent stress intensity values obtained from III-NH
yield stress
yield stress at the high temperature end of a cycle
yield stress at the low temperature end of a cycle
thickness
time
temperature
primary stress/Sy
temperature coefcient in ASME, Section I
secondary stress/Sy
section modulus
dimensionless effective creep parameter. It represents core
stress values
coefcient of thermal expansion
creep strain
[3(1 - 2 )/Rm2t 2 ]0.25
Ro/Ri
Ri/Ro
maximum equivalent strain range
modied maximum equivalent strain range that accounts for
the effects of local plasticity and creep
total strain range
Poissons ratio
elastic core stress at a cross section
elastic core stress at the high temperature end of a cycle

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Notations xi

cL
L
r
R
y

1, 2, 3

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=
=
=
=
=
=
=

elastic core stress at the low temperature end of a cycle


longitudinal stress
radial stress
reference stress
yield stress
circumferential (hoop) stress
principal stresses

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ABBREVIATIONS FOR
ORGANIZATIONS
AISC
ANSI
API
ASM
ASME
ASTM
BS
EN
MPC
UBC
WRC

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American Institute of Steel Construction


American National Standards Institute
American Petroleum Institute
American Society of Metals
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Testing and Materials
British Standard
European Standard
Materials Properties Council
Uniform Building Code
Welding Research Council

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CONTENTS
Preface ..............................................................................................................................................

Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................................ vii


Notations .......................................................................................................................................... ix
Abbreviations for Organizations ...................................................................................................... xii
Chapter 1
Basic Concepts ..................................................................................................................................
1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................
1.2 Creep in Metals ........................................................................................................................
1.2.1 Description and Measurement .....................................................................................
1.2.2 Elevated Temperature Material Behavior .....................................................................
1.2.3 Creep Characteristics ...................................................................................................
1.3 Allowable Stress .......................................................................................................................
1.3.1 ASME B&PV Code ......................................................................................................
1.3.2 European Standard EN 13445 ......................................................................................
1.4 Creep Properties ......................................................................................................................
1.4.1 ASME Code Methodology ...........................................................................................
1.4.2 Larson-Miller Parameter ..............................................................................................
1.4.3 Omega Method .............................................................................................................
1.4.4 Negligible Creep Criteria ..............................................................................................
1.4.5 Environmental Effects ..................................................................................................
1.4.6 Monkman-Grant Strain ................................................................................................
1.5 Required Pressure Retaining Wall Thickness ..........................................................................
1.5.1 Design by Rule .............................................................................................................
1.5.2 Design by Analysis .......................................................................................................
1.5.3 Approximate Methods..................................................................................................
1.6 Effects of Structural Discontinuities and Cyclic Loading ........................................................
1.6.1 Elastic Follow-Up ........................................................................................................
1.6.2 Pressure-Induced Discontinuity Stresses......................................................................
1.6.3 Shakedown and Ratcheting ..........................................................................................
1.6.4 Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue ...........................................................................................
1.7 Buckling and Instability ...........................................................................................................

3
3
3
3
4
7
10
10
12
15
15
15
17
17
19
19
19
19
20
20
25
25
28
29
34
37

Chapter 2
Axially Loaded Members.................................................................................................................. 41
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 41
2.2 Design of Structural Components Using ASME Sections I
and VIII-1 as a Guide ........................................................................................................... 45

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xiv Contents

2.3
2.4

Design of Structural Components Using ASME Section NH


as a Guide Creep Life and Deformation Limits................................................................... 51
Reference Stress Method ......................................................................................................... 57

Chapter 3
Members in Bending.........................................................................................................................
3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................
3.2 Bending of Beams ....................................................................................................................
3.2.1 Rectangular Cross-Sections ..........................................................................................
3.2.2 Circular Cross-Sections ................................................................................................
3.3 Shape Factors ..........................................................................................................................
3.3.1 Rectangular Cross-Sections ..........................................................................................
3.3.2 Circular Cross-Sections ................................................................................................
3.4 Deection of Beams .................................................................................................................
3.5 Piping Analysis ANSI 31.1 and 31.3 ...................................................................................
3.5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................
3.5.2 Design Categories and Allowable Stresses ...................................................................
3.5.3 Creep Effects ................................................................................................................
3.6 Stress Analysis .........................................................................................................................
3.6.1 Commercial Programs ..................................................................................................
3.7 Reference Stress Method .........................................................................................................
3.8 Circular Plates .........................................................................................................................

61
61
61
62
63
66
66
68
69
72
72
73
75
75
81
81
83

Chapter 4
Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components:
Load-Controlled Limits .................................................................................................................... 87
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 87
4.2 Design Thickness ..................................................................................................................... 89
4.2.1 Section I ....................................................................................................................... 90
4.2.2 Section VIII .................................................................................................................. 91
4.3 Stress Categories ...................................................................................................................... 93
4.3.1 Primary Stress .............................................................................................................. 93
4.3.2 Secondary Stress, Q ............................................................................................................. 95
4.3.3 Peak Stress, F .............................................................................................................. 95
4.3.4 Separation of Stresses ................................................................................................... 95
4.3.5 Thermal Stress .............................................................................................................. 99
4.4 Equivalent Stress Limits for Design and Operating Conditions ............................................... 99
4.5 Load-Controlled Limits for Components Operating in the Creep Range ................................105
4.6 Reference Stress Method .........................................................................................................113
4.6.1 Cylindrical Shells ..........................................................................................................114
4.6.2 Spherical Shells ............................................................................................................121
4.7 The Omega Method .................................................................................................................122
Chapter 5
Analysis of Components: Strain- and
Deformation-Controlled Limits ........................................................................................................127
5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................127
5.2 Strain- and Deformation-Controlled Limits.............................................................................127
5.3 Elastic Analysis ........................................................................................................................128
5.3.1 Test A-1 ........................................................................................................................128

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Contents

xv

5.3.2 Test A-2 ........................................................................................................................130


5.3.3 Test A-3 ........................................................................................................................130
5.4 Simplied Inelastic Analysis ....................................................................................................137
5.4.1 Tests B-1 and B-2 .........................................................................................................141
5.4.2 Test B-1 ........................................................................................................................141
5.4.3 Test B-2 ........................................................................................................................141
5.4.4 Test B-3 ........................................................................................................................142
Chapter 6
Creep-Fatigue Analysis.....................................................................................................................151
6.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................151
6.2 Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Using Elastic Analysis ....................................................................151
6.3 Welded Components................................................................................................................174
6.4 Variable Cyclic Loads ..............................................................................................................174
6.5 ASME Code Procedures ..........................................................................................................175
6.6 Equivalent Stress Range Determination ..................................................................................175
6.6.1 Equivalent Strain Range Determination Applicable
to Rotating Principal Strains ........................................................................................175
6.6.2 Equivalent Strain Range Determination Applicable
When Principal Strains Do Not Rotate ........................................................................176
6.6.3 Equivalent Strain Range Determination Acceptable
Alternate When Performing Elastic Analysis................................................................176
Chapter 7
Members in Compression .................................................................................................................183
7.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................183
7.2 Design of Columns...................................................................................................................183
7.2.1 Columns Operating at Temperatures below the Creep Range ......................................183
7.2.2 Columns Operating at Temperatures in the Creep Range ............................................187
7.3 ASME Design Criteria for Cylindrical Shells under Compression...........................................191
7.3.1 Axial Compression of Cylindrical Shells Operating at
Temperatures below the Creep Range ..........................................................................191
7.3.2 Cylindrical Shells under External Pressure and
Operating at Temperatures below the Creep Range .....................................................192
7.3.3 Cylindrical Shells Subjected to Compressive Stress and
Operating at Temperatures in the Creep Range ...........................................................195
7.4 ASME Design Criteria for Spherical Shells under Compression .............................................198
7.4.1 Spherical Shells under External Pressure and Operating
at Temperatures below the Creep Range ......................................................................198
7.4.2 Spherical Shells under External Pressure and Operating
at Temperatures in the Creep Range ............................................................................199
Appendix A
Background of the Bree Diagram .....................................................................................................201
Appendix B
Conversion Table..............................................................................................................................212
References ........................................................................................................................................213
Index.................................................................................................................................................217

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OPERATING UNIT IN A REFINERY


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CHAPTER

1
BASIC CONCEPTS
1.1

INTRODUCTION

Many vessels and equipment components encounter elevated temperatures during their operation.
Such exposure to elevated temperature could result in a slow continuous deformation, creep, of the
equipment material under sustained loads. Examples of such equipment include hydrocrackers at reneries, power boiler components at electric generating plants, turbine blades in engines, and components in nuclear plants. The temperature at which creep becomes signicant is a function of material
composition and load magnitude and duration.
Components under loading are usually stressed in tension, compression, bending, torsion, or a
combination of such modes. Most design codes provide allowable stress values at room temperature
or at temperatures well below the creep range, for example, the codes for civil structures such as the
American Institute of Steel Construction and Uniform Building Code. Pressure vessel codes such as
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel (ASME B&PV) Code,
British, and the European Standard BS EN 13445 contain sections that cover temperatures from the
cryogenic range to much high temperatures where effects of creep are the dominate failure mode. For
temperatures and loading conditions in the creep regime, the designer must rely on either in-house
criteria or use a pressure vessel code that covers the temperature range of interest. Table 1.1 gives a
general perspective on when creep becomes a design consideration for various materials. It is broadly
based on the temperature at which creep properties begin to govern allowable stress values in the
ASME B&PV Code. There may be other specic considerations for a particular design situation, e.g.,
a short duration load at a temperature above the threshold values shown in Table 1.1. These considerations will be discussed later in this chapter in more detail.
It will be assumed in this book that material properties are not degregated due to process conditions. Such degradation can have a signicant effect on creep and rupture properties. Items such as
exfoliation (Thielsch, 1977), hydrogen sulde (Dillon, 2000), and other environment may have great
inuence of the creep rupture of an alloy, and the engineer has to rely on experience and eld data to
supplement theoretical analysis.
One of the concerns to design engineers is the recent increase in allowable stress values in both
Divisions 1 and 2 of Section VIII and their effect on equipment design such as hydrotreaters. Recent
increase in allowable stress reduces the temperature where creep controls and upgrading older equipment based on the newer allowable stress requires knowledge of creep design covered in this book.

1.2
1.2.1

CREEP IN METALS
Description and Measurement

Creep is the continuous, time dependent deformation of a material at a given temperature and
applied load. Although, conceptually, creep will occur at any stress level and temperature if the
3

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Chapter 1

TABLE 1.1
APPROXIMATE TEMPERATURES1 AT WHICH
CREEP BECOMES A DESIGN CONSIDERATION
IN VARIOUS MATERIALS
Temperature
F

Material
Carbon and low alloy steel
Stainless steels
Aluminum alloys
Copper alloys
Nickel alloys
Titanium and zirconium alloys
Lead

700900
370480
8001000
425535
300
150
300
150
9001100
480595
600650
315345
Room temperature

These temperatures may vary signicantly for specic product


chemistry and failure mode under consideration.

measurements are taken over very long periods, there are practical measures of when creep becomes
signicant for engineering considerations in metallic structures.
Metallurgically, creep is associated with the generation and movement of dislocations, cavities,
grain boundary sliding, and mass transport by diffusion. There are many studies on these phenomena
and there is an extensive literature on the subject. Fortunately for the practicing engineer, a detailed
mastery of the metallurgical aspects of creep is not required to design reliable structures and components at elevated temperature. What is required is a basic understanding of how creep is characterized and how creep behavior is translated into design rules for components operating at elevated
temperatures.
A creep curve at a given temperature is experimentally obtained by loading a specimen at a given
stress level and measuring the strain as a function of time until rupture. Figure 1.1 conceptually shows
a standard creep testing machine. A constant force is applied to the specimen through a lever and
deadweight load. Typically, the test specimen is surrounded by an electrically controlled furnace.
Because creep is highly temperature dependent, considerable care must be taken to ensure that the
specimen temperature is maintained at a constant value, both spatially and temporally.
There are various methods for measuring strain. Figure 1.2 shows one such arrangement suitable
for higher temperatures and longer times, which uses two or three extensometers arranged concentrically around the specimen. Penny and Marriott (1995) have summarized the effects of test variables
on typical test results. They concluded that faulty measurement of mean stress and temperature are the
largest sources of error and that these measurements should be accurate to better than 1% and %,
respectively, to achieve creep strain measurement accuracy to within 10%. For example, it is recommended that, in order to minimize bending effects, tolerances to within 0.002 in. must be achieved in
aligning a -in. diameter specimen.

1.2.2

Elevated Temperature Material Behavior

The distinguishing feature of elevated temperature material behavior is whether signicant creep
effects are present. Consider a uniaxial tensile specimen with a constant applied load at a given temperature. As shown in Fig. 1.3, if the temperature is low enough that there is no signicant creep,
then the stress and strain achieve their maximum values at time t0 and remain constant as long as the
load is maintained. The stress and strain are thus time-independent. However, as shown in Fig. 1.4, if

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Basic Concepts 5

FIG. 1.1
STANDARD CREEP TESTING MACHINE (COURTESY OF ASM)

the test temperature is high enough for signicant creep effects, the strain will increase with time and
eventually, depending on time, temperature, and load, rupture will occur. In the later case, the strain
is time-dependent.
In the previous example, the load was held constant. Now, consider the case with the specimen
stretched to a constant displacement. In this case, as shown in Fig. 1.5, line (a), if the temperature is
low enough that there is no signicant creep, then both the stress and strain will be constant. However,

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Chapter 1

FIG. 1.2
EXTENSOMETER FOR ELEVATED TEMPERATURE CREEP TESTING
(COURTESY OF ASM)
if the temperature is high enough for signicant creep, the stress will relax while the strain is constant
(line b). The behavior illustrated by line (a) is time-independent and by line (b) time-dependent.
Note also the difference in structural response between the constant applied load and the constant
applied displacement. In the rst case, referred to as load-controlled, the stress did not relax and, at
elevated temperature, the strain increased until the specimen ruptured. The membrane stress in a pressurized cylinder is an example of a load-controlled stress. In the second case, referred to as deformationcontrolled, the strain was constant and the stress relaxed without causing rupture. Certain stresses
resulting from the temperature distribution in a structure are an example of deformation-controlled
stresses. Load-controlled stresses can result in failure in one sustained application, whereas failure
due to a deformation-controlled stress usually results from repeated load applications. However, due
to stress and strain redistribution effects (discussed in more detail in subsequent chapters), actual

FIG. 1.3
LOAD CONTROLLED LOADING AT LOW TEMPERATURE

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Basic Concepts 7

FIG. 1.4
LOAD CONTROLLED LOADING AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE
structures behavior is more complex. For example, if there is elastic follow-up, then the stress relaxation will be slowed down and there will be an increase in strain as shown in Fig. 1.5, lines (c) and
(d), respectively. Thus, elastic follow-up, depending on the magnitude of the effect, can cause deformation-controlled stresses to approach the characteristics of load-controlled stresses. The distinction
between load-controlled and displacement-controlled response and the role of elastic follow-up, or,
more generally, time dependent stress and strain redistribution, is central to the development and
implementation of elevated temperature design criteria.

1.2.3

Creep Characteristics

A representative set of creep curves is shown in Fig. 1.6 for carbon steel. As shown in Fig. 1.7, the
curve is usually divided into three zones. The rst zone is called primary creep and is characterized
by a relatively high initial creep rate that slows to a constant rate. This constant rate characterizes

FIG. 1.5
STRAIN CONTROLLED LOADING AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE

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Chapter 1

FIG. 1.6
CREEP CURVES FOR CARBON STEEL (HULT, 1966)

the second zone called secondary creep. For many materials, the major portion of the test duration is
spent in secondary creep. The third zone is called tertiary creep and is characterized by an increasing
creep rate that culminates in creep rupture. Although for many materials the major portion of the duration of the test is spent in secondary creep, for some materials for example, certain nickel-based
alloys at very high temperatures primary and secondary creep are virtually negligible and almost the
entire test is in the third stage or tertiary creep zone.
As described more fully in Section 1.4.6, it is sometimes assumed that deformations and stresses
in the primary creep regime do not signicantly contribute to accumulated creep rupture damage.
An interesting application of the above assumption occurs in the assessment of the impact of heat
treatment on structural integrity. For very large components, in particular, the complete time for the
whole heat treating cycle can be quite signicant. Thus, if it were possible to ensure that the heat
treating cycle did not exceed the time duration of primary creep, then one could rationalize that the

FIG. 1.7
CREEP REGIMES STRAIN VS. TIME AT CONSTANT STRESS

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Basic Concepts 9

time spent in heat treatment would not signicantly compromise the functional structural integrity
of the component. Clearly, the key to this approach is to have an estimate of the time to the point at
which primary creep ends and secondary begins. To obtain a general idea of the relevant time duration of primary creep, there is an evaluation by Larke and Parker in a volume edited by Smith and
Nicolson (1971) where they have plotted creep data and analytical correlations for a 0.19% carbon
steel at 842F (450C). In Fig. 1.8, it can be seen that the duration of primary creep depends on stress
level, varying from 300 to about 1200 hours, indicating that a total cycle time of 150200 hours should
be acceptable.
Another means of characterizing creep is to plot isochronous stress-strain curves. Outwardly,
these curves resemble conventional stress-strain curves except that the strain on the abscissa is the
strain that would be developed in a given time by the stress given on the ordinate as shown in Fig. 1.9.
These stress-strain values are usually plotted as a family of curves, each for a constant time as shown in
Fig. 1.10 for 316 stainless steel at 1200F. Although, conceptually, these curves could be directly plotted from data, the curves are usually generated from creep laws, generated from experimental data,
which correlate stress, strain, and time at a constant temperature. These curves can be very useful
in designing at elevated temperature where they can be used similarly to a conventional stress-strain
curve in some situations, i.e., evaluating buckling and instability and as a means of approximating accumulated strain.
Example 1.1
The effective stress in a pressure vessel component is 8000 psi. The material and temperature are
shown in Fig. 1.10. What is the expected design life of the component if:
(a) A strain limit of 0.5% is allowed?
(b) A strain limit of 1.0% is allowed?

FIG. 1.8
MEASURED AND CALCULATED TENSILE CREEP CURVES PRIMARY CREEP
DURATION (SMITH AND NICOLSON, 1971)

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Chapter 1

10

FIG. 1.9
(a) FAMILY OF CREEP CURVES CONVENTIONALLY PLOTTED AS STRAIN VS. TIME AT
CONSTANT STRESS. (b) RESULTANT STRESS-STRAIN CURVES PLOTTED AS
STRESS VS. STRAIN AT CONSTANT TIME
Solution
(a) In Fig. 1.10, the expected life is 15,000 hours.
(b) In Fig. 1.10, the expected life is 65,000 hours.

1.3
1.3.1

ALLOWABLE STRESS
ASME B&PV Code

The ASME B&PV Code lists numerous materials that meet the ASTM as well as other European
and Asian specications. It provides allowable stresses for the various sections of the Code for temperatures below the creep range and at temperatures where creep is signicant. For non-nuclear applications, by far the most common, these allowable stress levels are provided as a function of temperature
in Section II, Part D of the B&PV Code.
For Section I and Section VIII, Div 1 (VIII-1) applications, the allowable stress criteria are given in
Appendix 1 of Part D. The allowable stress at elevated temperature is the lesser of: (1) the allowable
stress given by the criteria based on yield and ultimate strength, (2) 67% of the average stress to cause
rupture in 100,000 hours, (3) 80% of the minimum stress to cause rupture in 100,000 hours, and (4)
100% of the stress to cause a minimum creep rate of 0.01%/1000 hours. Above 1500F, however, the
factor on average stress to rupture is adjusted to provide the same time margin on stress to rupture as

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Basic Concepts 11

FIG. 1.10
ISOCHRONOUS STRESS-STRAIN CURVES (ASME, III-NH)

existed at 1500F (815C). Although the allowable stress is a function of the creep rupture strength at
100,000 hours, this is not intended to imply that there is a specied design life for these applications.
There are additional criteria for welded pipe and tube that are 85% of the above values. A very large
number of materials are covered in these tables.
Unlike previous editions, the 2007 edition of Section VIII, Div 2 (VIII-2), covers temperatures in
the creep regime. The time dependent allowable stress criteria for VIII-2 are the same as for VIII-1.
However, because the time independent criteria are less conservative, tensile strength divide by a
factor of 2.4 versus 3.5, the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by time dependent
properties is lower in VIII-2 than VIII-1.

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12

Chapter 1

The allowable stress criteria for components of Class 1 nuclear systems covered by Subsection NH
of Section III (III-NH) of the ASME B&PV Code are different than for non-nuclear components. For
these nuclear components, the allowable stress at operating conditions for a particular material is a
function of the load duration and is the lesser of: (1) the allowable stress for Class 1 nuclear systems
based on the yield and ultimate strength; (2) 67% of the minimum stress to rupture in time, T; (3) 80%
of the minimum stress to cause initiation of third-stage creep in time, T; and (4)100% of the average
stress to cause a total (elastic, plastic, and creep) strain of 1% in time, T. Note that these allowable
stress criteria are more conservative than for non-nuclear systems for the same 100,000-hour reference
time. However, because these allowable stresses apply to operating loads and temperatures (Service
Conditions in Section III terminology) that are, in general, not dened as conservatively as the Design
Conditions to which the allowable stresses apply for non-nuclear applications. There are also additional criteria for allowable stresses at welds and their heat affected zone. All these allowable stresses
are given in III-NH for a quite limited number of materials.
The allowable stresses for Class 2 and 3 elevated temperature nuclear systems are in general similar
to those for non-nuclear systems and are provided in Code Case N-253.
Subsection NB (III-NB) covers Class 1 nuclear components in the temperature range where creep
effects do not need to be considered. Specically, III-NB is limited to temperatures for which applicable allowable stress values are provided in Section II, Part D. These temperature limits are 700F
(370C) for ferritic steels and 800F (425C) for austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys.
Unlike Section I and VIII-1 components, the design procedures for nuclear components, particularly Class 1 components, are signicantly different at elevated temperatures as compared to the requirements for nuclear components below the creep regime. This is due in part to the time dependence
of allowable stresses, but, more signicantly, due to the inuence of creep on cyclic life. As compared
to Section I and VIII-1, components, III-NH explicitly considers cyclic failure modes at elevated
temperature, whereas Sections I and VIII-1 do not. Section VIII-3 does address cyclic failure modes
below the creep range.
Section VIII-2 addresses cyclic failure modes and, as previously noted, currently covers temperatures in the creep regime above the previous limits of 700F (370C) and 800F (425C) for ferritic
and austenitic materials, respectively. Section VIII-2 also requires either meeting the requirements
for exemption from fatigue analysis, or, if that requirement is not satised, meeting the requirements
for fatigue analysis. However, above the 700/800F (370/425C) limit, the only available option is to
satisfy the exemption from fatigue analysis requirements because the fatigue curves required for a full
fatigue analysis are limited to 700F and 800F (370C and 425C).

1.3.2

European Standard EN 13445

EN 13445 applies to unred pressure vessels It is analogous to VIII-1 and -2 in that it covers both
Design by Formula (DBF) similarly to Div 1 and Design by Analysis (DBA) similarly to Div 2. It
is unlike Section VIII in several important respects. First, the EN 13445 allowable stresses are time
dependent, analogous to what is done in Subsection NH. They are also a function of whether there
is in-service monitoring of compliance with design conditions. Provisions are also made for weld
strength reduction factors, analogous to Subsection NH. Unlike the BDF rules in Section VIII, Div
1, BDF rules in the EN code are only applicable when the number of full pressure cycles is limited
to 500.
The basic allowable stress parameters in EN 13445 in the creep range are the mean creep rupture
strength in time, T, and the mean stress to cause a creep strain of 1% in time, T. For DBF rules, the
safety factor applied to the mean creep rupture stress is 1/1.5 if there is no in-service monitoring, and
1/1.25 if there is. There is no safety factor on the 1% strain criteria. If there is in-service monitoring
then the strain limit does not apply, but strain monitoring is required. Thus, for a design life of 100,000
hours in the EN code without in-service monitoring, the base metal design allowable stress will be the
same as in VIII-1 when the allowable stresses are governed by creep rupture strength (remembering

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Basic Concepts 13

that VIII-1 allowable stresses are based on 100,000-hour properties even though there is no specied
design life in VIII-1).
There are two DBA methodologies dened in the EN 13445, the Direct Route and the Method
based on stress categories. Conceptually, the stress category methodology is similar to the methodology dened in Section VIII-2 and III-NB for temperatures below the creep range and in III-NH for
elevated temperatures; however, there are many differences in the details of their application. The
basic allowable stresses for the stress category DBA methodology are the same as for the DBF rules
and are dependent on whether there is in-service monitoring. The Direct Route is based on limit
analysis and reference stress concepts. It is quite complex. Indeed, there is a warning in the introduction cautioning that, Due to the advanced methods applied, until sufcient in-house experience can
be demonstrated, the involvement of an independent body, appropriately qualied in the eld of DBA,
in the assessment of the design (calculations). On that basis, a detailed discussion of the Direct
Route DBA rules in EN 13445 will be considered beyond the scope of this presentation; however,
there is a further discussion of the reference stress concept in Section 1.5.3.2.

FIG. 1.11
RUPTURE STRENGTH (JAWAD AND FARR, 1989)

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14 Chapter 1

Example 1.2
Figure 1.11 shows a representative plot of creep rupture data with extrapolation to 100,000 hours.
Figure 1.12 shows a plot of creep strength (minimum creep rate) for the same material. Curve tting
procedures are usually used for the extrapolation. Based on the creep properties shown in Figs. 1.11
and 1.12, calculate the allowable stress at 1200F for an VIII-1 application. (Note: This is for a nonASME Code application. The Code has published values for Code applications.) Compare the results
to the allowable stress for an EN 13445 application with 100,000 hours design life and with in-service
monitoring. (Note: Under EN 13445, allowable stress values are established by the user based on
published properties as described therein.)
Solution
In Fig. 1.11, the average stress to rupture in 100,000 hours is 22 ksi and the allowable stress for
VIII-1 based on average creep rupture is 22 (0.67) = 14.7 ksi. Assuming a minimum value of creep
rupture based on a 20% scatter band gives a minimum creep rupture strength of 17.6 ksi, and an
allowable stress based on minimum creep rupture of 17.6 (0.8) = 14.1 ksi. In Fig. 1.12, the stress

FIG. 1.12
CREEP STRENGTH (JAWAD AND FARR, 1989)

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Basic Concepts 15

for a minimum creep rate of 0.01% in 1000 hours is 15 ksi, which gives an allowable stress of 15 ksi.
Therefore, the applicable stress for a Section VIII-1 application is 14.1 ksi governed by the minimum
creep rupture strength.
For EN 13445 applications with in-service monitoring, the safety factor is 1.25 on mean creep
rupture strength (assumed equal to average strength plotted in Fig. 1.11), so the allowable stress for
100,000 hours design life is 22/(1.25) = 17.6 ksi.

1.4
1.4.1

CREEP PROPERTIES
ASME Code Methodology

One of the issues facing the designer of elevated temperature components is how to extrapolate
limited time duration test data to the service lives representative of most design applications or, in
the case of developing allowable stresses for ASME Code applications, 100,000 hours. For the development of ASME Code elevated temperature allowable stresses for non-nuclear applications, the
method is described in Chapter 3 (Basis for Tensile and Yield Strength Values) of the Companion
Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (Jetter, 2002). Quoting from that source:

At the elevated temperature range in which the tensile properties become time-dependent, the
data is analyzed to determine the stress to cause a secondary creep rate of 0.01% in 1,000 hours and
the stress needed to produce rupture in 100,000 hours. This data must be from material that is representative of the product specication, requirements for melting practice, chemical composition,
heat treatment, and product form. The data is plotted on log-log coordinates at various temperatures. The 0.01%/1,000 hour creep stress and the 100,000 hour rupture stress are determined from
such curves by extrapolation at the various temperatures of interest. The values are then plotted on
semi log coordinates to show the variation with temperature. The minimum trend curve denes the
lower bound for 95% of the data.
As part of the ASME Code methodology, data for development of allowable stress values is required for long times, usually at least 10,000 hours for some data, and at temperatures above the range
of interest, usually 100F (40C) higher. Considerable judgment is exercised in the development of
Code allowable stress values and the use of these values is required for Code-stamped construction.
As a corollary, if the material of interest is not listed in the Code for the applicable type of construction, or at the desired temperature, then it is not possible to qualify the component for a Code stamp.
The designer may, however, use this method for non-Code applications.
A somewhat different approach is taken in EN 13445. There, the mean creep rupture strength and
mean stress for a 1% strain limit are listed in referenced standards for approved materials for various
times and temperatures. The requirements for extrapolation or interpolation to other conditions are
dened and the safety factors to be applied are dened as a function of the application as described
above.

1.4.2

Larson-Miller Parameter

As might be expected, there are numerous methods (Conway, 1969) for extrapolation of creep data;
the ASME procedure described above is the one used for establishment of allowable stresses shown
in Section II, Part D. Generally, the use of other extrapolation techniques would only be required for
non-coded construction or for evaluation of failure modes beyond the scope of the applicable code.
Penny and Marriott (1995) provide an extensive assessment of various extrapolation techniques, including the widely used Larson-Miller parameter, which they characterize as simple and convenient
but not particularly accurate.

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16 Chapter 1

The starting point for development of the Larson-Miller (Grant, 1965) parameter is to assume that
creep is a rate process governed by the Arrhenius equation
de c /dT = Ae (-Q/RT )

(1.1)

where
A = constant
Q = activation energy for the creep process, assumed a function of stress only
R = universal gas constant
T = absolute temperature (460+F)
T = time
Noting that from the Monkman-Grant relationship the time to rupture, Tr, times the minimum
creep rate can be assumed to be constant, Eq. (1.1) can be rewritten as
ATr e (-Q/RT ) = constant

Taking logarithms of each side, the Larson-Miller parameter, PLM, can be expressed as
(1.2)

T C  log 10T

P LM

where PLM is a function of stress and independent of temperature. It was also assumed that C is independent of both stress and temperature and is a function of material only. Experimental data shows
that the range of C for various materials is between 15 and 27. Most steels have an A value of 20.
Hence, Eq. (1.2) can be expressed as
PLM

460  qF 20  log10T

(1.3)

The Larson-Miller parameter is also used to correlate creep data using specic values of C that are
material and temperature range dependent, thus minimizing some of the uncertainties.
Another important use of the Larson-Miller parameter is determination of equivalent time at temperature as shown by the following examples.
Example 1.3
A pressure vessel component was designed at 1200F with a life expectancy of 100,000 hours. What
is the expected life if the design were lowered to 1175F?
Solution
The Larson-Miller parameter for the original design condition is obtained from Eq. (1.3) as
PLM

460  1200 20  log10100000


41500

Using this value for the new design condition yields


41500

or

460  1175 20  log10T

log10T
T

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Basic Concepts 17

which indicates a 2.4-fold increase in the life of the component when the temperature drops 25F.
Example 1.4
A pressure vessel shell is constructed of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. The thickness is 4 in. and requires a post
weld heat treating at 1300F for 4 hours. The fabricator requires two separate post weld heat treats (8
hours) and the user needs three more post weld heat treats (12 hours) for future repair. Hence, a total
of 20 hours are needed. The material supplier furnishes the steel plates with material properties guaranteed for a minimum of 20 hours of post weld heat treating. During the manufacturers second post
weld heat treat, the temperature spiked to 1325F for 2 hours. How many hours are left for the user?
Solution
Calculate PLM from Eq. (1.3) for 2 hours at 1325F.
P LM

460  1325 20  log10 2


36237

Substitute back into Eq. (1.3) to calculate the equivalent time for 1300F.
36237
T

460  1300 20  log10T


39 hours

Thus, the fabricator used a total of 4.0 + (2.0 + 3.9) = 9.9 hours.
Available hours for the user = 20 - 9.9 = 10.1 hours. This corresponds to two full post weld heat
treats plus one partial post weld heat treat.

1.4.3

Omega Method

The Omega method (Prager, 2000) is based on a different model for creep behavior than that described above for the Larson-Miller parameter. Originally developed to address the issue of determining
the accumulated damage, and thus the remaining life of service-exposed equipment, the Omega method
is based on the observation that, at design stress levels, both the primary creep and secondary creep
phases are of relatively short duration with small strain accumulation and that most of the component
life is spent in the third stage, where the strain rate is increasing with time and accumulated strain. In
the Omega method, the creep strain rate is accelerated in accordance with the following relationship:
ln dH dT

ln dH 0 dT  : p H

(1.4)

where
(d/dT) and (d0/dT) = current and initial strain rates, respectively
Wp = Omega parameter
= current strain level
From this relationship, various parameters relating to accumulated damage and remaining life may
be developed. The Omega method has been incorporated into API 579 for remaining life assessments.
An example is provided in Chapter 4.

1.4.4

Negligible Creep Criteria

Another issue of interest is the temperature at which creep becomes signicant. To answer this
quantitatively, the key point is, signicant compared to what? There are no single, rigorous criteria
for assessing when creep effects are negligible. However, in each of the design codes of interest, the
criteria for negligible creep applicable to that particular design code are dened.

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18 Chapter 1

For Sections I and VIII-1, the comparison is between the results provided by the allowable stress
criteria based on short-time tensile tests without creep and long-term tests with creep. When the allowable stress as a function of temperature is governed by creep properties, the stress value is italicized
in Section II, Part D, Table 1. However, in this case, even though the allowable stress is governed by
creep properties, the design evaluation procedures do not change.
The situation is different with Section III-NH. In NH, there are two sets of allowable stresses for
primary (load-controlled) stresses to be used in the evaluation of Service Conditions. One set, Sm, is
time-independent and a function of short-time tensile tests. The other set, St, is time-dependent and
a function of creep. As will be discussed in more detail later, the design rules for time-independent
and time-dependent allowable stress levels are different. However, it is in the rules for displacementcontrolled stresses, such as thermally induced stresses, that the criteria for negligible creep are the
most restrictive.
The NH criteria for negligible creep for displacement-controlled stresses are based on the idea that,
under maximum stress conditions, creep effects should not compromise the design rules for strain
limits or creep-fatigue damage. The key consideration from that perspective is that the actual stress in
a localized area can be much greater due to discontinuities, stress concentrations, and thermal stresses
than the wall-averaged primary stresses in equilibrium with external loads. Basically, the magnitude of
the localized stress will be limited by the materials actual yield stress because it is at this stress level
that the material will deform to accommodate higher stresses due to structural discontinuities or thermal gradients. Thus, the objective of the negligible creep criteria for localized stresses is to ensure that
the damage due to the effects of creep at the materials yield strength will not signicantly impact the
design rules for the failure mode of concern. For example, there are two resulting criteria, one based
on negligible creep damage and the other based on negligible strain. For negligible creep rupture damage, the III-NH criteria are given by

Ti Tid d

01

(1.5)

where
Ti = the time duration at high temperature
Tid = the allowable time duration at a stress level of 1.5 times the yield strength, Sy
For negligible strain, the criteria are given by

Hi d

02

(1.6)

where
i = the creep strain at a stress of 1.25 times yield strength, Sy
In Code Case N-253, which provides elevated temperature design rules for Class 2 and 3 nuclear
components, Appendix E contains a gure that shows time temperature limits below which creep
effects need not be considered in evaluating deformation-controlled limits. These curves are lower,
smoothed versions of the Subsection NH criteria for negligible creep for a limited number of materials: cast and wrought 304 and 316 stainless steel, nickel-based Alloy 800H, low alloy steel, and carbon
steel. The advantage of these curves is that no computations are required.
The French code for elevated temperature nuclear components, RCC-MR, also provides criteria for
negligible creep, which is somewhat different than that provided in Subsection NH. The procedures are
more involved than those in Subsection NH, but the resulting values for long-term service are similar to
the temperature limits of Subsection NB, 700F for ferritic and 800F for austenitic and nickel-based
alloys. For 316L(N) stainless steel, whose creep properties are fairly close to 316SS, the time-temperature
limit curve is generally in agreement with the curve shown in Code Case N-253 for 316SS.

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Basic Concepts 19

1.4.5

Environmental Effects

As stated in its Foreword, the ASME B&PV Code does not specically address environmental effects. However, non-mandatory general guidance is provided in several Sections. Section II, Part D,
Appendix A provides guidance on metallurgical effects including a number of references on corrosion
and stress corrosion cracking. Section VIII, Div 1, Appendix E contains suggested good practice for
determining corrosion allowances, which are the responsibility of the user to specify based on the
equipments intended service. It is noted that the corrosion allowance is in addition to the minimum
required thickness. Section III, Appendix W, has a comprehensive discussion of environmental effects. Included for each phenomenon is a discussion of the mechanism, materials, design, mitigating
actions, and references.
In the context of elevated temperature applications, the designer should be particularly aware of
environments that can reduce a materials creep rupture life and/or ductility. For example, it has been
shown that short-term exposure to oxygen at temperatures exceeding 1650F (900C) could lead to
embrittlement at intermediate temperatures of 13001500F (705C to 815C), which was attributed
to intergranular diffusion of oxygen. Hydrogen, chlorine, and sulfur may also cause embrittlement due
to penetration. Sulfur is of particular concern because it diffuses more rapidly and embrittles more
severely than oxygen.

1.4.6

Monkman-Grant Strain

Another parameter of interest is the strain computed by multiplying the time to rupture by the secondary creep rate. This strain parameter, shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1.7, is sometimes known as the
Monkman-Grant strain. As discussed by Penny and Marriott (1995), this computed strain has been
shown to be useful in correlating rupture under variable loading conditions. A corollary of this approach
is that it implies that the primary creep strain may be disregarded in assessing damage accumulation.
It has also been suggested that a relevant measure of creep ductility for the application of reference
stress methods (Section 1.5.3.2) in the presence of local stress discontinuities is for the material of
interest to show a ratio of total strain at failure to the Monkman-Grant strain of at least 5:1.

1.5 REQUIRED PRESSURE RETAINING WALL THICKNESS


There are basically two approaches in general use in design for determining the wall thickness required to resist internal pressure and applied external loads. The rst is usually referred to as Design
by Rule or Design by Formula (DBF in the European Standard terminology) and the second is Design
by Analysis (DBA). As an alternative to DBA, there are other approaches based on experimental
methods; however, those methods are generally not applicable in the creep regime. In addition to the
above approaches, there are many pressure-retaining components that have standardized allowable
pressure ratings as a function of design temperature. Typically, these include anges, piping components, and valve bodies. In general, these pressure/temperature ratings do not include the effects
of loadings other than internal pressure. The following discussion will provide an overview of these
methodologies; the specic requirements for their implementation will be discussed in later chapters.

1.5.1

Design by Rule

In this approach, formulas are provided for the required thickness as a function of the design pressure, allowable stress, and applicable parameters dening the geometry of interest. Numerous diagrams are provided to dene the requirements for specic congurations, for example, reinforcement
of openings, head-to-cylinder joints, and weldments. This is the approach used, for example, in Section
VIII, Div 1 Unred Pressure Vessels, and Section I Power Boilers of the ASME B&PV Code.

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Chapter 1

1.5.2

Design by Analysis

In the DBA approach, stress levels are determined at various critical locations in the structure
and compared to allowable stress levels, which are a function of the applied loading conditions and
failure mode under consideration. The most commonly used methodology, particularly at elevated
temperatures, is based on elastically calculated stresses, which are sequentially categorized based on
the relevant failure mode. Primary stresses (those that normally determine wall thickness) are rst
determined by separating the structure into simpler segments (free bodies) in equilibrium with external loads. Next, secondary and peak stresses (which in combination with primary stresses normally
determine cyclic life) are determined from stresses at structural discontinuities and induced thermal
stresses. Different allowable stresses are assigned to the different stress categories based on the failure
mode of concern.

1.5.3

Approximate Methods

There is another category of Design-by-Analysis methodologies that are approximate in the sense
that they approximate the true time-dependent stress and strain history in a component. In fact,
considering the variations in creep behavior and difculties encountered in dening comprehensive
models of material behavior, they can be quite useful under appropriate circumstances. Two main approaches will be described. The rst is the elastic analog or stationary creep solution and the second
is the reference stress approach, which is somewhat analogous to limit analysis.
1.5.3.1 Stationary Creep Elastic Analog. Subject to certain restrictions on representation of
creep behavior, a structure subjected to a constant load will reach a condition where the stress distribution does not change with time, thus the term stationary creep. The fundamental restriction on
material representation is that the creep strain is the product of independent functions of stress and
time. Conceptually, stationary creep is valid when the strains and strain rates due to creep are large
compared to elastic strains and strain rates.
If the structure is statically determinate throughout, then the initial stress distribution will not
change with time, subject to the applicability of small displacement theory that applies to the large
majority of practical design problems. Examples would be a single bar with a constant tension load
and the stresses in the wall of a thin-walled cylinder, remote from discontinuities, subjected to a constant internal pressure.
However, it is with indeterminate structures that the stationary creep concept is of most value. In
a structure with redundant load paths or subject to local redistribution, i.e., a beam in bending, it has
been shown that the stress redistribution will take place relatively quickly; on the order of the time it
takes for the creep strain to equal twice the initial elastic strain. For a set of variables representative of
pressure vessels in current use, Penny and Marriott calculated an effective redistribution time of about
100 hours. Although this would be a long time if the vessel were subject to signicant daily cycles, it
is a short time compared to times of extended operation.
A number of investigators have shown that because the stress distribution in stationary creep does
not vary with time, and thus corresponding creep rates are constant, the stationary creep stress distribution is analogous to the non-linear elastic stress distribution, and solutions to the creep problem
can be obtained from solutions to the non-linear elastic stress distribution problem. This is usually
referred to as the elastic analog. Although the elastic analog has been shown as valid in more general terms, a more convenient representation is based on the analogy between a simple power law
representation of steady, secondary creep in which primary creep is considered negligible
dH dT

k Vn

(1.7)

which results in the following expression for accumulated creep strain:

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k 'TV n

(1.8)

This is analogous to the equation for non-linear elasticity


H

K Vn

(1.9)

An example of stationary creep solutions for various values of the power law exponent, n, is shown
in Fig. 1.13. This is the non-dimensional stationary creep solution for a beam in bending with a constant applied moment. Note that for n = 1 the stress distribution is elastic, and for n the distribution corresponds to that for the assumption of ideal plasticity. All the distributions pass through a
point partway through the wall referred to as a skeletal point. The reduction in steady creep stress
as compared to the initial elastic distribution is the basis for the reduction of the elastically calculated
bending stress by a section factor when comparing calculated stresses to allowable stress levels in
Subsection NH and other design criteria.
1.5.3.2 Reference Stress. The initial idea of the reference stress was that the creep behavior of a
structure could be evaluated by use of the data from a single creep test at its reference stress. Initially
applied to problems of creep deformation, there were a number of analytical solutions developed for
specic geometries. However, Sim (1968), noting that reference stress is independent of creep exponent

FIG. 1.13
STEADY-STATE CREEP STRESS DISTRIBUTION ACROSS A RECTANGULAR BEAM IN
PURE BENDING AND HAVING A STEADY-STATE CREEP LAW OF THE FORM C = A
(OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY)

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Chapter 1

and also that the solution for an innite creep exponent is analogous to the limit solution corresponding to ideal plasticity, proposed that the reference stress could be conservatively obtained from
VR

PPL V y

(1.10)

where
P = load on the structure
PL = limit value of the load
R = reference stress
y = the yield stress
There have been numerous comparisons between the results of this approach and experimental and
rigorous analyses of the same component or test article. In general, the results are quite favorable. Although the reference stress approach has not been incorporated in the ASME B&PV Code, it has been
used in the British elevated temperature design code for nuclear systems, R5, and in the recent European Standard EN 13445. However, the British standard recommends an adjusted reference stress for
design given by a factor of 1.2 times the reference stress from the Sims relationship given above. Also,
as previously noted, the EN standard cautions against the use of the reference stress method by those
not familiar with its application.
Part of the reason for this concern is inherent in the basis for both limit loads and reference stress
determination. Both are based on structural instability considerations and not local damage. As such,
there is an inherent requirement that the material under consideration be sufciently ductile. This is
easier to achieve at temperatures below the creep range. Within the creep range, ductility decreases,
particularly at the lower stress levels associated with design conditions. There have been some studies to more specically identify creep ductility requirements, but current thinking would put it in the
range of 5% to 10% for balanced structures without extreme strain concentrating mechanisms.
The following example highlights the differences between an elastically calculated stress distribution, a steady stationary creep stress distribution, and the reference stress distribution.
Example 1.5
Consider the two-bar model shown in Fig. 1.14. As explained in Chapter 2, this is actually representative of the way in which cyclone separators are sometimes hung from vessels. For this example, the
two, parallel, uniaxial bars are of equal area, A, unequal lengths L1 and L2, and attached to a rigid boss
constrained to move in the vertical direction only. The assembly is loaded with a constant force F.
Compare the (1) initial elastic stress, (2) stationary stress, and (3) reference stress in each bar. Assume
that creep is modeled with a power law with exponent n = 3. Consider two cases. In the rst case,
L1 = L2/8 and in the second case, L1 = L2/2.
Solution
(1) Elastic analysis
The initial elastic distribution can be expressed as
H 1 0

V 1 0 E and H 2 0

V 2 0 E

(a)

where
1(0), 1(0) and 2(0), 2(0) = initial strain and stress in bars 1 and 2, respectively
E = modulus of elasticity
From equilibrium
F

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Basic Concepts 23

FIG. 1.14
TWO-BAR MODEL WITH CONSTANT LOAD

From displacement compatibility


L1H 1 0

L2H 2 0

(c)

Substituting Eq. (a) into Eq. (c) gives


L1V 1

L2 V 2 or V 2

L1 L2 V 1

(d)

Substituting Eq. (d) into Eq. (b) gives


F

A >V 1  L1 L2 V 1@

(e)

From which, solving for the initial elastic stress distribution gives
V 1 0

>L2  L1  L2 @FA

(f )

V 2 0

>L1  L1  L2 @FA

(g)

(2) Stationary stress analysis


The solution for the stationary stress distribution in each bar proceeds in a similar fashion.
The equilibrium equation (a) remains the same.
The strain rate at any time can be expressed as the sum of elastic and creep strain rates

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24 Chapter 1

k V1n  dV 1 dT E and dH 2 T

dH 1 dT

k V2n  dV 2 dT E

(h)

From displacement rate compatibility


L1dH 1 dT

(i)

L2dH 2 dT

Using the above relationships, an equation can be developed involving functions of 1; but, as noted
by Kraus (1980), it cannot be solved in closed form. However, we are interested in the stationary creep
solution, where d/dT 0 and (d/dT )/E << K n. Thus, Eq. (h) in the stationary creep regime becomes
dH 1 f dT

k V 1 f n and d H 2 f dT

k V 2 f n

( j)

Substituting Eq. ( j) into Eq. (i) provides the following relationship for 2()
V 2 f

1n

1n

L1 L 2 V 1 f

(k)

From the above and the equilibrium equation (b), the following expressions for stationary stress
distribution may be obtained:
1n

1n

1n

V 1 f

> L2  L1  L2 @FA

V 2 f

> L1  L1  L2 @FA

1n

1n

1 n

(l)
(m)

(Note that, from the elastic analog, the initial elastic stress distribution corresponds to the steady
creep solution with n = 1.)
(3) Reference stress analysis
The reference stress is obtained from Eq. (1.10), noting that the limit load in each bar is equal to
Ay
V 1 R

V 2 R

F 2A

(n)

(Note that a similar result is obtained by letting n in the stationary creep stress solution as
predicted by the Sim hypothesis.)
The following results are obtained for case #1, where L1 = L2/8:
Initial elastic stress: 1(0) = (8/9)F/A, 2(0) = (1/9)F/A
Stationary creep stress: 1() = (2/3)F/A , 2() = (1/3)F/A
Reference stress: 1(R) = (1/2)F/A, 2(R) = (1/2)F/A
In a similar fashion, for case #2, where L1 = L2/2:
Initial elastic stress: 1(0) = (2/3)F/A , 2(0) = (1/3)F/A
Stationary creep stress: 1() = (0.56)F/A , 2() = (0.44)F/A
Reference stress: 1(R) = (1/2)F/A, 2(R) = (1/2)F/A
Discussion
Case #1 is representative of a highly unbalanced system with an extreme stress concentration. The
initial elastically calculated stresses differ by a factor of 8. The stationary creep stresses differ by a
factor of 2 and the reference stress is equal in both bars. This phenomena is sometimes referred to as
load shedding However, for this highly unbalanced system, the strain in the shorter, stiffer bar is
also a factor of 8 higher than the lower stressed bar. As a result, the question arises as to whether there

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Basic Concepts 25

is sufcient creep ductility in the shorter bar to eventually realize the lower reference stress level. If the
shorter bar fails prematurely, the entire load will shift to the longer, more lightly loaded bar, causing
the stress in that bar to increase to twice the reference stress level. Depending on the creep ductility
and how far into the loading cycle the shorter bar fails, the result could be a premature failure of the
two-bar system.
Case #2 represents a more balanced system without an extreme stress concentration. The stationary
creep solution is within 6% of the reference stresses and the strain ratio is only a factor of 2. In this
case, one would not expect a premature failure.
Although it is difcult develop quantied guidance from these two cases, the lesson to be taken from
this is that considerable caution should be taken in applying reference stress methods to highly unbalanced systems, particularly if the creep ductility of the material of construction is suspect.

1.6 EFFECTS OF STRUCTURAL DISCONTINUITIES AND


CYCLIC LOADING
This is a general discussion to acquaint the designer with relevant structural phenomena of signicance to the evaluation of elevated temperature failure modes associated with structural discontinuities and cyclic loading. Specic rules and procedures will be presented in subsequent chapters.

1.6.1

Elastic Follow-Up

Elastic follow-up can cause larger strains in a structure with applied displacement-controlled loading than would be calculated using an elastic analysis. These strain concentrations may result when
structural parts of different exibility are connected in series loaded by an applied displacement and
the exible portions are highly stressed. In order for follow-up to occur, in a two-bar model for example as shown in Fig. 1.15, it is necessary for a lower stressed, exible element to be able to generate
inelastic deformation in a more highly stressed adjacent element. The other requirement is that the
lower stressed remainder of the structure be capable of transmitting a signicant deformation to the
more highly stressed portion of the structure subject to inelastic deformation.
In the two-bar example, a displacement applied to the end of the smaller diameter bar, B, will
initially cause an elastic deformation in both A and B, with B being the more highly stressed bar. Although under creep conditions the stress in A and B will both relax, the higher stress in B will cause
further creep deformation in B and some of the initial elastic deformation in A will be absorbed in B
hence the term elastic follow-up. This process is shown schematically in Fig. 1.16. The path 0-1
is the initial elastic loading and the path 1-2 shows the stress relaxation in time, T. If there were no
elastic follow-up, i.e., the stresses in A and B were equal, there would be pure relaxation without
follow-up along path 1-3.
Also, if A is very much stiffer than B, such that the force in B will cause a negligible deformation in
A, then there will also be pure relaxation in B. This is why the stress due to a local hot spot in a vessel
wall is classied as a peak thermal stress.
One method for dening elastic follow-up is to compute the ratio of 0-2, the creep strain in B at
time, t, to the creep strain that would have occurred under pure relaxation, 0-1. Thus, the elastic follow-up, q, is given by
q

H 0c  2 H 0c  1

(1.11)

Note that for q = 1, there is no follow-up, just pure relaxation and if q the stress in B behaves
as though loaded by a sustained load, i.e., load-controlled, rather than displacement-controlled. For
most geometries loaded in the displacement-controlled mode, q = 2 or less with a reasonable upper
bound of q 3. A more representative case of elastic follow-up is illustrated by Fig. 1.17, a tubesheet

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FIG. 1.15
TWO-BAR MODEL WITH ELASTIC FOLLOW-UP

connected to a shell at a different temperature. Elastic follow-up effects can increase the strain and
stress levels at the tubesheet-to-shell junction as shown in Fig. 1.18, which shows representative hysteresis loop with and without elastic follow-up.
The main consequence of elastic follow-up is to reduce the predicted cyclic life as compared to the
life that would be predicted from an elastic analysis without consideration of elastic follow-up. This
is due to two effects as shown in Fig. 1.18. The actual strain range will be greater than that predicted
by an unadjusted elastic analysis and the stress level will be higher due to the slowed rate of stress
relaxation.
In general, there are two approaches to deal with this problem. The rst and most rigorous approach is to do a full inelastic analysis, which predicts the stress and strain at critical points in the
structure as a function of time. The disadvantage of this approach is that it requires complex models

FIG. 1.16
DEFINITION OF ELASTIC FOLLOW-UP

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Basic Concepts 27

FIG. 1.17
TUBESHEET-TO-SHELL JUNCTION WITH RELATIVE DEFLECTION, ,
DUE TO TEMPERATURE

of material behavior, which may only have been established for a quite limited number of materials.
These models require substantial judgment in their selection and use, and the actual computation
times and effort involved in interpreting the results can be signicant.
The second approach is based on elastic analysis without directly considering the effects of inelastic
behavior. In this approach, adjustments are made to the elastic analysis results to compensate for the
effects of inelastic behavior. The disadvantage of this approach is that the simpler methods tend to
be overly conservative and the more complex methods can, themselves, be difcult to interpret and
implement.

FIG. 1.18
HYSTERESIS LOOP WITH AND WITHOUT ELASTIC FOLLOW-UP

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28 Chapter 1

1.6.2

Pressure-Induced Discontinuity Stresses

In Section 1.5.2, the rst step was to separate the structure into free bodies and compute the primary stresses in equilibrium with primary loads. The second step is to establish structural continuity by
applying self-equilibrating loads to the boundaries of the free body segments. The stresses resulting
from these self-equilibrating loads are called discontinuity stresses. This procedure for calculating discontinuity stresses is described in detail in Article A-6000 of the Section III, Division 1 Appendices.
At elevated temperature where creep is signicant, it has been shown by analysis and experiment
that the discontinuity stresses resulting from applied pressure do not relax as might be expected from
self-equilibrating loads. Figure 1.19 (Becht et al., 1989) is a comparison of the analytically predicted
stress history for several structural congurations and loading conditions. A key comparison is case
#5 for a built-in cylinder (radial and rotational constrain at the edge) versus case #1 for pure straincontrolled stress relaxation. After an initial redistribution of stress across the thickness, the discontinuity stress at the built-in edge is essentially constant, analogous to a primary stress. The explanation
for this is that under creep conditions, the free body segments of the structure are undergoing
continuous deformation due to creep with a resultant continuous increasing relative displacement
at the interfaces. This increasing relative displacement prevents relaxation of the interface loads and
resultant discontinuity stresses. Although this phenomenon does not exactly t the elastic follow-up
model, the resulting non-relaxing discontinuity stress is analogous to the case where q , indicative
of a sustained, non-relaxing load, e.g., a primary stress.
Pressure (and mechanical load)-induced discontinuity stresses do not affect the required wall thickness, but they can affect the strain and accumulated creep damage at structural discontinuities. Thus,
in the rules in Subsection NH and most other elevated temperature nuclear code criteria, these stresses
are classied as primary when evaluating strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using the results of

FIG. 1.19
STRESS RELAXATION AND STRAIN ACCUMULATION FOR PRESSURE DISCONTINUITY
(CASE 5), THERMAL DISCONTINUITY (CASE 10), AND SECONDARY STRESS
(CASES 1 AND 2) (RAO, 2002)

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Basic Concepts 29

elastic analyses. If strain limits and creep-fatigue damage are evaluated using inelastic analysis accounting for creep, then this effect is automatically included.
For criteria based on Design-by-Rule, there are some restrictions that qualitatively address nonrelaxing pressure-induced discontinuity stresses. For example, in the design rules of Section VIII,
Div 1, this issue is addressed for a number of congurations by the requirement for a 3:1 taper when
joining plates of unequal thickness (UW-9(c)) and head to shell joints (UW-13).

1.6.3

Shakedown and Ratcheting

Ratcheting can be described as progressive incremental deformation and shakedown can be described as the absence of ratcheting. Another, similar denition of shakedown is used in the criteria
for Section III, Class 1 and Section VIII, Div 2. In this case, shakedown is considered to occur when
there is negligible plasticity after a few loading cycles. This later approach is illustrated by Figs. 1.20a
and b for elastic-plastic materials with no strain hardening or creep. Consider a tensile specimen that
is strained in tension to a value t, as shown in Fig. 1.20a, which is somewhat greater than the strain
at yield, y, and less than twice y. The initial loading will follow path OAB, initially yielding at A
and continuing to plastically deform until the maximum tensile strain is reached at B. The unloading
portion of the cycle consists of reversing the applied strain to the original staring point, O, following
path BC without yielding. Subsequent loading for the same strain range, 0 t 0, will cycle along
the path BC without yielding, hence the term shakedown. If, on the other hand, the applied strain
range is greater that twice the strain at yield, as shown in Fig. 1.20b, the loading will follow the path
OADEF and there will be yielding from E to F on the unloading cycle. Subsequent cycles of the same
strain range will trace out a hysteresis loop with plasticity at each end of the cycle. What enables
shakedown when the strain range, t, is less than twice the strain at the yield strength is the establishment of a residual stress extending the strain range that can be achieved without yielding in cyclic
strain-controlled loading. However, because the residual stress is limited to the yield strength, if the
applied strain range exceeds twice the strain at yield there will be straining in tension and compression
at either end of the cycle and shakedown will not occur.
In the creep regime, the residual stresses will relax and the strain range that can be achieved without
yielding on each cycle is reduced. There is, however, a quite useful elevated temperature analogy to

FIG. 1.20
STRESS AND STRAIN FOR CYCLIC STRAIN-CONTROLLED LOADING WITHOUT CREEP

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30 Chapter 1

the low-temperature shakedown concept. This is illustrated in Figs. 1.21 and 1.23, which are plots of
stress versus time, and Figs. 1.22 and 1.24, which are the corresponding plots of stress versus strain
for strain-controlled loading.
As in the preceding example without creep, in the case shown in Figs. 1.21 and 1.22 the initial
loading follows the path OAB but now the strain is held constant for a certain period and the stress
relaxes to B. The strain is then reversed to point 0, the initial starting point, reaching a compressive
stress at C. If the initial strain beyond yield is sufciently limited, there will be no yielding when the
applied strain is reversed and, assuming that there is no creep at the reversed end of the cycle (either
the temperature is below the creep range or the duration is short), there will not be subsequent yielding upon reloading to point B. During the next tensile hold portion of the cycle, the stress will relax to
B and will subsequently reach C when the strain cycle is reversed. Under these conditions, the cyclic
history will be as shown in Figs. 1.21 and 1.22, and the criteria for shakedown will be that the stress
range associated with the applied strain range does not exceed the yield stress at the cold (or short
duration) end of the cycle plus the stress remaining after full relaxation of the yield stress over the life
of the component. Thus, a criterion for shakedown in the creep regime becomes
H t d V yc E cold  V r Ehot

(1.12)

where
Ecold and Ehot = modulus of elasticity at cold end and hot end of the cycle, respectively
t = applied strain range
yc = yield strength at the cold (or short time) end of the cycle, approximately equal to 1.5Scold
r = relaxation strength, the stress remaining after the strain at yield strength is held constant for
the total life under consideration. It can be conservatively approximated by 0.5Shot
Equation (1.12) can also be expressed in terms of calculated stress as
P L  Pb  Q d V yc  V r

(1.13)

where
Pb = primary bending stress intensity
PL = primary local membrane stress intensity
Q = secondary stress

FIG. 1.21
STRESS HISTORY FOR CYCLIC STRAIN CONTROL WITH CREEP AND SHAKEDOWN

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Basic Concepts 31

FIG. 1.22
STRESS AND STRAIN CYCLIC STRAIN CONTROL WITH CREEP AND SHAKEDOWN
And PL, Pb, and Q are computed using the values of E corresponding to the operating condition being evaluated. Note that, generally, the use of Ecold will be conservative.
The above is a very useful concept for the design of elevated temperature components, as will be
discussed in more detail in subsequent chapters, particularly Chapters 4 and 5.
Figures 1.23 and 1.24 illustrate the case where the strain range is greater and there is yielding at the
end of the strain unloading cycle. The load path goes from 0 to A with subsequent yielding until D.
During the hold time at D, the stress relaxes to E. This is followed by the unloading or reversed strain
portion of the cycle that results in yielding at F until the cycle is completed at G. For the cycle shown,

FIG. 1.23
STRESS HISTORY FOR CYCLIC STRAIN CONTROL WITH CREEP AND
WITHOUT SHAKEDOWN

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FIG. 1.24
CYCLIC STRAIN CONTROL WITH CREEP AND WITHOUT SHAKEDOWN
there will be subsequent yielding on the tensile portion of the cycle and the stress at the start of the
hold period, D, will equal the hot yield strength. In effect, the creep damage for each cyclic hold time
will be reinitiated at the yield strength, thus greatly increasing the creep damage as compared to the
previous case where the stress at the start of the cycle will be the same as the relaxed stress at the end
of the previous hold time. In the case of the higher strain range, a hysteresis loop is established with
creep strain and yielding in each cycle. One of the signicant differences between the two cases is that
for shakedown, the creep damage is only that associated with monotonic stress relaxation throughout
life. In the alternate case, where shakedown is not achieved, the creep damage is accumulated at a
signicantly higher stress level.
As noted above, another use for the term shakedown is to denote freedom from ratcheting, i.e.,
progressive incremental deformation. In the preceding example, the loading was considered to be a
fully reversed strain-controlled cycle. However, in normal design practice, there are both primary loads
and secondary loads and these loadings in combination can cause ratcheting. (Purely displacementcontrolled thermal stresses can also result in ratcheting, but these cases are usually associated with
complete through-the-wall yielding.)
Bree (1968) evaluated potential ratcheting in cylinders under constant pressure and with a cyclic
linear radial thermal gradient. He developed the relationships shown in Fig. 1.25, which identify various regimes of behavior as a function of the relative magnitude of the elastically calculated thermal
stress and pressure stress divided by the yield stress. Six areas of behavior were identied. Regions R1
and R2 resulted in ratcheting or incremental growth even without creep. Region P resulted in plastic
cycling in the absence of creep and the regions S1 and S2 shook down to elastic action after one or two
cycles, again in the absence of creep. If creep is considered, only one region, E, resulted in structural

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Basic Concepts 33

FIG. 1.25
BREE DIAGRAM (BREE, 1967)
behavior that could be considered as not being subject to incremental growth. Although useful, the
simple approach of designing to remain in the elastic region, E, can be too restrictive.
Based on a Bree type model, ODonnell and Porowski (1974) developed a less conservative approach to assess the strains accumulated due to pressure (primary stresses) and cyclic thermal gradients (secondary stresses). This technique is a methodology for putting an upper bound on the strains
that can accumulate due to ratcheting. The key feature of this technique is identifying an elastic core
in a component subjected to primary loads and cyclic secondary loads. Once the magnitude of this
elastic core has been established, the deformation of the component can be bounded by noting that
the elastic core stress governs the net deformation of the section. Deformation in the ratcheting, R,
regions of the Bree diagram can also be estimated by considering individual cyclic deformation. The
resulting modications to the basic Bree diagram are shown in Fig. 1.26.
A much more comprehensive development of the Bree and ODonnell/Porowski assessment of
ratcheting is presented in Appendix A.

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34

Chapter 1

FIG. 1.26
ODONNELL AND POROWSKIS MODIFIED BREE DIAGRAM (ASME III-NH)

1.6.4

Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue

A very important consideration in elevated temperature design is the reduction in cyclic life due to
the effects of creep. This is illustrated by Fig. 1.27 showing the effects of hold time on the cyclic life of
304 stainless steel at 1100F (595C). The loading cycle is constantly increasing tensile strain followed
by a hold time at a xed strain and then a constantly decreasing strain back to the original starting
point. This is referred to as a strain-controlled test as compared to a load-controlled test, where the
load is increased to a xed level and then reversed. During the hold period at a xed strain, the specimen undergoes pure relaxation with no elastic follow-up. As can be seen from the gure, as the hold

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Basic Concepts 35

FIG. 1.27
EFFECT OF TENSION HOLD TIME ON THE FATIGUE LIFE OF AISI TYPE 304 STAINLESS
STEEL AT 1100F IN AIR (AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 1976)

time increases the cycles to failure reduce. For a hold time of 1 hour, the reduction in life in this test is
on the order of a factor of 10, and it is not clear from the data if longer hold times will result in a further
reduction in life. Fortunately, for most materials, as the hold time increases the stress relaxes and the
rate damage accumulation slows until the effect essentially saturates. Such a saturation effect is shown
in Fig. 1.28, which is based on 304 stainless steel data at 1200F (650C). At this temperature, relaxation is fairly rapid and saturation occurs in the range of roughly 1 to 10 hours depending on the strain
range. Unfortunately, the actual loads encountered in design are not usually purely strain-controlled
because there are usually follow-up effects and non-relaxing stresses from primary loading conditions.
The development of design methodologies to account for the effect of these varying loading mechanisms is one of the greatest challenges in elevated temperature design.
1.6.4.1 Linear Life Fraction Time Fraction. A number of methods have been explored to correlate creep-fatigue test data and to evaluate cyclic life in design. The method chosen for III-NH is
linear damage summation based on linear life fraction for creep damage and Miners rule for fatigue
damage

'TTr  nN f d D

(1.14)

where
DT = time at a given stress level
Tr = allowable time to rupture at that stress level

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36

Chapter 1

FIG. 1.28
HOLD-TIME EFFECTS ON FATIGUE LIFE REDUCTION FOR 304 AND 316 STAINLESS
STEEL (AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 1976)

n = number of cycles of a given strain range


Nf = allowable number of cycles at that strain range
D = factor to account for the interaction of creep and fatigue damage
In practice, safety factors are applied to the given stress level to determine a conservative time to
rupture and to the allowable number of cycles.
For a design evaluation using the above relationship, it is necessary to determine the stress and
strain as a function of time at critical points in the structure. This is conceptually straightforward using
an inelastic analysis that models stress and strain behavior as a function of time. However, as previously noted, the disadvantage of this approach is that it requires complex models of material behavior,
which may only have been established for a quite limited number of materials. These models require
substantial judgment in their selection and use, and the actual computation times and effort involved
in interpreting the results can be signicant.
Alternatively, one can use elastic analysis results in mechanistic models to bound the stress-strain
history without directly considering the effects of inelastic behavior. In this approach, adjustments are
made to the elastic analysis results to compensate for the effects of inelastic behavior. The disadvantage of this approach is that the simpler methods tend to be overly conservative and the more complex
methods can, themselves, be difcult to interpret and implement.
1.6.4.2 Ductility Exhaustion. Another frequently used approach to the assessment of creep damage during cyclic loading is ductility exhaustion. In its simplest form, the combined effect of creep and
fatigue damage may be expressed as

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Basic Concepts 37

' H c dc  nNf d D

(1.15)

where
Dc = strain increment
dc = creep ductility
n = number of cycles of a given strain range
Nf = allowable number of cycles at that strain range
Dcf = factor to account for the interaction of creep and fatigue damage
Most of the above comments regarding the application of the time fraction approach also apply
to the ductility exhaustion approach. Conceptually, it should be easier to calculate creep damage
via ductility exhaustion as compared to time fractions because the time to rupture is quite sensitive
to calculated stress; in contrast, creep ductility can be relatively constant depending on the material.
However, in practice there have been numerous modications to the ductility exhaustion approach to
take into account the variations of creep ductility and signicance of when strain accumulation occurs
during the loading cycle. Experimentally, some studies show better correlation for some materials
using ductility exhaustion, depending on selected modications, but there has not been a clear indication of universal applicability. The ductility exhaustion approach tends to see greater use as a damage
assessment tool in failure analyses than as a design tool.

1.7

BUCKLING AND INSTABILITY

There are two types of buckling that need to be considered: elastic or elastic-plastic buckling that may
occur instantaneously at any time in life, and creep buckling, which may be caused by enhancement of
initial imperfections with time resulting in geometric instability. The essential difference between elastic and elastic-plastic buckling and creep buckling is that elastic and elastic-plastic buckling occurs with
increasing load independent of time, whereas creep buckling is time-dependent and may occur even
when loads are constant. Elastic and elastic-plastic buckling depends only on the geometric conguration and short-time material response at the time of application. Creep buckling occurs at loads below
the elastic and elastic-plastic buckling loads as a result of creep strain accumulation over time.
The sensitivity of creep buckling to initial imperfections is illustrated by the deformation-time relationships shown in Fig. 1.29. Although typical of the behavior of axially compressed columns and externally pressurized cylinders, these curves are representative of most structures. In general, a structural

FIG. 1.29
CREEP BUCKLING DEFLECTION-TIME CHARACTERISTICS (AMERICAN SOCIETY OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 1976)

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38

Chapter 1

component will deviate initially from a perfect geometrical structure by some small amount. Under
a system of loads, below those that would cause elastic or inelastic instability, the initial deection
is magnied over time due to creep. The deection increases until the geometrical conguration becomes unstable, as shown by point A in Fig. 1.29, and buckling occurs.
In Section VIII, Div 1 and Subsection NH, gures are provided that dene temperature and, in the
case of Subsection NH, time limits within which creep effects need not be considered when evaluating
buckling and instability.

Problems
1. The maximum effective strain in the longitudinal weld of a steam drum is limited to 0.5%. What is
the effective operating stress in the cylinder, from Fig. 1.10, that will result in an expected life of
a. 100,000 hours
b. 300,000 hours
2. What is the allowable stress of the material shown in Figs. 1.11 and 1.12 at 1100F based on
creep and rupture criteria?
3. A pressure vessel component operating at 850F has an expected life of 300,000 hours. What
is the expected life if the temperature was inadvertently raised to 900F while maintaining the
same stress level?

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BOILER TUBES SUSPENDED FROM TOP HEADER (COURTESY OF WYATT FIELD


SERVICES, HOUSTON, TEXAS)

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CHAPTER

2
AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS
2.1

INTRODUCTION

Axially loaded members subjected to elevated temperatures are encountered in many structures
such as internal cyclone hangers in process equipment, structural supports for internal trays, and supports of pressure vessels. It is assumed that buckling, which is discussed in Chapter 7, is not a consideration in this chapter. Theoretically, the analysis of uniaxially loaded members operating in the creep
range follow Nortons relationship, correlating stress and strain rate in the creep regime given by
k Vn

dH dT

(2.1)

where
k
= constant
n
= creep exponent, which is a function of material property and temperature
d/dT = strain rate

= stress
This equation, however, is impractical to use for most problems encountered by the engineer. Its
complexity arises from the non-linear relationship between stress and strain rate. In addition, the
equation has to be integrated to obtain strain, and thus deections. A simpler method is normally
used to solve uniaxially loaded members. This method, referred to as the stationary stress method
or the elastic analog method, consists of using a viscoelastic stress-strain equation to evaluate stress
due to creep rather than the more complicated creep equation, which relates strain rate to stress. The
viscoelastic equation is given by
H

K Vn

(2.2)

The results obtained by the stationary stress, Eq. (2.2), are approximate but adequate for most
engineering calculations. This method was rigorously discussed by Hoff (1958) and mentioned in
numerous articles such as those by Hult (1966), Penny and Marriott (1995), and Finnie and Heller
(1959). Hoff proved that Nortons equation (Eq. 2.1) can be replaced with the classical viscoelastic
stress-strain relationship of Eq. (2.2) for a wide range of structures encountered by the engineer when
the following conditions and assumptions are satised:

Creep strain can be interchanged with total strain.


Primary strain is ignored and only secondary strain is considered.
Strain obtained from Eq. (2.2) is numerically equal to the strain rate in Eq. (2.1).
The material property is in accordance with Eq. (2.1).
The stress eld in the solid must remain constant with time. This is usually achieved after initial stress redistribution in an indeterminate structure due to load or temperature application.

41

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42

Chapter 2

Both the viscoelastic structure as well as the creep structure are loaded in the same manner
and have the same boundary conditions.
The justication for using Eq. (2.2) in lieu of Eq. (2.1), with the stated assumptions, can be illustrated for the simple case shown in Fig. 2.1. The stress at sections 1-1 and 2-2 is given by
1 = F/A1

and

2 = F/A2

where
A1, A2 = cross-sectional areas at locations 1-1 and 2-2
1, 2 = stress at locations 1-1 and 2-2
Integration of Eq. (2.1) with respect to time at locations 1-1 and 2-2 and using the above expressions gives
e 1 = k (F/A1) n DT

and

e 2 = k (F/A2) n DT

(2.3)

where
DT = time increment
The ratio of these two expressions is
H 1H 2

FA 1 n  FA 2 n.

(2.4)

The same expression given by Eq. (2.4) can also be obtained from Eq. (2.2) at these two locations.
Thus, the relationship between stress and strain in a structure, subject to the assumptions made above,
is the same whether calculated from Eq. (2.1) or Eq. (2.2). Accordingly, Eq. (2.2) is used because it
is more practical to solve. The designer must realize that the strains obtained from Eq. (2.2) actually
correspond to the strain rates obtained from Eq. (2.1).
The application of Eq. (2.2) to regular engineering problems, although simpler than Eq. (2.1), is still
very complicated due to the non-linear relationship between stress and strain. This is illustrated in the
following example.

Example 2.1
What are the forces in the cyclone support rods shown in Fig. 2.2a using (1) elastic analysis,
(2) plastic analysis, and (3) creep analysis? Assume all members to have the same cross-sectional
area, A.

FIG. 2.1
AXIAL TENSION MEMBER

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Axially Loaded Members 43

FIG. 2.2
STRUCTURAL FRAME

Solution
(a) Elastic analysis
Referring to Fig. 2.2b, Summation of the forces in the horizontal direction gives
F1

F3

(1)

Summation of forces in the vertical direction gives


P  1638 F 1

F2

(2)

From Fig. 2.2c, the deection, D, for member 2 is expressed as


'

(3)

F2 40 AE

From Fig. 2.2c, the deection, D, for member 1 is expressed as


' sin 35

F1 40 cos 35 AE

or
'

(4)

85134 F1AE

Equating Eqs. (3) and (4) gives


F2

2128 F1

F2

0565 P

(5)

And from Eqs. (1), (2), and (5)


F1

0266 P

F3

0266 P

These values are shown in the rst row of Table 2.1.

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Chapter 2

44

TABLE 2.1
F/P VALUES FOR EXAMPLE 2.1
Analysis
Elastic
Creep

F1/P

F2/P

F3/P

1
2
3
4
5
10
100

0.266
0.266
0.323
0.342
0.351
0.357
0.368
0.378
0.379

0.565
0.565
0.471
0.440
0.424
0.415
0.397
0.381
0.379

0.266
0.266
0.323
0.342
0.351
0.357
0.368
0.378
0.379

Plastic

(b) Plastic analysis


In a perfectly plastic analysis, it is assumed that all members have reached their yield stress value.
Background of the structural plastic theory may be found in various books such as Baker and Heyman
(1969) and Beedle (1958). Summation of the forces (Fig. 2.2d) in the vertical direction gives
2 sA A (cos 35 ) + sA A = P

or
F1

F2

F3

0.379 P

A comparison between the maximum force in parts (a) and (b) shows an almost 50% reduction. The
results are shown in the last row of Table 2.1.
(c) Creep analysis
Equations (1) and (2) using summation of forces are still applicable
F1

F3

V1

V3

or
(6)

and
F2

P  1638 F1

V2

PA  1638 V 1

or
(7)

Equations (3) and (4) cannot be used in creep analysis because the relationship D = FL/AE applies
only in the elastic range. The strain in members (1) and (2) are expressed as
e 1 = D (sin 35) /L1 = D(sin 35) /48.831

(8)

and
H2

'400

(9)

The stationary stress Eq. (2.2) will have to be used to correlate stress and strain. Substituting Eqs.
(7), (8), and (9) into Eq. (2.2) results in the following two expressions
' sin 35 48831

K V1n

(10)

and
'40

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Axially Loaded Members 45

Deleting D from these two equations gives


s1 [1.638 + (2.128)1/n ] = P/A

And the forces are equal to


F 1 = [1.638 + (2.128 ) 1/n ]-1 P
F 2 = {1 - 1.638 [1.638 + (2.128 ) 1/n ] -1} P
F 3 = [1.638 + ( 2.128 ) 1/n ]-1 P

These expressions are substantially more complex than those obtained from the elastic or plastic
analysis. The complexity increases exponentially as the number of members and degrees of freedom
increase to the point where it is impractical to use this manual approach to solve large problems.
The magnitudes of F1 and F2 for various n values are shown in Table 2.1. For n = 1, the values of
F1 and F2 are the same as those obtained from an elastic analysis. Also, as n approaches innity, the
values of F1 and F2 approach those obtained from a plastic analysis. Most materials used for pressure
vessel construction operating at elevated temperatures have an n value in the neighborhood of 2.5 to
10. Table 2.1 shows that the difference between the maximum member force having n = 5 and that
obtained from plastic design is only about 9%. This difference reduces to about 5% for n = 10. Accordingly, many engineers in the boiler and pressure vessel area use plastic analysis to evaluate structures in the creep range taking into consideration the accuracy of the analysis. Also, plastic analysis is
much simpler to use compared to creep analysis. The designer can use Eq. (2.2) or a non-linear nite
element analysis when a more accurate result is needed.
Table 2.1 also shows that high member forces obtained from an elastic analysis tend to reduce in
magnitude due to creep, whereas low member forces tend to increase in magnitude due to creep. Accordingly, designing members with high forces obtained from an elastic analysis at elevated temperature results in a conservative design. Conversely, designing members with low forces obtained from an
elastic analysis at elevated temperature results in an unconservative design.
It must also be kept in mind that both the creep and plastic analyses result in some member forces
that change from tension to compression as the applied loads are reduced or eliminated during a cycle.
Accordingly, a special consideration must be given to bracing.

2.2 DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS USING ASME SECTIONS I


AND VIII-1 AS A GUIDE
Design of axially loaded structural components at elevated temperatures in ASME I and VIII-1
construction is straightforward. These two codes require an elastic analysis with the allowable stress
obtained from II-D. At elevated temperatures, the allowable stress in II-D is based on the creep and
rupture criteria as discussed in Chapter 1. Hence, at elevated temperatures, ASME I and VIII-1 permit
an elastic analysis with the allowable stresses obtained from creep and rupture data. This approach,
although commonly used, has many drawbacks. These drawbacks include the lack of imposing limits
on strain and deformation due to creep and ignoring thermal stresses that may lead to excessive strain
in the creep regime due to cyclic conditions.
As described in Section 1.6.3, there is a quite useful concept in the creep regime that is analogous
to the shakedown concept below the creep regime. The resultant shakedown concept in the creep
regime is given by Eq. (1.12) as
H t d V yc E cold  V r Ehot

(2.5)

where
Ecold and Ehot = modulus of elasticity at cold end and hot end of the cycle, respectively
t = applied strain range

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46

Chapter 2

yc = yield strength at the cold (or short time) end of the cycle; it is approximately equal to 1.5Scold
r = relaxation strength, the stress remaining after the strain at yield strength is held constant for
the total life under consideration; it can be conservatively approximated by 0.5Shot
Equation (2.5) can also be expressed in terms of calculated stress as
P L  Pb  Q d V yc  V r

(2.6)

where
Pb = primary bending equivalent stress
PL = primary local membrane equivalent stress
Q = secondary equivalent stress
And PL, Pb, and Q are computed using the values of E corresponding to the operating condition being
evaluated. Note that, in general, the use of Ecold will be conservative. For axial members, Pb is zero
and Eq. (2.6) becomes
PL  Q d 15 S C  S H 2

(2.7)

It is of interest to note that the axial equation for stresses below the creep range is given in VIII-2
as
PL  Q d 15S C  15S H

(2.8)

Equation (2.7) was developed by ASME with the intent of assuring shakedown after a few cycles.
A comparison of the creep (2.7) and the VIII-2 Eq. (2.8) show them to be similar with the exception
of the last term.
The analysis of trusses is easily done by computers using matrix structural analysis. A brief introduction to the application of the matrix theory in solving axial member problems is presented in this
section.
Figure 2.3 shows a typical truss member. Positive direction of forces, applied loads, joint deections, and angles are shown in Fig. 2.3. Member 1, shown in the gure, starts at node 1 and ends at
node 2. At node 1, forces P1 and P2, or deections X1 and X2 in the x and y directions, may be applied
as shown in the gure. Similarly, forces P3 and P4, or deections X3 and X4, can also be applied at node
2. The local member rotation angle with respect to global coordinate system of the truss is measured

FIG. 2.3
SIGN CONVENTION FOR AXIAL MEMBERS

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Axially Loaded Members 47

positive counterclockwise from the positive x direction at the beginning of the member. Tensile force
is as shown in the gure.
The general relationship between applied joint loads and forces in a truss is given by
>P @

>K @>X @

(2.9)

where
[P ] = applied loads at truss joints
[K ] = global stiffness matrix of truss
[X ] = deformation of truss joints
The global stiffness matrix of the truss (Weaver and Gere, 1990) is assembled from the individual
truss member stiffnesses [k ]. The stiffness matrix, [k ], of any member in a truss is expressed as

k1
>k @

k2
k2
k3
 k 1 k 2
 k 2 k 3

k 1
k 2
k1
k2

k 2
k 3
k2
k3

(2.10)

where
k 1 = AE cos2/L
k 2 = AE sin cos/L
k 3 = AE sin2/L
Equation (2.10) is a 4 4 matrix because there are a total of 4 degrees of freedom at the ends of the
member. They are X1, X2, X3, and X4, or P1, P2, P3, and P4. The stiffness matrix of the truss is assembled
by combining the stiffness matrices of all the individual members into one matrix, called the global
matrix. Once the global stiffness matrix [K ] is developed, Eq. (2.9) can be solved for the unknown joint
deections [X ]. This assumes that the load matrix [P] at the nodal points is known.
>X @

>K @1 > P @

(2.11)

The forces in the individual members of the truss are then calculated from the equation
>F @

>D@> Xm@

(2.12)

where
[F ] = force in member
[D] = force-deection matrix of a member
[Xm] = matrix for deection at ends of individual members
The matrix [D] is dened as
>D @

> D 1 D 2

D1

D 2@

(2.13)

where
D1 = AE cos/L
D2 = AE sin/L
The following example illustrates the solution of a truss problem operating in the creep range using
elastic analysis as an approximation.

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48

Chapter 2

Example 2.2
An internal cyclone is supported by three braces as shown in Fig. 2.4a. All braces have the same
cross-sectional area. The total weight of the cyclone and its contents is 10,000 lb. Determine the forces
in the braces and their size. The material of the braces is 304 stainless steel. The design temperature
is 1450F and the modulus of elasticity is 18,700 ksi. The allowable stress in accordance with VIII-1
is 1800 psi at 1450F and 20,000 psi at room temperature.
Solution
Because all members have the same cross-section, they will be assumed to have a cross-sectional
area of 1.0 in.2. The actual area will be determined when the member forces in the truss are obtained
from the analysis. To simplify the discussion in this chapter, and to compare the results with subsequent examples, the braces are assumed to be fabricated from round rods. In actual practice, pipes,
channels, or angles are used.
The load on the truss and the angle of orientation of each truss member are shown in Fig. 2.4b. The
global stiffness is obtained by combining all local member stiffnesses.
Member I (nodal points 1, 2, 3, and 4)
= 60, L = 69.28 in. From Eq. (2.10), the stiffness matrix for member 1 is

116 879
202439

sym m e tri c

67480
116879
67480

116879
202439
116879
2 0 2439

>k @I

67480

FIG. 2.4
CYCLONE SUPPORT FRAME

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Axially Loaded Members 49

Member II (nodal points 1, 2, 5, and 6)


= 90, L = 60.00 in. From Eq. (2.10), the stiffness matrix for member 2 is

0
-311,667
0
311,667

0
0
0

symmetric

0
311,667

[k ]II =

Member III (nodal points 1, 2, 7, and 8)


= 120, L = 69.28 in. From Eq. (2.10), the stiffness matrix for member 3 is

67,480
116 879
67480

sy m m e tri c

116 879
202439
116879
2 0 2 439

>k @III

 116,879
202,439

67480

Combining the above three matrices and deleting the terms that pertain to nodal points 3 through 8
in Fig. 2.4b because they are attached to the head, and hence xed against movement, gives

134960

716545

>P @

>K @

The applied load matrix is


0

10000

The deections at locations 1 and 2 are obtained from Eq. (2.11) as

798 u 10 8

 140 u 10 2

X2

X1

Then, from Eq. (2.12), the member forces are

3262 lb

F3

3262 lb

4350 lb

F1

The maximum force in the support system is in member 2 and is equal to 4350 lb. The required area
is
A

4350 1800
242 in.2

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50

Chapter 2
d 2/4 = 2.42

d = 1.75 in.

or
2

Use 1-in. diameter rods


A = 2.42 in. .
The elastic stresses in members 1 through 3 are then

1350

1350

1800

psi

The effect of temperature variation on the member forces in a truss can easily be incorporated into
the matrix equations as well. The procedure consists of calculating the following equivalent joint load
for members that have a change in temperature
(2.14)

D 'T A E

where
A
= cross-sectional area of member
E
= modulus of elasticity
F
= equivalent member force

= coefcient of thermal expansion


(DT ) = change of temperature in member
The equivalent F force is then entered as a nodal force and the truss nodal deections are calculated
from Eq. (2.11). The nal forces are those calculated from Eq. (2.12) minus the quantity from Eq.
(2.14) for those members that have temperature changes.
For axial members, it is assumed that the mechanical stresses are primary in nature and thermal
stresses are secondary in accordance with the general criteria of VIII-2. The analysis procedure is illustrated in the following example.

Example 2.3
Member 2 in Fig. 2.4 is subjected to a 25F increase in temperature excursion. What are the forces
in all members due to this temperature increase? Let = 10.8 10-6 in./in.F, E = 18,700 ksi. Assume
the area for all members to be A = 2.42 in.2. The yield stress is 30,000 psi at room temperature and
10,600 psi at 1450F. The allowable stress is 20,000 psi at room temperature and 1800 psi at 1450F.
Solution
The global stiffness is obtained by combining all local member stiffnesses to give

326,600
0

0
1,734 ,000

[K ] =

From Eq. (2.14),


F

108 u 10 6 25 242 18700000


12220 lb

and the applied load matrix is

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Axially Loaded Members 51

The deections at locations 1 and 2 are obtained from Eq. (2.11) as

0
0705 u 10

X
X

2

Then from Eq. (2.12), the member forces are

3987

6905
3987

F1

F
F

lb

And the corresponding thermal stress, based on a cross-sectional area of 2.42 in.2, is

1650

1650

2850

psi

It is of interest to note that a small temperature increase in one of the members results in member
stresses that are approximately of the same magnitude as those obtained from a large applied mechanical load. This condition illustrates the importance of maintaining a constant temperature, whenever
possible, in all members during operation.
Total sum of mechanical stresses, PL, from Example 2.2 and thermal stress, Q, from above is

3000

P L  Q

3000

1050

psi

The ASME VIII-2 criteria for acceptable stress levels require that
1. For temperatures below the creep range, the mechanical plus thermal stress are less than 3
times the allowable stress or 2 times the average yield stress, whichever is greater. The allowable and yield stress are taken as the average value at the high and low temperature extremes of
the cycle. This criterion, given by Eq. (2.8), is to assure stress shakedown.
2. For temperatures above the creep range, the mechanical plus thermal stress are less than 3
times the allowable stress. The allowable stress is taken as the average value at the high and
low temperature extremes of the cycle. This criterion, given by Eq. (2.7), is to assure stress
creep.
In this example the temperature at one extreme of the cycle is in the creep range and Eq. (2.7) is
applicable. The right-hand side of this equation is
15 20000  1800 2

30900 psi

All (PL + Q) values are well below the allowable stress of 30,900 psi.

2.3 DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS USING ASME SECTION NH


AS A GUIDE CREEP LIFE AND DEFORMATION LIMITS
Axially loaded members in ASME I and VIII-1 are occasionally required to be analyzed for fatigue
and creep at elevated temperatures. The analysis is usually based on commonly accepted practice

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52

Chapter 2

because there are no published standards that cover this area. The procedure for assessing creep rupture life of a structural member is,
1. Calculate the strain corresponding to the maximum stress in the member due to mechanical
and thermal stresses in accordance with the equation
'H

2Salt E

(2.15)

where
E = modulus of elasticity at the maximum metal temperature experienced during the cycle
2Salt = maximum stress range during the cycle due to mechanical and thermal loads
D = maximum equivalent strain range
2.

Calculate the fatigue ratio

n Nf j

(2.16)

where
(n)j = number of applied repetitions of cycle type, j
(Nf)j = number of design allowable cycles for cycle type, j, obtained from a design fatigue table such
as that shown in Table 2.2
3. Calculate the mechanical stress PL.
4. Enter an isochronous chart similar to the one shown in Fig. 2.5 with stress PL and determine
the strain corresponding to the number of expected life hours. The obtained strain should not
exceed 1%.

TABLE 2.2
DESIGN FATIGUE STRAIN RANGE, t, FOR 304 STAINLESS STEEL (ASME, III-NH)
Number of
cycles, Nd
[Note (1)]
10
20
40

( t, in./in.) Strain range at temperature


U.S. customary units
100F

800F

900F

1000F

1100F

1200F

1300F

0.051
0.036
0.0263

0.050
0.0345
0.0246

0.0465
0.0315
0.0222

0.0425
0.0284
0.0197

0.0382
0.025
0.017

0.0335
0.0217
0.0146

0.0297
0.0186
0.0123

102
2 102
4 102

0.018
0.0142
0.0113

0.0164
0.0125
0.00965

0.0146
0.011
0.00845

0.0128
0.0096
0.00735

0.011
0.0082
0.0063

0.0093
0.0069
0.00525

0.0077
0.0057
0.00443

103
2 103
4 103

0.00845
0.0067
0.00545

0.00725
0.0059
0.00485

0.0063
0.0051
0.0042

0.0055
0.0045
0.00373

0.0047
0.0038
0.0032

0.00385
0.00315
0.00263

0.00333
0.00276
0.0023

104
2 104
4 104

0.0043
0.0037
0.0032

0.00385
0.0033
0.00287

0.00335
0.0029
0.00254

0.00298
0.00256
0.00224

0.0026
0.00226
0.00197

0.00215
0.00187
0.00162

0.00185
0.00158
0.00138

105
2 105
4 105

0.00272
0.0024
0.00215

0.00242
0.00215
0.00192

0.00213
0.0019
0.0017

0.00188
0.00167
0.0015

0.00164
0.00145
0.0013

0.00140
0.00123
0.0011

0.00117
0.00105
0.00094

0.0019

0.00169

0.00149

0.0013

0.00112

0.00098

0.00084

106

NOTE:
(1) Cyclic strain rate: 1 103 in./in./sec. (1 103 m/m/s).

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Axially Loaded Members 53

5. Obtain the number of hours, Tm, corresponding to mechanical stress, PL, from a stress-torupture table similar to the one shown in Table 2.3.
6. Calculate the rupture ratio

Tr Tm k

(2.17)

where
Tr = number of required time for the part
7. The fatigue ratio calculated in step 2 and the rupture ratio calculated in step 6 are combined in
accordance with the following creep-fatigue equation

  nNf  j   Tr Tm  k  Dcf

(2.18)

FIG. 2.5
AVERAGE ISOCHRONOUS STRESS-STRAIN CURVES (ASME, III-NH)

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54

Chapter 2

TABLE 2.3
EXPECTED MINIMUM STRESS-TO-RUPTURE VALUES, 1000 PSI, TYPE 304
STAINLESS STEEL (ASME, III-NH)
U.S. customary units
Temp.,
F

1 hr

800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500

57
56.5
55.5
54.2
52.5
50
45
38
32
27
23
19.5
16.5
14.0
12.0

3 102
3 103
3 104
3 105
3
4
5
10 hr 30 hr 10 hr
hr
10 hr
hr
10 hr
hr
10 hr
hr
2

57
56.5
55.5
54.2
50
41.9
35.2
29.5
24.7
20.7
17.4
14.6
12.1
10.2
8.6

57
56.5
55.5
51
44.5
37
31
26
21.5
17.9
15
12.6
10.3
8.8
7.2

57
56.5
55.5
48.1
39.8
32.9
27.2
22.5
18.6
15.4
12.7
10.6
8.8
7.3
6.0

57
56.5
51.5
43
35
28.9
23.9
19.3
15.9
13
10.5
8.8
7.2
5.8
4.9

57
56.5
46.9
38.0
30.9
25.0
20.3
16.5
13.4
10.8
8.8
7.2
5.8
4.6
3.8

57
50.2
41.2
33.5
26.5
21.6
17.3
13.9
11.1
8.9
7.2
5.8
4.7
3.8
3.0

57
45.4
36.1
28.8
22.9
18.2
14.5
11.6
9.2
7.3
5.8
4.6
3.7
2.9
2.4

51
40
31.5
24.9
19.7
15.5
12.3
9.6
7.6
6.0
4.8
3.8
3.0
2.3
1.8

44.3
34.7
27.2
21.2
16.6
13.0
10.2
8.0
6.2
4.9
3.8
3.0
2.3
1.8
1.4

39
30.5
24
18.3
14.9
11.0
8.6
6.6
5.0
4.0
3.1
2.4
1.9
1.4
1.1

where
Dcf = total creep fatigue damage factor obtained from Fig. 2.6.
It is assumed in the above analysis that thermal stresses diminish relatively quickly when calculating
rupture life Tm. It is also assumed that stress concentration factors due to holes, lugs, etc., are included
in the strain values when entering Table 2.2, but are excluded when entering the stress values in Table
2.3. Stress concentration factors may be obtained from various publications such as Pilkey (1997) or
by experimental or theoretical methods.

Example 2.4
The support system in Fig. 2.4 is subjected to the cycles shown in Fig. 2.7. The system temperature
increases from ambient to 1450F. It stays at 1450F for about 3 years (30,000 hours). The temperature is then dropped down to ambient temperature where the system is inspected before it starts up
again. The process is repeated ten times during the expected life of the system (300,000 hours). Evaluate the creep fatigue property of the support system based on the mechanical stress obtained from
Example 2.2 plus the thermal stress obtained from Example 2.3. Let E = 18,700 ksi at 1450F.
Solution
1. Calculate the strain corresponding to the maximum stress in the member due to mechanical
and thermal stresses in accordance with Eq. (2.15).
Summary of the stresses from Examples 2.2 and 2.3 are shown in Table 2.4.
From Eq. (2.15), the maximum strain is
'H

_ 3000 _ 18700000

160 u 10 4 in. in.

2. Calculate the fatigue ratio (n/Nf).


Total number of cycles n

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Axially Loaded Members 55

FIG. 2.6
CREEP-FATIGUE DAMAGE ENVELOPE (ASME, III-NH)
Table 2.2 is limited to 1300F. At this temperature, a life of 1,000,000 cycles is obtained for
a strain level of 0.00084. The strain level calculated above is 0.00016, which is about 5 times
smaller. Accordingly, we can use the stain value of 0.00084 in./in. as a starting number for
1,000,000 cycles at 1300F. This strain value is much larger than the calculated value of 0.00016
and is thus very conservative. From Eq. (1.3), the Larson-Miller parameter is
PLM

(460  1300)(20  log10 1,000,000)


45,760

FIG. 2.7
OPERATING CYCLES

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56

Chapter 2

TABLE 2.4
STRESS SUMMARY (PSI)
Member

Mechanical stress, PL,


from Example 2.2

1
2
3

Thermal stress, Q, from


Example 2.3

1350
1800
1350

1650
-2850
1650

Mechanical plus thermal


stress
3000
-1050
3000

Using this parameter at 1450F results in


45760

460  1450 20  log10 Nf

log10 N f

396 and N f

9080 cycles

From Eq. (2.16),

nNf 

109080 | 0

3. Calculate the mechanical stress PL.


From Table 2.4, maximum PL = 1800 psi.
4. Check isochronous curve
From Fig. 2.5 with PL = 1800, a value of = 0.4% is obtained. This value is well below the
limiting value of 1%.
5. Obtain the number of hours, Tm, from rupture curve.
From Table 2.3, the 1450F line gives a life of 100,000 hours for a stress of 1800 psi.
6. Calculate the rupture ratio from Eq. (2.17).

Tr Tm

300000 100000 30

Because this ratio is substantially greater than 1.0, the test fails and the diameter of 1.75 in.
(area = 2.42 in.2) for the rods is not adequate for 300,000 hours.
Second trial
From Table 2.3, the maximum stress PL cannot exceed 1400 psi at 1450F in order to obtain 300,000
hours. Thus, the area of the rods must be increased to
A

18001400 242  311 in.2

Try a rod diameter of 2.0 in. (A = 3.14 in.2).


The new stresses are shown in Table 2.5.
TABLE 2.5
STRESS SUMMARY (PSI)
Member

Mechanical stress, PL,


from Example 2.2

1
2
3

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1385
1040

56

Thermal stress, Q,
from Example 2.3
1650
-2850
1650

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Mechanical plus thermal


stress
2690
-1465
2690

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Axially Loaded Members 57

Steps 1 to 4 are acceptable.


5. Obtain the number of hours, Tm, from rupture curve.
From Table 2.3, the 1450F line gives a life of 300,000 hours at a stress of 1400 psi.
Tm

300000 hours

6. Calculate the rupture ratio from Eq. (2.17).

Tr Tm

300000 300000  10

7. Calculate Eq. (2.18).


From Fig. 2.5 with a value of (n/Nd) = 0.0 and a value of (Tr/Tm) = 1.0, it can be shown that
D is within the envelope for 304 stainless steel. Hence, the structural members are adequate for
10 cycles and an expected life of 300,000 hours.
Use 2.0-in. diameter rods.

2.4

REFERENCE STRESS METHOD

Many structural components in a boiler and pressure vessel operating in the creep range can be
analyzed, as a limiting case, by plastic analysis as demonstrated by the results in Table 2.1. The reference stress method, discussed in Section 1.5.3.2, is based on the following equation to determine the
equivalent creep stress in a structure
VR

PPL V y

(2.19)

where
P = applied load on the structure
PL = the limit value of applied load based on plastic analysis
R = reference stress
y = yield stress of the material
Plastic analysis results in a larger load-carrying capacity of the indeterminate structure than an elastic analysis. In plastic analysis (Wang, 1970), the structure is loaded until the member with the highest stress reaches a specied limiting stress. Additional increment in the applied loading is assumed
possible subsequent to removing the member with the limiting stress from further consideration. The
analysis continues through various cycles. At the end of each cycle, members that have reached their
limiting stress are removed from further analysis and the process continues by increasing the load
until the structure becomes unstable. The structure is assumed to support the entire load accumulated
through the various cycles. In many instances this load is substantially larger than that used in elastic
analysis and is the limiting case of creep analysis.

Example 2.5
In Example 2.2, let the cross-sectional area of all members = 2.42 in.2. The total weight of the
cyclone and its contents is 10,000 lb. Determine the forces in the braces using the reference stress
method. The material of the braces is 304 stainless steel. The design temperature is 1450F and the
modulus of elasticity is 18,700 ksi. Assume an allowable stress of 1800 psi and average yield stress of
20,300 psi.

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58

Chapter 2

Solution
The maximum load capacity per brace using yield stress as a criterion is
Load  brace

20300 242 

49126 lb

The limit value of the applied load, Plim, based on plastic analysis is calculated as
Plim

134200 lb

The stress in all of the truss members in the creep range is then calculated from Eq. (2.19) as
V R 10000134200 20300  1510 psi

This stress value is smaller than the maximum allowable stress value of 1800 psi obtained elastically
for member 2 in Example 2.2. Thus, the designer has two choices at this time. One choice is to use the
new lower stress of 1510 psi in calculating creep-fatigue cycles. The other choice it to reduce the size
of the members based on the lower stress. In this case, the required brace area is (1510/1800)(2.42)
= 2.03 in.2.
Use 1.625-in. rods.

A = 2.07 in. .

Thus, in this case, the reference stress method results in a 17% reduction of required area (2.42/2.07)
compared to elastic analysis using the same factor of safety.

Problems
2.1 An internal cyclone is supported by three braces as shown. All braces have the same crosssectional area of 2.0 in.2. The total weight of the cyclone and its contents is 15,000 lb. The material of the braces is 304 stainless steel. The design temperature is 1450F and the modulus
of elasticity is 18,700 ksi. The allowable stress in accordance with VIII-1 is 1800 psi at 1450F
and 20,000 psi at room temperature. Member 3 is subjected to a 25F increase due to insulation problems. Let = 10.8 10-6 in./in.F. The yield stress is 30,000 psi at room temperature and 10,600 psi at 1450F. Check the following:
a) Stresses due to mechanical loads
b) Stresses due to mechanical and thermal loads in accordance with VIII-2 criteria
2.2 Use stresses obtained from problem 2.1 to evaluate the creep-rupture property for 30,000
hours and one cycle. Use the properties given in Example 2.4.

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PIPE LOOPS IN A REFINERY (COURTESY OF RMF, TOLEDO, OHIO)

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CHAPTER

3
MEMBERS IN BENDING
3.1

INTRODUCTION

Many components in pressurized equipment operating in the creep range consist of beams and at
plates in bending. These include piping components, internal catalyst supports, nozzle covers, and
tubesheets. In this chapter, the characteristics of beams in bending are studied rst, followed by an
evaluation of at circular plates in bending.
The characteristics of beams in bending operating in the creep range have been studied by many
engineers and researchers. Theoretically, the analysis is based on the following Nortons relationship
correlating stress and strain rate in the creep regime as discussed in Chapters 1 and 2 and as given by
k Vn

dH dT

(3.1)

where
k
n
d/dT

= constant
= creep exponent, which is a function of material property and temperature
= strain rate
= stress

This equation, however, is impractical to use for most problems encountered by the engineer as
discussed in Section 2.1. A simpler method, referred to as the stationary stress or the elastic analog
method, is normally used to solve beam bending problems and is given by
H

K Vn

(3.2)

where
K = constant
= strain
It should be noted that when n = 1.0 in Eq. (3.2), then K =1/E, where E is the modulus of elasticity. The application of Eq. (3.2) to regular engineering problems, although simpler than Eq. (3.1), is
still very complicated due to the non-linear relationship between stress and strain. This difculty is
overcome by performing plastic analysis to approximate the results obtained by Eq. (3.2) as explained
later in the chapter.

3.2 BENDING OF BEAMS


The equations for the bending of a beam in the creep regime are based on assumptions (Finnie and
Heller, 1959) that are similar to those for beams in elastic analysis, i.e.,
61

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Chapter 3

The length of the beam is much larger than its cross-section.


Plane cross-sections before bending remain plane after bending.
Bending deection is small compared to the length of the beam.
Stress-strain diagrams are the same for both the tensile as well as the compressive sides
of the beam.
The plane of bending is a plane of symmetry.
The strain at a given point in a beam due to bending is
H

z U

(3.3)

where
z = location of point measured from the neutral axis
= radius of curvature
The beam is assumed to have achieved a stationary stress condition. This assumption is realistic for
components in pressure vessel applications where temperature and loading are constant for extended
periods of operation during the cycle. Combining Eqs. (3.2) and (3.3) results in
V

1n

z U 1n

(3.4)

Equating the internal moment in a cross-section to the applied external moment gives
V zdA

(3.5)

where
dA = unit cross-sectional area of the beam
M = applied external moment
Combining Eqs. (3.4) and (3.5) yields
M

1 n 1n
U
z 1  1n

dA

(3.6)

Dening the creep moment of inertia as


In

z 1  1n d A

(3.7)

Mz 1nIn

(3.8)

where
In = creep moment of inertia
And combining Eqs. (3.4) and (3.6) gives
V

3.2.1

Rectangular Cross-Sections

For a rectangular cross-section with B = width and H = height, Eq. (3.7) gives
H 2

In

z 1  1n dz

H 2

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Members in Bending 63

or

2nB
H2 2 H2 1n
1  2n

In

(3.9)

Substituting this expression into Eq. (3.8) and dening the elastic moment of inertia as
BH 312

results in
MH
2I

s =

1 + 2n
3n

(3.10)

1/n
z
H/ 2

(3.11)

This equation reduces to a maximum value of


6M BH 2

for n 10

(3.12)

The rst bracketed term in Eq. (3.11) is the conventional (Mc/I) expression in elastic analysis.
The second and third bracketed terms are the stress modiers due to creep. When n = 1, Eq. (3.11)
gives the conventional elastic bending equation. Figure 3.1 shows the stress distribution in the beam
cross-section when n = 1, 3, 6, and 10. Notice the reduction in maximum stress due to the creep function n.

3.2.2

Circular Cross-Sections

For tubes having circular cross-sections with Ro = outside radius and Ri = inside radius, Eq. (3.7)
gives (Finnie and Heller, 1959),
In

8I

1  Ri Ro 3  1n

* >1  12n @

>3  1n @ S 1 2

1  Ri Ro 4

* >15  12n @

(3.13)

where
I = moment of inertia of a tubular cross-section
= (Ro4 - Ri4)/4
G = gamma function tabulated in Table 3.1
The bending equation becomes
V

MRo In r sin T Ro 1n

(3.14)

where r is as dened in Fig. 3.2.


For thin shells and pipes, this equation reduces to

M S tR2o

for n

10

(3.15)

Example 3.1
A beam in a high temperature application is subjected to a 1000 ft-lb maximum bending moment.
The allowable stress is 2000 psi. Determine

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64

Chapter 3

FIG. 3.1
STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN A RECTANGULAR BEAM AS A FUNCTION OF n

(a) The required cross-section of a rectangular beam if an elastic analysis was performed where n =
1.0.
(b) The required cross-section of a rectangular beam if a creep analysis was performed where n =
4.7.
(c) The required cross-section of a pipe beam if an elastic analysis was performed where n = 1.0.
(d) The required cross-section of a pipe beam if a creep analysis was performed where n = 4.7.
Solution
(a) From Eq. (3.12)
BH 2

6 1000 u 12 2000
36 in 3

Use 6 1 in. rectangular cross-section.


(b) From Eq. (3.11) with z = H/2,

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Members in Bending 65

TABLE 3.1
SOME TABULATED VALUES OF (n)
(n)

(n)

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0

1.0000
0.9514
0.9182
0.8975
0.8873
0.8862
0.8935
0.9086
0.9314
0.9618
1.0000

NOTE:


x n1

(1)  ( n) 

e x

dx

2000

1000 u 12 H
2I

1  2 47
3 47

BH 2 = 48.81 in.3.

Use 7 1 in. rectangular cross-section.


(c) From Eq. (3.15),
2

tRo

1000 u 12 2000 S


191 in3

Use 8 in. Sch 5S pipe (OD = 8.625 in., t = 0.109 in., and tRo2 = 2.03 in3.).

FIG. 3.2
THICK CYLINDRICAL SHELL

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Chapter 3

66

(d) An initial assumption of using 8 in. Sch 5S pipe resulted in a stress of more than 5000 psi, which
is well above the allowable stress of 2000 psi.
Assume an 8-in. Sch 10S pipe.
OD
Ro

t
Ri

8625 in
43125 in

S 43125 4  41645 4 4

Ri Ro

09657 1n

0148 in
41645 in

3541 in 4

02128 12n

01064

From Eq. (3.13),


In

8 3541

1  09657 32128

*>11064 @

32128 S 1 2

1  09657 4

*>16064 @

497459 08141 106


4293 in 4

From Eq. (3.14),


V

1000 u 12 43125 4293


1205 psi  2000 psi

Use 8 in. Sch 10S pipe

3.3

SHAPE FACTORS

The shape factor is dened as the ratio of the moment that a cross-section can withstand when
analyzed using creep or plastic analysis to the moment that the cross-section can withstand using
elastic analysis. In this section, the shape factors for rectangular and hollow circular cross-sections
are derived based on creep and plastic analysis. These shape factors will be used later in Chapters 4
and 5 when analyzing shells.

3.3.1

Rectangular Cross-Sections

For rectangular cross-sections, the relationship between maximum stress and moment in the elastic
range is
V

6MBH 2

(3.16)

where
B = width of beam
H = height of beam
M = applied bending moment
= maximum bending stress
The relationship between maximum stress and moment in the creep range is obtained from Eq.
(3.11). Substituting z = H/2 and I = BH 3/12 results in

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Members in Bending 67

6M
BH 2

1  2n
3n

(3.17)

6M
BH 2

(3.18)

or
1
SF

where
SF = shape factor
3n
1  2n

(3.19)

For n = 1, the shape factor is 1.0, and Eqs. (3.16) and (3.18) become the same. In the creep range,
n varies for different materials and temperatures. Values of n are published for a number of ferrous
and non-ferrous alloys at different temperatures (Odqvist, 1966). The n values range between 2.5 for
annealed carbon steel at 1020F and 10 for aluminum at 300F. Hult (1966) published similar data.
Variation in SF with respect to n is shown in Table 3.2.
The ASME uses an SF of 1.25 for calculations made in the creep range. This is based in a conservative value of n = 2.5.
Table 3.2 shows that the value of the shape factor is equal to 1.5 as n approaches innity. It so happens that the 1.5 shape factor also corresponds to that obtained from plastic analysis of beams. This is
illustrated in the stress-strain diagram of Fig. 3.3a for an elastic-perfectly plastic material. The stress
and strain distribution increases proportionately with an increase in the external moment as shown
in Fig. 3.3b, points 1 through 4. The stress distribution across the thickness gradually changes from
triangular to rectangular in shape as the strain increases from points 1 to 2, and nally to point 4. In
the fully plastic region at point 3, the stress expression is obtained by equating internal and external
moments
V

4MBH 2

(3.20)

A comparison of Eqs. (3.16) and (3.20) shows that for the same bending moment, the stress obtained by using Eq. (3.20) from plastic analysis is 50% less than that obtained by using Eq. (3.16) for
elastic analysis. In other words, there is a stress reduction factor of 1.5 when using plastic analysis
compared to elastic analysis. This fact is utilized by the ASME code as well as other international
codes to increase the allowable elastic stress values by a factor of 1.5 when analyzing beams of rectangular cross-section, bending of plates, and local bending of shells. The ASME code uses a conservative shape factor of 1.25 for rectangular cross-sections in the creep range.

TABLE 3.2
VARIATION IN SHAPE FACTOR FOR RECTANGULAR
CROSS-SECTIONS WITH RESPECT TO n
n
SF

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1

67

2.5
1.25

5
1.36

10
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68

Chapter 3

FIG. 3.3
FROM BEEDLE (BEEDLE, 1958), REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

3.3.2

Circular Cross-Sections

The relationship between maximum stress and moment for pipes of circular cross-section in the
elastic range is
V

MRo I

(3.21)

where
I = moment of inertia of a tubular cross-section = (Ro4 - Ri4)/4
Ri = inside radius of beams
Ro = outside radius of beams

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Members in Bending 69

TABLE 3.3
VARIATION IN SHAPE FACTOR FOR HOLLOW
CIRCULAR CROSS-SECTIONS WITH RESPECT TO n
n
SF

1
1

2.5
1.14

5
1.20

10
1.243

1.27

The relationship between maximum stress and moment in the creep range is obtained from Eq.
(3.14) as
V

MRo In

(3.22)

or
V

1
SF

MRo
I

(3.23)

where SF is the shape factor dened by


SF

1  R i Ro 3  1 n

*>1  12n @

1  Ri Ro 4

*>15  12n @

>3  1n @ S 1 2

(3.24)

For n = 1 the shape factor is 1.0, and Eq. (3.21) for elastic analysis and Eq. (3.23) for creep analysis become the same. Variation in SF with respect to n is shown in Table 3.3 for hollow thin circular
cross-sections (Ri >> t).

3.4

DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

The approximate relationship between the deection of a beam and the radius of curvature, , is
given by the mathematical equation
d2w
dx 2

1
U

(3.25)

where
w = deection of beam
Combining this equation with the stationary stress Eq. (3.2), as well as Eqs. (3.3) and (3.8) yields
the following expression for the deection of a beam
d2w
dx 2

K M nInn

(3.26)

where
In = moment of inertia as dened by Eq. (3.7)
M = applied moment on beam
Equation (3.26) is non-linear for all values of n, except n = 1.0. Thus, its application is very cumbersome for all but the simplest cases. Some of these simple cases (Faupel, 1981) are shown below.
Cantilever beam (Fig. 3.4a) with an end load F

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70

Chapter 3

FIG. 3.4
CANTILEVER BEAM

GA

K F n Ln  2

 K F L

TA

(3.27)

Inn n  2

I nn n

n1

(3.28)

 1

Cantilever beam (Fig. 3.4b) with a uniform load q


GA

K q n L2n  2

(3.29)

I nn 2 n 2n  2
K q n L2n 1

TA

(3.30)

Inn 2 n 2n  1

Cantilever beam (Fig. 3.4c) with a counterclockwise end moment MA


n

GA

qA =

K MA L

(3.31)

2I nn
-K MAn L

(3.32)

I nn

The following example illustrates the application of Eq. (3.26) to a two-span piping system.

Example 3.2
Determine the maximum bending moments in the piping system shown in Fig. 3.5a. Assume a
uniform load q = 0.1 kips/ft due to piping weight and contents and L = 20 ft. Let n = 1 and 4, and
compare the results with plastic analysis.

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Members in Bending 71

FIG. 3.5
TWO-SPAN BEAM
Solution
Due to symmetry, the structure is reduced to that shown in Fig. 3.5b. The bending moment in the
beam is
M

RAx  qx 22

(a)

Substituting this equation into Eq. (3.26) gives


w

K In RAx  qx 22 n

(b)

n=1
The value of RA is obtained by solving Eq. (b) for the three boundary conditions
w

0 at x

0 L and w

0 at x

L

This gives
RA

0375 qL and M

0375 qLx  qx 22

(c)

n=4
The value of RA is obtained by solving Eq. (b) for the three boundary conditions
w

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0 at x

0 L and w

0 at x

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72

Chapter 3

TABLE 3.4
SOLUTION OF EQS. (c) AND (d) IN EXAMPLE 3.2
Moment

Maximum negative
moment at point B

Maximum positive
moment at point D

Location of maximum
positive moment

qL2/14.22

x = 0.375L

qL2/8

Elastic analysis
(n = 1.0)
Creep analysis
(n = 4.0)
Plastic analysis

qL /10

qL /12.5

x = 0.40L

qL2/11.63

qL2/11.63

x = 0.414L

The expression for the reaction obtained from the boundary conditions is a fourth-order equation.
A numerical solution gives
RA

040qL and M

040qLx  qx 22

(d)

Solutions of Eqs. (c) and (d) are shown in Table 3.4. When n = 1, Eq. (c) yields the moment expression for an elastic analysis. It has a maximum negative value at support B of MB = qL2/8 and a
maximum positive value at x = 0.375L of M = qL2/14.22. For n = 4.0, the maximum negative value
at support B is obtained from Eq. (d) as MB = qL2/10 and a maximum positive value at x = 0.40L of
M = qL2/12.5. Thus, for n = 4.0, the moments in the beam have redistributed where the negative and
positive moments are closer in magnitude. It is of interest to note that a plastic analysis for this structure gives a bending moment with a maximum negative value at support B of MB = qL2/11.63 and a
maximum positive value at x = 0.414L of M = qL2/11.63. Thus, the stationary creep analysis of this
structure can be approximated by performing the much easier plastic analysis even when the values of
n are relatively low. One method of plastic analysis is illustrated in the next section.
The stationary stress and plastic stress analyses discussed in the above example are fairly tedious to
perform for complex piping loops. The elastic analysis, however, gives conservative values as shown
in Table 3.4 and is much easier to perform. Accordingly, the ANSI B31.1 (Power Piping) and B31.3
(Process Piping) allow elastic analysis of piping loops in high-temperature applications. The allowable
stress values at the high temperatures are based on creep and rupture criteria. This elastic analysis and
some of the requirements of B31.3 are discussed next.

3.5
3.5.1

PIPING ANALYSIS ANSI 31.1 AND 31.3


Introduction

A piping system is one of the more complex structural congurations a component designer or
analyst is likely to encounter. Although the straight sections are relatively simple, the connecting components, principally elbows and branch connections, have complex stress distributions even under
simple loading conditions. In addition, the piping system frequently contains other components such
as anged joints and valves. Added to this complexity is the fact that all components of the piping
system interact with each other such that the loading on any single component is a function of the
response of the whole piping system to applied loading conditions.
There are many references for the design and evaluation of piping systems and it is not the purpose
of this section to replicate those sources. Rather, the purpose is to (1) acquaint the designer/analyst
with the overall approach to piping design as embodied in B31.1 Power Piping and B31.3 Process
Piping, (2) discuss some of the issues impacting piping design in the creep regime, and (3) provide a

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Members in Bending 73

hand evaluation of a simple pipeline to illustrate the application of B31.3. Although they differ in some
details, the overall approach in B31.1 and B31.3 is quite similar. The following discussion is based
largely on Chapters 16 and 17 by Becht in the Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code (Rao, 2002) and Chapter 38 by Rodabaugh in the same reference.

3.5.2

Design Categories and Allowable Stresses

There are three general categories of design requirements in B31.1 and B31.3: pressure design, sustained and occasional loading, and thermal expansion.
3.5.2.1 Pressure Design. There are four basic approaches to pressure design: (1) components for
which there are tabulated pressure/temperature ratings in their applicable standard; (2) components
that are specied to have the same pressure rating as the attached piping; (3) components such as
straight pipe and branch connections for which design equations are provided to determine minimum
required thickness; and (4) non-standard components for which experimental methods, for example,
may be used. The design equations for minimum wall thickness are nominally based on Lames hoop
stress equations, which take into account the variation of pressure-induced stress through the wall
thickness. The allowable stress for pressure loading is based on criteria similar to those used for
Sections I and VIII Div 1. In the creep regime, this is the lower of 2/3 of the average creep rupture
strength in 100,000 hours, 80% of the minimum creep strength or the average stress to cause a minimum creep rate of 0.01% per 1000 hours.
3.5.2.2 Sustained and Occasional Loading. Whereas the pressure stress criteria are nominally
based on hoop stress, the sustained and occasional load limits are based on longitudinal bending
stresses. The limit for sustained loading (e.g., pressure and weight) is the same as for pressure design.
However, because the longitudinal stress due to pressure is nominally half the hoop stress, there is a
margin left for longitudinal bending and pressure stresses. The limit for occasional loading, pressure,
and weight plus seismic and wind, is a factor that is higher based on the loading duration.
Both B31.1 and B31.3 specify the use of 0.75 times the basic factor stress intensication factors for
sustained and occasional loading; however, Becht (in Rao, 2002) notes that some piping analysis computer programs use the full intensication factor for the sustained and occasional load limit. Considering also stress redistribution effects due to creep as discussed earlier in this chapter, it is recommended
that the full intensication factor be used in evaluation of sustained and occasional load stresses for
B31.1 and B31.3 applications in the creep regime.
3.5.2.3 Thermal Expansion. Not all piping systems require an analytical evaluation of piping
system stresses due to restrained thermal expansion. Guidelines for the exceptions are provided in
B31.1 and B31.3. When an analytical evaluation is made, it is based on elastic analysis using classical
global stiffness matrices based on superposition principals. However, the exibility of piping components such as elbows and miter joints is modied by exibility factors that approximate the additional
exibility of these components as compared to a straight pipe with the same length as the centerline length of the curved pipe. Formulas for these exibility factors are provided in the respective
codes.
In addition to enhanced exibility, stress levels in components such as elbows and branch connections are also higher than would be the case for a straight pipe under the same loads. To account for
these higher stresses, stress intensication factors are also provided. Component stresses are then
calculated from the equation
2

i i Mi  i o Mo
Sb

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74

Chapter 3

where
ii = in-plane stress intensication factor (see Table 3.5)
io = out-plane stress intensication factor (see Table 3.5)
Mi = in-plane bending moment
Mo = out-plane bending moment
Sb = resultant bending stress
Z = section modulus of pipe
The allowable stress range for restrained thermal expansion is designed to achieve shakedown in a
few number of cycles. The background on shakedown concepts is discussed in more detail in Section
1.6.3. The basic limit (Severud, 1975 and 1980) for allowable range of restrained thermal expansion
stresses in B31.1 and 31.3 is given by the equation
SA

f 125Sc  025Sh

(3.34)

where
SA = allowable displacement stress range
Sc = allowable stress at the cold end of the thermal cycle
Sh = allowable stress at the hot end of the thermal cycle
f = stress range reduction factor used to account for fatigue effects when the number of equivalent
full-range thermal cycles exceeds 7000 (about once a day for 20 years)
The above equation does not give credit for the unused portion of the allowable longitudinal stress,
SL, discussed in Section 3.5.2.2. If such credit is taken, Eq. (3.34) becomes
SA

f >125 Sc  Sh  SL @

(3.35)

Although Eq. (3.35) provides a somewhat higher allowable stress, the difference becomes small as
the temperature moves into the creep regime and the allowable stress is dependent on creep properties. Equation (3.34) has the advantage that thermal expansion stresses may be evaluated separately
from the local values of longitudinal stresses, SL.
TABLE 3.5
FLEXIBILITY AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS (ASME, B31.3-2004)
Stress Intensication

Description
Welding elbow
or pipe bend

Closely spaced
miter bend
s < r2 (1 + tan )

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Flexibility
factor,
k
165
h

152
h56

74

Out-ofplane,
Io

In-plane,
Ii

075
h23

09
h23

09
h23

09
h23

Flexibility
characteristic,
h

Sketch

T R1
r22

cot T
2

sT
r22

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Members in Bending 75

In the above equations, the stress range reduction factor, f, is based on a fatigue curve for buttwelded carbon steel pipe developed by Markl (1960).

3.5.3

Creep Effects

There are several areas where creep effects play an important role in piping design, among them are
weld strength reduction factors, elastic follow-up, and the effects of creep on cyclic life.
3.5.3.1 Weld Strength Reduction Factors. Weld strength reduction factors were introduced in
the 2004 edition of B31.3 to account for the reduced creep rupture strength of weld metal as compared
to base metal. Although the designer may use factors based on specic data, a general factor is provided that is applicable to all materials in lieu of specic weld metal data. This factor varies linearly
from 1.0 at 950F to 0.5 at 1500F.
3.5.3.2 Elastic Follow-Up. The use of elastic analysis procedures to determine the stress/strain
distribution due to restrained thermal expansion is based on the assumption that the piping system
is balanced without localize high stress areas. Examples of piping congurations that are unbalanced
are provided in B31.3, but there are no quantitative criteria provided. An unbalanced system operating in the creep regime can be particularly susceptible to elastic follow-up considerations as discussed
in Section 1.6.1. Under severe follow-up conditions with localized stress/strain concentrations, the
resultant localized stress due to restrained thermal expansion may not relax, thus behaving more like a
sustained load. Under these circumstances, i.e., a signicantly unbalanced system, it may be appropriate to treat these stresses similar to a sustained load with an allowable stress of Sh.
3.5.3.3 Cyclic Life Degradation. The tests on which the f factors are based were performed on
carbon and stainless steel components below the creep regime. Operating in the creep regime can
have several deleterious effects. First, the basic continuous cycling fatigue curve will be lower at higher
temperatures. Second, as previously discussed in Section 1.6.4, there is a hold-time effect on cyclic
life due to the accumulation of creep damage as restrained thermal expansion stresses relax. And,
third, due to Neuber-like effects, the strain at structural discontinuities will be greater than predicted
by elastic analyses. Taking direct account of these phenomena goes well beyond the scope of normal
piping analyses. There is, however, a conservative approximation included in Code Case N-253 for
Class 2 and 3 nuclear components at elevated temperature. The changes in the f factor as described in
Appendix B of Code Case N-253 are an indication of the potential signicance of the effects of creep
on cyclic life. For carbon steel, instead of a reduction starting at 7000 cycles below the creep regime,
at 750F the reduction starts at 50 cycles and decreases to 5 cycles at 900F. For 304 SS, the reduction
starts at 850F, reducing to 50 cycles at 1000F and 5 cycles at 1200F.
The above discussions should not be taken as direct recommendations for reduction in allowable
stress levels for B31.1 and B31.3 in the creep regime. Application of these criteria has, after all, led to
a long history of successful service experience. It is, however, a cautionary recommendation against
pushing the criteria to their limits particularly when dealing with unfavorable geometries and a
large number of service cycles.

3.6

STRESS ANALYSIS

One method of analyzing a piping system in the creep region is to perform an elastic analysis. A
three-dimensional frame analysis is usually performed for piping loops. Such an analysis is beyond
the scope of this book. In this chapter, however, the moments Mi are obtained from a simple twodimensional structural analysis to demonstrate the procedure. The general elastic relationship between applied joint loads and forces, Fig. 3.6, in a frame is given by
>P @

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>K @> X @

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76

Chapter 3

FIG. 3.6
SIGN CONVENTION FOR BEAMS

where
[P] = applied loads at frame joints
[K ] = global stiffness matrix of frame given in Eq. (3.37)
[X ] = deformation of frame joints
Figure 3.6 shows a typical member in bending. Positive direction of forces, applied loads, joint
deections, and angles are shown in Fig. 3.6. Member 1, shown in the gure, starts at node 1 and
ends at node 2. At node 1, forces P1, P2, and moment M1, or deections X1, X2, and rotation 1, may
be applied as shown in the gure. Similarly, forces P1, P2, and moment M1, or deections X1, X2, and
rotation 1, can also be applied at node 2. The local member rotation angle with respect to global
coordinate system of the member is measured positive counterclockwise from the positive x direction
at the beginning of the member. Tensile force is as shown in the gure.
The global stiffness matrix of the frame is assembled from the individual frame member stiffnesses
[k ]. The stiffness matrix, [k ], of any member in a frame (Weaver and Gere, 1990) is expressed as
k 14 k 15 k 16

k 24 k 25 k 26
k 44 k 45 k 46

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76

k 34 k 35 k 36
k 55 k 56
k 66

(3.37)

>k @

k 11 k 12 k 13

k 22 k 21

k 13

symmetric

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Members in Bending 77

where
k 11 = 4EI/L
k 12 = (6EI/L2)sin
2
k 13 = -(6EI/L )cos , k 14 = 2EI/L
k 16 = -k 13
k 15 = -k 12,
k 22 = (EA/L)cos2 + (12EI/L3)sin2
k 23 = (EA/L)sin cos - (12EI/L3)sin cos
k 25 = -k 22,
k 26 = -k 23
k 24 = k 12,
k 33 = (EA/L)sin2 + (12EI/L3)cos2
k 35 = k 26,
k 36 = -k 33
k 34 = k 13,
k 44 = k 11,
k 45 = - k 12,
k 46 = -k 13
k 55 = k 22,
k 56 = k 23,
k 66 = k 33
Equation (3.37) is a 6 6 matrix because there is a total of six degrees of freedom at the ends of the
member. They are X1 through X6 or P1 through P6. The stiffness matrix of the frame is assembled by
combining the stiffness matrices of all the individual members into one matrix, called the global matrix. Once the global stiffness matrix [K ] is developed, Eq. (3.36) can be solved for the unknown joint
deections [X ]. This assumes that the load matrix [P] at the nodal points is known.
>X @

>K @1 >P@

(3.38)

The forces in the individual members of the frame are then calculated from the equation
>F @

>D@>Xm @

(3.39)

where
[F] = force in member
[D] = force-deection matrix of a member
[Xm] = matrix for deection at ends of individual members
The matrix [D] is dened as
D 15

D 16

D 23 D 24

D 25

D 26

D 33 D 34

D 35

D 36

D 12

D 13

D 22
D 32

(3.40)

D 21

D 31

where
D12 = -(AE/L)cos ,
D16 = -D13,
D23 = -(6IE/L2)cos ,
D26 = -D23, D31 = D24,
D35 = D25,
D36 = D26

D13 = -(AE/L)sin ,
D21 = 4EI/L,
D24 = 2EI/L,
D32 = D22, D33 = D23,

D15 = -D12
D22 = (6IE/L2)sin
D25 = -D22
D34 = D21

The application of these equations to a simple piping loop is illustrated in the following example.

Example 3.3
The pipe loop shown in Fig. 3.7a has a 4-in. STD weight pipe with an OD = 4.5 in., thickness =
0.237 in., and weight = 10.79 lb/ft. The pipe carries uid with density of 62.4 lb/ft3. Determine the
maximum stress due to pipe and uid weight using elastic analysis. The pipe hanger CE prevents vertical deection at that location. Let the modulus of elasticity = 27 106 psi. The elbows at points B and
C have a bend radius of 6.0 in.

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78

Chapter 3

FIG. 3.7
PIPE LOOP

Solution
(a) Elastic analysis
From Fig. 3.7b,
Member AB:

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3.175 in.2 ,

0 deg.,

78

sin D

7.210 in.4 , L
0.0,

cos D

240 in.
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Members in Bending 79

From Eq. (3.37), k AB =


1
3,244,639

2
0
357,080

3
-20,279
0
168.9916

4
1,622,319
0
-20,279
3,244,639

Symmetric

5
0
-3,577,080
0
0
357,080

6
20,279
0
-168.9916
20,279
0
168.9916

1
2
3
4
5
6

9
0
0

4
5

-357,080
0
0
357,080

6
7
8
9

12
20,279
0
-168.9916
20,279
0
168.9916

7
8
9
10
11
12

Member BC:
A

3.174 in. 2,

90 deg,

sin D

7.210 in.4, L

240 in.

cos D

1.0,

0.0

From Eq. (3.37), k BC =


4
3,244,639

5
20,279
168.9916

6
0
0

7
1,622,319
20,279

357,080

0
3,244,639

Symmetric

8
-20,279
-168.9916
0
-20,279
168.9916

Member CD:
A

3174 in. 2

0 deg

sin D

7210 in4

cos D

00

240 in
10

From Eq. (3.37), k CD =


7
3,244,639

8
0
357,080

9
-20,279
0
168.9916

Symmetric

10
1,622,319
0
-20,279
3,244,639

11
0
-3,577,080
0
0
357,080

From Figs. 3.6 and 3.7, it is seen that the degrees of freedom 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, and 12 must be set to
zero because the pipe loop is xed at these nodal points. This reduces the stiffness matrix k AB to a 3 3
matrix corresponding to displacements 4, 5, and 6. It also reduces stiffness matrix k BC to a 5 5 matrix
corresponding to displacements 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and matrix k CD to a 2 2 matrix corresponding to
displacements 7 and 8. The total global matrix is then a 5 5 matrix with magnitude Kglobal =
4
6,489,278

5
20,279
357,249

6
20,279
0
357,249

7
1,622,319
20,279
0
6,489,278

Symmetric

8
-20,279
-169.0
0
-20,279
357,249

4
5
6
7
8

The applied uniform load consists of dead weight plus contents

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80

Chapter 3

q = 10.79  62.4S >4.5  2(0.237)@ 2 /[4(144)] = 10.79  5.52


xed end moments 16.31(20)2/12
reactions

543.7 ft- lb

16.31 lb/ft

6524 in.- lb

16.31(20)/2 163.1 lb

From Fig. 3.7c, the forces on joints 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are

6524

1631

6524

>F @

The joint deections are obtained from Eq. (3.38) as

X4

X5

X6

X7

X9

4

13.3920 u 10

5
 38.0525 u 10

13.4015 u 10  4

rad; clockwise rotation


in.
in.; downward deection
rad; clockwise rotation
in.

The member forces are obtained from Eq. (3.39) as


1. Member 1
F
MA
MB

lb
in. - lb =
in. - lb

0
- 8700
2172

0
- 725
181

lb
ft - lb
ft - lb

135 .9
- 181
181

lb
ft - lb
ft - lb

2. Member 2
F
MB
MC

135.9
- 2172
2172

lb
in. - lb =
in. - lb

3. Member 3
F
MC
MD

= - 2172
8700

lb
in. - lb =
in. - lb

0
- 181
725

lb
ft - lb
ft - lb

Figure 3.7c shows the nal forces and bending moments in members AB, BC, and CD.
Maximum bending stress at the supports
S

8700 225
721

2715 psi

This value must be less than the allowable stress at the given temperature.

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Members in Bending 81

Maximum stress at the elbows


From Table 3.5,
h

0.237(6)/(2.13) 2
2/3

ii

0.9/ 0.313

181(1.952)

0.313

1.952
353.3 ft - lb

3533 12 225
721

1323 psi

This value must be less than the allowable stress at the given temperature.

3.6.1

Commercial Programs

Numerous computer programs are available for determining moments and forces in piping loops
such as AutoPIPE, CAEPIPE, CEASAR II, and PipePak. These sophisticated programs take into
consideration such items as pressure, thermal expansion, dead weight, uid weight, support movements, and hanger locations. Most of the programs also take into account the reduction in moments
and forces in the piping loop due to elbow radii and other curved members. They also check stresses
in accordance with various codes and standards such as B31.1 and B31.3.

Example 3.4
The nal forces, moments, and stress calculated in Example 3.3 were compared with results obtained from the commercial piping program AutoPIPE. The program was run with the same loads
and geometry of Example 3.3. The nal forces and bending moments calculated by the program are
shown in Fig. 3.8. A comparison between the bending moments obtained manually (Fig. 3.7c), and
those obtained from AutoPIPE (Fig. 3.8) show very good agreement at the supports and 15% variance
at the elbows, with the manual method being on the conservative side. The 15% difference is because
the manual method assumes a sharp corner at points B and C, whereas AutoPIPE takes the elbow
curvature into consideration.
The stress at the supports and elbows calculated by AutoPipe are
Stress at supports = 2753 psi
Stress at elbows = 1169 psi
The stress at the elbow takes into consideration the stress intensication factor calculated from
B31.1.

3.7

REFERENCE STRESS METHOD

The reference stress method, discussed in Section 1.5.3.2, is based on the following equation to
determine the equivalent creep stress in a structure
R = (P/PL)y

(3.41)

where
P = applied load on the structure
PL = the limit value of applied load based on plastic analysis

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82

Chapter 3

FIG. 3.8
MOMENT AND FORCE OBTAINED FROM AUTOPIPE
R = reference stress
y = yield stress of the material
There are many methods of performing plastic analysis in a piping system. One such method is to
use elastic equations with incremental applied load conditions until one of the joints reaches its plastic limit. Then the structure is modied and a second run is performed until a second joint reaches
its limit. The analysis continues until the structure becomes unstable at which point the analysis is
terminated and the maximum load carrying capacity of the structure is obtained. Another method,
for simple piping systems, is to use plastic structural analysis. This is demonstrated in the following
example.

Example 3.5
Solve Example 3.3 using plastic structural analysis. Use a shape factor of 1.27 from Table 3.3 and
assume y = 20,000 psi.
Solution
The plastic moments in the pipe loop are shown in Fig. 3.9. Due to symmetry, member AB will be
used.
of internal energy = of external energy

Mp T  Mp 2 T  Mp T

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(a)

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Members in Bending 83

FIG. 3.9
PLASTIC MOMENTS IN A PIPE LOOP
Let tan /(L/2). Then Eq. (a) becomes
PL L216

Mp

Substituting this quantity into the expression


Vy

Mp R 2
I SF

and solving for PL gives


PL

2728 lb/ft

Solving Eq. (3.41) for the reference stress gives


VR

16312728 20000 1195 psi

This value is substantially lower than the stress value of 2716 psi obtained from elastic analysis in
Example 3.3.

3.8

CIRCULAR PLATES

The differential equations for the bending of circular plates in the creep regime have no closedform solution. Numerical solutions obtained by Odqvist (1966), Kraus (1980), and other authors have
shown that results of stationary stress solution of circular plate equations in the creep range approach
the results obtained by plastic theory as the value of n increases. For n = 1, the elastic and creep results
are the same.
Table 3.6 shows various values of the maximum bending moment in a circular plate using elastic
and plastic analysis. For a simply supported plate, the maximum bending moment due to lateral pressure and based on elastic analysis is

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84

Chapter 3

TABLE 3.6
MAXIMUM MOMENT IN A SOLID CIRCULAR PLATE1 (FROM JAWAD [2004])
Simply supported edge2

Loading condition

Uniform load, P
(elastic solution)
Uniform load, P
(plastic solution)
Center load, P
(plastic solution)

Fixed edge3

PRo /4.85

PRo2/8

PRo2/6

PRo2/12

F/(2)

F/(4)

Poissons ratio is taken as 0.30.


Maximum moment is at the center of plate.
3
Maximum moment is at the edge of the plate.
F, concentrated load at center of plate; P, uniform applied pressure; Ro, radius of plate.
2

PR 2485

(3.42)

where
M = bending moment
P = applied pressure
Ro = radius of plate
The required thickness is obtained from the equation S = 6M/t2 as
Ro >1237 PS @1 2

(3.43)

where
S = allowable stress
t = thickness
Equation (3.43) can be rewritten in a slightly different form by substituting SE for S and d for 2Ro.
The result is
d>CPSEo @1 2

(3.44)

where
d = diameter of the plate
Eo = joint efciency
C = constant (0.309 for simply supported plate 0.188 for xed plate)
The ASME Sections I and VIII-1 codes use Eq. (3.44) for a variety of unstayed at heads. Numerous values of C are given for the various head congurations and shell attachment details. Sections I
and VIII-1 use Eq. (3.44) for all temperatures ranges including those in the creep range.
It is of interest to note that a plastic analysis, performed as a limit case for creep analysis, results
in a maximum moment for a simply supported case as M = PR2/6 as shown in Table 3.6. From the
expression S = 6M/t2 and using a shape factor of 1.25 from Table 3.2 gives
t

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(3.45)

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Members in Bending 85

A comparison of Eqs. (3.44) and (3.45) shows a thickness reduction of 20% is achieved by performing plastic analysis compared to elastic analysis for the same allowable stress.

Problems
3.1 The 12-in. diameter Standard Schedule pipe loop is as shown in the gure. The pipe loop and
the vessels undergo a temperature increase from ambient to 1000F. Calculate the thermal
stress in the pipe loop and compare it with the allowable stress values. The allowable stress at
ambient temperature is 17,100 psi and at 1000F it is 8000 psi. Let f = 1.0, E = 20.4 106 psi,
= 8.2 10-6 in./in.-F, A = 14.6 in.2, I = 279 in.4, t = 0.375 in.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS IN A REFINERY (COURTESY OF NOOTER CONSTRUCTION, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI)


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CHAPTER

4
ANALYSIS OF ASME PRESSURE
VESSEL COMPONENTS:
LOAD-CONTROLLED LIMITS
4.1

INTRODUCTION

The ability of pressure vessel shells to perform properly in the creep range depends on many factors
such as their stress level, material properties, temperature range, as well as operating temperature and
pressure cycles. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Sections I and VIII-1, which are
based on design-by-rules rather than design by analysis, allow components to be designed elastically
at elevated temperature service as long as the allowable stress is based on creep-rupture data obtained
from Section II-D. In many cases, however, additional analyses are required to ascertain the adequacy
of such components at elevated temperatures. The effect of creep on long-time exposure of various
components in power boilers to high temperatures is of interest. The effect of continuous startup and
shutdown of heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) on the life expectancy at elevated temperatures
is one of the design issues. Another safety concern is the effect of long-time exposure of equipment
used in the petrochemical industry to high temperatures.
These additional analyses include evaluation of bending and thermal stresses as well as creep and
fatigue. The sophistication of the analyses could range from a simple elastic solution to a more complicated plastic or a very complex creep analysis. The preference of most engineers is to perform an
elastic analysis because of its simplicity, expediency, and cost effectiveness. The approximate elastic
analysis is not as accurate as plastic or creep analysis, which reects more accurately the stress-strain
interaction of the material. However, elastic analysis is sufciently accurate for most design applications. The ASMEs elastic procedure compensates for this approximation by separating the stresses
obtained from the elastic analysis into various stress categories in order to simulate, as close as practically possible, the more accurate plastic or creep analysis.
The 2007 edition of ASME Section VIII-2 covers temperatures in the creep regime above the previous limits of 700F and 800F for ferritic and austenitic materials, respectively. Section VIII-2 also
requires either meeting the requirements for exemption from fatigue analysis, or, if that requirement is
not satised, meeting the requirements for fatigue analysis. However, above the 700/800F limit, the
only available option is to satisfy the exemption from fatigue analysis requirements because the fatigue
curves required for a full fatigue analysis are limited to 700F and 800F.
The additional analyses for Section I and VIII-1 vessels at elevated temperatures are normally
performed with the aid of VIII-2 and III-NH of the ASME code as well as other international codes.
Section VIII-2, although generally limited to temperatures below the creep range, contains detailed

87

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88

Chapter 4

rules for establishing various stress categories needed in the creep analysis of pressure parts. Section
III-NH contains rules for creep analysis of various stress components. And although III-NH is intended for nuclear service, many designers use the rules for non-nuclear applications as well. The
proper integration of the rules of VIII-2 and III-NH in analyzing boiler and pressure vessel components in accordance with I and VIII-1 at elevated temperatures is one of the subjects discussed in this
chapter. It should be noted that creep analysis is only applicable when the material is ductile. Nonductile materials such as cast iron or steels that are embrittled during operation cannot be analyzed by
the criteria of VIII-2 and III-NH because the results can lead to unsafe performance.
ASME nuclear Sections III-NB, NC, and ND apply to equipment operating at temperatures below
the creep range. At elevated temperatures in the creep regime, the requirements of III-NH are used
for class 1 components and the requirements of Code Case N-253 are used for class 2 and 3 components.
The designer of equipment operating in the creep range must rst comply with the applicable ASME
code of construction such as I, VIII-1, or VIII-2, and then meet the requirements of III-NH for creep
analysis. However, the allowable stress values, at a given temperature, are different for each of these
code sections at both below and above the creep temperature range. This difference is due, in part,
to the differences in safety factors established by various codes. This is demonstrated in Table 4.1 for
2.25Cr-1Mo steel and 304 stainless steel. The table shows a substantial difference in allowable stress
from one code section to the other. Accordingly, and in order to be consistent, the following stress
criteria will be used throughout this chapter as well as Chapters 5 and 6:
Stress criteria in Chapters 4, 5, and 6 are
The allowable stress, S, from the applicable I, VIII-1, or VIII-2 code sections will be used for
design purposes.
The allowable stress S from VIII-2 will be used for analyzing components below the creep
range.
The allowable stresses Sm, Smt, and St from III-NH will be used for analyzing components in
the creep range.
The procedure for creep analysis in III-NH consists of calculating rst a trial thickness of a component. The component is then analyzed for load-controlled stress limits and then for strain-controlled
stress limits. In this chapter, the load-controlled stress limits are discussed, whereas the strain-controlled stress limits are described in Chapter 5.

TABLE 4.1
ALLOWABLE DESIGN CONDITION STRESS VALUES FOR TWO MATERIALS AT ROOM
TEMPERATURE AND 1000F
Material

Temperature
(F)

I
S

VIII-1
S

VIII-2
S

III-NB
Sm

III-NH
So

SA 387 22CL11
SA 387 22CL1
SA240-3044
SA240-304

RT
1000
RT
1000

17.1
8.03
20.0
14.0

17.1
8.0
20.0
14.0

20.0
8.0
20.0
14.0

20.0
NA
20.0
NA

NA2
8.0
NA2
11.1

Tensile stress = 60 ksi at room temperature (RT) and 53.9 ksi at 1000F. Yield stress = 30 ksi at RT and 23.7 ksi at
1000F.
2
Not applicable.
3
Stress values in italics are controlled by creep and rupture criteria.
4
Tensile stress = 75 ksi at RT and 57.4 ksi at 1000F. Yield stress = 30 ksi at RT and 15.5 ksi at 1000F.

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 89

4.2

DESIGN THICKNESS

The required shell thickness for Section I and VIII vessels at any temperature is obtained from the
corresponding equations given in these two sections. When an additional stress analysis is specied or
required at elevated temperatures, then the procedure established in III-NH for creep analysis (Fig.
4.1) is used as a guideline. The procedure is based on rst calculating a thickness of the component.

Calculate thickness of pressure member using design conditions


Equations and allowable stress from I or VIII as applicable

Check load controlled stress limits due to operating conditions


With time dependent allowable stresses

Do stresses meet load controlled stress limits?

Yes

No

Redesign

Are thermal stresses a consideration

No

Yes

check strain controlled stress limits due to


operating conditions in accordance with chapter
5.

Do stresses meet elastic stress limits?

Yes

No

Check strain controlled stresses using inelastic or simplified


inelastic analysis in accordance with chapter 5.
Analysis is complete

Check fatigue analysis if required in accordance with chapter 6.


FIG. 4.1
SEQUENCE IN CREEP ANALYSIS FOR DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS

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90

Chapter 4

The thickness is based on design conditions and is obtained from applicable design equations in Section I or VIII. Stresses due to operating conditions are then calculated and maintained below specied
allowable limits obtained from Section III-NH.
For illustration purposes, the following equations for cylindrical shells are given and will be used
throughout the next two chapters in solving various problems.

4.2.1

Section I

The design shell thickness when thickness does not exceed one-half the inside radius is given by
t

PDo
c
2SEo  2yP

(4.1)

PR i
c
SEo  1  y P

(4.2)

or
t

where
y = temperature coefcient as given in Table 4.2
c = corrosion allowance
The y factor in the above two equations was introduced in Section I in the mid 1950s (Winston et
al., 1954) to take into account the reduction of stress due to redistribution when the temperature is in
the creep region.
The design shell thickness when thickness exceeds one-half the inside radius is
t

> Z1 1 2  1@Ri

(4.3)

where Z1 = (SEo + P)/(SEo - P).


This equation is based on Lames Eq. (4.9), discussed later in this chapter. Section I recently added
a new shell design equation in Appendix A of Section I and is given by
t

D i e PSEo  1

(4.4)

2 c  f

where
f = thickness factor for expanded tube ends
Equation (4.4) is based on limit analysis. It is applicable at low and well as high temperatures.
However, caution must be exercised when using this equation at elevated temperatures for thick-wall
TABLE 4.2
THE y COEFFICIENTS IN EQS. (4.1) AND (4.2) (ASME, I)
Temperature1
900 (480)
and below

950
(510)

1000
(540)

1050
(565)

1100
(595)

1150
(620)

1200
(650)

1250 (675)
and above

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

0.7
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

0.7
0.4
0.4
0.4

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

0.7
0.5
0.4
0.4

0.4
0.5
0.5
0.4

0.7
0.7
0.4
0.4

0.4
0.7
0.7
0.4

0.7
0.7
0.5
0.5

0.5
0.7
0.7
0.5

0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7

0.7
0.7

0.7

Ferritic
Austenitic
Alloy 800
800H, 800 HT
825
230 Alloy
N06045
N06690
Alloy 617
1

Values are in F, those in parentheses are in C.

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 91

cylinders or material embrittled with aging because cracking on the surface will cause loss of load carrying capacity.

4.2.2

Section VIII

The design shell thickness in VIII-1 when thickness does not exceed one-half the inside radius or
pressure does not exceed 0.385SEo is given by
PR i

SEo  06P

(4.5)

 c

The design shell thickness in VIII-1 when thickness exceeds one-half the inside radius or pressure
exceeds 0.385SEo is
Z12  1 Ri  c

(4.6)

where Z = (SEo + P)/(SEo - P).


The design shell thickness in VIII-2, part 4 (Design by Formula), is
t

D i ePSEo  1

(4.7)

This equation is based on limit analysis.

Example 4.1
A pressure vessel is constructed of alloy 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and has in inside radius of 5 in. The
design temperature is 1000F, the design pressure is 3000 psi, and the allowable stress is 7800 psi.
The joint efciency, Eo, is equal to 1.0 and the corrosion allowance is zero. What is the required thickness
(a) In accordance with VIII-1?
(b) In accordance with I?
(c) In accordance with VIII-2?
Solution
(a) From Eq. (4.5)
3000 5
 00
7800 10  06 3000

25 in.

(b) From Table 4.2, y = 0.7 and from Eq. (4.2)


t

3000 5
 00
7800 10  1  07 3000
217 in.

(c) From Eq. (4.7)


t

10 e 3000  7800 10  1

235 in.

Notice that the thickness obtained from Section I is less than that obtained from Section VIII-1 due
to the y factor adjustment for elevated temperature. However, the obtained thicknesses from Sections
I and VIII-1 would be identical at lower temperatures, where the y factor in Eq. (4.2) is taken as 0.4.

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92

Chapter 4

The thickness of a section I shell at 1000F obtained from Eq. (4.4), which has recently been added
to Section I, is 2.35 in. Thus, at this high temperature it is more economical to use the 2.17 in. obtained from Eq. (4.2). However, at temperatures below the creep value, Eqs. (4.2) and (4.4) yield
about the same results.
The thickness obtained from the VIII-2 equation is less than that obtained from the VIII-1 equation
for the same allowable stress. This is due to the stress redistribution taken into account in Eq. (4.7) as
a result of limit analysis.
All cylindrical shell equations in Sections I and VIII are based on Lames equation, or an approximation of it. Lames equation, which is based on elastic analysis, is expressed as
Ro R 2  1

(4.8)

J2

where
R = radius
= Ro/Ri
This equation has a maximum value at the inner surface where R = Ri of
V

J2  1

(4.9)

J2  1

The outside stress with R = Ro is given by the equation


2P J 2  1

(4.10)

Example 4.2
Find the inside and outside stress values in the VIII-1 and I vessels of Example 4.1 using Lames
Eqs. (4.9) and (4.10).
Solution
(a) For Section VIII-1 with t = 2.5 in.
J

755

15

The inside stress is obtained from Eq. (4.9)


1.52 + 1

s i = 3000

1.5 2 - 1
= 7800 psi

which is the same as the allowable stress.


The outside stress is obtained from Eq. (4.10)
2 3000  15 2  1

Vo

4800 psi

(b) For Section I with t = 2.17 in.


J

7175

1434

The inside stress is


s i = 3000

1.434 2 + 1
1.434 2 - 1

= 8680 psi

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 93

This value, which is based on elastic analysis, is larger than the allowable stress at elevated temperatures. However, at a sustained elevated temperature, this stress relaxes to a lower value due to creep
(as discussed later in this chapter).
The outside stress is
s o = 2(3000)

1.4342 - 1

= 5680 psi

A plot of Eq. (4.9) for a thick shell is shown as line AB in Fig. 4.2. This line shows a non-linear
stress distribution across the thickness. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sections VIII-2
and III, as well as some other international codes, splits this non-linear calculated stress into different
components when an elastic stress analysis is performed. Methods of splitting this stress into various
categories and the denitions of these categories are discussed next.

4.3

STRESS CATEGORIES

The evaluation for the load-controlled stress limits is made in accordance with Fig. 4.1. The procedure for creep analysis in III-NH consists of rst calculating a trial thickness of the member and
then performing an elastic stress analysis to ascertain its adequacy in the creep regime. The stress in
the member is normally due to various operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, and other
loads. These loads may result in a complex stress prole across the thickness. This complex stress
prole is separated into various categories to simplify the elastic analysis. Each of the stress categories
is then compared to an allowable stress or equivalent strain limit. To demonstrate this procedure, it
is necessary to dene the various stress categories in accordance with the ASME code. ASME VIII-2
and III dene three different stress categories as shown in Fig. 4.3. They are referred to as the primary
stress, secondary stress, and peak stress. The ASME description of these stress categories follows.

4.3.1

Primary Stress

Primary stress is any normal or shear stress developed by an imposed loading, which is necessary to
satisfy the laws of equilibrium of external and internal forces and moments. The basic characteristic

FIG. 4.2
CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION THROUGH THE THICKNESS OF
A CYLINDRICAL SHELL

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94

Chapter 4

Stress Categories

Primary, Pm , PL , Pb

Secondary, Q

A stress developed by the


imposed loading which is
necessary to satisfy the laws
of equilibrium. The basic
characteristic of a primary
stress is that it is not self
limiting. Primary stress which
considerably exceeds the yield
strength will result in a failure
or at least in gross distortion.
A thermal stress is not
classified as a primary stress.

Peak, F

A stress developed by the


constraint of a structure.
Secondary stress is self limiting. Local yielding
and minor distortions can
satisfy the conditions
which cause the stress to
occur and failure from
one application of the
stress is not to be
expected.

Peak stress does not


cause any noticeable
distortion and is
objectionable only as
a possible source of a
creep failure, fatigue
crack, or brittle
fracture.

FIG. 4.3
STRESS CATEGORIES
of a primary stress is that it is not self-limiting. Primary stress is further subdivided into two categories
as shown in Fig. 4.4. The rst category is primary membrane stress, which could either be general Pm
or local PL, whereas the second category is primary bending stress, Pb.
4.3.1.1 General Primary Membrane Stress (Pm). This stress is so distributed in the structure
that no redistribution of load occurs as a result of yielding. An example is the stress in a circular cy-

Primary stress

Membrane

Bending, Pb ,

General, Pm

Local, PL

A general primary membrane stress is


one which is so distributed in the
structure that no re-distribution of the
load occurs as a result of yielding.

A local primary membrane stress occurs at a


small area such as a nozzle attachment or a
lug.

FIG. 4.4
PRIMARY STRESS

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 95

lindrical or spherical shell, away from discontinuities, due to internal pressure or to distributed live
loads.
4.3.1.2 Local Primary Membrane Stress (PL). Cases arise in which a membrane stress produced
by pressure or other mechanical loading and associated with a primary or a discontinuity effect produces excessive distortion in the transfer of load to other portions of the structure. Conservatism
requires that such a stress be classied as local primary membrane stress even though it shows some
characteristics of a secondary stress. Examples include the membrane stress in a shell produced by
external loads and moment at a permanent support or at a nozzle connection.
It is important to emphasize that the above denition includes pressure-induced loads as well as
those due to mechanical loading, and that the denition is equally applicable at any location in the
structure.
4.3.1.3 Primary Bending Stress (Pb). This stress is the variable component of normal stress in a
cross-section. An example is the bending stress in the central portion of a at head due to pressure.

4.3.2

Secondary Stress, Q

Secondary stress is a normal stress or a shear stress developed by the constraint of adjacent material
or by self-constraint of the structure, and thus it is normally associated with deformation-controlled
quantity at elevated temperatures. The basic characteristic of a secondary stress is that it is self-limiting. Local yielding and minor distortions can satisfy the conditions that cause the stress to occur and
failure from one application of the stress is not to be expected. Examples of secondary stresses are
bending stress at a gross structural discontinuity, bending stress due to a linear radial thermal strain
prole through the thickness of section, and stress produced by an axial temperature distribution in a
cylindrical shell.
The designer must keep in mind that, in some cases, NH considers thermally induced stresses
(NH-3213(c)) as primary. Also, pressure-induced discontinuity stresses are sometimes considered
primary (T-1331(d)).

4.3.3

Peak Stress, F

Peak stress is that increment of stress that is additive to the primary plus secondary stresses by reason of local discontinuities of local thermal stress including effects of stress concentrations. The basic
characteristic of a peak stress is that it does not cause any noticeable distortion and is objectionable
only as a possible source of a fatigue crack or a brittle fracture, and, at elevated temperatures, as a
possible source of localized rupture or creep fatigue failure. Some examples of peak stress are thermal
stress at local discontinuities and cladding, and stress at a local discontinuity.

4.3.4

Separation of Stresses

A complex stress pattern in a cross-section must be separated into primary, secondary, and peak
stress components in accordance with ASME. Table 4.3 lists the stress categories of some commonly
encountered load cases. The table shows that internal pressure for cylindrical shells must be divided
into primary membrane, Pm, and secondary, Q, stresses. Accordingly, the parabolic stress distribution given by Eq. (4.9) and shown as area ABCD in Fig. 4.2 must be decomposed into three parts as
shown in Fig. 4.5. The membrane stress CDEF is obtained by integrating area ABCD over the thickness and dividing by the total thickness. This results in the simple equation

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96

Chapter 4

TABLE 4.3
CLASSIFICATION OF STRESSES FOR SOME TYPICAL CASES (ASME, VIII-2)
Vessel
component
Any shell
including cylinders, cones,
spheres, and
formed heads

Location
Shell plate
remote from
discontinuities

Near nozzle or
other opening

Any location

Cylindrical or
conical shell

Dished head or
conical head

Flat head

Perforated
head or shell

Shell distortions
such as outof-roundness and
dents
Any section across
entire vessel

Junction with
head or ange
Crown

Axial thermal
gradient
Net-section axial
force and/or bending moment applied
to the nozzle, and/or
internal pressure
Temperature difference between shell
and head
Internal pressure

Net-section axial
force, bending moment applied to the
cylinder or cone,
and/or internal
pressure

Internal pressure
Internal pressure

Knuckle or
junction to shell
Center region

Internal pressure

Junction to shell

Internal pressure

Typical ligament in
a uniform pattern

Pressure

Isolated or
atypical ligament

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Origin of stress
Internal pressure

96

Internal pressure

Pressure

Type of stress

Classication

General membrane
Gradient through plate
thickness
Membrane
Bending
Local membrane
Bending
Peak (llet or corner)

P m
Q

Membrane
Bending

Q
Q

Membrane
Bending

Pm
Q

Membrane stress
averaged through the
thickness, remote
from discontinuities;
stress component
perpendicular to
cross-section
Bending stress
through the thickness;
stress component
perpendicular to
cross-section
Membrane
Bending
Membrane
Bending
Membrane
Bending
Membrane
Bending
Membrane
Bending
Membrane (averaged
through cross-section)
Bending (averaged
through width of
ligament, but gradient
through plate)
Peak
Membrane
Bending
Peak

Pm

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Q
Q
PL
Q
F

Pb

PL
Q
Pm
Pb
PL1
Q
Pm
Pb
PL
Q2
P m
Pb

F
Q
F
F

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 97

TABLE 4.3 (CONTINUED)


Vessel
component
Nozzle
(see Section
5.6) of VIII-2

Location
Within the limits
of reinforcement
given by Section
4.5 of VIII-2

Outside the limits


of reinforcement
given by Section
4.5 of VIII-2

Nozzle wall

Origin of stress

Type of stress

Pressure and
external loads and
moments including
those attributable to
restrained free end
displacements of
attached piping
Pressure and external axial, shear,
and torsional loads
including those
attributable to
restrained free end
displacements of
attached piping
Pressure and
external loads and
moments, excluding
those attributable to
restrained free end
displacements of
attached piping
Pressure and all
external loads and
moments
Gross structural
discontinuities

General membrane
Bending (other than
gross structural
discontinuity stresses)
averaged through
nozzle thickness

P m
P m

General membrane

P m

Membrane
Bending

PL
Pb

Membrane
Bending
Peak
Membrane
Bending
Peak
Membrane
Bending
Peak
Membrane
Bending
Equivalent linear
stress4
Nonlinear portion of
stress distribution
Stress concentration
(notch effect)

PL
Q
F
PL
Q
F
Q
Q
F
F
F
Q

Differential
expansion
Cladding

Any

Any

Any

Any

Differential
expansion
Radial temperature
distribution3

Any

Any

Classication

F
F

Consideration shall be given to the possibility of wrinkling and excessive deformation in vessels with large diameter/
thickness ratio.
2
If the bending moment at the edge is required to maintain the bending stress in the center region within acceptable
limits, the edge bending is classied as Pb; otherwise, it is classied as Q.
3
Consider the possibility of thermal stress ratchet.
4
Equivalent linear stress is dened as the linear stress distribution that has the same net bending moment as the actual
stress distribution.

Pm

P
J 1

PR i t

(4.11)

The secondary bending stress component, Q , is given by coordinates EG and FH. The value of Q
is determined by integrating area BJF times its moment arm around point J plus area EAJ times its
moment arm around J and then multiplying the total sum by the quantity 6/t 2. This results in a Q
value of

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98

Chapter 4

FIG. 4.5
SEPARATION OF STRESSES IN A CYLINDRICAL SHELL

Q =

g
1
6P
(ln g )
( - 1) 2 2 g 2 - 1

(4.12)

The peak stress component, F , is obtained by subtracting the quantities Pm plus Q from the total
stress at a given location. Hence,
Fmax = P

g2+ 1
g2 - 1

- Pm - Q

(4.13)

Example 4.3
A steam drum has an inside diameter of 30 in. and outside diameter of 46 in. The applied pressure
is 3300 psi. Determine the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Maximum and minimum stresses


Membrane stress Pm
Secondary stress Q
Peak stress F

Solution
(a) From Lames Eq. (4.9) with = 23/15 = 1.533, the maximum and minimum stress at the
inside and outside surfaces are
s i = 3300

1.5332 + 1

1.5332 - 1
= 8190 psi

Vo

2 3300  15332  1
4890 psi

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 99

(b) From Eq. (4.11),


Pm =

3300
1.533 - 1

= 6190 psi

(c) From Eq. (4.12),


6 3300 1533
1533  1 2

1533
1

ln1533
2
15332  1

106845 05  0485


1590 psi

(d) The maximum peak stress is obtained from Eq. (4.13)


F = s inside - (Pm + Q )
= 8190 - (6180 + 1590)
= 410 psi

4.3.5

Thermal Stress

Most vessels operating at elevated temperatures are subjected to thermal gradients and stress. If
there are rapid thermal transients in thick-walled vessels, the thermal stress may be non-linear through
the thickness of the component and thus require separation into membrane, secondary and peak
stresses. In Table 4.3, the thermal stress in vessel components is generally classied as either secondary or peak depending on whether the thermal stress is general or local as shown in Fig. 4.6. There are
some conditions where the membrane stress due to thermal conditions is classied as primary stress
in the creep range. This condition will be discussed in later chapters.
Generally, thermal stress affects the cycle life of a component and the analysis is discussed in Chapter 5. However, some thermal stress is also evaluated at steady-state conditions at such areas as skirt
and lug attachments.

4.4 EQUIVALENT STRESS LIMITS FOR DESIGN AND


OPERATING CONDITIONS
ASME Sections I and VIII provide design rules for common components such as shells, heads,
nozzles, and covers. These rules are intended to keep the design stresses Pm, PL, and Pb in the components within allowable stress limits. The design pressure and temperature are assumed as slightly
higher than the operational pressure and temperature and are taken at a point in the operational cycle
where they are at maximum. Many pressurized equipment such as power boilers and hydrocrackers
in reneries operate at essentially a steady-state condition. However, the combination of mechanical
and thermal loading may necessitate additional creep analysis. Such analysis is discussed in Chapters
5 and 6.
Section VIII-2 has specic procedure for setting limits on various combinations of the stresses Pm,
PL, Pb, and Q . The maximum values of these combinations are called equivalent stress values and are
designated by Pm, PL, Pb, and Q as shown in Fig. 4.7. The procedure for calculating equivalent stress
values from stress values is given by the following steps.
1. At a given time during the operation (such as steady state condition), separate the calculated
stress at a given point in a vessel into (Pm), (PL + Pb), and (PL + Pb + Q). The quantity PL
is either general or local primary membrane stress.

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100

Chapter 4

Thermal Stress

A self-balancing stress produced by a non-uniform


distribution of temperature or by differing thermal
coefficients of expansion. Thermal stress id
developed in a solid body whenever a volume of
material is prevented from assuming the size and
shape that it normally should under a change in
temperature.

General, Q

Local, F

Local thermal stress which


is associated with almost
complete suppression of
the differential expansion
and thus produces no
significant distortion. Local
thermal stress is classified
as peak stress. Examples of
local thermal stresses are:
1)stress in a small hot spot
in a vessel wall.
2) the difference between
the actual stress and the
equivalent linear stress.
3) the thermal stress in a
cladding material.

General thermal stress is


classified as secondary stress.
Examples of general thermal
stress are:
1) stress produced by an axial
temperature distribution in a
cylindrical shell.
2) stress produced by the
temperature difference
between a nozzle and the shell
to which it is attached.
3) the equivalent linear stress
produced by the radial
temperature distribution in a
cylindrical shell.

FIG. 4.6
THERMAL STRESS CATEGORIES

2. Each of these three bracketed quantities is actually six quantities acting as normal and
shear stresses on an innitesimal cube at the point selected.
3. Repeat steps 1 through 2 at a different time frame such as startup.
4. Find the algebraic sum of the stresses from steps 1 through 3. This sum is the stress
range of the quantities (Pm), (PL + Pb), and (PL + Pb + Q).

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 101

Stress
Category

Description (For
examples,
see Table
5.2 of
VIII-2)

Symbol

Primary
General
Membrane

Local
Membrane
Average stress
across only solid
section.
Considers discontinuities but
not concentrations. Produced
only by mechanical loads.

Average primary
stress across
solid section.
Excludes discontinuities and
concentrations.
Produced only
by mechanical
loads.

Pm

Pm

Secondary
Membrane
plus Bending

Bending
Component of
primary stress
proportional to
distance from
centroid of solid
section.
Excludes discontinuities and
concentrations.
Produced only
by mechanical
loads.

Self-equilibrating
stress necessary
to satisfy continuity of structure.
Occurs at structural discontinuities. Can be
caused by
mechanical load
or by differential
thermal
expansion.
Excludes local
stress
concentrations.

Pb

PL

Peak

1. Increment
added to
primary or
secondary
stress by a
concentration
(notch).
2. Certain thermal stresses
which may
cause fatigue
but not distortion of vessel
shape.

PL + Pb + Q

PL

SPS

1.5S

Use design loads


Use operating loads
PL + Pb

1.5S

PL + Pb + Q + F

Sa

FIG. 4.7
STRESS CATEGORIES AND LIMITS OF EQUIVALENT STRESS (ASME, VIII-2)

5. From step 4, determine the three principal stresses S1, S2, and S3 for each of the stress categories (Pm), (PL + Pb), and (PL + Pb + Q).
6. From step 5, determine the equivalent stress, Se, for each of the stress categories (Pm), (PL +
Pb), and (PL + Pb + Q) in accordance with the strain energy (von Mises) equation
Se =

2
2
2
1
(S1 - S2 ) + (S2 - S3) + (S3 - S1)
(2)1/ 2

1/ 2

(4.14)

The maximum absolute values obtained in step 6 are called equivalent stresses (Pm), (PL +
Pb), and (PL + Pb + Q). The von Mises equation (Eq. 4.14) is for ductile materials and is not
applicable to brittle materials or materials that become brittle during operation. It should also
be noted that for shells subjected to internal pressure the equivalent stress values obtained
from the von Mises theory are about 10% smaller than those obtained from the shear theory
used in Sections III-NB, III-NH, and VIII-2 before 2007.
7. The equivalent stress values in step 6 are analyzed in accordance with Fig. 4.7 for temperatures below the creep range and Fig. 4.8 for temperatures in the creep range. This chapter

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102

Chapter 4

FIG. 4.8
FLOW DIAGRAM FOR ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS (ASME, III-NH)

covers load-controlled stress limits as shown on the left-hand side of Fig. 4.8. Strain and
deformation limits as shown on the right side of Fig. 4.8 are covered in Chapter 5 and creep
fatigue is covered in Chapter 6.
The design equivalent stress limits for Pm, PL, and Pb at temperatures below the creep range are
shown by the solid lines in Fig. 4.7. The design equivalent stress is generally limited to
Pm < S for general membrane stress
PL < 1.5S for local membrane stress
(PL + Pb) < 1.5S for local membrane and bending primary stresses

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 103

Many of the construction details given in I and VIII for major components meet these design stress
limits, and in general there is no need to run a stress check due to design conditions. The situation in
the creep range is different in that the 1.5S limit on PL and Pb does not apply when loading conditions
are of sufcient duration for creep effects to redistribute elastically calculated stress and strain. This is
reected by the use of the Kt factor in the stress evaluation in III-NH. And although many construction details given in I and VIII for major components meet the design stress limits in the creep range
as given by the rst row in Fig. 4.8, other components such as nozzle reinforcement, lugs, and attachments may require an additional analysis in the creep range in accordance with Fig. 4.8 for steady load
conditions when the design specications require it or when the designer deems it necessary.
For the operating condition, it is necessary to determine the equivalent stress values of Pm, PL,
Pb, and Q. The ASME requirements for dening equivalent stress limits differ substantially for temperatures below the creep zone from those in the creep zone. The criteria below the creep zone for
VIII-2 are given by the dotted lines in Fig. 4.7 and show that primary plus secondary equivalent stress
values are limited by the quantity SPS. This quantity is essentially limited by the larger of 3S or 2Sy,
where S and Sy are the average value for the highest and lowest temperature of the cycle. The VIII-2
methodology for evaluation of primary plus secondary stresses is shown here for convenience as the
VIII-2 methodology does not consider the effects of stress redistribution due to creep. The criteria
for stress in the creep range in accordance with III-NH are shown in the second row of Fig. 4.8. It
involves checking load-controlled then strain-controlled stresses. A detailed description of the III-NH
methodology is given in this chapter for load-controlled stress and in Chapter 5 for strain-controlled
stress.
The above procedure for the separation of stresses is illustrated in the following example.

Example 4.4
Determine the stresses on the inside surface of a thick cylindrical shell subjected to internal pressure.
Solution
Step 1
(a) Circumferential stress
From Eq. (4.11),
P
g - 1

PmH =

(1)

Due to internal pressure away from discontinuities, the quantity PmH = PLH in this case and thus,
PLH =

g - 1

, PbH = 0

PLH + PbH =

P
g - 1

(2)

From Eq. (4.12),


QH =

6P g
( g - 1) 2

g
1
- 2
(ln g )
g - 1
2

and
PLH + PbH + Q H =

P
( g - 1)

(4 g - 1) -

6g 2
( g 2 - 1)

(ln g )

(3)

(b) Longitudinal stress


From Jawad and Farr (1989),

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104

Chapter 4

P
J2  1

PLLc

(4)

Due to internal pressure away from discontinuities


PbLc

Q Lc

0

Hence,
P
J2  1

PLLc  PbLc

(5)

and
P
J2  1

PLLc  PbLc  Q c

(6)

(c) Radial stress


PLRc
PbRc

0

P2
Q Rc

(7)

 P2

Hence,
PLRc  PbRc

P2

(8)

and
PLRc  PbRc  Q Rc

P

(9)

Step 2
All shearing stress is zero in a cylindrical cylinder subjected to internal pressure.
Step 3
It will be assumed that the initial stresses before application of pressure are all zero.
Step 4
Because the stresses in step 3 are zero, the total sum of the equivalent stress values is given in
step 1.
Step 5
(Pm), which is the same as PL in this case, are given by Eqs. (1), (4), and (7)
S1

P 
S
J 1 2

P 
S3
J2  1

(10)

P2

The principal stresses for the stress value (PL + Pb) are given by Eqs. (2), (5), and (8)
S1

P 
S2
J 1

P 
S3
J2  1

P2

(11)

The principal stresses for the stress value (PL + Pb + Q) are given by Eqs. (3), (6), and (9)
S1
S2

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104

P
6J 2
4 J  1  2
ln J
J 1
J 1 2
P

J2

 1

 S3

P

(12)

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 105

Step 6
The stress differences for Pm are obtained from Eq. (10) as
P
J2  1

S1  S2

P J 2  1

S2  S3

2 J 2  1
P J  1
2 J  1

S3  S1

(13)

The stress differences for (PL + Pb) are obtained from Eq. (11) as
S1  S2

PJ

J2  1

P J 2  1

S2  S3

2 J 2  1
P J  1
2 J  1

S3  S1

(14)

The stress differences for (PL + Pb + Q) are obtained from Eq. (12) as
S1  S2

2P J
J  1 2

2 J  1
3J
 2
ln J
J  1
J  1

S2  S3
S3  S1

P
J  1 2

PJ 2
J2  1

J 2  2J 

6J 2

J2  1

ln J

(15)

Equations (13), (14), and (15) are substituted into Eq. (4.14) to obtain the equivalent stress values
of Pm, (PL + Pb), and (PL + Pb + Q).
Step 7
The equivalent stress values Pm, (PL + Pb), and (PL + Pb + Q) obtained in step 6 are analyzed
in accordance with Fig. 4.7 for temperatures below the creep range and Fig. 4.8 for temperatures in the creep range as explained in this section.

4.5 LOAD-CONTROLLED LIMITS FOR COMPONENTS OPERATING IN


THE CREEP RANGE
Pressure vessel and boiler components operating in the creep range may require, in some instances,
a special analysis in accordance with load-controlled as well as strain-controlled limits. These instances include sudden upset or regeneration conditions, a few operating cycles with temperature
spikes, and design conditions based on life expectancy greater than the assumed 100,000 hours. Moreover, some construction components such as nozzles, support and jacket attachments, and tubes may
require such analysis in equipment operating under steady-state conditions. The procedure for such
analysis is given in this section.
In the creep range, the criteria for equivalent stress limits shown in Fig. 4.8 are based on limiting
the stresses for the design loads and then for the operating loads. In non-nuclear applications, this cor-

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106

Chapter 4

responds to the rst two rows in Fig. 4.8, which are the Design Limits and Levels A and B service
limits. The other two limits in the gure, namely, C and D services, are normally not pertinent to
boiler and pressure vessel operations, although they can be specied by the user if so desired.
The Design Limits in the rst row of Fig. 4.8 can be considered satised for head and shell components when the designer uses Section I and VIII details of construction. The reason is that the requirements of Pm < So and PL + Pb <1.5So are fullled when using the details of Sections I and VIII. Other
details such as nozzle reinforcement and jacket attachments are based, in part, on design by rules and
may require an analysis at the discretion of the designer.
In the creep range, the III-NH operating limits in the second row of Fig. 4.8 must be complied with
in a similar fashion as the VIII-2 limits shown in Fig. 4.7 designated by the dotted lines for temperatures below the creep range. The limits are based on (1) load-controlled stresses and (2) strain- and
deformation-controlled stresses. The load-controlled stresses are discussed in this chapter and the
strain-controlled stresses are discussed in Chapter 5.
The load-controlled limits are given by
Pm  Smt

(4.15)

PL  Pb  KSm

(4.16)

>PL  Pb Kt @  St

(4.17)

and

where K is given in Table 4.4.


For welded construction, the values of Smt and St listed above are further dened as
Smt = lower value of Smt or 0.8(Rw)(Sr)
St = lower value of St or 0.8(Rw)(Sr)
TABLE 4.4
SHAPE FACTORS
I/c1

Z2

Shape factor, K

Bt2/6

Bt2/4

1.5

R2t

4 R2t

1.27

R3/4

4 R3/3

1.7

(/4) Ro3(1 - 14)

(4/3) Ro3(1 13)

(16/3)(1 13)/(1 14 )
Ranges between 1.27 and 1.70

Shape

= Mc/I for elastic analysis.


= M/Z for plastic analysis.
1 = Ri/Ro.
1
2

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 107

Example 4.5
The vessel shown in Fig. 4.9a is constructed of SA-387-22 Cl.1. The shell is assumed to be thin such
that the stress distribution across the thickness is uniform due to applied pressure. The design and
operating conditions are
Design pressure = 0 psi to 500 psi
Operating pressure = 0 psi to 450 psi

Design temperature = 70F to 825F


Operating temperature = 70F to 810F

= 0.30
Use 100,000 hours service life.

Ri = 16.00 in.
joint efciency = 1.0

(a) Calculate the required thicknesses in accordance with VIII-1


The designer of a VIII-1 vessel is required, occasionally, to check the stresses at various components subsequent to the design. However, VIII-1 does not provide rules for such detailed stress
analysis. Accordingly, the designer uses the rules of VIII-2, part 5, when the temperature is below the
creep range, and the rules of III-NH when the temperature is in the creep range. VIII-2 and III-NH
have substantial differences in how they dene the creep range. This shows up in this example, which
is below the creep range for VIII-2 and in the creep range for III-NH. This procedure is demonstrated
in (b) and (c) below.
(b) Evaluate the operating stress values at the inside surface of the head-to-shell junction using
the criteria of VIII-2, part 5, as a general guide.
(c) Evaluate the operating stress values at the inside surface of the head-to-shell junction in accordance with the criteria for load-controlled stress in NH, as a general guide.
In item (c) above, only the load-controlled stresses will be checked. The strain and deformationcontrolled stresses, which must also be simultaneously evaluated in accordance with Section NH, will
be discussed in Chapter 5.
Solution
(a) Design Condition
From Section II-D, the allowable stress, S, at 825F is 16,600 psi. This temperature is below the
900F set by Section II-D for this material, where creep and rupture criteria control.

FIG. 4.9
HEAD-TO-SHELL JUNCTION

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108

Chapter 4

The required shell thickness based on VIII-1 equation is


t = PR i /(SEo - 0.6P)
= (500)(16)/[16,000 (1.0) - 0.6(500)]
= 0.49 in.

Use t = in.
The required head thickness is obtained from the following equations.
m

calculated thickness of shell/actual thickness of shell


04905
098

Bending factor C is given by


C

044m
043

The required at head thickness is obtained from


th

D i CP S 12
12

32 > 043 500 16600@


364 in

Use th = 3.75 in.


Details of shell to head junction in accordance with VIII-1 are shown in Fig. 4.9b.
(b) Evaluation of Operating Stresses in Accordance with VIII-2, Part 5
Operating pressure = 450 psi
Operating temperature = 810F
The 810F operating temperature is below the 850F limit set by Section VIII-2, where the allowable stress values are controlled by creep for this material. Hence, creep is not a consideration in accordance with the rules of VIII-2.
From Section II-D for VIII-2 values, SAv = 18,790 psi. (S = 20,000 psi at room temperature and S
= 17,580 psi at 810).
From Table Y-1 of Section II-D, av. Sy = 28,260 psi. (Sy = 30,000 psi at room temperature and Sy
= 26,520 psi at 810F).
From Table TM-1 of Section II-D, E = 26,200,000 psi at 810F.
The unknown moment, Mo, and shear force, Vo, at the junction are shown in Fig. 4.9c. Their values
are obtained from the following two compatibility equations
Deection of shell due to pressure  Mo  Vo

Deection of plate due to Vo

(1)

and
Rotation of shell due to Mo  Vo

Rotation of plate due to Mo  pressure

(2)

Deection of shell
Due to pressure = 0.85PRm2/Et
Due to moment = Mo/2D2

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 109

Due to radial load = -Vo/2D3


Rotation of shell
Due to pressure = 0
Due to moment = -Mo/D
Due to radial load = Vo/2D2
Radial deection of at head
Due to pressure = 0
Due to moment = 0
Due to radial load = RmVo/Eth
Rotation of at head
Due to pressure = -3(1 - )PRm3/2Eth3
Due to moment = 12(1 - )RmMo/Eth3
Due to radial load = 0
where
D = Et3/12(1 - 2)
E = modulus of elasticity
Rm = mean radius
t = thickness of shell
th = thickness of at head
= [3(1 - 2)/Rm2t2]0.25
= Poissons ratio
Solving the two compatibility equations (Eqs. 1 and 2) for Mo and Vo gives
Mo = 1283 in.-lb/in.

and

Vo = 994 lbs./in.

It is assumed that the initial stresses at the beginning of the operating cycle are zero. Hence, the
following calculations can be treated as stress range values rather than stress values. Also, only the
equivalent stress quantity (PL + Pb + Q) is required to be checked for the operating conditions in accordance with Fig. 4.7.
Shell stress range calculations
Axial stress
P L = PR i /2t = 7200 psi

(a)

Pb = 0

(b)

Q = 6M/t 2 = 30,800 psi

(c)

(PL + Pb + Q ) = 38,000 psi

(d)

PL = 0 psi

(e)

Pb = 0

(f )

Q = 0.3(30,800 ) = 9240 psi

(g)

Circumferential stress

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110

Chapter 4

PLc  Pbc  Qc

9240 psi

(h)

Radial stress
PLc 225 psi
Pbc

(i)
(j)

Qc  225 psi

(k)

PLc  Pbc  Qc  450 psi

(l)

The three principal stresses for (PL + Pb + Q) at the inside surface of the shell at the head-to-shell
junction are then given by Eqs. (d), (h), and (l).
S1 38000 psi

S2

9240 psi

S3  450 psi

Thus, the maximum equivalent stress value of (PL + Pb + Q) is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
0707 28760 2  9690 2  38450 2

PL  Pb  Q

1 2

34600 psi

The allowable stress is the larger of


2Sy

2 28260

3S

3 18790

56520 psi

or
56370 psi

Thus, the calculated value of 34,600 psi is less than the allowable stress of 56,520 psi.
Thus, based on an elastic analysis below the VIII-2 creep range, the stress at the inside surface of
the shell at the shell-to-head junction is adequate.
The above calculations satisfy the stress requirements of VIII-2.
The following calculation for secondary stress, Q, is detailed here but is not required in the VIII-2 or
the III-NH load-controlled Stress evaluations. It is performed here for expediency for use in Chapter
5 in the strain and deformation limit calculations.
(Q)
From Eqs. (c), (g), (k), and (4.14),
Maximum equivalent stress value of Q

27540 psi

Head stress calculations


Radial stress
PLc
Pbc

Vth

265 psi

6Mth2
Qc

550 psi

0 psi

PLc  Pbc  Qc

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(m)
(n)
(o)

815 psi

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 111

Tangential stress
PLc
Pbc

0 psi

03 550
Qc

(q)

165 psi

(r)

0 psi

PLc  Pbc  Qc

(s)

165 psi

(t)

Through thickness stress


PLc  225 psi
Pbc

(u)

(v)

Q   225 psi

(w)

PL  Pb  Q    450 psi

(x)

The three principal stresses at the inside surface of the shell at the head-to-shell junction are then
given by Eqs. (p), (t), and (x).
S1

815 psi

S2

165 psi

S3  450 psi

Thus, the maximum equivalent stress value of (PL + Pb + Q) is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
(PL + Pb + Q) = 0.707 (815 - 165 )2 + [165 - (-450 )] 2 + (-450 - 815 ) 2

1/ 2

= 1095 psi

By inspection, these equivalent stress values are well below the allowable stress limits.
The stress at the middle of the head is equal to the stress in the middle assuming a simply supported
head minus the stress caused by the edge moment due to the shell restraint.
Pb

3 3  P PR 2m  8th2  550
10460  550
9910 psi  15Sm

The edge stress can be classied as either primary bending stress, Pb, or secondary stress, Q,
depending on the design of the head. If the edge moment is used to reduce the moment in the middle
of the head in order to meet the allowable stress criterion, 1.5S, then it must be classied as Pb. If the
stress in the middle of the head is based on a simply supported head without taking the edge stress into
consideration, then the edge stress is classied as secondary.
The following calculation for secondary stress, Q, is detailed here but is not required in the VIII-2 or
the III-NH load-controlled stress evaluations. It is performed here for expediency for use in Chapter
5 in the strain and deformation limit calculations.
From Eqs. (o), (s), (w), and (4.14),
Maximum equivalent stress value of Q

225 psi

(c) Evaluation of Operating Condition in Accordance with III-NH, Load-Controlled Stress

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112

Chapter 4

From Section II-D, So = 16,600 psi at 810F.


From Table I-14.3D of III-NH, Smt = 17,100 psi at 810F for 100,000 hours.
From Table I-14.4D of III-NH, St = 17,200 psi at 810F for 100,000 hours.
From Table I-14.10, R = 1.0 at 810F.
From Table I-14.6D, Sr = 25,800 psi at 810F for 100,000 hours.
Smt

lower value of Smt or 0.8(R)(Sr )


17,100 psi, or
0.8(1.0)(25,800)

Smt

20640 psi

17100 psi

Use Sm = 17,600 psi.


St

lower value of St or 0.8 (R)(Sr)

Use St = 17,200 psi


It should be noted that in part (b) of this example, only the equivalent stress (PL + Pb + Q) is required to be checked for the operating conditions in accordance with Fig. 4.7. However, in the
creep range under the rules of NH, the quantities Pm, (PL + Pb), (PL + Pb/Kt), Q, and (PL + Pb + Q)
need to be checked in accordance with the requirements of Fig. 4.8. In this chapter, only the quantities Pm, (PL + Pb), and (PL + Pb/Kt) will be evaluated. The remaining quantities, Q, and (PL + Pb +
Q) will be calculated in this example but discussed in Chapter 5.
Shell stress calculations
In the shell and head calculations, values of Pm and PL will be conservatively assumed as similar.
These values are obtained from the von Mises equation given in VIII-2. In addition, these values are
used in the following NH calculations with the understanding that NH uses the Tresca criteria. Such
a hybrid approach enables the designer to use the NH concepts while complying with the VIII-2 philosophy of calculating equivalent stresses.
(Pm)
From Eqs. (a), (e), (i), and (4.14),
Maximum equivalent stress value of Pm

7315 psi

(PL + Pb)
From Eqs. (a + b), (e + f), (i + j), and (4.14),
Maximum equivalent stress value of PL  Pb

7315 psi

(PL + Pb/Kt)
From Table 4.4, K = 1.5
Kt

1  K 2

125

From Eqs. (a + b/Kt), (e + f/Kt), (i + j/Kt), and (4.14),


Maximum equivalent stress value of (PL + Pb/Kt) = 7315 psi

Load-controlled stress Limits


From Eq. (4.15)
Pm  Smt
7315  17,100

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 113

From Eq. (4.16)


PL  P b  KS m
7315  15 16600 ok

From Eq. (4.17)

PL  Pb  Kt  S t
7315  17,200

ok

Head equivalent stress calculations


In the shell and head calculations, values of Pm and PL will be conservatively assumed as similar.
(Pm)
From Eqs. (m), (q), (u), and (4.14)
Maximum equivalent stress value of Pm = 425 psi

(PL + Pb)
From Eqs. (m + n), (q + r), (u + v), and (4.14)
Maximum equivalent stress value of (PL + Pb) = 910 psi

(PL + Pb/Kt)
From Table 4.4, K = 1.5
Kt

1  K 2

125

From Eqs. (m + n/Kt), (q + r/Kt), (u + v/Kt), and (4.14)


Maximum equivalent stress value of (PL + Pb/Kt) = 810 psi

4.6

REFERENCE STRESS METHOD

The separation of stresses, at a given point in a pressure vessel part, into primary and secondary
components is a very tedious task, as illustrated in Section 4.4. Whenever possible, many designers
rely on other approximate approaches to design components. One such approach is the reference
stress method. The reference stress method is a convenient means to characterize the stress in a component operating in the creep range without having to separate the stresses into primary and secondary components. The method is based on limit analysis, as an asymptotic solution, to obtain a stress
in a component.
The rationale for using limit analysis in determining stress in pressure components operating in the
creep range was discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. The relationship between strain rate and stress in the
creep range is normally taken as
de /dT = k s n

(4.18)

where
d/dT = strain rate
k
= constant
n
= creep exponent, which is a function of material property and temperature

= stress

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114

Chapter 4

It was shown in Chapter 1 that a stationary stress condition is reached after a few hours of operating a component in the creep range under a constant strain rate. The relationship between strain and
stress can then be taken as
e = K sn

(4.19)

where
= strain
K = constant

4.6.1

Cylindrical Shells

The governing equation for the circumferential stress in a cylindrical shell due to internal pressure in the
creep range under a stationary stress condition (Finnie and Heller, 1959) is derived from Eq. (4.19) as
S = P

2- n
n

(Ro /R )

2/n

+1

g 2/n - 1

(4.20)

where
P
R
Ri
Ro
S

= internal pressure
= radius at any point in the shell wall
= inside radius
= outside radius
= circumferential stress
= Ro/Ri

A plot of this equation for n > 2 is shown by line EF in Fig. 4.10. This line shows that when the
component is operating in the creep range, the stress at the inside surface decreases and the stress at
the outside surface increases compared to the stress in the non-creep region as illustrated by line AB
from Eq. (4.8).

FIG. 4.10
ELASTIC VS. STATIONARY CREEP STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 115

A comparison of Eqs. (4.8) and (4.20) is given in Table 4.5. For n = 1, the creep (Eq. 4.20) and the
elastic (Eq. 4.8) equations yield the same answer as they should. For n values between 1 and 2, the
maximum stress given by Eq. (4.20) is on the inside surface of the shell similar to the elastic equation.
However, for n values greater than 2 the maximum stress given by Eq. (4.20) is on the outside surface
of the shell. Hence, creep fatigue could occur on either surface depending on the material value of n.
However, for most materials used in pressure vessel construction, the n value is greater than 2 and
the maximum stress in the creep regime is on the outside surface as shown in Table 4.5. The designer
should be aware of the stress reversal from the inside to the outside surface when evaluating creep and
fatigue stress. Table 4.5 also shows that the coefcients obtained from Eq. (4.20) reach an asymptotic
value for large values of n. This fact is crucial when the designer decides to substitute inelastic analysis
for creep analysis.
The following example illustrates the application of Eq. (4.20).

Example 4.6
A cylindrical shell is constructed from annealed 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and has an inside diameter of 48
in. The internal pressure is 4000 psi and the design temperature is 1000F. Let Eo = 1.0. The isochronous curves for this material are shown in Fig. 4.11.
(a) Determine the required thickness using Section VIII-1 criterion.
(b) Determine the required thickness using Eq. (4.20) and 100,000-hour life.
Solution
(a) Division VIII-1
The allowable stress from Section II-D is 7800 psi. Since P > 0.385S, thick shell equations must be
used.
Z

SEo  P
SEo  P
7800  4000  7800  4000
311

TABLE 4.5
STRESS COEFFICIENTS, S/P, FOR SHELL EQUATIONS AND THICKNESSES
Ro/Ri

1.67

1.25

1.1

Shell type

Thick

Intermediate

Thin

Location

Inside Outside

Inside

Outside

Inside

Outside

n
Lames equation
(Eq. 4.8)
Creep equation
(Eq. 4.20)

2.12

1.12

4.56

3.56

10.52

9.52

2.12

1.12

4.56

3.56

10.52

9.52

1.5
2
5
10
50
100

1.69
1.49
1.16
1.05
0.97
0.96

1.36
1.49
1.76
1.85
1.93
1.94
1.95

4.18
4.00
3.68
3.58
3.50
3.49

3.85
4.00
4.28
4.38
4.46
4.47
4.48

10.17
10.00
9.69
9.59
9.51
9.50

9.84
10.00
10.29
10.39
10.47
10.48
10.49

Inelastic equation
(Eq. 4.22)

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116

Chapter 4

FIG. 4.11
AVERAGE ISOCHRONOUS STRESS-STRAIN CURVES (ASME, III-NH)

Ri Z1 2  1
24(1.7635  1)
1832 in.

It should be noted that the allowable stress of 7800 psi is based, in part, on rupture at 100,000
hours.

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 117

(b) Equation (4.20)


A value of n = 6.26 is obtained from points A and B in Fig. 4.11 and Eq. (4.19).
From Eq. (4.20) with R = Ro,
7800
4000
195

2  n n Ro R 2 n  1
RoRi 2n  1
 06805 10 2 626  10
Ro240

2626

 10

or
Ro
t

3856 in.

Ro  R
1456 in.

The thickness, which is based on stationary creep consideration, is about 25% less than the thickness obtained from VIII-1. This is because VIII-1 uses Lames Eq. (4.9), which gives a high stress
value at the inner surface, whereas Eq. (4.20) redistributes the stresses resulting in a maximum stress
at the outside surface that is lower than Lames high stress at the inner surface as shown in Fig. 4.10.
The last entry in Table 4.5 is based on the maximum pressure allowed in a cylinder based on limit
analysis. The stress on the inside surface of a cylinder due to pressure when the cylinder begins to yield
on the inside surface (Chen and Zhang, 1991) is given by
S

P J 2  1  J 2  1

(4.21)

whereas the maximum stress on the outside of a cylinder when the wall is completely yielded is given
by
S

P ln J

(4.22)

where
P*
P**
S

= pressure when cylinder wall begins to yield


= pressure when cylinder wall completely yields
= stress
= Ro/Ri

The last entry in Table 4.5 is based on the limit analysis Eq. (4.22). Results are almost identical
to those obtained from Eq. (4.20) with large values of n. This conclusion is used to justify the use of
limit analysis for creep evaluations and is the basis for the Reference Stress method used in industry
(Larsson, 1992). The general equation for the reference stress is given by
SR

PPu S y

(4.23)

where
P
Pu
SR
Sy

= applied load
= ultimate load assuming rigid perfectly plastic material
= reference stress
= yield stress

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118

Chapter 4

The procedure for using the stress reference method consists of rst assuming a thickness or conguration of a given part and then performing a limit analysis. A reference stress is then obtained from
the limit analysis and compared to an allowable stress for the component. The procedure is based on
trial-and-error to obtain a conguration that is stressed within the allowable values.
The main method of obtaining reference stress is by using a numerical procedure such as a nite
element analysis. The reason for this is that closed-form solutions are only available for a handful of
components such as shells, at covers, and beams.
It is noteworthy that, at present, there is no general consensus among engineers regarding a stress reference equation for thermal loads (Goodall, 2003) or one that combines pressure and thermal loads.

Example 4.7
What is the required thickness of the heat exchanger channel shown in Fig. 4.12? The material is
304 stainless steel. The design temperature is 1150F and the design pressure is 2500 psi. The thickness is to be calculated in accordance with
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

ASME Section VIII-1


creep Eq. (4.20)
limit Eq. (4.22)
reference stress Eq. (4.23)

Solution
(a) ASME Section VIII-1
The allowable stress, S, from II-D is 7700 psi.
The required thickness from VIII-1 is
t

PR i SEo  06P
2500 u 18 7700 u 10  06 u 2500
726 in.

18  726 18

14033

FIG. 4.12
HEAD EXCHANGER CHANNEL

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 119

From Eq. (4.8), the stress at the inside and outside surfaces are
Vi

2500 14033 2  1  14033 2  1


7660 psi

Vo

2500 2 14033 2  1
5160 psi

Both of these values are below the allowable stress of 7700 psi.
(b) Creep Eq. (4.20)
Equation (4.20) can be solved once the value of n is known. The value of n is also needed in evaluating creep and fatigue analysis. Section VIII does not list any n values. However, an approximate value
of n for a limited number of materials can be obtained from a stress-strain curve at a given temperature
for a given number of hours listed in III-NH. Such curves are presented in isochronous charts. One
such chart is shown in Fig. 4.13. The value of n is determined by using Eq. (4.19) in conjunction with
any of the curves in the chart. Hence, if points A and B are chosen on the hot tensile curve, then the
two unknowns, K and n, in Eq. (4.19) can be calculated. The result is n = 6.1. Other curves in the
chart could be used as well. For example, using points C and D on the 300,000-hour curve results in a
calculated value of n = 5.8. This slight variation in the calculated values of n from various curves has
no practical signicance in calculating stresses as illustrated in Table 4.5 Using an average value of
n = 6.0 in Eq. (4.20) results in the following stress at the inside and outside surfaces:
S inside

5290 psi

Soutside

6940 psi

The results indicate that there is about a 10% relaxation in the maximum stress values when the operating temperature increases from non-creep to the creep regime. This stress reduction is signicant
when evaluating fatigue and creep life.
The required thickness is obtained by using n = 6.0 in Eq. (4.20). This yields
7700

2500

2 6
6

10 2 6  1

J 26  1

or
J

13611

Ro

2450

65 in.

Accordingly, a thickness of 7.26 in. will result in a lower stress and a longer fatigue life than is implied by VIII-1.
(c) Limit analysis Eq. (4.22)
7700

2500  ln J

or

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13836

Ro

2490

69 in.

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120

Chapter 4

FIG. 4.13
AVERAGE ISOCHRONOUS STRESS-STRAIN CURVES (ASME, III-NH)

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 121

(d) Reference stress Eq. (4.23)


The procedure for the reference stress method is to rst assume a thickness and then calculate the
limit pressure in a component. Equation (4.23) is then used to obtain the reference stress. In this case,
however, we used in part (c) a closed form solution to obtain a thickness of 6.9 in. The limit pressure
Pu based on this trial thickness is calculated from Eq. (4.22)
J

18  69 18

Sy ln J

13833

Sy ln 13833

03245 Sy

From Eq. (4.23),


SR

PPu Sy
250003245 Sy Sy
7700 psi

Thus the calculated thickness of 6.9 in. is adequate.

4.6.2

Spherical Shells

The behavior of spherical shells due to internal pressure is very similar to that of cylinders discussed
in Section 4.6.1. Lames equation for the stress in a thick spherical shell (Den Hartog, 1987) due to
internal pressure is expressed as
S

12 Ro R 3  1

(4.24)

Ro Ri 3  1

The governing equation for the circumferential stress in a spherical shell due to internal pressure
in the creep range under a stationary stress condition (Finnie and Heller, 1959) is derived from Eq.
(4.19) as

3  2n
2n

Ro R

Ro Ri

3n

3n

1
(4.25)

1

The governing equation for the maximum circumferential stress in a spherical shell due to internal
pressure using plastic theory (Hill, 1950) is expressed as
S

1
1
2 ln Ro Ri

(4.26)

Equation (4.25) reverts to Eq. (4.24) when n = 1.0. The value of S in Eq. (4.25) approaches that
given by Eq. (4.26) as n increases to innity.

Example 4.8
A spherical head has an inside radius of 24 in., a thickness of 0.60 in., and is subjected to an internal
pressure of 1000 psi. Calculate the following:
(a) Maximum elastic stress from Eq. (4.24)
(b) Maximum stress from Eq. (4.25) with n = 1, 6, 100
(c) Maximum stress from Eq. (4.26)

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122

Chapter 4

Solution
(a) From Eq. (4.24) with R = 24 in.,
S

1000

12 24624 3  1
24624 3  1

20000 psi

(b) From Eq. (4.25) with R = 24 in.,


S

20000 psi for n

19 370 psi for n

19 260 psi for n

100

(c) From Eq. (4.26),


S

1000

1
1
2 ln 24624

19250 psi

A comparison of the three methods shows that spherical shells behave essentially the same as cylindrical shells.

4.7

THE OMEGA METHOD

The omega method was developed by the Metal Properties Council for the American Petroleum
Institute (API) and published in the API 579 Fitness for Service document. It is intended to calculate
the remaining life, in hours, of a pressure component operating in a renery at a given temperature and
stress level. The background of the method is described by Prager (Prager, 1995) and the analysis procedure is given in API 579 (API, 2000). The procedure is based on a modied Nortons law equation
and supplemented by creep data obtained for various materials used by API. Some of the parameters
needed in the analysis are selected by the designer and are based on judgment and experience. The
value of these parameters can drastically affect the results of the analysis.
The procedure consists of rst calculating the three principal stresses, S1, S2, and S3, at a given location in the vessel. The effective stress based on the strain energy method is then obtained from
Se

07071 > S1  S2 2  S2  S3 2  S3  S1 2 @1 2

(4.27)

The omega uniaxial damage parameter, W, is then calculated from a polynomial obtained from test
data and is expressed as
log10 W = (C o + D cd ) + Te (C l + C 2 S + C 3 S2 + C 4 S3 )

(4.28)

where
C0, C1, C2, C3, C4 = material constants obtained from API 579 for various materials (Table 4.6 gives
a sample of C values for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel in the annealed condition)
SA = log10 (Se)
T = operating temperature (F)
Te = 1/(T + 460)
Dcd = creep ductility factor, which ranges from +0.3 for brittle behavior to -0.3 for ductile behavior.

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 123

TABLE 4.6
CONSTANT VALUES FOR
ANNEALED 2.25CR-1MO STEEL
(COURTESY OF API)
Constant

Value

C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9

1.85
7,205.0
2,436.0
0.0
0.0
21.86
51,635.0
7,330.0
2,577.0
0.0

The strain rate exponent, n, and the initial strain rate, co, are calculated from the polynomial equations
f = -Te (C 7 + 2C 8 S + 3C 9 S2 )

(4.29)

log10 e co = [(C 5 + D sr ) + Te (C 6 + C 7 S + C 8 S2 + C 9 S3 )]

(4.30)

and

where
C5, C6, C7, C8, C9 = material constants obtained from API 579 for various materials (Table 4.6 gives
several samples of C values for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel in the annealed condition)
Dsr = scatter material factor, which ranges from +0.5 for top of the scatter band to -0.5 for the bottom of the scatter band.
The omega multiaxial damage parameter, Wm, is calculated from the equation
:m

G 1

:n

 DI

(4.31)

where
Wn = max[(W - n), 3.0]
= 0.33{[(S1 + S2 + S3)/Se] - 1.0}
= 3.0 for heads
= 2.0 for cylinders and cones
= 1.0 for other components
The remaining life, L, of a component at a given stress level and temperature is then calculated from
the quantity
L

: m H coc 1

(4.32)

The quantities Dcd and Dsr in the above analysis are based on judgmental evaluation of the designer.
Slight variations in these values will change the calculated remaining life, L value, substantially. The
following example illustrates the application of this method to a vessel shell in a renery.

Example 4.9
A pressure vessel has an inside radius of 10 ft and a shell thickness of 1.23 in. Material of construction is 2.25Cr-1Mo annealed steel. The inside pressure is 80 psi and the operating temperature is

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124

Chapter 4

1000F. Inspection of the material indicates that a ductility factor, Dcd, of 0.0 is to be used. Moreover,
the value for material scatter band, Dsr, of -0.5 is deemed applicable. Determine the expected life of
the shell.
Solution
The stress values in the shell are
S1

78 ksi

S2

S3

39 ksi

 008 ksi

From Eq. (4.27),


07071 39 2  398 2  788 2

Se

1 2

6824 ksi

From Eq. (4.28) and Table 4.6,


S = log10 (6.824 ) = 0.834
1 1000  460

Te

68493 u 10 4

185  00  68493 u 10 4 >72050  2436 0834  0  0@

log10 :

16934

and
:

49363

From Eqs. (4.37) and (4.38), and Table 4.6


I

log10 H coc

 68493 u 10 4 >7330  2 25770 0834  0@


7951
^ 2186  05  68493 u 10 4 >51635  7330 0834
 2577 0834 2  0@`
 75915

and
H coc

25613 u 10 8

The omega multiaxial damage parameter, Wm, is calculated from Eq. (4.31) as
:n

max > 49363  7951  30@


41412

^033 > 78  39  008 6824@ 10`


02319

:m

41412 02319  1  20 7951


1141

The remaining life, L, of the vessel is then calculated from Eq. (4.32)
L

1141 25613 u 108

1

342000 hours or 390 years

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Analysis of ASME Pressure Vessel Components 125

It is of interest to note that if the material condition Dcd was chosen to be +0.3 then the life expectancy would have reduced to 16.3 years. On the other hand, if Dcd was chosen as -0.3, then the
life expectancy would have increased to 92.4 years. Thus, selecting the correct value of Dcd becomes
crucial in the evaluation of life expectancy in this method. API 579 does not give guidelines regarding
the proper selection of Dcd or Dsr.

Problems
4.2 A pressure vessel is supported on legs. The membrane stresses, Pm, in the shell at the vicinity
of the legs when the vessel is not pressurized are:
Condition 1
c = 0 psi

= -700 psi

c = 350 psi

r = 0 psi

The total membrane stresses in the shell when the vessel is pressurized are:
Condition 2
c = 1800 psi,

= 200 psi,

tc = 350 psi,

r = -150 psi

Comment
The shear stresses cr and 1r are equal to zero in this case. Moreover, the principal stresses in the cl
plane are obtained from the equation
s 1,2 =

( s c + s )

s c - s
2

1/ 2

2
2
+ t c

(A)

Find the equivalent stress, Pm.


4.2 An internal tray has a diameter of 60 in. and is subjected to a 2-psi differential pressure. The
design temperature is 1000F and the material is SA 387-22 cl2.
Data:
The tray is assumed simply supported.
S = 8000 psi at 1000F from VIII-1.
From Section II-D for VIII-2 values, SAv = 14,000 psi (S = 20,000 psi at room temperature and
S = 8000 psi at 1000F).
From Table Y-1 of Section II-D, av. Sy = 26,850 psi (Sy = 30,000 psi at room temperature and
Sy = 23,700 psi at 1000F).
So = 8000 psi at 1000F from III-NH.
Sm = 15,800 psi from Fig. I-14.3D of III-NH.
From Table I-14.3D of III-NH, Smt = 5200 psi at 1000F for 300,000 hours.
From Table I-14.4D of III-NH, St = 5200 psi at 1000F for 300,000 hours.
Perform the following:
(a) Determine the thickness in accordance with VIII-1.
(b) Evaluate the stresses in accordance with VIII-2.
(c) Evaluate the stresses in accordance with Load-Controlled criteria of III-NH based on
300,000 hours.
The elastic bending stress of a simply supported plate is given by
= 1.24PR2/t 2

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CREEP-FATIGUE CRACK IN A 2.25 Cr-1Mo STEEL TUBE (COURTESY OF AMEREN UE, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI)
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CHAPTER

5
ANALYSIS OF COMPONENTS:
STRAIN- AND DEFORMATIONCONTROLLED LIMITS
5.1

INTRODUCTION

Stress analysis of a component in the creep regime requires both load- and strain-controlled evaluation. Load-controlled limits were discussed in Chapter 4 and the strain-controlled limits are described
in this chapter. The evaluation for the strain-controlled limits is made in accordance with one of three
criteria detailed in III-NH. The rst criterion, based on elastic analysis, is the easiest to use but is
very conservative. When the stress calculations cannot satisfy the elastic limits then the component
is redesigned or the analysis proceeds to the second criterion based on simplied inelastic analysis.
This second criterion is costlier to perform than the elastic analysis and requires additional material
data. However, the results obtained from the simplied inelastic analysis are more accurate than those
obtained from an elastic analysis.
When the simplied inelastic stress analysis cannot satisfy the simplied inelastic stress limits, then
the component is redesigned or the analysis proceeds to the third criterion based on inelastic analysis.
To perform inelastic analysis, it is necessary to dene the constitutive equations for the behavior of the
material in the creep regime. These equations are not readily available for all materials. As a consequence, this third criterion is costly to perform but gives reasonably accurate results once performed.

5.2

STRAIN- AND DEFORMATION-CONTROLLED LIMITS

The procedure for strain and deformation limits is intended to prevent ratcheting. Section III-NH
gives the designer the option of using one of three methods of analysis. They are the elastic, simplied inelastic, and inelastic analyses. The object of all of these methods is to limit the strains in the
operating condition to 1% for membrane, 2% for bending, and 5% for local stress. At welds, the allowable strain is one half those values. It is of interest to note that some engineers believe that in some
instances the limitation set on primary membrane strain of 1% may be too conservative because this
criterion does not affect the overall failure of the component. Thus, a 1% strain in a ange may result
in an unwanted leakage, whereas the same strain at the junction of a at head to shell junction may
be acceptable.
The elastic method, which is very conservative, is generally applicable when the primary plus secondary stresses are below the yield strength. The simplied inelastic analysis, which has less conservatism built into it compared to the elastic analysis, is based on bounding the accumulated membrane
strain. The last option is to perform an inelastic analysis. The inelastic analysis yields accurate results
127

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128

Chapter 5

but has the drawback of being expensive and time consuming to perform. It requires a large amount of
material property data that may not be readily available for the material under consideration.
One potential disadvantage of using the strain- and deformation-controlled limits of III-NH is that it
requires separate treatment of primary and secondary stress categories as shown in Fig. 4.8. This condition is avoided in VIII-2 by combining the primary and secondary stress categories into one quantity.
For simple structures, the separation of primary and secondary stress in III-NH may not be a big problem. But for more complex structures with asymmetrical geometry and loading, it can be difcult, if not
impossible, to sort out primary and secondary stress categories from a detailed nite element analysis.
Section III-NH, however, does give the designer the option (called test A-3) to use the combination
of primary plus secondary stress limits similar to VIII-2 when the effects of creep are negligible. This
creep modied shakedown limit avoids the potential problem of separating primary and secondary
stresses and is used as an alternative to the standard III-NH strain and deformation limit.

5.3

ELASTIC ANALYSIS

The strain and deformation limits in the elastic stress analysis are considered to be satised if they
meet the requirements of A-1, A-2, or A-3. A summary of the requirements for these three tests is
shown in Fig. 5.1. The membrane and primary bending stresses used in these tests are dened as
X

PL  Pb Kt Sy

(5.1)

and the secondary stress is given by


Y

QSy

(5.2)

The value of Kt in Eq. (5.1) is approximated by III-NH to a value of 1.25 for rectangular crosssections. The actual value of Kt for pipes and tubes is less than 1.25. Table 4.4 shows the Kt values for
rectangular and circular cross-sections.
Important denitions applicable to tests A-1 and A-2
X includes all primary membrane and bending stresses.
Y includes all secondary stresses.
Sy is the average of the yield stress at the maximum and minimum temperatures during the
cycle.

5.3.1

Test A-1

This test applies for cycles where both extremes of the cycle are within the creep range of the material (see test A-2 for denition of creep range for this application). The governing equation is
X  Y  Sa Sy

(5.3)

where Sa is the lesser of:


(a) 1.25St using the highest wall averaged temperature during the cycle and time value of 104
hours
(b) the average of the two Sy values associated with the maximum and minimum wall averaged
temperatures during the cycle.
The requirement of item (a) is based on the concern that creep relaxation at both ends of the
temperature cycle will exacerbate the potential for ratcheting. Experience has shown that using a
value of St at 104 hours as a stress criterion is a realistic assumption. The requirement of (b) is based

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Analysis of Components 129

Strain and deformation controlled limits- Elastic Analysis

Any one of tests A-1, A-2, or A-3 requirements must be met

Is negligible creep requirements of test A-3 satisfied

No

Yes

Tests A-1 and A-2

Test A-3

Part of the cycle falls in a non-creep


temperature zone (see Table 5-1)

_ lesser of
(Pm + Pb + Q) <
3 Sm or 3 S m

No

Yes
Part of cycle falls below NB to
NH temperature boundary

Test A-1

Test A-2
Yes

No

_ 1.0
(X + Y ) <

_ Smaller of
(X + Y ) <
(1.25 St / Sy) or 1.0

3 S m = 1.5 Sm + SrH
 1.5 Sm + St/2

3 S m = SrL + SrH
 StL/2 + StH/2

FIG. 5.1
STRAIN-CONTROLLED LIMITS ELASTIC CRITERION

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130

Chapter 5

on averaging the yield stress associated with the maximum and minimum temperatures as a good
approximation.

5.3.2

Test A-2

This test is applicable for those cycles in which the average wall temperature at one of the stress extremes dening the maximum secondary stress range, Q, is below the temperature given in Table 5.1.
X  Y  10

(5.4)

Values shown in Table 5.1 are the approximate temperatures above which the material allowable
stress values at 100,000 hours are controlled by creep and rupture.

5.3.3

Test A-3

This test, although applicable to all conditions, was originally intended for components that are in
the creep range for only a portion of their expected design life. Compliance with this test indicates that
creep is not an issue and the rules of VIII-2 may be used directly. The calculated stresses are satised
when all of the following criteria are met:
(a) The combined primary and secondary stress are limited to the lesser of
PL  Pb  Q  3Sm

(5.5)

(If Q is due to thermal transients then Sm is the average of values taken at the hot and cold ends of
the cycle. If pressure-induced loading is part of Q then Sm is the value at the hot end of the cycle.)
or
(5.6)

PL  Pb  Q  3Sm

where
3Sm = (1.5Sm + SrH). If both temperature extremes of the cycle are in the creep regime, then the lower
temperature relaxation strength, SrL, should be substituted for 1.5Sm. The extremes of the cycle are considered to be in the creep regimen when the temperature is greater than 700F for
2.25Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo-V steels and greater than 800F for stainless and nickel alloys.
SrH = hot relaxation stress. It is obtained by performing a pure uniaxial relaxation analysis starting with an initial stress of 1.5Sm and holding the initial strain throughout the time interval
equal to the time of service in the creep regime. An acceptable, albeit conservative, alternate to this procedure is to use the elevated temperature creep dependent allowable stress
level, 0.5St, as a substitute for SrH.
St = temperature- and time-dependent stress intensity limit.
(b) Thermal stress ratcheting must be kept below a certain limit dened by the equations
TABLE 5.1
TEMPERATURE LIMITATION
Material

Temperature, F (C)

304 stainless steel


316 stainless steel
Alloy 800H
2.25Cr-1Mo steel
9Cr-1Mo-V

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948 (509)
1011 (544)
1064 (573)
801 (427)
940 (504)

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Analysis of Components 131

y = 1/x
y

for 0 < x < 0.5

4 1  x

(5.7)
(5.8)

for 0.5  x  10

where
x = (general membrane stress, Pm)/Sy
y = (range of thermal stress calculated elastically, DQ)/Sy
(c) Time duration limits are given by

Ti Tid 

01

(5.9)

where
Ti = total time duration during the service lifetime of a component at the highest operating
temperature
Tid = maximum allowable time as determined by entering stress-rupture chart at temperature Ti
and a stress value of 1.5 times the yield stress at temperature Ti
(d) Strain limit is given by

Hi

 02

(5.10)

where
i = creep strain that would be expected from a stress level of 1.25Sy|Ti applied for the total duration of time during the service lifetime that the metal is at temperature Ti
_
Note: Table 5.1 in test A-2 has different temperatures than those dening (3S m) in
test A-3 for the onset of creep effects.

Example 5.1
An VIII-1 vessel has a design temperature of 1100F and design pressure of 315 psi. Material of
construction is stainless steel grade 304. The operating temperature is 1050F and the operating pressure is 300 psi. The required shell thickness due to design condition is 1.0 in. However, the thickness
of part of the shell is increased to 2.0 in. to accommodate the reinforcement of some large nozzles in
the shell. The junction between the 1.0-in. and 2.0-in. shells is shown in Fig. 5.2a. Temperatures at the
inside and outside surfaces of the shell during the steady-state operating condition are shown in Fig.
5.2b. The operating cycle (Fig. 5.2c), is as follows:
Pressure
The pressure increases from 0 psi to 300 psi in 24 hours. It remains at 300 psi for about 18 months
(13,000 hours), and is then reduced to zero in 1 hour. The same cycle is then repeated after a shutdown
of 2 weeks for maintenance.
Temperature
The temperature increases from ambient to 1050F in 24 hours. It remains at 1050F for about 18
months (13,000 hours) and then reduced to ambient in 4 days. The same cycle is then repeated after
the shutdown.
Evaluate the following:
1. Stress away from any discontinuities due to design condition.
2. Stress away from any discontinuities due to operating condition using elastic analysis.

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132

Chapter 5

FIG. 5.2
VESSEL GEOMETRY AND OPERATING CYCLES

Data:
So = 9800 psi at 1100F (Table I-14.2 of III-NH)
E = 22,000 ksi at 1100F (Table TM-1 of II-D)
E = 22,400 ksi at 1050F (Table TM-1 of II-D)
Sm = 13,600 psi at 1050F (Table I-14.3A of III-NH)
Smt = 8500 psi at 1050F and at 130,000 hours (Table I-14.3A of III-NH)
Sm = 20,000 psi at 100F (Table 2A of II-D)
Sy = 30,000 psi at 100F (Table Y-1 of II-D)
Sy = 15,200 psi at 1050F (Table I-14.5 of III-NH)
Average Sy during the cycle = 22,600 psi
St = 12,200 psi at 1050F at 104 hours (Table I-14.3E of III-NH)
St = 8490 psi at 1050F at 130,000 hours (Table I-14.3E of III-NH)
= 10.4 10-6 in./in.-F at 1050F (Table TE-1 of II-D)
m = 0.3
Solution
Assumptions
Calculations in this example are based on thin shell equations to keep the calculations as
simple as possible. This was done to demonstrate and highlight the method of creep analysis.
For thick shells, Lames equations must be used.
The centerlines of the thin and thick shells are aligned.
The following calculations are based on the criteria of Fig. 4.8.

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Analysis of Components 133

TABLE 5.2
PRIMARY MEMBRANE STRESS, PSI
Stress1

One-inch thick shell2

Two-inch thick shell3

9608
4804
158

4725
2363
158

Pm
PmL
Pmr

Pmq = PRi/t, PmL = PRi/2t, Pmr = -P/2.


Ri = 30.5 in.
3
Ri = 30.0 in.
1
2

(a) Stress due to design condition


The design stress at the beginning of the cycle is zero. Membrane stress due to design pressure of
315 psi is shown in Table 5.2.
The maximum membrane equivalent stress factors, Pm, are obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
For 1-in. thick shell = 8455 psi
For 2-in. thick shell = 4230 psi
From Fig. 4.8, the value of Pm for both 1-in. and 2-in. shells is less than the design allowable stress
of So (9800 psi). Hence, load-controlled design stress limits are adequate. The quantities PL and Pb
are not applicable in this case.
(b) Stress due to operating condition using elastic analysis
Both load-controlled and strain-controlled limits must be satised. The load-controlled limits
will be evaluated rst in accordance with Fig. 4.8.
(b.1) Load-controlled limits
The operating stress at the beginning of the cycle is zero. Stress due to operating pressure of
300 psi is shown in Table 5.3.
The maximum membrane equivalent stress factors, Pm, are obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
For 1-in. thick shell = 8050 psi
For 2-in. thick shell = 4025 psi
From Fig. 4.8, the values of Pm for the 1-in. and 2-in. thick shells are within the allowable stress
of Smt (8500 psi at 1050F). PL and Pb are not applicable in this case.
(b.2) Strain-controlled limits
The pressure as well as the temperature stresses must be included in the calculations. For thin
shells, the governing equations for thermal stress is obtained from Appendix B as

TABLE 5.3
PRIMARY MEMBRANE STRESS, PSI
Stress1

One-inch thick shell2

Two-inch thick shell3

9150
4575
-150

4500
2250
-150

Pm
PmL
Pmr

Pm = PRi/t, PmL = PRi /2t, Pmr = -P/2.


Ri = 30.5 in.
3
Ri = 30.0 in.
1
2

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134

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.4
STRESSES AT INSIDE SURFACE
Stress

Stress due to
pressure, psi

Stress due to
temperature, psi

One-inch shell
Membrane circumferential stress, Pm
Membrane axial stress, PmL
Membrane radial stress, Pmr
Circumferential bending stress, Qb
Axial bending stress, QbL
Radial bending stress, Qbr

9,150
4,575
-150
0
0
-150

0
0
0
-6,655
-6,655
0

Two-inch shell
Membrane circumferential stress, Pm
Membrane axial stress, PmL
Membrane radial stress, Pmr
Circumferential bending stress, Qb
Axial bending stress, QbL
Radial bending stress, Qbr

4,500
2,250
-150
0
0
-150

0
0
0
-14,975
-14,975
0

VT

V1

E D 'T i
2(1  P )

The stresses due to pressure and temperature of the 1.0-in. and 2.0-in. shells are given in Tables 5.4
and 5.5. Table 5.4 shows the inside surface stresses, and Table 5.5 shows the outside surface stresses.
Maximum equivalent stress values from Eq. (4.14)
Note that the calculated stresses shown below are based on the VIII-2 denition of equivalent stress
given by as given by the Von Mises expression. III-NH uses stress intensities based on Tresscas maximum shear theory, which are more conservative than those in the VIII-2 equivalent stress theory. In

TABLE 5.5
STRESSES AT OUTSIDE SURFACE

Stress

Stress due to
pressure, psi

Stress due to
temperature, psi

One-inch shell
Membrane circumferential stress, Pm
Membrane axial stress, PmL
Membrane radial stress, Pmr
Circumferential bending stress, Qb
Axial bending stress, QbL
Radial bending stress, Qbr

9,150
4,575
-150
0
0
-150

0
0
0
6,655
6,655
0

Two-inch shell
Membrane circumferential stress, Pm
Membrane axial stress, PmL
Membrane radial stress, Pmr
Circumferential bending stress, Qb
Axial bending stress, QbL
Radial bending stress, Qbr

4,500
2,250
-150
0
0
150

0
0
0
14,975
14,975
0

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Analysis of Components 135

this section, to be consistent with VIII-2 policies, the III-NH procedures are used in conjunction with
the VIII-2 equivalent stress denition.
1.0-in. shell at inside surface
Membrane equivalent stress due to pressure, PLm = 8050 psi
Bending equivalent stress due to pressure, Q = 150 psi
Membrane equivalent stress due to temperature, PLm = 0 psi
Bending equivalent stress due to temperature, Q = 6655 psi
1.0-in. shell at outside surface
Membrane equivalent stress due to pressure, PLm = 8050 psi
Bending equivalent stress due to pressure, Q = 150 psi
Membrane equivalent stress due to temperature, PLm = 0 psi
Bending equivalent stress due to temperature, Q = 6655 psi
2.0-in. shell at inside surface
Membrane equivalent stress due to pressure, PLm = 4025 psi
Bending equivalent stress due to pressure, Q = 150 psi
Membrane equivalent stress due to temperature, PLm = 0 psi
Bending equivalent stress due to temperature, Q = 14,975 psi
2.0-in. shell at outside surface
Membrane equivalent stress due to pressure, PLm = 4025 psi
Bending equivalent stress due to pressure, Q = 150 psi
Membrane equivalent stress due to temperature, PLm = 0 psi
Bending equivalent stress due to temperature, Q = 14,975 psi
Stress in 1.0-in. thick shell
From Eqs. (5.1) and (5.2),
X
Y

PL  Pb K Sy
QSy

8050  0125 22600

6655  150 22600

0356

0301

All three tests (A-1, A-2, and A-3) will be checked in this example to demonstrate their applicability. In actual practice, the designer uses one of these tests to satisfy the limits. If the test limit is
exceeded, then the other tests are evaluated or a new design is tried.
Test A-1
Sa is the lesser of
1.25St = 1.25(12,200) =15,250 psi

or
05 SyL  SyH

05 30000  15200 22600 psi

Use Sa = 15,250 psi


0356  0301 d 15250 22600
0657  0675

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Chapter 5

136

Hence, stresses are satisfactory based on equivalent stress.


Test A-2
This test is applicable because the temperature at the cold side of the cycle is below that given
in Table 5.1. From Eq. (5.7),
0356  0301

0657  100

Thus, the stresses are satisfactory.


Test A-3
The following two criteria will be checked rst for this test. Use the lesser of
PL  Pb  Q  3Sm

(1)

PL  Pb  Q  3Sm

(2)

or

From Eq. (1),


PL + Pb + Q at inside surface = 6995 psi
PL + Pb + Q at outside surface = 14,085 psi
14085  3 13600
14085  40800

From Eq. (2),


14085 d >15 13600  05 8490 @
14085  24600

_
Because 3S m < 3Sm, Eq. (2) controls.
Next, the thermal ratchet will be checked. Since X = 0.356, the required value of Y is given by Eq.
(5.7)
Y

0288 d 1X

1356

281

Thus, the stresses are satisfactory; however, for these criteria to be applicable in accordance with
III-NH, the negligible creep criteria must also be satised. This requires from Eqs. (5.9) and (5.10)
that

Ti  Tid d 01
and

Hi

d 02%

where
Ti = total time that the metal is at temperature Ti
Tid = maximum allowable time from Table I-14.6A of III-NH at a temperature Ti and stress of 1.5Sy
at a temperature, Ti
i = creep strain at a stress level of 1.25Sy for the time T i
For 1.5Sy = 22,800 psi and Ti = 1050F, T id = 2000 hours and

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Analysis of Components 137


(Tir ) = 130,000/2000 = 65  0.1

 (Ti )

For 1.25Sy = 18,800 psi and T i = 1050F, from the isochronous stress-strain curve Fig. T-1800-A-6

 i > 2.2%  0.2%


Thus, although the creep modied shakedown and thermal ratchet limits are satised, the potential
for creep effects is signicant and test A-3 is not applicable. (Note that it would be more expeditious
in normal practice to check for negligible creep rst, before proceeding to stress evaluation.) The negligible creep criteria of test A-3 are conservative in that they assume a worst-case scenario wherein the
local stress is at the nominal ow stress.
Stress in 2.0-in. thick shell
From Eqs. (5.1) and (5.2),
X

PL  Pb K Sy

QSy

4025  0125 22600

1482522600

0178

0656

Test A-1
0178  0656

0835

0835 ! 0675

Thus, this test cannot be satised.


Test A-2
This test is applicable because the temperature at the cold side of the cycle is below that given
in Table 5.5. From Eq. (5.7),
0178  0656

0835  100

Thus, the stresses are satisfactory.


Test A-3
This test does not apply because the creep is not negligible.

5.4

SIMPLIFIED INELASTIC ANALYSIS

The simplied inelastic analysis is based on the concept of requiring membrane stress in the core
of a cross-section to remain elastic, whereas bending stress is allowed to extend in the plastic region.
This concept is based on the Bree diagram (Bree, 1967, 1968). The Bree diagram assumes secondary
stress to be mainly generated by thermal gradients. The diagram (Fig. 5.3) is plotted with primary
stress as the abscissa and secondary stress as the ordinate. The diagram is divided into various zones
that dene specic stress behavior of the shell. It assumes an axisymmetric thin shell with an axisymmetric loading. It also assumes the thermal stress to be linear across the thickness. The actual derivation and assumptions made in constructing the Bree diagram are detailed in Appendix A. The various
limitations and zones of the diagram are as follows.
Limitations
It is assumed that the material has an elastic perfectly-plastic stress-strain diagram.
Because mechanical stress is considered primary stress, it cannot exceed the yield stress value
of the material. Thermal stress, on the other hand, is considered secondary stress and can thus
exceed the yield stress of the material.

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138

Chapter 5

FIG. 5.3
BREE DIAGRAM (BREE, 1967)

Initial evaluation of the mechanical and thermal stresses in the elastic and plastic regions was
made without any consideration to relaxation or creep.
Final results were subsequently evaluated for relaxation and creep effect.
It is assumed that stress due to pressure is held constant, while the thermal stress is cycled.
Hence, pressure and temperature stress exist at the beginning of the rst half of the cycle and
only pressure exists at the end of the second half of the cycle.
Zone E
This zone is bounded by axis lines AB and AC as well as line BC, which is dened by the equation X + Y = 1.0.
Stress is elastic below the creep range.

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Analysis of Components 139

Ratcheting does not occur below the creep range.


Stress redistributes to elastic value above the creep range.
Zone S1
This zone is bounded by axis line CD as well as line BC (dened by the equation X + Y =
1.0), line DF (dened by the equation Y = 2), and line BF (dened by the equation X + Y/4 =
1.0).
Below the creep range, the stress is plastic on the outside surface of shell during the rst half
of rst cycle. The stress shakes down to elastic in all subsequent cycles.
Ratcheting does not occur below the creep range.
Ratcheting occurs in the creep range.
Shakedown is not possible at the creep range.
Zone S2
This zone is bounded by the axis line CD, line DF (expressed by the equation Y = 2), and line
FC (dened by equation Y(1 - X) = 1.0).
Zone S2 is a subset of zone S1.
Below the creep range, stress is plastic on both surfaces of shell during the rst half of rst
cycle. Stress shakes down to elastic in all subsequent cycles.
Ratcheting does not occur below the creep range.
Ratcheting occurs in the creep range.
Shakedown is not possible at the creep range.
Zone P
This zone is bounded by axis line DI, line DF (expressed by Y = 2), and line FG (expressed by
the equation XY = 1.0).
In this zone, alternating plasticity occurs in each cycle below the creep range.
Shakedown is not possible below as well as in the creep range.
Failure occurs due to low cycle fatigue below the creep range.
Shakedown is not possible at the creep range.
Zone R1
This zone is bounded by line BJ, which is also the Y axis, line BF (expressed as X + Y/4 = 1.0),
and line FH (expressed by the equation Y(1 - X) = 1.0).
Ratcheting occurs below as well as in creep range.
Shakedown is not possible below as well as in the creep range.
Zone R2
This zone is bounded by line FG (expressed as XY = 1.0), and line FH (expressed as Y
(1 - X ) = 1.0).
Ratcheting occurs below as well as in creep range.
Shakedown is not possible below as well as in the creep range.
The actual diagram used by ASME is shown in Fig. 5.4. The gure includes Z lines of constant
elastic core stress values (ODonnell and Porowski, 1974). The key feature of the ODonnell/Porowski
technique is identifying an elastic core in a component subjected to primary loads and cyclic secondary loads. Once the magnitude of this elastic core has been established, the deformation of the component can be bounded by noting that the elastic core stress governs the net deformation of the section.
Deformation in the ratcheting, R, regions of the Bree diagram can also be estimated by considering
individual cyclic deformation. The ASME simplied inelastic analysis procedure for strain limits consists of satisfying test B-1, test B-2, or test B-3. The following is a summary of these tests.

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140

Chapter 5

FIG. 5.4
EFFECTIVE CREEP STRESS PARAMETER Z FOR SIMPLIFIED INELASTIC ANALYSIS
USING TEST NUMBERS B-1 AND B-3 (ASME, III-NH)

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Analysis of Components 141

Important denitions applicable to tests B-1, B-2, and B-3:


X includes all membrane, primary bending, and secondary bending stresses due to pressureinduced as well as thermal induced membrane stresses.
Y includes all thermal secondary stresses.
SyL is the yield stress at the cold end of the cycle.

5.4.1

Tests B-1 and B-2

The following conditions must be met to satisfy these tests.


1. The average wall temperature at one of the stress extremes dening each secondary equivalent
stress range, Q, is below the applicable temperature in Table 5.1.
2. The individual cycle cannot be split into sub-cycles.
3. Pressure-induced membrane and bending stresses and thermal induced membrane stresses are
classied as primary stresses for purposes of this evaluation.
4. Denitions of X and Y in Eqs. (5.4) and (5.5) apply for these two tests except that the value of
Sy as dened in these two equations is replaced with SyL, which is yield stress at the lower end of
the cycle.
5. These tests are applicable only in regimes E, S1, S2, and P in Fig. 5.4.

5.4.2

Test B-1

The following requirements apply to this test


1. The peak stress is negligible.
2. c is less than the hot yield stress, SyH.
The procedure for applying test B-1 consists of the following steps:
1. Determine Z values from either Fig. 5.4 or the following values
Z

in region E
12

Y  1  2 > 1  X Y @

in region S1

XY

in region S2 and P

(5.11)

2. Calculate the effective creep stress c from


Vc

Z SyL

(5.12)

3. Calculate the quantity 1.25c.


4. Calculate the creep ratcheting strain from and isochronous curve using the quantity 1.25c and
the total hours for whole life.
5. The resulting strain should be less than 1% for the parent material and % for welded material.

5.4.3

Test B-2

This test is applicable to any structure and loading. However, Fig. 5.5, which takes into consideration peak stresses, is applicable in lieu of Fig. 5.4. The procedure for applying test B-2 consists of the
following steps:
1. Determine Z values from Fig. 5.5.
2. Calculate the effective creep stress c from

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Chapter 5

142

FIG. 5.5
EFFECTIVE CREEP STRESS PARAMETER Z FOR SIMPLIFIED INELASTIC ANALYSIS
USING TEST NUMBERS B-2 (ASME, III-NH)

Vc

Z SyL

(5.13)

3. Calculate the quantity 1.25c.


4. Calculate the creep ratcheting strain from and isochronous curve using the quantity 1.25c and
the total hours for whole life.
5. The resulting strain should be less than 1% for the parent material and % for weld material.

5.4.4

Test B-3

This test is used in regimes R1 and R2 in Fig. 5.4. It can also be used in regimes S1, S2, and P to
minimize the conservatism of tests B-1 and B-2. The following conditions are applicable to this test:
1. Applies to axisymmetric structures subjected to axisymmetric loading and away from local structural discontinuities where peak stress is negligible.
2. When peak stress is negligible, the constraint on local structural discontinuities may be considered satised.
3. Wall membrane forces from overall bending of a vessel can be conservatively included as axisymmetrical forces.

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Analysis of Components 143

4. The denitions of X and Y in Eqs. (5.4) and (5.5) apply, but XL, YL, XH, and YH are calculated for
the cold and hot ends using SyL and SyH, respectively.
The procedure for this test consists of calculating the inelastic strains, , in accordance with the
equation

Q + K + G

(5.14)

where
S = total inelastic strain accumulated in the lifetime of the component
S = enhanced creep strain increments due to relaxation of c stresses
S = plastic ratchet strain increments for cycles in regimes S1, S2, P, R1, and R
S = inelastic strains obtained from the isochronous curves as in test B-1, ignoring the increase in
c stress for cycles evaluated in this section and detailed inelastic analyses.
Values of and are obtained as follows.
Values of
Plastic ratcheting occurs in cycles when cL > SyH. The increment of plastic ratchet within
a given cycle is
K

1EH > V cL  SyH  V cH  SyL @

for Z L  10

(5.15)

and
K

1EL > V cL  SyL  1EH V cH  SyH @

for Z L ! 10

(5.16)

Equation (5.15) must be used only at the hot extreme in regimes S1, S2, and P. Equation
(5.16) must be used at both extremes in regimes R1 and R2.
Values of
For cycles where cL > SyH, the enhanced creep strain increment due to stress relaxation is
G

2
2
1 S yH  V c
Vc
EH

(5.17)

For cycles where cL < SyH, the enhanced creep strain increment due to stress relaxation is
G

2
 Vc
1 V cL

EH

(5.18)

Vc

Example 5.2
Use the data from Example 5.1 to evaluate stress away from any discontinuities due to operating
condition using simplied inelastic analysis. Use the isochronous curves shown in Fig. 5.6.
Solution
Normally, there is no need to use simplied inelastic analysis if the elastic analysis is satised.
However, for this example, the simplied inelastic analysis is performed to compare the results of
the two methods.
Tests B-1 and B2
Calculations for X and Y are based on using the yield stress at the ambient temperature. From
Eqs. (5.1) and (5.2),

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144

Chapter 5

FIG. 5.6
ISOCHRONOUS STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR 304 STAINLESS STEEL (ASME, III-NH)

One-inch shell
Test B-1

Pm Sy
[ membrane stress due to pressure  (bending stress due to pressure 
membrane stress due to temperature] SyL

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Analysis of Components 145

From Table 5.5,


circumferential Pm = 9150 + (0)/1.25 + 0 = 9510 psi
axial Pm = 4175 + (0)/1.25 + 0 = 4175 psi
radial Pm = -150 + (-150)/1.25 + 0 = -270 psi

and, from Eq. (4.14), Pm = 8160 psi


X = 8160/30,000 = 0.272
Y

QSy
(bending stress due to temperature)/S yL

6655 30000

0272

From Fig. 5.4,


Z

0272

SyL

at the cold end of cycle is at room temperature

Vc

0272 30000 8160 psi

30000 psi

From the isochronous curves (Fig. 5.6), with stress = 1.25c (10,200 psi) and expected life of
130,000 hours, we obtain a strain of 0.42%. This value is acceptable because it is less than the
permissible value of 1%.
Tests B-2 and B-3
These tests need not be performed because test B-1 is satised.

Two-inch shell
Test B-1
X Pm Sy
[membrane stress due to pressure  (bending stress due to pressure



membrane stress due to temperature] SyL

From Table 5.5,


circumferential Pm = 4500 + (0)/1.25 + 0 = 4500 psi
axial Pm = 2250 + (0)/1.25 + 0 = 2250 psi
radial Pm = -150 + (-150)/1.25 + 0 = -270 psi

and, from Eq. (4.14), Pm = 4130 psi


X = 4130/30,000 = 0.138
Y QSy
(bending stress due to temperature)/S yL 1497530000 0500

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146

Chapter 5

From Fig. 5.4,


Z

0138

SyL

at the cold end of cycle is at room temperature

Vc

0272 30000

30000 psi

8160 psi

From the isochronous curves (Fig. 5.5), with stress = 1.25c (5175 psi) and expected life of
130,000 hours, we obtain a strain of 0.026%. This value is acceptable because it is less than
the permissible value of 1%.
Tests B-2 and B-3
These tests need not be performed because test B-1 is satised.
It should be pointed out at this time that the expected design life of 130,000 hours for this
shell is longer than the life of 100,000 hours set for the allowable stress criterion for I and VIII.
Also, the allowable stress of 8500 psi in III-NH is conservatively based on a 67% criterion
rather than the 80% set for I and VIII. Additionally, the rules of III-NH for operating condition have to be complied with once the temperature is in the creep range. Such criterion is not
mandatory in I or VIII below the creep range.

Example 5.3
Check the shell stress due to operating condition in accordance with III-NH strain-controlled limits
in Example 4.5 of Chapter 4. The following values are obtained from III-NH:
Sy = 30 ksi at room temperature
Sy = 26.52 ksi at 810F
St = 17,200 psi for 100,000 hours
Smt = 17,120 psi
Solution
The equivalent stresses calculated in Example 4.5 are
Stress, psi

Shell

Head

PL
PL + Pb
PL + Pb/Kt
Q

7,315
7,315
7,315
27,540

425
910
810
225

Average Sy = 28,260 psi

Shell
Elastic analysis
X = 7315/28,260 = 0.259, Y = 27,540/28,260 = 0.975

(a) Test A-1


This test, which is more conservative than Test A-2, does not apply because one temperature
extreme of the stress cycle is below the creep threshold temperature for applicability of Test A-2.
(b) Test A-2
X + Y = 1.233

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Analysis of Components 147

This value is unacceptable because it exceeds 1.0


(c) Test A-3
This test does not apply because the negligible creep criteria for Test A-3 are not satised.
Simplied inelastic analysis
Test B-1
X = Pm/Sy = [PL + (Pb + Q)/Kt]/SyL

From Example 4.5,


circumferential Pm = 0 + (0 + 9240)/1.25 = 7390 psi
axial Pm = 7200 + (0 + 30800)/1.25 = 31840 psi
radial Pm = -225 + (0 - 225)/1.25 + 0 = -405 psi

and, from Eq. (4.14), Pm = 29,135 psi


X = 29,135/30,000 = 0.138
Y = Q/Sy
= (bending stress due to temperature)/SyL = 0/30,000 = 0

From Fig. 5.4,


Z = 0.971
SyL= at the cold end of the cycle is at room temperature = 30,000 psi
c = 0.971(30,000) = 29,135 psi

However, Test B-1 also requires that c SyH. In this case, SyH = 26,520 psi which is less than c
and Test B-1 is, thus, not applicable. Test B-2 is more conservative than Test B-1 and the applicability of Test B-3 to cases where cyclic stresses are solely due to pressure is not clearly dened. Thus
the remaining alternatives are to consider a thicker section or resort to inelastic analysis.

Problems
5.1 A hydrotreater has an inside diameter of 12 ft and a length of 50 ft. The design pressure is
2400 psi and the design temperature is 975F. The operating pressure is 2300 psi and the operating temperature is 950F. The material of construction is 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Expected life
is 200,000 hours.
(a) Determine the required thickness in accordance with VIII-1.
(b) Evaluate the load-controlled limits.
(c) Evaluate the strain- and deformation-controlled limits using
i. Elastic tests A
ii. Simplied inelastic tests B
Data:
So = 9400 psi at 975F (Table I-14.2 of III-NH)
Eo = 1.0
E = 24,930 ksi at 975F (Table TM-1 of II-D)
E = 25,150 ksi at 950F (Table TM-1 of II-D)

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148

Chapter 5

Sm = 17,600 psi at 950F (Table I-14.3D of III-NH)


Smt = 7850 psi at 950F and at 200,000 hours (Table I-14.3D of III-NH)
Sm = 20,000 psi at 100F (Table 2A of II-D)
Sy = 30,000 psi at 100F (Table Y-1 of II-D)
Sy = 24,800 psi at 950F (Table Y-1 of II-D)
Average Sy during the cycle = 27,400 psi
St = 11,300 psi at 950F at 104 hours (Table I-14.4D of III-NH)
St = 7850 psi at 950F at 200,000 hours (Table I-14.4D of III-NH)
5.2

A boiler header has an outside diameter of 20 in. and a length of 20 ft. The design pressure
is 2900 psi and the design temperature is 1000F. The operating pressure is 2700 psi and the
operating temperature is 975F. The material of construction is 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Expected
life is 300,000 hours.
(a) Determine the required thickness in accordance with ASME-I.
(b) Evaluate the load-controlled limits.
(c) Evaluate the strain- and deformation-controlled limits using
i. Elastic tests A
ii. Simplied inelastic tests B

Data:
So = 8000 psi at 1000F (Table I-14.2 of III-NH)
Eo = 0.65 (ligament efciency) for circumferential stress calculations
Eo = 0.95 (ligament efciency) for longitudinal stress calculations
E = 24,700 ksi at 1000F (Table TM-1 of II-D)
E = 24,930 ksi at 975F (Table TM-1 of II-D)
Sm = 16,000 psi at 975F (Table I-14.3D of III-NH)
Smt = 6250 psi at 975F and at 300,000 hours (Table I-14.3D of III-NH)
Sm = 20,000 psi at 100F (Table 2A of II-D)
Sy = 30,000 psi at 100F (Table Y-1 of II-D)
Sy = 24,250 psi at 975F (Table Y-1 of II-D)
Average Sy during the cycle = 27,400 psi
St = 10,000 psi at 975F at 104 hours (Table I-14.4D of III-NH)
St = 6250 psi at 975F at 300,000 hours (Table I-14.4D of III-NH)

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FAILURE OF AN EXPANSION JOINT DUE TO THERMAL SHOCK (COURTESY OF NOOTER CONSTRUCTION,


ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI)
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CHAPTER

6
CREEP-FATIGUE ANALYSIS
6.1

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) criterion for designing
pressure vessels under repetitive cyclic loading conditions in the creep range is discussed. Such cycles
are generally encountered in power plants as well as petrochemical plants under normal operating
conditions. The assumption of repetitive cycles enables us to focus rst on explaining the ASME procedure for designing components under cyclic loading in the creep range without having to deal with
the complex problem of variable cyclic conditions. Variable cyclic loading due to upset, regeneration,
or other emergency conditions are discussed later in this chapter.
Cyclic analysis is straightforward at temperatures below the creep range. The maximum calculated
stresses are compared to fatigue curves obtained from experimental data with an appropriate factor
of safety. The fatigue curves take into consideration such factors as average versus minimum stress
values, effect of mean stress on fatigue life, and size effects.
In the creep range, cyclic life becomes more difcult to evaluate (Jetter, 2002). Stress relaxation at a
given point affects the cyclic life of a component. The level of triaxiality and stress concentration factors play a signicant role on creep-fatigue life at elevated temperatures and Poissons ratio needs to
be adjusted to account for inelastic stress levels. In addition, fatigue strength tends to decrease (Frost
et. al., 1974) with an increase in temperature due to surface oxidation or chemical attack. These and
other factors contribute to the tediousness and complexity of creep-fatigue evaluation.
The data required to evaluate the cyclic stress in a given material is extensive. Data needed for
creep-rupture analysis at various temperatures include stress-strain diagrams, yield stress and tensile
strength, creep and rupture data, modulus of elasticity, and isochronous curves. Large amounts of
time and cost are involved in obtaining such data. As a consequence, data for creep analysis has been
developed for only ve materials (III-NH): 2.25Cr-1Mo and 9Cr steels, 304 and 316 stainless steels,
and 800H nickel alloy.
The ASME rules for cyclic loads in the creep range consist of determining points in a cycle time
where the stresses at a given location in a vessel are at a maximum level. The stresses are then checked
against limiting values for fatigue and creep. The analysis for cyclic loading consists of evaluating
stresses based on load-controlled as well as strain-controlled limits similar to the procedure discussed
in Chapters 4 and 5.

6.2

CREEP-FATIGUE EVALUATION USING ELASTIC ANALYSIS

The rules for creep-fatigue evaluation discussed in this section are applicable when
1. The rules of Section 5.4 for tests A-1 through A-3 are met and/or the rules of Section 5.5 for
tests B-1 and B-2 with Z < 1.0 are met. However, the contribution of stress due to radial thermal

151

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152

Chapter 6

gradients to the secondary stress range may be excluded for this assessment of the applicability
of elastic creep-fatigue rules, A-1 and A-2.

2. The (PL + Pb + Q) 3Sm rule is met using for 3Sm the lesser of (3Sm) and (3S m) as dened in
test A-3.
3. Pressure-induced membrane and bending stresses and thermal induced membrane stresses are
classied as primary (load-controlled) stresses.
The analysis procedure is performed by using the following six steps.
Step 1
Determine the total amount of hours, TH, expended at temperatures in the creep range.
Step 2
Dene the hold temperature, THT, to be equal to the local metal temperature that occurs during
sustained normal operation.
Step 3
Unless otherwise specied, for each cycle type j, dene the average cycle time as

Tj = TH/(nc)j

(6.1)

where
(nc)j = specied number of applied repetitions of cycle type j
TH = total number of hours at elevated temperatures for the entire service life as dened in step 1

Tj = average cycle time for cycle type j


Step 4
A modied strain, Dmod, is calculated in this step. The procedure consists of calculating rst a
maximum strain, Dmax, and then modifying it to include the effect of stress concentration factors. The
maximum elastic strain range during the cycle is calculated as
max = 2Salt/E

(6.2)

where
E
= modulus of elasticity at the maximum metal temperature experienced during the cycle
2Salt = maximum stress range during the cycle excluding geometric stress concentrations = PL +
Pb + Q
Dmax = maximum equivalent strain range
The maximum elastic strain range is then used to calculate a modied strain (Dmod) that includes
the effect of local plasticity and creep, which can signicantly increase the strain range at stress concentrations. Subsection NH gives the designer the option of calculating this quantity by using any
one of three different methods. These methods, of varying complexity and conservatism, are based
on modications of the Neuber equation (Neuber, 1961). Neubers basic equation (Bannantine et al.,
1990) is of the form
K = (KK)1/2

(6.3)

K 2Se =

(6.4)

This equation can be expressed as

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 153

where
e = strain away from concentration
K = theoretical stress concentration
K = stress concentration due to strain
K = stress concentration due to stress
S = stress away from concentration
= strain at concentration
= stress at concentration
Equation (6.3) indicates that the total stress concentration at a point in the plastic or creep region
is equal to the square root of the products K and K. The value of K decreases, whereas that of K
increases with an increase in yield and creep levels. Equation (6.4), which is an alternate form of Eq.
(6.3), shows that the total stress concentration is a function of the product of the actual strain and
actual stress at a given point.
All three methods (Severud, 1987 and 1991) of calculating modied strain, Dmod, use a composite
stress-strain curve as shown by Fig. 6.1. The composite stress-strain curve is constructed by adding
the elastic stress-strain curve for the stress range SrH to the appropriate time-independent (hot tensile)
isochronous stress-strain curve for the material at a given temperature. The value of SrH can be conservatively assumed as equal to 0.5St. The conceptual basis for extending the elastic range is shown in
Fig. 1.21, illustrating how the elastic stress range is extended by an amount given by the hot relaxation

strength, SrH, when the stress range is limited to (3S m).

FIG. 6.1
STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP (ASME, III-NH)

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154

Chapter 6

First method
The governing equation is

Demod = (S */S )K 2scDemax

(6.5)

where
= either the equivalent stress concentration factor, as determined by test or analysis, or the
maximum value of the theoretical elastic stress concentration factor in any direction for
the local area under consideration1
*
S
= stress indicator determined by entering the composite stress-stain curve of Fig. 6.1 at a
strain range2 of (Dmax)

S
= stress indicator determined by entering the composite stress-stain curve of Fig. 6.1 at a
strain range2 of (KscDmax)
Dmod = modied maximum equivalent strain range that accounts for the effects of local plasticity
and creep
Ksc

Second method
Dmod is calculated from the equation
Dmod = KeKscDmax

(6.6)

where

Ke = 1.0
if KscDmax < (3S m)/E
_

Ke = KscDmaxE/(3Sm) if KscDmax > (3S m)/E


Third method
Dmod is given by
Dmod = S *Ksc2 Dmax/Dmod

(6.7)

where
S*
= stress obtained from an isochronous curve at a given value of Dmax
Dmod = range of effective stress that corresponds to the strain range Dmod2
Step 5
In this step, a stress, Sj, is obtained. It corresponds to a strain value that includes elastic, plastic,
and creep considerations. Once the quantity Dmod is known, then the total strain range, t, is obtained
from the following equation
t = KvDmod + KscDc

(6.8)

where
t = total strain range
1

The equivalent stress concentration factor is dened as the effective (von Mises) primary plus secondary plus peak stress

divided by the effective primary plus secondary stress. Note that fatigue strength reduction factors developed from lowtemperature continuous cycling fatigue tests may not be acceptable for dening Ksc when creep effects are not negligible.
2
Both Dmod and Dmod in Eq. (6.7) are unknown, and they must be solved graphically by curve tting the appropriate composite stress-strain curve. For this reason, most designers opt to use either Eq. (6.5) or Eq. (6.6) because they are easier to solve.

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 155

Dc = creep strain increment


and
Kv = 1.0 + f (Kv - 1.0), but not less than 1.0

(6.9)

where
f = triaxiality factor obtained from Fig. 6.23
Kv = plastic Poisson ratio adjustment factor obtained from Fig. 6.34
The creep strain increment, c, is obtained from an isochronous stress-strain curve similar to the
one shown in Fig. 5.6. The stress value for entering the gure is obtained from the quantity 1.25c,
where c is obtained from Section 5.5. The time used in the gure for determining c is obtained by
one of two methods as follows:
Method (1): the time based on one cycle
Method (2): the time based on the total number of hours during the life of the component and the
resultant strain is then divided by the number of cycles
Method (1) is generally applicable to components with a small number of cycles and high membrane stress such as hydrotreaters.
Method (2) is generally applicable to components with repetitive cycles and small membrane stress
such as headers in heat recovery steam generators.
Finally, a value of Sj is obtained from an appropriate isochronous chart using Eq. (6.8) for strain and
the time-independent curve in the chart. Sj is dened as the initial stress level for a given cycle.
Step 6

The relaxation stress, S r , during a given cycle is evaluated in this step. Two methods are provided
for this evaluation. The rst method requires an analytical estimate of the uniaxial stress relaxation
adjusted with correction factors to account for the retarding effects of multiaxiality and elastic followup. The adjusted relaxed stress level Sr is thus a function of the initial stress determined from t, the
analytically determined uniaxial relaxed stress, and a factor 0.8G accounting for elastic follow-up and
multiaxiality. The equation is expressed as

Sr = Sj - 0.8G(Sj -S r)
(6.10)
where
G = the smallest value of the multiaxiality factor as determined for the stress state at each of the two
extremes of the stress cycle. The multiaxiality factor is dened as:
>V 1  05 V 2  V 3 @
>V1  03 V 2  V 3 @

but not greater than 1.0

1, 2, and 3 are principal stresses, exclusive of local geometric stress concentration factors, at
the extremes of the stress cycle, and are dened by
|1| |2| |3|

3
4

This gure is based on experimental data by Severud (1991).


This gure is based on the relationship between strain range and shakedown criteria.

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156

Chapter 6

FIG. 6.2
INELASTIC MULTIAXIAL ADJUSTMENTS (ASME, III-NH)

FIG. 6.3
ADJUSTMENT FOR INELASTIC BIAXIAL POISSONS RATIO (ASME, III-NH)

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 157

Sj = the initial stress level for cycle type j


Sr = relaxed stress level at time T adjusted for the multiaxial stress state

S r = relaxed stress level at time T based on a uniaxial relaxation model


The second method for determining stress relaxation is based on the isochronous stress strain
curves. Starting at the stress level determined from t, the time to relax to lower stress levels is determined by moving vertically down at a constant strain until intercepting the curve for the time of
interest as shown in Fig. 6.4. Because of the conservatism inherent in this approach (Severud, 1991),
multiaxial and elastic follow-up corrections are not required.
The stress in either the adjusted analytical relaxation or that obtained from the isochronous
curves is not allowed to relax below a factor of 1.25 times the elastic core stress, c, as determined by
the procedures for evaluation of the strain limits using simplied inelastic analysis. This lower stress
value, SLB, is illustrated in Fig. 6.5.
Step 7
The governing equation for creep fatigue (Curran, 1976) is given by
[(nc/Nd)j + (D/Td)k] < Dcf

(6.11)

where
Dcf = total creep-fatigue damage factor obtained from Fig. 6.6
K
= 0.90
(Nd)j = number of design allowable cycles for cycle type, j, obtained from a design fatigue data using
the maximum strain value during the cycle
(nc)j = number of applied repetitions of cycle type, j

FIG. 6.4
A METHOD OF DETERMINING RELAXATION (ASME, III-NH)

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158

Chapter 6

FIG. 6.5
STRESS-RELAXATION LIMITS FOR CREEP DAMAGE (ASME, III-NH)

FIG. 6.6
CREEP-FATIGUE DAMAGE ENVELOPE (ASME, III-NH)

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 159

(Td)k = allowable time duration determined from stress-to-rupture data for a given stress, (Sr/K)
for base material and [Sr/(KR)] for weldments, and the maximum temperature at the point
of interest and occurring during the time interval, k
(D)k = duration of the time interval, k
R
= weld strength reduction factor from Table I-14.10 of III-NH.
The rst term of Eq. (6.11) pertains to cyclic loading, whereas the second term pertains to creep
duration. A substantial amount of calculations is required before solving Eq. (6.11). The solution can
be made using either elastic analysis or inelastic analysis. In this section, elastic analysis, which is the
easiest to perform but the most conservative, is presented.
It should be noted that the quantity (D/Td)k in Eq. (6.11) is determined by one of two methods
as follows:

Method (1): When the total strain range is t > (3S m )/E, then the time interval k for stress relaxation is based on one cycle and the result is multiplied by the total number of cycles during
the life of the component.

Method (2): When the total strain range is t (3S m )/E, then shakedown occurs and the time
interval k for stress relaxation can be dened as a single cycle for the entire design life. When
applicable, method (2) will yield a lower calculated creep damage than method (1).

Example 6.1
Use the data from Examples 5.1 and 5.2 to evaluate the life cycle of the 2.0-in. thick shell for 130,000
hours (15 years) due to creep and fatigue conditions. Assume an arbitrary stress concentration factor,
Ksc, of 1.10 for the longitudinal weld conguration. The design fatigue strain range values are shown
in Table 6.1 and the stress to rupture values are given in Table 6.2.

TABLE 6.1
DESIGN FATIGUE STRAIN RANGE FOR 304 STAINLESS STEEL (ASME, III-NH)
t, strain range (in./in.) at
Number of
cycles, Nd
10
20
40
102
2 102
4 102
103
2 103
4 103
104
2 104
4 104
105
2 105
4 105
106

100F

800F

900F

0.051
0.036
0.0263
0.018
0.0142
0.0113
0.00845
0.0067
0.00545
0.0043
0.0037
0.0032
0.00272
0.0024
0.00215
0.0019

0.050
0.0345
0.0246
0.0164
0.0125
0.00965
0.00725
0.0059
0.00485
0.00385
0.0033
0.00287
0.00242
0.00215
0.00192
0.00169

0.0465
0.0315
0.0222
0.0146
0.011
0.00845
0.0063
0.0051
0.0042
0.00335
0.0029
0.00254
0.00213
0.0019
0.0017
0.00149

1000F

1100F

1200F

1300F

0.0335
0.0217
0.0146
0.0093
0.0069
0.00525
0.00385
0.00315
0.00263
0.00215
0.00187
0.00162
0.00140
0.00123
0.0011
0.00098

0.0297
0.0186
0.0123
0.0077
0.0057
0.00443
0.00333
0.00276
0.0023
0.00185
0.00158
0.00138
0.00117
0.00105
0.00094
0.00084

U.S. customary units

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0.0425
0.0284
0.0197
0.0128
0.0096
0.00735
0.0055
0.0045
0.00373
0.00298
0.00256
0.00224
0.00188
0.00167
0.0015
0.0013

0.0382
0.025
0.017
0.011
0.0082
0.0063
0.0047
0.0038
0.0032
0.0026
0.00226
0.00197
0.00164
0.00145
0.0013
0.00112

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160

Chapter 6

TABLE 6.2
MINIMUM STRESS-TO-RUPTURE VALUES FOR 304 STAINLESS STEEL (ASME, III-NH)
U.S. customary units
Temp.
(F)

1 hr

10
hr

30
hr

102
hr

3 102
hr

103
hr

3 103
hr

104
hr

3 104
hr

105
hr

3 105
hr

800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500

57
56.5
55.5
54.2
52.5
50
45
38
32
27
23
19.5
16.5
14.0
12.0

57
56.5
55.5
54.2
50
41.9
35.2
29.5
24.7
20.7
17.4
14.6
12.1
10.2
8.6

57
56.5
55.5
51
44.5
37
31
26
21.5
17.9
15
12.6
10.3
8.8
7.2

57
56.5
55.5
48.1
39.8
32.9
27.2
22.5
18.6
15.4
12.7
10.6
8.8
7.3
6.0

57
56.5
51.5
43
35
28.9
23.9
19.3
15.9
13
10.5
8.8
7.2
5.8
4.9

57
56.5
46.9
38.0
30.9
25.0
20.3
16.5
13.4
10.8
8.8
7.2
5.8
4.6
3.8

57
50.2
41.2
33.5
26.5
21.6
17.3
13.9
11.1
8.9
7.2
5.8
4.7
3.8
3.0

57
45.4
36.1
28.8
22.9
18.2
14.5
11.6
9.2
7.3
5.8
4.6
3.7
2.9
2.4

51
40
31.5
24.9
19.7
15.5
12.3
9.6
7.6
6.0
4.8
3.8
3.0
2.3
1.8

44.3
34.7
27.2
21.2
16.6
13.0
10.2
8.0
6.2
4.9
3.8
3.0
2.3
1.8
1.4

39
30.5
24
18.3
14.9
11.0
8.6
6.6
5.0
4.0
3.1
2.4
1.9
1.4
1.1

Solution

Assumptions
The calculations in this example are based on thin shell equations to keep the calculations as
simple as possible. This is done to demonstrate and highlight the method of creep analysis. For
thick shells, Lames equations must be used.
The following calculations are based on the criteria in Fig. 4.8.
Ksc = 1.1.
To apply this methodology, it is necessary to rst verify that the prerequisites identied in Section
6.2 and repeated here have been satised:
1. The rules of Section 5.4 for Tests A-1 through A-3 are met and/or the rules of Section 5.5 for
Tests B-1 and B-2 with Z < 1.0 are met. However, the contribution of stress due to radial thermal
gradients to the secondary stress range may be excluded for this assessment in Tests A-1 and A-2
for the applicability of elastic creep-fatigue rules.

2. The (PL + Pb + Q) 3Sm rule is met using for 3Sm the lesser of (3Sm) and (S m) as dened in Test
A-3.
3. Pressure-induced membrane and bending stresses and thermal induced membrane stresses are
classied as primary (load-controlled) stresses.
Requirement # 1 is satised: Both A-2 and B-1 are satised.
Requirement # 2 is satised.
Requirement # 3 is satised.
Step 1
Total hours, TH = 130,000 hours (15 years)

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 161

Step 2
Hold temperature, THT = 1050F.
Step 3
n c j
j
cycle time T

number of cycles j

10

TH n c j
130000 10

13000 hours a 18 months

(a) Two-inch shell calculations


A review of Tables 5.4 and 5.5 shows the combination of pressure and thermal stresses in the 2.0-in.
shell to be more severe than in the 1.0-in. shell. The tables also indicate that the membrane stress in
the 1.0-in. shell is more severe. The following creep-fatigue calculations are performed on the 2.0-in.
shell to illustrate the procedure. However, the designer must recognize that an analysis of the 1.0-in.
shell may result in a more severe condition due to the higher core stress.
The values obtained for the outside stress of the 2.0-in. shell given in Table 5.5 are summarized in
Table 6.3.
The following values are obtained from Table 6.3:
Total circumferential stress = 4500 +14,975 = 19,475 psi
Total longitudinal stress = 2250 + 14,975 = 17,225 psi
Total radial stress = -150 + 150 = 0
The equivalent Von Mises stress is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
Se = 18,450 psi

It must be noted that the rules of III-NH use the Tresca criterion for the elastic analysis in steps 4
through 7 below. However, VIII-2 uses the Von Mises criterion that has less conservatism in it. The
following calculations are based on the Von Mises criterion that is deemed adequate for ASME I and
VIII applications.
Step 4
A modied strain, Dmod, is calculated in this step. The procedure consists of calculating a maximum
strain and then modifying it to include the effect of stress concentration factors. We start by calculating the maximum elastic strain range Dmax in accordance with Eq. (6.5).

TABLE 6.3
OUTSIDE STRESS FOR 2.0-in. SHELL
Two-inch shell

Stress due to
pressure, psi

Stress due to
temperature, psi

Membrane circumferential stress, Pm

Membrane axial stress, PmL


Membrane radial stress, Pmr

Circumferential bending stress, Qb

Axial bending stress, QbL

Radial bending stress, Qbr

4,500
2,250
-150
0
0
150

0
0
0
14,975
14,975
0

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162

Chapter 6

' H max

2Salt E

Se E

1845022400000
000082

Next, the value of modied strain Dmod is calculated. Step 4 gives the designer the choice of using
three different methods for calculating this quantity. The rst two methods, given by Eqs. (6.4) and
(6.5), will be used in order to compare the results.
First method for calculating modied strain
The value of S * is obtained from composite stress-strain curve (Fig. 6.1) with a strain value of

Dmax and the value of S is obtained from the same curve with a strain value of (Ksc)Dmax. However,
for this problem it is evident that the values of Dmax and (Ksc)Dmax are within the proportional limit

of Fig. 6.1. Under these conditions, S = (Ksc) S* and the equation for Dmod may be rewritten as
2
D e mod = S */S Ksc
D e max
2
= [S */(Ksc S *)] Ksc
D e max

= Ksc D e max
= 0.00090

Second method for calculating modied strain


The value of Ke in Eq. (6.6) must rst be calculated.
3Sm = 1.5Sm + St /2 = 1.5(13,600) + (8490)/2 = 24,645
3S m

E = 24,645/22,400,000 = 0.0011

Ksc D e max = (1.1)(0.00082) = 0.00090

Because (KscDmax) is less than (3S m )/E, the value of Ke is obtained from Eq. (6.6) as
Ke = 1.0

The modied strain Dmod is calculated from Eq. (6.6) as


D e mod = Ke Ksc D e max
= (1.0)(1.1)(0.00082)
= 0.00090

This is identical to the result obtained with Method 1, which is the expected result within the
proportional limit.
Step 5
The total strain is obtained from Eq. (6.8)
t = KvDmod + KscDc

where
Kv = 1.0 + f (Kv - 1.0), but not less than 1.0

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 163

The quantity Kv is obtained from Fig. 6.3 with

(KeKscDmax)[E/(3S m )] = (1.0)(1.1)(0.00082)(22,400,000/24,645) = 0.820


Kv = 1.0
The next step is to obtain the value of f from Fig. 6.2 by using the triaxiality factor (TF). From Table
6.3,
V1

4500  14976

V2

150  150

V3

2250  14976

19476 psi
0 psi
17226 psi

19476  0  17226

TF
0707 > 19476 

0 2

 0  17226 2  17226  19476 @


f

211 and from Fig. 6.2

1 2

097

From Eq. (6.10),


Kv = 1.0 + (0.97)(1.0 - 1.0) = 1.0

The elastic core stress, c, is obtained from Example 5.2 and is equal to 4140 psi. From the isochronous curves (Fig. 5.6), with stress of 1.25c = 1.25(4140) =5175 psi, a strain value of 0.00026 is
obtained. This strain value is on the elastic portion of the curve and is essentially independent of time
duration, at least up to the total design life of 130,000 hours. The ASME rules state that the creep strain
increment may be determined for each cycle, 13,000 hours in this example, or from the strain over the
total life divided by the number of cycles. In the latter case, the applicable strain, Dc, is equal to
Dc = 0.00026/10 = 0.000026

From Eq. (6.8),


t(1.0)(0.00090) + (1.1)(0.000026) = 0.00093

From Fig. 5.6, the time-independent stress


Sj = 15,000 psi

Step 6
From Fig. 5.6, stress-versus-time values are obtained as shown in Table 6.4.
TABLE 6.4
STRESS-VERSUS-TIME VALUES
Time (hr)

Stress (ksi)

Sj
30
100
300
1,000
3,000
10,000
30,000
100,000
300,000

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163

15.0
13.7
12.0
10.5
9.0
8.0
7.7
7.2
6.8
6.6

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164

Chapter 6

A plot of these values, with a limit of 1.25c = (1.25)(4140) = 5175 psi, would look similar to Fig.
6.5.
Step 7
Equation (6.11) is solved in this step. The rst part of the equation, (nc/Nd)j, is obtained as
follows.
First part of Eq. (6.11)
nc = 10

The value of Nd is obtained from Table 6.1. A cycle life of >1,000,000 is obtained at a temperature
of 1050F and strain, t = 0.001.
(nc/Nd)j = 10/1,000,000 0.0

Second part of Eq. (6.11)


The second part of Eq. (6.11), (D/Td)k, is determined numerically from Table 6.4 and from the

differential equation dT/Td. The quantity (3S m )/E, calculated above, is equal to 0.0011, whereas the

value of t is equal to 0.00093. Because t (3S m )/E, shakedown occurs and the peak stress does not
reset on each cycle. Under this scenario, peak stress can be assumed to relax throughout the design life
and the cumulated creep damage is given by Table 6.4 at 130,000 hours. Calculations are summarized
in Table 6.5.
Column A in Table 6.5 gives the incremental locations for calculating stresses from Table 6.4.
Column B shows the stresses obtained from Table 6.4 and column H lists the incremental duration
assumed for these stresses. Column C adjusts the stress values by the K factor and column G lists the
number of hours obtained from Table 6.2 using the stress values in column C. Column I shows the
ratio of column H over column G, which is the numerical value of the quantity (dT/Td).
The 1050F line in Table 6.2 terminates at the 11,000 psi stress level. Stress levels in column C drop
below the 11,000 psi level in rows 6 through 10. The Larson-Miller parameter, PLM, is used to obtain
approximate rupture life by using the higher temperature levels given in Table 6.2. These calculations
are shown in columns D, E, and F. Column D lists the temperatures from Table 6.2 corresponding
to the stress levels in column C. Column E calculates the corresponding PLM from Eq. (1.3) for the
temperature shown in column D at 300,000 hours. Column F recalculates the hours corresponding to
a temperature of 1050F from Eq. (1.3) with the corresponding PLM factor.

TABLE 6.5
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF (T/Td)k
A
Location
(hr)
Sj
30
100
300
1,000
3,000
10,000
30,000
100,000
Total

Sr(ksi)

Sr/0.9
(ksi)

Equivalent
temp. (F)

PLM

Time (hr)

Table 6.2

Table 6.4

H/G

15.0
13.7
12.0
10.5
9.0
8.0
7.7
7.2
6.8

16.67
15.22
13.33
11.67
10.00
8.89
8.56
8.00
7.56

673,700
1,657,600
2,176,400
3,745,500
5,749,100

21,300
37,800
90,800
263,000
673,700
1,657,600
2,176,400
3,745,500
5,749,100

30
70
200
700
2,000
7,000
20,000
70,000
30,000

0.0014
0.0019
0.0022
0.0027
0.0030
0.0042
0.0092
0.0187
0.0052
0.0485

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164

1,071
1,094
1,101
1,115
1,126

39,006
39,591
39,770
40,126
40,407

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 165

From Table 6.5, the sum of (D/Td)k for the 130,000-hour cycle duration is 0.0485. Referring to Fig.
6.6 with (nc/Nd)j = 0.0 and (D/Td)k = 0.0485, it is seen that the expected life of 130,000 hours is well
within the acceptable limits.
It is of interest to compare the above results with the evaluation of the creep damage using the hours
for one cycle, 13,000, as a basis. In this case, the value of (D/Td) from Table 6.5 is equal to 0.0168.
For ten cycles, the value is 0.168, over a factor of 3 greater but still within acceptable limits.

Example 6.2
A 12-in. diameter high-pressure superheater header in a heat recovery steam generator is constructed of modied 9Cr steel (SA 335-P91) and built in accordance with ASME- I. The following
design and operating data is given:
Data

Design temperature = 1000F; design pressure = 1300 psi.


Longitudinal ligament efciency (for circumferential stress): Eo = 0.60.
Circumferential ligament efciency (for longitudinal stress): Eo = 0.85, y = 0.40.
Thickness, t = 1.125 in. (12-in. Sch-140 pipe).
Maximum stress concentration factor due to holes in the shell is taken as Ksc = 3.3. This value is
taken from the appendix on stress indices for nozzles in VIII-2.
Expected cycles = 10,000 (one full cycle per day for 25 years).
Expected life = 200,000 hours 25 years.
The design longitudinal stress in the header due to tube weight, liquid, and bending is assumed
as 7000 psi.
Assume, for simplicity, that the design and operating conditions are the same.
Assume that the temperature drops to 700F before the start of a new cycle.
Isochronous curves are given in Fig. 6.7 for 1000F.
The design fatigue strain range for 9Cr-1M0-V steel is given in Table 6.6.
The minimum stress-to-rupture values for 9Cr-1Mo-V steel are given in Table 6.7.

Determine whether the above conditions are adequate in accordance with the creep design rules in
Chapters 4, 5, and 6.
Solution
The various allowable stress values are:
S = 16,300 psi (II-D)
So = 16,300 psi (III-NH)
Sm = 19,000 psi (III-NH)
Smt = 14,300 psi for 200,000 hours (III-NH)
St = 14,300 psi for 200,000 hours (III-NH)
Sy = 53,200 psi at 700F (II-D), which is the cold end of a cycle
Sy = 40,200 psi at 1000F (II-D)
E = 27,500,000 psi at 700F (II-D)
E = 25,400,000 psi at 1000F (II-D)
(a) Check design thickness in accordance with ASME-I
From Eq. (4.1),
t

1300 1275
 00
2 16300 060  2 04 1300
080 in.  1125 in.

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166

Chapter 6

FIG. 6.7
ISOCHRONOUS STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR 9Cr-1Mo-V STEEL
AT 1000F (ASME, III-NH)

Thus, 12-in. diameter schedule 140 pipe is adequate.


(b) Check load-controlled stress limits in accordance with III-NH (Fig. 4.8)
= Ro/Ri = 6.375/5.25 = 1.2143

From Example 4.4,


Circumferential stress at inside surface with a ligament efciency of 0.60
membrane = Pm = P/(0.6)( - 1) = 10,110 psi
bending = Pb = 0
secondary = Q = 645/0.6 = 1075 psi
Longitudinal stress at inside surface with a ligament efciency of 0.85
membrane = Pm = P/(0.85)( 2 - 1) + 7000 = 10,225 psi
bending = Pb = 0
secondary = Q = 0
Radial stress at inside surface,
membrane = Pm = -P/2 = -650 psi
bending = Pb = 0
secondary = Q = -650 psi
The value of Pm is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
Pm = 10,815

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166

PL + Pb = 10,815

and

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 167

TABLE 6.6
DESIGN FATIGUE STRAIN RANGE FOR 9Cr-1Mo-V STEEL (ASME, III-NH)
Strain range, t [in./in. (m/m)] at 1000F
(540C)

Number of Cycles,1 Nd
10
20
40
102
2 102
4 102
103
2 103
4 103
104
2 104
4 104
105
2 105
4 105
106
2 106
4 106
107
2 107
4 107
108
1

0.028
0.019
0.0138
0.0095
0.0075
0.0062
0.0050
0.0044
0.0039
0.0029
0.0024
0.0021
0.0019
0.00176
0.0017
0.00163
0.00155
0.00148
0.00140
0.00132
0.00125
0.00120

Cycle strain rate: 4 10 - 3 in. / in. / sec (m /m /sec).

Design limits
Pm < So
PL + Pb < 1.5So

10,815 psi < 16,300 psi


10,815 psi < 24,450 psi

Operating limits
Pm < Smt
PL + Pb < 1.5Sm
PL + Pb/kt < St

10,815 psi < 14,300 psi


10,815 psi < 28,500 psi
10,815 psi < 14,300 psi

TABLE 6.7
MINIMUM STRESS-TO-RUPTURE VALUES FOR 9Cr-1Mo-V STEEL (ASME, III-NH)
U.S. customary units
Temp., F 10 hr 30 hr 10 hr 3 102 hr 103 hr 3 103 hr 104 hr 3 104 hr 105 hr 3 105 hr
2

700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200

71.0
69.0
66.5
63.4
59.8
51.2
42.8
35.6
29.2
23.7
19.0

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71.0
69.0
66.5
63.4
57.0
47.9
39.9
32.9
26.8
21.6
17.1

71.0
69.0
66.5
63.4
53.3
44.5
36.8
30.1
24.4
19.4
15.2

167

71.0
69.0
66.5
59.7
50.0
41.5
34.1
27.7
22.3
17.6
13.6

71.0
69.0
66.5
56.0
46.6
38.5
31.4
25.3
20.1
15.7
11.9

71.0
69.0
63.1
52.7
43.7
35.8
29.0
23.2
18.3
14.1
10.5

71.0
69.0
59.4
49.3
40.6
33.1
26.6
21.1
16.4
12.4
8.0

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71.0
67.3
56.1
46.3
37.9
30.7
24.5
19.2
14.8
10.2
6.5

71.0
63.5
52.7
43.3
35.2
28.2
22.3
17.3
13.1
8.2
4.9

71.0
60.2
49.6
40.6
32.8
26.1
20.5
15.7
11.7
6.7
3.7

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168

Chapter 6

Thus, the requirements of load-controlled limits are met.


(c) Check strain- and deformation-controlled limits in accordance with III-NH (Fig. 4.8)
Average yield stress = 46,700 psi
Calculate X and Y from Eqs. (5.1) and (5.2)
The value of Q is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
Q

1510 psi

10,815/46,700 = 0.23

1510 46700

003

Check elastic analysis Test A-2,


X + Y = 0.26 < 1.0

There is no need to check the simplied inelastic analysis Tests B because the requirement of Test
A-2 is met.
Thus, the requirements of strain and deformation limits are met.
(d) Check creep-fatigue requirements using elastic analysis in accordance with III-NH, Eq. (6.11)
Calculate the value of 3Sm, which is the smaller of
3Sm = (3)(19,000) = 57,000 psi

or
3Sm

15Sm  05St

35650 psi

Use 3Sm = 35,650 psi.


3Sm E

35600 25400000

00014

The requirements and steps outlined in Section 6.2 will be followed.


The requirements of Test A-2 are met.
The requirement of (PL + Pb + Q) 3Sm must be met.
The value of (PL + Pb + Q) is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
PL  Pb  Q

12030 psi  36650 psi

Step 1
Total amount of hours, TH = 200,000 hours

Step 2
Hold temperature, T HT = 1000F

Step 3
Average cycle time = 24 hours/cycle.

Step 4
The maximum strain during the cycle is given by
Dmax = 2Salt/E = 12,030/25,400,000 = 0.000474 in./in.

Because the magnitude of Dmax is within the elastic limit, the value of Dmod can be written as
Dmod = KscDmax = (3.3)(0.000474) = 0.0016 in./in.

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 169

Step 5
From Fig. 6.2, let f be conservatively equal to 1.0.
From Fig. 6.3, Kv = 1.0.
Equation (6.9) gives Kv = 1.0.
From Eq. (5.11) with Z = X,
Vc

Z yield stress at cold end of cycle


023 53200 12240 psi

125 Vc

15300 psi

Enter the isochronous chart (Fig. 6.7) with a stress of 15,300 psi, and obtain the strain for either (a)
24 hours (duration of one cycle from step 3), which gives Dc = 0.00060, or (b) 200,000 hours, which
gives Dc = 0.0025 for the full life. The value for one cycle is then given by
Dc = 0.0025/10,000 0

The total strain is then obtained from Eq. (6.8) as


t = (1.0)(0.0016) + (3.3)(0) = 0.0016

From Fig. 6.7, the time-independent stress, Sj = 36.5 ksi.


Step 6
In Fig. 6.7, stress-versus-time values are obtained as shown in Table 6.8.
Step 7
Equation (6.11) is solved in this step. The rst part of the equation, (nc/Nd)j, is rst obtained as follows:
First part of Eq. (6.11)
nc = 10,000 cycles

The value of Nd is obtained from Table 6.6 with t = 0.0016. A cycle life of 1,000,000 is obtained
at a temperature of 1000F.
(nc/Nd)j = 10,000/1,000,000 = 0.01

TABLE 6.8
STRESS-VERSUS-TIME VALUES

ASM_Jawad_Ch06.indd

Time (hr)

Stress (ksi)

Sj
1
3
10
30
100
300
1,000
3,000
10,000
30,000
100,000
200,000

36.5
30.0
28.0
26.7
25.3
23.3
22.0
21.0
19.3
18.0
16.0 (use 16.5)
14.7 (use 16.5)
13.7 (use 16.5)

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170

Chapter 6

Second part of Eq. (6.11)


The second part of Eq. (6.11), (D/Td)k, is determined numerically from Table 6.8 and from the
differential equation dT/Td. Calculations for 200,000 hours are summarized in Table 6.9.
Column A in Table 6.9 gives the incremental locations for calculating stresses from Table 6.8.
Column B shows the stress values obtained from Table 6.8 and column H lists the incremental duration assumed for these stresses. Column C adjusts the stress values by the K factor and column G
lists the hours obtained from Table 6.7 using the stress values in column C. Column I is the ratio of
column H over column G, which is the numerical value of the quantity (dT/Td).
The 1000F line in Table 6.7 terminates at the 20,500 psi stress level. Stress levels in column C
drop below the 20,500 psi level in rows 1 through 12. The Larson-Miller parameter, PLM, is used
to obtain approximate rupture life by using higher temperature levels given in Table 6.7. These
calculations are shown in columns D, E, and F. Column D lists the temperatures from Table 6.7
corresponding to the stress levels in column C. Column E calculates the corresponding PLM from
Eq. (1.3) for the temperature shown in column D at 300,000 hours. Column F recalculates the hours
corresponding to a temperature of 1000F from Eq. (1.3) with the corresponding PLM factor.

The quantity (3Sm)/E, calculated earlier, is equal to 0.0014, whereas t is equal to 0.0016. Because

t > (3Sm)/E, shakedown does not occur and the peak stress does reset on each cycle. Under this
scenario, peak stress can be assumed to relax through each cycle and the cumulated creep damage
is given by Table 6.9.
In Table 6.9, the value of (D/Td)k for 24 hours is equal to 0.059. Note that most of the computed
creep damage occurs in the rst hour. This computed value can be more realistically evaluated by taking smaller time steps and computing the damage at each step. In this case, time steps of 0.25 hours
will reduce the damage during the rst hour by more than a factor of two. However, even with the rst
hour damage reduction the total value of (D/Td)k for 10,000 cycles is approximately 350, which is
inadequate. Thus, the required thickness needs to be increased to accommodate 200,000 hours.

Second iteration
A new trial thickness may be assumed by multiplying the original thickness by the ratio of strain t over

strain (3Sm)/E. The result gives


t = (1.125)(0.0016/0.0014) = 1.286 in.

TABLE 6.9
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF (T/Td)k
A

Location
(hr)

Sr (ksi)

Sr/0.9
(ksi)

Equivalent
temp. (F)

PLM

Time (hr)

Table 6.7
(hr)

Table 6.8
(hr)

H/G

36.5
30.0
28.0
26.7
25.3
23.3
22.0
21.0
19.3
18.0
16.5
16.5
16.5

40.5
33.3
31.1
29.7
28.1
25.9
24.4
23.3
21.4
20.0
18.3
18.3
18.3

366,750
756,400
756,400

23
507
1,250
2,417
5,625
16,670
33,180
68,180
200,000
366,750
756,400
756,400

1
2
7
20
70
200
700
2,000
7,000
20,000
70,000
100,000

0.043
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.012
0.012
0.021
0.029
0.035
0.055
0.093
0.132

Sj
1
3
10
30
100
300
1,000
3,000
10,000
30,000
100,000
200,000
Total

ASM_Jawad_Ch06.indd

1,005
1,023
1,023

37,324
37,783
37,783

0.450

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 171

Try a 12-in. Sch-160 pipe with OD = 12.75 in. and t = 1.3125 in.
(a) Check design thickness in accordance with ASME-I
By inspection, the newer thickness is adequate as per ASME-I.
(b) Check load-controlled stress limits in accordance with III-NH (Fig. 4.8)
= Ro/Ri = 6.375/5.0625 = 1.2593

From Example 4.4,


Circumferential stress at inside surface with a ligament efciency of 0.60
membrane = Pm = P/(0.6)( - 1) = 8355 psi
bending = Pb = 0
secondary = Q = 645/0.6 = 1075 psi
Longitudinal stress at inside surface with a ligament efciency of 0.85
membrane = Pm = P/(0.85)( 2 - 1) + 7000 = 9610 psi
bending = Pb = 0
secondary = Q = 0
Radial stress at inside surface
membrane = Pm = -P/2 = -650 psi
bending = Pb = 0
secondary = Q = -650 psi
The value of Pm is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
Pm = 9690 psi,

Design limits
Pm < So
PL + Pb < 1.5So

9690 psi < 16,300 psi


9690 psi < 24,450 psi

Operating limits
Pm < Smt
PL + Pb < 1.5Sm
PL + Pb/kt < St

9690 psi < 14,300 psi


9690 psi < 28,500 psi
9690 psi < 14,300 psi

and PL + Pb = 9690

Thus, the requirements of load-controlled limits are met.


(c) Check strain- and deformation-controlled limits in accordance with III-NH (Fig. 4.8)
Average yield stress = 46,700 psi
Calculate X and Y from Eqs. (5.1) and (5.2).
The value of Q is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
Q = 1510 psi,
X = 10,815/46,700 = 0.23

Y = 1510 /46,700 = 0.03

Check elastic analysis Test A-2


X + Y = 0.24 < 1.0

There is no need to check the simplied inelastic analysis Tests B because Test A-2 is met.
Thus, the requirements of strain and deformation limits are met.
(d) Check creep-fatigue requirements using elastic analysis in accordance with III-NH, Eq. (6.11)
Calculate the value of 3Sm, which is the smaller of

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Chapter 6
3Sm = (3)(19,000) = 57,000 psi

or

_
3Sm = 1.5Sm + 0.5St = 35,650 psi

Use 3Sm = 35,650 psi.


_
3S m /E = 35,600/25,400,000 = 0.0014

The requirements and steps outlined in Section 6.2 will be followed.


The requirements of Test A-2 are met.
The requirement of (PL + Pb + Q) 3Sm must be met.
The value of (PL + Pb + Q) is obtained from Eq. (4.14) as
(PL + Pb + Q) = 10,820 psi,

< 35,650 psi

Step 1
Total amount of hours, TH = 200,000 hours

Step 2
Hold temperature, T HT = 1000F

Step 3
Average cycle time = 24 hours/cycle

Step 4
The maximum strain during the cycle is given by
Dmax = 2Salt/E = 10,820/25,400,000 = 0.000426 in./in.

Because the magnitude of Dmax is within the elastic limit, the value of Dmod can be written as
Dmod = Ksc Dmax = (3.3)(0.000426) = 0.0014 in./in.

Step 5
From Fig. 6.2, let f be conservatively equal to 1.0.
From Fig. 6.3, Kv = 1.0.
Equation (6.9) gives Kv = 1.0.
From Eq. (5.11) with Z = X,
Vc

Z yield stress at cold end of cycle


021 53200

1.25 Vc

11200 psi

14000 psi

Enter the isochronous chart (Fig. 6.7) with a stress of 14,300 psi, and obtain the strain for either (a)
24 hours (duration of one cycle from step 3), which gives Dc = 0.00056, or (b) 200,000 hours, which
gives Dc = 0.0015 for the full life. The value for one cycle is then given by
Dc = 0.0015/10,000 0

The total strain is then obtained from Eq. (6.8) as


t = (1.0)(0.0014) + (3.3)(0) = 0.0014

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 173

TABLE 6.10
STRESS-VERSUS-TIME VALUES
Time (hr)

Stress (ksi)

Sj
1
3
10
30
100
300
1,000
3,000
10,000
30,000
100,000
200,000

34.0
28.7
26.7
25.3
24.0
22.7
21.3
20.0
18.7
17.3
16.0 (use 16.5)
14.0 (use 16.5)
13.7 (use 16.5)

From Fig. 6.7, the time-independent stress


Sj = 34.0 ksi.

Step 6
In Fig. 6.7, stress-versus-time values are obtained as shown in Table 6.10.
Step 7
Equation (6.11) is solved in this step. The rst part of the equation, (nc/Nd)j, is obtained rst as
follows:
First part of Eq. (6.11)
nc = 10,000 cycles

The value of Nd is obtained from Table 6.6 with t = 0.0014. A cycle life of 10,000,000 is obtained
at 1000F.
(nc/Nd)j = 10,000/10,000,000 = 0.001 0

Second part of Eq. (6.11)


The second part of Eq. (6.11), (D/Td)k, is determined numerically from Table 6.10 and from the
differential equation dT/Td. Calculations for 200,000 hours are summarized in Table 6.11.

The quantity (3Sm)/E, calculated earlier, is equal to 0.0014 and t is also equal to 0.0014. Because

t = (3Sm)/E, shakedown does occur and the peak stress does not reset on each cycle. Under this
scenario, peak stress can be assumed to relax monotonically throughout the entire design life and
the cumulated creep damage is given by Table 6.11.
The total value of (D/Td)k from Table 6.11 is 0.358. This value is acceptable from Fig. 6.6 for an
expected life of 200,000 hours.
The result indicates that the required original thickness of 1.125 in. is inadequate for a 10,000
cycle service with 200,000 hours at 1000F. The new thickness of 1.3125 in. is adequate for the
intended service.

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Chapter 6

TABLE 6.11
NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS OF (T/Td)k
A
Location
(hr)
Sj
1
3
10
30
100
300
1,000
3,000
10,000
30,000
100,000
200,000
Total

6.3

Sr (ksi)

Sr/0.9
(ksi)

Equivalent
temp. ()

34.0
28.7
26.7
25.3
24.0
22.7
21.3
20.0
18.7
17.3
16.5
16.5
16.5

37.8
31.9
29.7
28.1
26.7
25.2
23.7
22.2
20.8
19.2
18.3
18.3
18.3

1,014
1,023
1,023

E
PLM

37,553
37,783
37,783

Time (hr)

Table 6.7
(hr)

Table 6.8
(hr)

H/G

526,530
756,400
756,400

77
870
2,417
5,625
9,708
23,330
55,460
111,110
266,670
526,530
756,400
756,400

1
2
7
20
70
200
700
2,000
7,000
20,000
70,000
100,000

0.013
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.007
0.009
0.013
0.018
0.026
0.038
0.093
0.132
0.358

WELDED COMPONENTS

The procedure outlined in Section 6.2 is also applicable to welded components. Welded reduction
factor, Rw, must be incorporated into stress calculations for creep rupture.

6.4

VARIABLE CYCLIC LOADS

In Section 6.2 the analysis of components subjected to a repetitive cyclic load was presented. Repetitive cyclic in that context referred to a number of cycles of the same type and magnitude, such
as startup followed by a period of operation and then shutdown. The remainder of this chapter will
address the situation where there are two or more types of cycles with varying magnitudes for example, normal startup and shutdown cycles of a xed number and magnitude, and a different number
of thermal transient cycles of a different number and magnitude.
There are a number of methods developed to combine cyclic histories, many of which are described
in some detail in Bannantine (1990). The essential feature of these methods is to account for the additive effect of combining strain ranges. As discussed in the ASME criteria for Division 2 (1969), When
stress cycles of various frequencies are intermixed through the life of a vessel it is important to identify
correctly the number and range of each type of cycle. It must be remembered that a small increase in
stress range can produce a large decrease in fatigue life, and this relationship varies for different portions of the fatigue curve. Therefore the effect of superposing two stress amplitudes cannot be evaluated by adding the usage factors obtained from each amplitude by itself. The stresses must be added
before calculating the usage factors. Although the above is written in terms of stress, the discussion
is equally applicable in terms of strain frequency and range.

Example 6.3
Consider the case of a thermal transient occurring in a pressurized vessel. At a point in the vessel,
the peak stress due to pressure is 20,000 psi tension and the added stress from the thermal transient is
70,000 psi tension. The thermal stress occurs 10,000 times and the pressure stress occurs 1000 times.
What is the combined effect?

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 175

Solution
Add the thermal stress range to the pressure stress range for 1000 cycles. Thus, the total usage factor
is the sum of the usage factor for 1000 cycles with a stress range of 90,000 psi and the usage factor for
9000 cycles with a stress range of 70,000 psi.

6.5

ASME CODE PROCEDURES

There are several locations in the ASME Code where the issue of combining stresses with different
frequencies and ranges are discussed. In Subsection NH, procedures are given in T-1413 and T-1414
for determining equivalent strain range; T-1413 for the more general case where principal strains
change direction, and T-1414 for the simpler case where they do not. These procedures are applicable
for both elastic and inelastic methodologies. Section III-NH, T-1432 also permits the use of the stress
difference procedure in III-NB-3216 when evaluating creep-fatigue limits using elastic analysis. Interestingly, Section VIII Div 2 also identies additional procedures for combining cycle types in Annex
5.B and in Annex 5.C. Although some of these procedures read quite differently from others, they
all accomplish the objective described in Section 6.1; they provide methodologies for superimposing
strain amplitudes to ensure that the usage factor accounts for reduction in fatigue life due to additive
stress or strain cycling. Because the evaluations discussed herein are based on elastic analysis and the
calculation results expressed in terms of stress, the procedures of NB-3216 are the procedures that will
form the basis for the following discussion.

6.6

EQUIVALENT STRESS RANGE DETERMINATION

When the design specication delineates a specic loading sequence, then such sequence should
be used to determine the equivalent strain ranges. If the sequence is not specied, then the following
procedures should be used.

6.6.1

Equivalent Strain Range Determination Applicable to Rotating Principal Strains

Step 1
Calculate all strain components for each point, I, in time (xi, yi, zi, xyi, yzi, zxi) for the complete
cycle. Note that when conducting elastic analysis, which is the basis of this discussion, peak strains
from geometric discontinuities are not included because these effects are accounted for later in the
procedure.
Step 2
Select a point when conditions are at an extreme for the cycle, either maximum or minimum, and
refer to this time point by the subscript o.
Step 3
Calculate the history of the change in strain components by subtracting the values at time o from
the corresponding components at each point in time, i, during the cycle.
Dxi = xi - xo
Dyi = yi - yo
Dzi = zi - zo,
etc.

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Chapter 6

Step 4
Calculate the equivalent strain range for each point in time as
2
2
2
+ Dyzi
Dzxi
)]
Dequiv,i = [0.707/(1 + *)][(Dxi - Dyi)2 + (Dyi - Dzi)2 + (Dzi - Dxi)2 + 1.5(Dxyi

(6.12)

where * = 0.3 when using elastic analysis.

6.6.2 Equivalent Strain Range Determination Applicable When Principal Strains Do


Not Rotate
Step 1
Determine the principal strains versus time for the cycle.
Step 2
At each time interval of step 1, determine the strain differences (1 - 2), (2 - 3), (3 - 1).
Step 3
Select a point when conditions are at an extreme for the cycle, either maximum or minimum, and
refer to this time by the subscript o.
Step 4
Calculate the history of the change in strain differences by subtracting the values at time o from the
corresponding components at each point in time, i, during the cycle. Designate these strain difference
changes as
D(1 - 2)i = (1 - 2)i - (1 - 2)o
D(2 - 3)i = (2 - 3)i - (2 - 3)o
D(3 - 1)i = (3 - 1)i - (3 - 1)o

Step 5
For each point in time i, calculate the equivalent strain range as
Dequiv, i = [0.707/(1 + *)]{[D(1 - 2)i]2 + [D(2 - 3)i]2 + [D(D3 - 1)i]2}1/2

(6.13)

where * = 0.3 when using elastic analysis.

6.6.3 Equivalent Strain Range Determination Acceptable Alternate When Performing


Elastic Analysis
6.6.3.1

Constant Principal Stress Direction

Step 1
Determine the principal stresses versus time for the cycle.
Step 2
At each time interval of step 2, determine the stress differences (1 - 2), (2 - 3), (3 - 1).
Step 3
Calculate the history of the change in stress differences by subtracting the values at a reference time
from the corresponding components at each point in time, i, during the cycle. The maximum stress

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 177

value of these differences is obtained from Eq. (4.14) and is equal to the value of 2Salt, which is the
starting point of Step 4 under Section 6.2 CREEP-FATIGUE EVALUATION USING ELASTIC
ANALYSIS.
6.6.3.2 Rotating Principal Stress Direction. This procedure is basically the same as the procedure for rotating principal strain direction. The stress differences are rst determined at the component level for all six components and then the principal stresses are determined from those component
stress differences.
6.6.3.3 Variable Cycles. The following is based on the guidance cited in III-NH by reference to
III-NB-3222.4 Analysis for Cyclic Operation.
If there are two or more types of stress cycles which produce signicant stresses, their cumulative
effect shall be evaluated as shown:
Step 1
Designate the specied number of times each type of cycle (types 1, 2, 3, , n) will be repeated during the life of the component as n1, n2, n3, , nn, respectively.
Note: In determining n1, n2, n3, , nn, consideration shall be given to the superposition of cycles of
various origins that produce a total stress difference range greater than the stress difference range
of the individual cycles.
Step 2
For each type of stress cycle, determine the alternating stress intensity, Salt, and designate these
quantities Salt 1, Salt 2, Salt 3, , Salt n.
Step 3
Proceed with evaluation as per Step 4 under Section 6.2 CREEP-FATIGUE EVALUATION
USING ELASTIC ANALYSIS.

Example 6.4
Using the data previously developed for Examples 5.1, 5.2, and 6.1 to evaluate the life cycle of the
2.0-in. thick shell for 130,000 hours when subjected to the original maintenance shutdown cycle plus
the unplanned process-induced shutdown as described below.
Pressure. The pressure remains constant.
Temperature. The temperature decreases such that the inner wall is 36F colder than the outer wall
as shown in Fig. 6.8. The process is then re-established and operation returned to normal conditions.
This cycle, cool down and restart, takes approximately 8 hours to complete. This cycle is expected to
occur, on average, six times during each 18-month operational cycle.
Solution
The stress components for Example 5.1 for the outside surface of the 2.0-in. shell are tabulated in
Table 6.12 with an additional column for the 36F DT condition.
Step 1
Principal stresses for each time point in the cycle as identied in Fig. 6.8 are computed from component stresses in Table 6.12 as shown below at time 2.

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178

Chapter 6

FIG. 6.8
PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE HISTORY

+ Qb = 4500 + 14,975 = 19,475


= P m
L = P mL + QbL = 2250 + 14,975 = 16,850
R = P mr + Qbr = (-150) + 150 = 0

Step 2
Principal stress differences, or stress intensities, are computed from the principal stress as shown
below for time 2.
- L = 19,475 - 16,850 = 2250
L - R = 16,850 - 0 = 16,850
R - = 0 - 19,475 = -19,475

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 179

TABLE 6.12
STRESS OUTSIDE OF THE 2.0-in. SHELL
Stress
Membrane hoop stress, Pm
Membrane axial stress, PmL
Membrane radial stress, Pmr
Circumferential bending stress, Qb
Axial bending stress, QbL
Radial bending stress, Qbr

Pressure
stress

Thermal stress,
T = 90F

Thermal stress,
T = 36F

4,500
2,250
-150

0
0
0
14,975
14,975
0

0
0
0
-5,990
-5,990

0
0
150

Step 3
Determine the range of principal stress differences between the reference points in time dening
the cycles of interest. Shown below is the evaluation of the cycle range dened by time points 1 and
2. Note that this corresponds to the cycle range for Example 6.1. Because stress values at time point 1
are zero, the absolute value of the difference is straightforward.
( - L)2 - ( - L)1 = 2250 - 0 = 2250
(L - R)2 - (L - R)1 = 16,825 - 0 = 16,825
(R - )2 - (R - )1 = -19,475 - 0 = 19,475

From Eq. (4.14), the effective stress is 2Salt 1-2 = 16,060 psi.
Stress differences (Table 6.13) are identied for the cycle dened by time points 1 and 2 in the
fourth column (Sr1-2); for the cycle dened by time points 3 and 4 in column 7 (Sr3-4); and for the composite cycle dened by time points 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the last column (Sr1-4).
From the above table, the maximum absolute values of the cycle range = 2Salt are obtained from Von
Mises equation (Eq. 4.14):
2Salt 1-2 = 16,060 psi
2Salt 3-4 = 1490 psi
2Salt 1-4 = 16,260 psi

Cycle 1-4 with a cycle time of 13,000 hours and cycle 3-4 with a negligible cycle time will be selected to represent the combined loading history. The selection of combined cycles requires consideration of the cycle time and thus goes beyond the normal superposition considerations associated with
nontime-dependent design criteria. This point will be discussed further when considering the evaluation of creep damage.
The following evaluation follows the same procedure used to evaluate creep-fatigue damage in Example 6.1.
Step 4
First, consider cycle dened by 2Salt 1-4 = 16,260 psi
TABLE 6.13
PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND ALTERNATING STRESS INTENSITY
Time 1

Time 2

Sr1-2

Time 3

Time 4

Sr3-4

Sr1-4

0
0
0
0
0
0

19,475
16,850
0
2,250
16,825
-19,475

2,250
16,825
19,475

4,500
2,250
0
2,250
2,250
-4,500

-1,490
-3,740
0
-2,250
-3,740
1,490

4,500
5,990
5,990

4,500
20,565
20,965

L
R
- L
L - R
R -

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Chapter 6
Dmax = 2Salt 1-4 /E = 16,260/22,400,000 = 0.000726

Next, evaluate
2
Dmax = (S */S)K sc
Dmax (Method 1)

However, as before, Dmax and KscDmax are within the proportional limit of the composite stressstrain curve, and Dmod reduces to
' H mod

Ksc ' H max


11 0000726
000080

Step 5
This step is essentially identical to the steps used in Example 6.1, and the assumptions therein are
equally applicable. For Dmod = 0.00080, the resulting expression for t becomes:
t = (1.0)(0.00080) + (1.1)(0.000026) = 0.000829

Note that the creep strain increment per cycle, Dc, remains the same because the pressure stress is
the same and the value of Z in region E is equal to X.
From Fig. 5.6, the time independent stress Sj 15,000 psi.
Before proceeding with the creep damage assessment, it is necessary to assess the value of t and Sj
for the remaining cycle.
Step 3
From the preceding step 3, the stress intensity range for cycle 3-4 is given by
2Salt 3-4 = 1490 psi

Step 4
As before,
Dmax = 2Salt 3-4 /E = 1490/22,400,000 = 0.0000665

which is well within the elastic regime. And


' H mod

Ksc ' H max


11 00000665
0000073

Step 5
As before, for Dmod = 0.000073
t = (1.0)(0.000073) + (1.1)(0.000026) = 0.00010

Note that, per the presumed composite cycle denition, there is no signicant cycle time and the
incremental creep strain Dc will be equal to zero.
Conservatively based on t 3-4 = 0.00010
Sj = 2240 psi

Step 6
It is clear that cycle 3-4 satises the shakedown criteria and the assumed superposition is valid. Noting that t 1-4 = 0.000829 also satises the shakedown criteria, the resulting stress history for evaluating

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Creep-Fatigue Analysis 181

creep damage is quite closely approximated by the values in Table 6.5, and the overall creep damage
fraction will be:
(D/Td)k = 0.0485

In summary, the unplanned process-induced shutdowns have a very slight impact on the cyclic
stress range that is wiped out within the rst hour of sustained operation. The impact on vessel life
is negligible. Physically, the loading for Example 6.1 resembles a hold time creep-fatigue test where
there is no subsequent yielding after the initial startup sequence. The additional cycles in this example
resemble additional minor, and more frequent, dips in the strain level in the creep-fatigue test with no
apparent impact on cyclic life.

Problems
6.1 The hydrotreater given in Problem 5.1 is shut down after every 3 years (25,000 hours) of operation for maintenance. The shutdown period is 2 weeks. Accordingly, the expected number
of cycles is 8. Evaluate the life cycle of 200,000 hours at 950F.
6.2 The boiler header given in Problem 5.2 is shut down after every 2.5 years (20,000 hours) of
operation for maintenance. The shutdown period is 6 weeks. Accordingly, the expected number of cycles is 15. Evaluate the life cycle of 300,000 hours at 975F.

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BUCKLING OF A CYLINDRICAL SHELL (COURTESY OF NOOTER CONSTRUCTION,


ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI)

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CHAPTER

7
MEMBERS IN COMPRESSION
7.1

INTRODUCTION

The analysis of column buckling in the creep range is an extremely complicated subject. Different
methods of analysis have been proposed and are available to the designer. Each of these methods
has its advantages and disadvantages regarding accuracy of results and complexity of solution. The
methods presented in this chapter are relatively simple to perform but fairly conservative. Designers
must exercise their judgment and use their experience in using the various equations presented in this
chapter.

7.2

DESIGN OF COLUMNS

Background equations for the design of axially loaded members operating at temperatures below
the creep range are presented in Section 7.2.1. These equations are then used as basis for developing
buckling equations for axially loaded members operating at temperatures above the creep range as
discussed in Section 7.2.2. The creep buckling phenomenon of columns can be thought of in terms of
the column creeping under a sustained load up to a deformation level where regular buckling occurs.
Accordingly, a time factor must be included in the buckling equations as discussed below.

7.2.1

Columns Operating at Temperatures below the Creep Range

The elastic buckling equation for members loaded axially (Fig. 7.1) at temperatures below the creep
range is given by
d2y/dx2 = -M/EI = -Py/EI

(7.1)

(d2y/dx2) + k2y = 0

(7.2)

where
E
I
M
P
x
y

= modulus of elasticity
= moment of inertia of member
= moment in column
= applied load
= length
= deection

or

where
k2 = P/EI
183

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184

Chapter 7

FIG. 7.1
SIMPLY SUPPORTED COLUMN

Solution of the differential Eq. (7.2) is


y = A sin(kx) + B cos(kx)

(7.3)

Substituting the rst boundary condition of y = 0 at x = 0 into Eq. (7.3) gives B = 0. Substituting the
second boundary condition of y = 0 at x = L into Eq. (7.3) gives a non-trivial solution of the critical
axial load with the lowest value of
Pcr

S 2 EI
L2

(7.4)

Equation (7.4), referred to as Eulers equation, can be written in terms of effective length and critical stress as
V cr

S 2E

(7.5)

l r 2

where
A
l
r
cr

= area of member
= effective length of column
= radius of gyration = (I/A)0.5
= critical stress

The Steel Construction Manual of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC, 1991) uses
Eq. (7.5) as the basis for designing slender columns. Columns made of carbon steel with a yield stress
of 36 ksi are considered slender when (l/r) > 126. The actual design equation, with a factor of safety
of 1.92, is given by
sa =

12 p 2E
23(l /r )2

for (l /r ) > C c

(7.6)

where
Cc

2 S 2E
Sy

1 2

and
Sy = yield stress of the material
a = allowable compressive stress
A plot of Eq. (7.6) is shown in Fig. 7.2. The buckling strength tends to approach innity as the slenderness ratio (l/r) becomes smaller, as is the case with short columns. However, the allowable stress

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Members in Compression 185

FIG. 7.2
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS FOR STEEL WITH SY = 36 KSI

for short columns is controlled by yield stress rather than buckling. Accordingly, the AISC limits the
allowable compressive stress for short columns to a maximum value of (Sy/1.67). A parabolic equation is then generated to connect the allowable compressive stress from a value of (Sy/1.67) for short
columns to the Euler equation given by Eq. (7.6) for slender columns. The point of tangency of the two
equations is at (l/r) = 126 for low strength steels as shown in Fig. 7.2. The actual parabolic equation
is given by AISC as
2

a 

1  05C 1 Sy
3

167  0375C 1  0125C 1

for  l r  C c

(7.7)

where
C1

l r
Cc

Equations (7.6) and (7.7) can be approximated for design of non-pressure parts in pressure vessels.
A factor of safety of 2.0 can be used for Eulers equation (Eq. 7.6). Equation (7.7) can be simplied by
setting it equal to the allowable stress, which is determined from the tensile, yield, creep, and rupture
criteria. Hence, the two equations can be combined into a single equation
Sb =

p 2E
2(l /r )2

but not greater than S

(7.8)

where
S = allowable tensile stress given in the American Society Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code
Sb = allowable compressive stress
Figure 7.3 shows a plot of Eq. (7.8).

Example 7.1
A pressure vessel is operating at 1200F has a 316 stainless steel internal support bracket as shown
in Fig. 7.4. Determine the size of member AB due to an applied load of 450 lb. E = 21,200 ksi, S =
7.4 ksi.

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186

Chapter 7

FIG. 7.3
PLOT OF BUCKLING STRESS IN A SIMPLY SUPPORTED COLUMN

Solution
The load on member AB from Fig. 7.4 is 900 lb.
Minimum area required = 900/7400 = 0.12 in.2.
Try a -in. diameter bar.
A = R2 = 0.196 in.2
r = R/2 = 0.125 in.
= 4600 psi
From Eq. (7.8), the allowable compressive stress is
Sb

S 2 21200000
2 200125 2

4080 psi  4600 psi

Thus, a new area is needed.

FIG. 7.4
INTERNAL BRACKET

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Members in Compression 187

Try 5/8-in. diameter bar.


A = R2 = 0.31 in.2
r = R/2 = 0.156 in.
= 2900 psi
Sb

S 2 21200000
2 200156 2

6360 psi ! 2900 psi

Use 5/8-in. diameter bar.

7.2.2

Columns Operating at Temperatures in the Creep Range

The analysis of columns operating in the creep regime (Odqvist, 1966) is extremely complicated due
to numerous factors, some of which are not necessarily well known. These include column eccentricity, effect of primary and secondary creep on buckling, interaction between elastic and creep buckling,
and behavior of material properties with time at elevated temperatures. These factors require numerous
assumptions that would allow the designer to develop a design criterion for axial compression in the
creep range. Some of these factors and assumptions that are of particular interest to the designer are:
Creep buckling in columns with an eccentricity will occur at any axial compressive load
(Kraus, 1980) no matter how small it is when the column is subjected to temperatures in the
creep range over a certain period.
Creep buckling does not occur instantaneously (Boyle and Spence, 1983), but rather after a
certain time lapse. Thus, the design premise is based on determining a critical period that is
longer than the intended service of a component, rather than critical buckling force.
The Euler elastic buckling equation does not apply in the creep range due to the non-linear
relationship between stress and strain.
Creep buckling occurs at a specied time only for non-linear stress-strain behavior.
The tangent modulus, Et, gives a simplied equation for designing in the creep regime.
The shape of the deformed column is assumed (Flugge, 1967) to be sinusoidal.
Based on these facts, simplied equations for column buckling can be derived and adopted for
design purposes. One such method, developed by Kraus (1980), is discussed in this section. Detailed
evaluation of Krauss method by Dr. Don Grifn of Westinghouse showed that the results obtained
theoretically may differ from the results obtained from test data unless careful consideration is given
to various parameters effecting the buckling.
The general differential equation for bending due to axial compression is given by
d2y/dx2 = -M/EI = -P(yo + y)/EtI

(7.9)

where
Et
I
M
P
x
y
yo

= tangent modulus of elasticity


= moment of inertia of member
= moment in column
= applied load
= length
= deection
= initial deection

Let the solution for y and yo be represented by the following Fourier series
yo = Am sin(mx/L)

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188

Chapter 7

and
y = Bm sin(mx/L)

These two expressions satisfy the boundary conditions of a simply supported column. Substituting
these two expressions into Eq. (7.9) gives

Bm  Am  Bm

PL2
m2 S 2 E

tI

sin mS xL

This equation is satised if the rst bracketed term is set to zero. This gives
Bm

Am
m2 S 2 E

tI

PL2

(7.10)

 1

The value of Bm in Eq. (7.10) approaches innity as the denominator approaches zero. Thus,
Pcr

m 2 S 2 Et I

(7.11)

L2

The lowest value of Pcr is found when m2 = 1. Equation (7.11) becomes


S 2 Et I

Pcr

L2

(7.12)

This equation is similar to the elastic buckling expression given by Eq. (7.4) with the exception of
the term Et. Equation (7.12) can be written in terms of critical stress, cr, as
V cr

S 2 Et
l r 2

(7.13)

where
A = area of member
l = effective length
r = radius of gyration = (I/A)0.5
The value of Et in Eq. (7.13) can be obtained from isochronous curves by using Nortons equation
for creep given by
= kn

(7.14)

where
k
n

= constant
= creep exponent, which is a function of material property and temperature
= strain rate (=d/dT )
= stress

Integration of Eq. (7.14) with respect to time yields


- o = k nT

(7.15)

where
T = time
= strain
o = initial strain at T = 0

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Members in Compression 189

The tangent modulus, Et, is dened as


Et = d/d

(7.16)

Differentiation of Eq. (7.15) with respect to stress gives


d = knn-1Td

(7.17)

Combining Eqs. (7.16) and (7.17) results in


1

Et

k n V n 1 T

(7.18)

Combining this equation with Eq. (7.13) for creep buckling gives
S2

n
V cr

k nT l r 2

(7.19)

The constant k in Eq. (7.19) is obtained from Nortons equation (Eq. 7.14). However, for many
engineering problems a stationary stress condition exists as described in Chapters 1 and 2. Thus, for
such conditions the constant K can also be determined from the expression
= Kn

(7.20)

Constants K and n for any given material are easily obtained from isochronous curves similar to the
one shown in Fig. 7.5. This is accomplished by choosing two points on any particular curve and solving Eq. (7.20) for K and n. Once K and n are known, then Eq. (7.19) can be solved for the buckling
stress. Tests by Dr. Grifn of Westinghouse indicate that more accurate results are obtained when the
two points chosen on an isochronous curve are in the vicinity of the buckling strain. Otherwise, the
results tend to be on the unsafe side.
For design purposes, a factor of safety (FS) is added to Eq. (7.19) and it becomes
sb =

p2
(FS)K nT (l /r ) 2

1/ n

but not greater than S

(7.21)

Example 7.2
Find the required diameter of member AB in Example 7.1 using the creep buckling Eq. (7.21) and
the isochronous curves in Fig. 7.5. Let S = 7400 psi, member force = 900 lb, expected life = 30,000
hours, and factor of safety = 1.5.
Solution
Two points, A and B, are chosen at random on the 30,000-hour curve in Fig. 7.5. The stress and
corresponding strain values at these two points are
A = 0.00013

at

A = 2700 psi

B = 0.00062

at

B = 4000 psi

Substituting these values into Eq. (7.20) and solving for n and K results in
n 4.0

and

K = 2.45 10-18

Try a 2.0-in. diameter bar.


A = (2.0)2/4 = 3.14 in.2
Actual stress, = 900/3.14 = 290 psi
r = R/2 = 0.500 in.
l = 20.0 in.

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190

Chapter 7

FIG. 7.5
ISOCHRONOUS STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR 316 STAINLESS STEEL AT
1200F (ASME, III-NH)
From Eq. (7.21), allowable stress is
Vb

S2
15 245 u

1 40

10 18 40 30000 20050 2

345 psi, which is greater than the actual stress of 290 psi

Use 2.0-in diameter bar.


Note that this diameter is three times larger than that obtained in Example 7.1 for buckling below
the creep range.

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Members in Compression 191

7.3 ASME DESIGN CRITERIA FOR CYLINDRICAL SHELLS UNDER


COMPRESSION
The design equations presented in this method are based on ASME. The cylinder length is considered much larger than the radius. Thus, for axial compression the length does not appear in the equations. For short cylinders, the results obtained in this section are very conservative.

7.3.1 Axial Compression of Cylindrical Shells Operating at Temperatures below the


Creep Range
The ASME design equations for the axial buckling of cylindrical shells at temperatures below the
creep range are based on Sturms work (Sturm, 1941). Sturm reduced the differential equations for the
elastic axial buckling of a cylindrical shell with a large L/Do ratio to the form
crL = 0.63E(t/Ro)

(7.22)

063
Ro t

(7.23)

or
H cr

Vcr E

where
E = elastic modulus of elasticity
Ro = outside radius
t
= thickness of cylinder
crL = axial buckling stress
The ASME criteria for axial compressive loads at temperatures below the creep range use Eq. (7.23)
for elastic buckling. This is accomplished by splitting Eq. (7.22) into two parts and adding factors of
safety as follows
063
FS 1 Ro t

B = AE/(FS2)

(7.24)
(7.25)

where
A = allowable strain
B = allowable compressive stress
ASME uses a total factor of safety of 10 for axial compressive calculations with FS1 =5.0 and FS2 =
2.0. Thus, Eqs. (7.24) and (7.25) become
A

0125
Ro t

B = AE/2

(7.26)
(7.27)

Equation (7.27) is applicable only in the elastic region. ASME provides pseudo stress-strain curves
based on the tangent modulus in the plastic region. This is accomplished by using a stress-strain curve
for various given temperatures plotted in terms of elastic modulus, E, and tangent modulus, Et, past
the proportional limit. An example of such a chart for medium strength carbon steels is shown in Fig.
7.6. The ASME procedure for calculating allowable compressive stress is to determine rst strain A
from Eq. (7.26). Next, a value of allowable compressive stress B is determined from either Eq. (7.27)
for elastic buckling or from the tangent modulus lines of Fig. 7.6 when A falls past the material proportional limit.

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192

Chapter 7

FIG. 7.6
CHART FOR CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS WITH YIELD STRESS OF 30 KSI OR
GREATER, AND TYPES 405 AND 410 STAINLESS STEEL (FARR, 2006)

Example 7.3
Find the allowable compressive stress for a cylindrical shell with Ro = 25 in. and t = 0.5 in. Let T =
100F and use Fig. 7.6 for external pressure chart.
Solution
Ro/t = 50,

A = 0.125/50 = 0.0025

From Fig. 7.6, the stress value based on A = 0.0025 is in the plastic region. Hence, from Fig. 7.6, the
allowable compressive stress is B = 15,500 psi.

7.3.2 Cylindrical Shells under External Pressure and Operating at Temperatures below
the Creep Range
The ASME design equations for the lateral buckling of cylindrical shells at temperatures below the
creep range are based on Sturms work (Sturm, 1941). Sturm reduced the differential equations for the
elastic lateral buckling of a cylindrical shell to the form
Pcr = E(t/Do)3

(7.28)

where
Do = outside diameter
E = modulus of elasticity
Pcr = external buckling pressure
t = thickness
= buckling factor which is a function various parameters such as radius, thickness, length,
Poissons ratio, applied pressure, and number of buckling lobes1
Figure 7.7 (Jawad and Farr, 1989) shows a plot of for a simply supported cylindrical shell with external pressure applied on
sides and end of cylinder and a Poissons ratio of 0.3.

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Members in Compression 193

FIG. 7.7
COLLAPSE COEFFICIENTS OF ROUND CYLINDERS WITH PRESSURE ON SIDES AND
ENDS, EDGES SIMPLY SUPPORTED; = 0.3 (STURM, 1941)

Equation (7.28) can be expressed in terms of critical strain by dening


cr = cr/E

Vcr

(7.29)

Pcr Do t
2

(7.30)

where
cr = critical circumferential buckling strain
cr = critical circumferential buckling stress
Equation (7.28) can be written as
A

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(7.31)

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194

Chapter 7

A plot of Eq. (7.31) is shown in Fig. 7.8. The (Do/t) lines in Fig. 7.8 are approximate smoothed
envelopes of those shown in Fig. 7.7. The ASME procedure consists of calculating (Do/t) and (L/Do)
values of a cylinder and then using Fig. 7.8 to obtain the critical strain A.

FIG. 7.8
GEOMETRIC CHART FOR CYLINDRICAL SHELLS UNDER EXTERNAL OR COMPRESSIVE
LOADINGS FOR ALL MATERIALS (JAWAD AND FARR, 1989)

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Members in Compression 195

For elastic buckling, Eqs. (7.29) and (7.30) are combined to give
Pcr

2AE

(7.32)

Do t

The ASME code uses a factor of safety of 3.0 for lateral buckling. Hence, for elastic buckling, the
governing equation for the allowable external pressure is
Pa

2AE

(7.33)

3 Do t

In the plastic region, the ASME provides pseudo stress-strain curves based on the tangent modulus
in the plastic region. This is accomplished by using a stress-strain curve for various given temperatures
plotted in terms of elastic modulus, E, and tangent modulus, Et, past the proportional limit such as
those shown in Fig. 7.6 for medium-strength carbon steels. In this case, the stress value B in Fig. 7.6
is equal to /2. The ASME procedure for calculating allowable external pressure is to determine rst
strain A from Fig. 7.8 (Eq. 7.26). Then, a value of allowable compressive stress B is determined from
Fig. 7.6. The allowable external pressure is then calculated from Eq. (7.30) as
Pcr

2 Vcr

(7.34)

Do t

Using a factor of safety of 3.0 and letting B = /2 gives


Pa

4B

(7.35)

3 Do t

Example 7.4
Find the allowable external pressure, P, for a cylindrical shell with Do = 50 in., t = 0.5 in., and L =
150 in. Let T = 100F and use Fig. 7.8 for external pressure chart.
Solution
Do/t = 100,

L/Do = 3.0, and from Fig. 7.8 A = 0.00042

From Fig. 7.6, it is seen that the stress value based on A = 0.00042 is in the elastic region. Hence,
either Eq. (7.33) or Eq. (7.35) may be used. From Eq. (7.33) with E = 29,000,000 psi,
P

2 000042 29000000
3 5005

81 psi

7.3.3 Cylindrical Shells Subjected to Compressive Stress and Operating at Temperatures


in the Creep Range
The theoretical equations for the buckling of cylindrical and spherical shells under external pressure are extremely difcult to solve. This is because numerous variables in the equations are unknown
to the designer (Rabotnov, 1969), (Bernasconi, 1979), such as initial out-of-roundness, nal outof-roundness, time duration, and changes in modulus of elasticity and yield stress due to creep. These
variables, coupled with known variables such as length, diameter, thickness, and buckling modes,
make a closed-form solution of the buckling equations almost impossible to obtain. Accordingly,
many simplications are normally assumed by the designer. The most direct method, although fairly
approximate, is to use the material isochronous curves to simulate the effect of creep and time on buckling. These curves are available from ASME III-NH for ve materials at various creep temperatures

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Chapter 7

ranging from 850F to 1500F. The materials are 2.25Cr-1Mo steel, 9Cr-1M0-V steel, 304 and 316
stainless steels, and nickel alloy 800H. Samples of some such isochronous curves are shown in Figs.
1.10, 2.5, 4.11, 4.13, 5.6, 6.7, and 7.9.
The isochronous curves in III-NH are not true stress-strain curves, in the theoretical sense of the
denition. They are indirectly obtained from experimental data as explained in Section 1.2.3. However, they are treated as quasi stress-strain curves in developing external pressure charts in the creep

FIG. 7.9
ISOCHRONOUS STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR 2.25Cr-1Mo STEEL AT 1050F
(ASME, III-NH)

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Members in Compression 197

range. This approximate procedure has been used for a few decades in the United States. It has been
investigated for accuracy by numerous engineers and is deemed reasonably accurate for general design
purposes. Moreover, tests performed by Dr. Don Grifn of Westinghouse show that the safety factor
can be lowered when it takes longer for the creep deformation to reach the buckling value.
The design procedure for buckling in the creep range uses the equations developed in Section 7.3 for
axial compression and external pressure in cylinders, and Section 7.4 for spherical sections. However,
the external pressure chart correlating the tangent modulus, strain A, and stress B that are given in
Fig. 7.6 for low temperatures are replaced by curves obtained from the isochronous curves for various
temperatures and times. This is illustrated by referring to the isochronous chart for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel
at 1050F shown in Fig. 7.9. It is assumed that an external pressure chart for this material is needed
for the 10,000-hour and 100,000-hour curves. This is accomplished by taking these two stress-strain
curves from Fig. 7.9 and plotting them as tangent modulus stress-strain curves in accordance with the
criterion established by ASME. The developed external pressure chart for the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel at
1050F is shown in Fig. 7.10 for 10 hours, 10,000 hours and 100,000 hours. The factors of safety are

FIG. 7.10
EXTERNAL PRESSURE CHART FOR 2.25Cr-1Mo STEEL AT 1050F

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198

Chapter 7

maintained the same as those for low temperature for illustration purposes. Different factors of safety
can easily be incorporated. Similar charts can be developed for various times, temperatures, and materials as long as there are isochronous curves available.

Example 7.5
Find the allowable compressive stress for the cylindrical shell in Example 7.3. Use 10,000-hour life
from Fig. 7.10.
Solution
Ro/t = 50

and from Eq. (7.26),


A = 0.125/50 = 0.0025

From Fig. 7.10, the stress value based on A = 0.0025 is B = 2200 psi. This value is substantially
smaller than the allowable compressive stress of 15,500 psi obtained in Example 7.3.

Example 7.6
Find the allowable external pressure for the cylindrical shell in Example 7.4. Use 100,000-hour life
from Fig. 7.10.
Solution
Do/t = 100,

L/Do = 3.0,

and from Fig. 7.8, A = 0.00042

From Fig. 7.10 with A = 0.00042, a value of B = 800 psi is obtained.


P

4 800
3 100

107 psi

This allowable external pressure is more than four times smaller than that obtained at temperatures
below the creep value.

7.4 ASME DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SPHERICAL SHELLS


UNDER COMPRESSION
7.4.1 Spherical Shells under External Pressure and Operating at Temperatures below the
Creep Range
The theoretical equation for the elastic buckling of a spherical shell (von Karman and Tsien, 1960) is
V cr

0125 E
Ro t

(7.36)

H cr

0125
Ro t

(7.37)

or

and

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Members in Compression 199

Pcr

025E
Ro t 2

(7.38)

ASME uses a safety factor of 4.0 for buckling of spherical shells. Hence, the allowable external pressure in the elastic range is obtained from Eq. (7.38) as
Pa =

0.0625E
(Ro /t) 2

(7.39)

The governing equation in the plastic region is


= PRo/2t

(7.40)

From Fig. 7.6 with =2B, factor of safety = 4.0, and strain A from Eq. (7.37), Eq. (7.40) becomes
Pa = B/(Ro/t)

(7.41)

Equations (7.39) and (7.41) are the two basic equations for calculating allowable external pressure
in spherical shells in accordance with the ASME code.

Example 7.7
Find the allowable external pressure, P, for a spherical shell with Ro = 25 in., t = 0.25 in. Let T =
100F and use Fig. 7.6 for external pressure chart.
Solution
Ro/t = 100,
From Fig. 7.6,
From Eq. (7.41),

A = 0.125/100 = 0.00125
B = 13,000 psi
P = 13,000/100 = 130 psi

7.4.2 Spherical Shells under External Pressure and Operating at Temperatures in the
Creep Range
The procedure for evaluating the allowable external pressure in a spherical section operating in the
creep range follows along the same lines as that for cylindrical shells. The following example serves
as an illustration.

Example 7.8
Find the allowable external pressure, P, for the spherical shell in Example 7.7. Use the 100,000-hour
curve from Fig. 7.10.
Solution
Ro/t = 100,
From Fig. 7.10,
From Eq. (7.41),

A = 0.125/100 = 0.00125
B = 1200 psi
P = 1200/100 = 12 psi

Problems
7.1 A pressure vessel is supported by 316 stainless steel legs that are 12 in. std wt pipe, 4 ft long.
The design temperature of the legs is 1200F and the load on each leg is 5000 lb. Check the
adequacy of the legs for an expected life of 100,000 hours. Let
n = 4.0
K = 2.45 10-18

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200

Chapter 7

Effective length ratio = 0.5


r = 4.38 in.
I = 279 in.4
A = 14.6 in.2
FS = 1.2
Smt = 5500 psi at 100,000 hours

7.2 A pressure vessel is operating at 1050F. The outside diameter is 12 ft, shell thickness is 4.0
in., and the effective length is 24 ft. Check the shell for external pressure due to a vacuum
condition of -15 psig using Fig. 7.10 and 100,000 hours.

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APPENDIX A
BACKGROUND OF THE
BREE DIAGRAM
A.1

BASIC BREE DIAGRAM DERIVATION

The Bree diagram (Fig. A.1) is constructed for the purpose of combining mechanical and thermal
stresses in a cylindrical shell in order to establish allowable stress criteria. The diagram is plotted with
the mechanical stress as an abscissa and the thermal stress as an ordinate. Zones E, S1, S2, P, R1, and
R2, shown in the gure, correspond to specic mechanical and thermal load groupings. The criteria
used to establish each of these zones are described below and are based on Bree (1967 and 1968),
Burgreen (1975), Kraus (1980), and Wilshire (1983).

Zone E
It is assumed that all stresses in zone E remain elastic in the rst half (thermal loading) as well as
the second half (thermal down loading) of the thermal cycle. Bree assumed a thin cylindrical shell
subjected to internal pressure. The average stresses in the cylinder are
= PRi /t

(A.1)

l = PRi / 2t

(A.2)

r = P, maximum at the inner surface

(A.3)

where
P
Ri
t
l
r

= internal pressure
= inside radius
= thickness of cylinder
= longitudinal stress
= radial stress
= circumferential stress

Radial thermal gradients in thin-walled cylinder are normally linear in distribution. For a linear
radial thermal distribution through the thickness (Fig. A.2), the thermal stress equations (Burgreen,
1975) are expressed as
= l = (2x/t){EDT / [2(1 - )]}

(A.4)

201

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202

Appendix A

FIG. A.1
BREE DIAGRAM (BREE, 1967)

r 0

(A.5)

where
E = modulus of elasticity
x = distance from midwall of the cylinder (Fig. A.2)
= coefcient of thermal expansion
T = difference in temperature between inside and outside surfaces of the cylinder
= Poissons ratio

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Background of the Bree Diagram 203

FIG. A.2
THERMAL GRADIENT IN SHELL
Bree made the following assumptions in order to evaluate the mechanical and thermal stress equations in a practical manner:
Radial mechanical and thermal stresses, r, are small compared to the circumferential and
longitudinal stresses and can thus be ignored.
Because mechanical stress is considered primary stress, it cannot exceed the yield stress value
of the material. Radial thermal stress, on the other hand, is considered secondary stress and
can thus exceed the yield stress of the material.
The combination of mechanical and thermal stresses in the and l directions may result in
stresses past the yield stress in one direction and not the other. Such a condition prevents the
formulation of a closed-form solution in a cylindrical shell. Accordingly, Bree made a conservative assumption by setting the stress in the l direction, l, equal to zero.
With the l and r stresses set to zero, Bree assumed for simplicity that the remaining stress in the
direction could be applied on a at plate as shown in Fig. A.3 with values obtained from
Eqs. (A.1) and (A.4) for cylindrical shells.
An additional assumption was made where the at plate is not allowed to rotate due to variable
thermal stress across the thickness in order to simulate the actual condition in a cylindrical
shell.

FIG. A.3
STRESS IN THE CIRCUMFERENTIAL DIRECTION

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204

Appendix A

It is assumed that the material has an elastic perfectly plastic stress-strain diagram.
The initial evaluation of the mechanical and thermal stresses in the elastic and plastic region
was made without any consideration to relaxation or creep.
The nal results were subsequently evaluated for relaxation and creep effect.
It is assumed that stress due to pressure is held constant, whereas thermal stress is cycled.
Hence, pressure and temperature stress exist at the end of the rst half of the cycle, and only
pressure exists at the end of the second half of the cycle.
Based on these assumptions, the mechanical and thermal stress in zone E can now be derived. It
is assumed that the stresses remain elastic during the stress cycle. The stress distribution in the rst
half-cycle, shown in Fig. A.4, is
= PRi /t + (2z/t){EDT /[2(1 - )]}

(A.6)

= p + (2z/t)T

(A.7)

or

where
z = distance from midwall of the at plate (Fig. A.2)
p = stress due to pressure, PRi/t
T = stress due to temperature, EDT/2(1 - )
It should be noted that for a at plate, Eq. (A.6) uses the quantity DT/[2(1 - )] rather than DT in
order to simulate thermal stress in a cylinder.
The maximum value of Eq. (A.7) is reached when z = t/2. In zone E, the stress combination of p
plus T is kept below y, as shown in Fig. A.4. Thus, Eq. (A.7) becomes
p + T < y

(A.8a)

Dene
X = p /y

and

Y = T/y

FIG. A.4
STRESS CYCLE IN ZONE E

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Background of the Bree Diagram 205

Then, Eq. (A.8a) becomes


X + Y = 1.0

(A.8b)

In the second half-cycle, the equation becomes


p < y

(A.9)

Thus, zone E, which denes an elastic stress condition, is bound by Eq. (A.8) as well as the x- and
y-axes as shown in Fig. A.1.

Zone S1
In zone S1, it is assumed that shakedown will occur after the rst cycle. It is also assumed that the
elastic pressure plus temperature stress combination in the rst half-cycle exceeds the yield stress of
the material at only one side of the shell, as shown in Fig. A.5. Stress in the second half-cycle after
the temperature is removed remains elastic. This assures shakedown after the rst cycle. The strain
distribution in the elastic region is
E1 = 1 - (2z/t)T

for -t/2 < z < v

(A.10)

where the subscript 1 refers to the rst half-cycle and v is to be determined. The strain distribution
in the plastic region is
E1 = y - (2z/t)T + E

for v < z < +t/2

(A.11)

where is the plastic component of the stress.


At point v, 1 = y. Equating Eqs. (A.10) and (A.11) gives
E = 2[(z - v)/t]T

(A.12)

And Eqs. (A.10) and (A.11) become


1 = y + 2[(z - v)/t]T

in the elastic region

(A.13)

1 = y

in the plastic region

(A.14)

The expression for v is obtained by summing the stress Eqs. (A.13) and (A.14) across the thickness
in accordance with the equation
t/2

- t/2

dz = tp

(A.15)

FIG. A.5
STRESS CYCLE IN ZONE S1 WITH YIELDING ON ONE SIDE ONLY

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Appendix A

This gives
v/t = [(y - p)/T]1/2 - 1/2

(A.16)

A limit of Eq. (A.16) is that v cannot be less than zero. This gives
p + T/4 < y

(A.17a)

X + Y/4 = 1.0

(A.17b)

Equation (A.17a) can also be written as

Another limit of Eq. (A.16) is that v must be less than t/2. This gives
p + T < y

(A.18a)

X + Y = 1.0

(A.18b)

or

In order for shakedown to take place, the stresses remaining after removal of the temperature in
the second half-cycle must remain elastic. The change of strain from the rst to second half-cycle is
given by
ED2 = D2 + (2z/t)T

for -t/2 < z < v

= 2 - 1 + (2z/t)T

(A.19)
(A.20)

and
ED2 = D2 + (2z/t)T

for v < z < t/2

= 2 - y + (2z/t)T

(A.21)
(A.22)

where the subscript 2 refers to the second half-cycle. Multiplying both sides of Eqs. (A.19) and
(A.21) by dz and integrating their total sum results in D2 = 0. This is because the integral of the total
sum of D2 = 0 since there is no change in external forces during the second half-cycle. Also, the total
sum of the integral (2z/t)T from the limits -t/2 to +t/2 is equal to zero. Hence,
D2 = 0

(A.23)

Substituting this quantity and Eq. (A.13) into Eqs. (A.20) and (A.22) results in
2 = y - (2v/t)T

for -t/2 < z < v

(A.24)

2 = y - (2z/t)T

for v < z < t/2

(A.25)

One of the conditions for shakedown is that 2 < y. Hence, the above two equations reduce to
v>0

(A.26)

T < 2y

(A.27a)

Y < 2.0

(A.27b)

and

or

Thus, zone S1 is bounded by Eqs. (A.17), (A.18), and (A.27). This is shown by area BCDF in Fig.
A.1.

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Background of the Bree Diagram 207

Zone S2
In zone S2, it is assumed that shakedown will occur after the rst cycle. It is also assumed that the
elastic pressure plus temperature stress combination in the rst half-cycle exceeds the yield stress of
the material at both sides of the shell. Stress in the second half-cycle after the temperature is removed
remains elastic. This assures shakedown after the rst cycle. The derivation of the limiting equations is
similar to that in zone S1 with the exception that both sides of the shell reach the yield stress, as shown in
Fig. A.6. Two unknown quantities v and w must be determined. The solution (Burgreen, 1975) yields
v/t = (1/2)[(y/T) - (p/y)]

(A.28)

w/t = -(1/2)[(y/T) + (p/y)]

(A.29)

A limiting value of these two equations is v < t/2 and w < -t/2. The two equations reduce to
T(y + p) = y2

(A.30)

T (y - p) = y2

(A.31a)

Y(1 - X) = 1.0

(A.31b)

and

or

The second of these equations is the prevalent one, because satisfying it will automatically satisfy
the rst one. Equation (A.27) is also a controlling equation in the S2 domain. Thus, Eqs. (A.27) and
(A.31) form the boundary of zone S2. This is shown by area CDF in Fig. A.1. Notice that this zone falls
within zone S1. Thus, zone S2, where yielding occurs on both sides of the shell, supersedes the condition in zone S1 in the range shown.

Zone P
Plasticity is assumed to occur in zone P. The main characteristics of this zone is that the core section of the shell remains elastic (otherwise, ratcheting may occur) whereas the outer surfaces alternate
between tensile and compression yield stress as the temperature is applied then removed as shown in
Fig. A.7. Figure A.7a shows the stress distribution at the end of the rst half-cycle. It resembles the
same gure in the second half-cycle of zone S2. Figure A.7b shows the stress distribution during the
second half-cycle, whereas Fig. A.7c shows the stress distribution at the end of the second half-cycle

FIG. A.6
STRESS CYCLE IN ZONE S2 WITH YIELDING ON BOTH SIDES

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208

Appendix A

FIG. A.7
STRESS CYCLE IN ZONE P

(Burgreen, 1975). Referring to Fig. A.7 with the center portion of the shell remaining elastic, -u z u,
the relationship between the stress and strain (Kraus, 1980) is given by
ED2 = D2 + (2z/t)T

(A.32)

At the elastic-plastic boundary, the stress increment is 2y at z = -u and -2y at z = u. Substituting


these two values in Eq. (A.32) and subtracting the resultant two equations, since the strain change is
linear, gives
u = (y/T)t

(A.33)

Because u cannot exceed t/2, Eq. (A.33) gives


T 2y

(A.34a)

Y2

(A.34b)

or,

The net stress distribution in the core section of the cylinder (Fig. A.7c) is
= y - 2T(v/t)

-w z v

(A.35)

This stress cannot exceed the yield stress. Thus, Eq. (A.35) gives v 0. Substituting this value in
Eq. (A.28) gives
pT y2

(A.36a)

(X )(Y ) = 1

(A.36b)

or

Equations (A.34) and (A.36) form the boundary of zone P. It is dened by area DFG of the Bree
diagram in Fig. A.1.

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Background of the Bree Diagram 209

Zone R1
Ratcheting is assumed to take place in zone R1. The main characteristic of this zone is that yielding
extends past the midwall of the shell due to yielding at one of the surfaces of the shell. Thus, shakedown will not take place. Figure A.8 shows the stress distribution in the rst and second half-cycles,
whereas Fig. A.9 shows the stress distribution in the second and third half-cycles.
The rst half-cycle (Fig. A.8a) is the same as the stress distribution in zone S1. The stress-strain
relationship for the second half-cycle (Fig. A.8c) is given by
ED2 = y - 1 + (2z/t)T + ED2

-t/2 z v

(A.37)

ED2 = (2z/t)T + ED2

v z v

(A.38)

ED2 = 2 - y + (2z/t)T

v z t/2

(A.39)

From Eqs. (A.37), (A.38), and (A.39) plus the boundary conditions shown in Fig. A.8c, the following equations are obtained after various substitutions:
2 = y + 2T(v - z)/t

v z t/2

(A.40)

2 = y

-t/2 z v

(A.41)

v/t = -v/2 = 0.5 - [(y - p)/T)]

1/2

(A.42)

ED2 = 4Tv /t

-t/2 z v

(A.43)

ED2 = 2T (v - z)/t

v z v

(A.44)

In the third half-cycle (Fig. A.9), the temperature stress is re-applied. The stress-strain relationship
for the third half-cycle (Fig. A.9c) is given by
ED3 = 3 - y - (2z/t)T

-t/2 z v

(A.45)

ED3 = -(2z/t)T + ED3

v z v

(A.46)

ED3 = y - 2 - (2z/t)T + ED3

v z t/2

(A.47)

FIG. A.8
FIRST AND SECOND HALF CYCLES IN ZONE R1

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210

Appendix A

FIG. A.9
SECOND AND THIRD HALF CYCLES IN ZONE R1

From Eqs. (A.45), (A.46), and (A.47) plus the boundary conditions shown in Fig. A.9c, the following equations are obtained after various substitutions:
3 = y + 2T(z - v)/t

-t/2 z v

(A.48)

3 = y

v z t/2

(A.49)

v/t = -v/2 = 0.5 - [(y - p)/T)]1/2

(A.50)

ED3 = 2T(z - v)/t

v z v

(A.51)

ED3 = 2T(v - v)/t

v z t/2

(A.52)

The plastic strain through the full cycle is obtained by adding Eqs. (A.44) and (A.52) to obtain
ED = 4 Tv/t

(A.53)

Substituting Eq. (A.50) into Eq. (A.53) results in


ED = 4T{0.5 - [(y - p)/T)]1/2}

(A.54)

Ratcheting occurs when the quantity ED 0. Hence, Eq. (A.54) becomes


(p + T/4) y

(A.55a)

X + Y/4 1.0

(A.55b)

or

The second requirement is that 2 in Eq. (A.40) must be greater than -y at z = t/2. Similarly, 3 in
Eq. (A.48) must be greater than -y at z = -t/2. Using one of these two equations yields
T(y - p) y2

(A.56a)

Y(1 - X) 1.0

(A.56b)

or

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Background of the Bree Diagram 211

The nal requirement is that the stress due to pressure, p, must be less than the yield stress
p y

(A.57a)

X 1.0

(A.57b)

or

Equations (A.55), (A.56), and (A.57) form the boundary of the zone R1. It is dened by area BFH
of the Bree diagram in Fig. A.1.

Zone R2
Ratcheting is assumed to take place in zone R2. The main characteristic of this zone is that yielding
extends past the midwall of the shell due to yielding at both surfaces of the shell. Thus, shakedown will
not take place. The derivation of the equations is very similar to that for zone R1. The area for zone R2
is dened by area FGH of the Bree diagram in Fig. A.1.

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APPENDIX B
CONVERSION TABLE
Multiply

By factor

To get units

bar
cm
inches
kg
kg/mm2
lb
MPa
mm
psi
psi
psi
C
F

14.504
0.3937
25.4
2.205
14.22
0.454
145.03
0.03937
0.06895
0.0704
0.006895
1.8C + 32
(F - 32)/1.8

psi
inches
mm
lb
psi
kg
psi
inches
bar
kg/mm2
MPa
F
C

MPa = MN/m2 = N/mm2 = 10 bars.

212

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